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ABCS health sci ; 46: e021203, 09 fev. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147180


INTRODUCTION: The resistance of fungal species to drugs usually used in clinics is of great interest in the medical field. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate susceptibility and in vitro response of species of Trichophyton spp. to antifungal drugs of interest in clinical medicine. METHODS: 12 samples of clinical isolates from humans were used, nine of T. mentagrophytes and three of T. tonsurans. Susceptibility tests were performed according to the agar diffusion (AD) and broth microdilution (BM) methods. RESULTS: In the AD method, the species T. tonsurans presented a percentage of sensitivity of 33% in relation to amphotericin B and 66% to itraconazole, with 100% resistance to ketoconazole and fluconazole. T. mentagrophytes also showed 100% resistance to ketoconazole in this technique, with 11% sensitivity to ketoconazole, 22% to itraconazole and 22% of samples classified as sensitive dose dependent. In the MC method, the species T. tonsurans presented a sensitivity percentage of 66%, 55% and 33% in relation to ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole, respectively. The T. mentagrophytes species presented sensitivity percentages of 11%, 11%, 33% and 55% for amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole and fluconazole, respectively. CONCLUSION: There was resistance in vitro of the species of T. mentagrophytes and T. tonsurans against the antifungal fluconazole and relative resistance against ketoconazole in the AD method. In BM, however, important percentages of sensitivity were observed for the two species analyzed in relation to the antifungals fluconazole and ketoconazole when compared to itraconazole and amphotericin B.

INTRODUÇÃO: A resistência de espécies fúngicas às drogas usualmente empregadas no meio clínico é motivo de grande interesse na área médica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar susceptibilidade e resposta in vitro de espécies de Trichophyton spp. a drogas antifúngicas de interesse em clínica médica. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 12 amostras de isolados clínicos de humanos, sendo nove de T. mentagrophytes e três de T. tonsurans. Foram realizados testes de susceptibilidade segundo os métodos de difusão em ágar (DA) e microdiluição em caldo (MC). RESULTADOS: No método de DA, a espécie T. tonsurans apresentou percentual de sensibilidade de 33% em relação à anfotericina B e de 66% ao itraconazol, com 100% de resistência frente ao cetoconazol e ao fluconazol. A espécie T. mentagrophytes também apresentou 100% de resistência frente ao cetoconazol nesta técnica, com 11% de sensibilidade ao cetoconazol, 22% ao itraconazol e 22% das amostras classificadas como sensível dose dependente. No método de MC, a espécie T. tonsurans apresentou percentual de sensibilidade de 66%, 55% e 33% em relação ao cetoconazol, fluconazol e itraconazol, respectivamente. A espécie T. mentagrophytes apresentou percentuais de sensibilidade de 11%, 11%, 33% e 55% para anfotericina B, itraconazol, cetoconazol e fluconazol, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Houve resistência in vitro das espécies do T. mentagrophytes e T. tonsurans frente ao antifúngico fluconazol e resistência relativa frente ao cetoconazol no método de DA. Na MC, no entanto, foram observados importantes percentuais de sensibilidade das duas espécies analisadas frente aos antifúngicos fluconazol e cetoconazol quando comparadas ao itraconazol e à anfotericina B.

Trichophyton/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Disease Susceptibility/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Tinea/microbiology , Tinea/drug therapy , Colony Count, Microbial , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1504-1509, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922286


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of arsenic disulfide (AS@*METHODS@#The human DLBCL cell OCI-LY3 was treated with different concentrations of AS@*RESULTS@#The DLBCL cell viability was decreased significantly at 24, 48 or 72 h as cultured with itraconazole. Along with the increasing of itraconazole concentration, the DLBCL cell viability was significantly reduced as compared with that in control group, and the results showed statistically significant(r=-0.690,r=-0.639, r=-0.833, r=-0.808, r=-0.578). The inhibitory and apoptosis rates of the cells were significantly increased as compared with those of the single drug-treated group after treated by the combination of itraconazole and AS@*CONCLUSION@#Itraconazole can inhibit proliferation of DLBCL cells in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. In addition, the combination of AS

Apoptosis , Arsenicals , Hedgehog Proteins , Humans , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy , Sulfides
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(4): 400-403, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975604


Abstract Introduction Otomycosis is a common problem in otolaryngology practice. However, we usually encounter some difficulties in its treatment because many patients show resistance to antifungal agents, and present high recurrence rate. Objectives To determine the fungal pathogens that cause otomycosis as well as their susceptibility to the commonly used antifungal agents. Additionally, to discover the main reasons for antifungal resistance. Methods We conducted an experimental descriptive study on 122 patients clinically diagnosed with otomycosis from April 2016 to April 2017. Aural discharge specimens were collected for direct microscopic examination and fungal culture. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against the commonly used antifungal drugs. We tested the isolated fungi for their enzymatic activity. Results Positive fungal infection was found in 102 samples. The most common fungal pathogens were Aspergillus and Candida species, with Aspergillus niger being the predominant isolate (51%). The antifungal susceptibility testing showed that mold isolates had the highest sensitivity to voriconazole (93.48%), while the highest resistance was to fluconazole (100%). For yeast, the highest sensitivity was to nystatin (88.24%), followed by amphotericin B (82.35%), and the highest resistance was to terbinafine (100%), followed by Itraconazole (94.12%). Filamentous fungi expressed a high enzymatic ability, making them more virulent. Conclusion The Aspergillus and Candida species are the most common fungal isolates in otomycosis. Voriconazole and Nystatin are the medications of choice for the treatment of otomycosis in our community. The high virulence of fungal pathogens is owed to their high enzymatic activity. Empirical use of antifungals should be discouraged.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Otomycosis/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Candida/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Epidemiology, Experimental , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Voriconazole/pharmacology , /pharmacology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 352-356, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041467


Abstract INTRODUCTION We describe the clinical and laboratorial features of oral candidiasis in 66 HIV-positive patients. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction-based techniques were performed for differentiation of Candida spp. isolated from patients at a public teaching hospital in Midwest Brazil. RESULTS: Oral lesions, mainly pseudomembranous, were significantly related to higher levels of immunosuppression. Of 45 Candida isolates, 66.7% were C. albicans. Most of the isolates were susceptible to the antifungal drugs tested. CONCLUSIONS: Oral lesions were associated with higher immunosuppression levels. Lower susceptibility to antifungals by non-albicans isolates supports the importance of surveillance studies using susceptibility tests to aid in the treatment.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis, Oral/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Mycological Typing Techniques , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Middle Aged
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(3): eAO4224, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953168


ABSTRACT Objective To investigate antifungal susceptibility and factors associated with oral colonization by Candida species in HIV-positive patients. Methods A prospective study based on convenience sampling of subjects recruited from a pool of confirmed HIV-positive individuals seen at a specialty outpatient service in Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil). Oral swabs were collected from 197 patients. Candida species were identified by standard microbiological techniques (phenotypic and molecular methods). Antifungal susceptibility was investigated using the broth microdilution method. Results A total of 101 (51.3%) patients were Candida spp carriers. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species (80%). Patients aged 45 to 59 years (Prevalence ratios: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.57-6.31) and 60 years or older (Prevalence ratios: 4.43; 95%CI: 1.57-34.18) were at higher risk of oral colonization by Candida species. Resistance to fluconazole and ketoconazole, or to itraconazole, corresponded to 1% and 4%, respectively. Conclusion Age (45 years or older) was the only factor associated with oral colonization by Candida . Low rates of antifungal resistance to azoles were detected in yeast isolates obtained from HIV-positive patients. Findings of this study may contribute to proper therapeutic selection for oral candidiasis in HIV-positive patients.

RESUMO Objetivo Investigar a suscetibilidade a antifúngicos e os fatores associados à colonização oral por espécies de Candida isoladas de pacientes HIV positivo. Métodos Estudo prospectivo realizado com amostragem por conveniência de indivíduos HIV positivo, acompanhados por um serviço de atendimento especializado da cidade de Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Foram coletados swabs orais de 197 pacientes. As espécies de Candida foram identificadas por técnicas microbiológicas fenotípicas padrão e por método molecular. A suscetibilidade antifúngica foi determinada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Resultados Cento e um (51,3%) pacientes foram colonizados por Candida spp. Candida albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente (80%). Identificou-se um maior risco de colonização oral por espécies de Candida em pacientes com idade entre 45 e 59 anos (razão de prevalência: 1,90; IC95%: 1,57-6,31) e 60 anos ou mais (razão de prevalência: 4,43; IC95%: 1,57-34,18). A resistência ao fluconazol e ao cetoconazol foi de 1% cada e de 4% ao itraconazol. Conclusão O único fator associado à colonização oral por espécies de Candida foi ter 45 anos ou mais. Identificamos baixa taxa de resistência antifúngica aos azóis entre as leveduras isoladas de pacientes HIV positivo. Estes achados podem contribuir para selecionar o tratamento da candidíase oral em pacientes HIV positivos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Fluconazole/pharmacology , HIV Infections/complications , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Candidiasis, Oral/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Middle Aged
Rev. salud pública ; 19(6): 800-805, nov.-dic. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962074


ABSTRACT Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of isolates of Fusarium to amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazole. Methods The susceptibility of 44 isolates of Fusarium was tested by the E-test methodology. Results All the isolates were resistant to itraconazole, and 89 % and 54,5 % were resistant to amphotericin B and voriconazole, respectively. Discussion The results confirm the high level of resistance reported, regardless of the species or the strain of Fusarium involved. The high MICs level observed are worrying and suggest that new drugs are needed.(AU)

RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la susceptibilidad antifúngica in vitro de aislamientos de Fusarium a los antimicóticos amfotericina B, itraconazol y voriconazol. Métodos La susceptibilidad de 44 aislamientos clínicos de Fusarium fue evaluada por el método de difusión en disco, E-test. Resultados Todos los aislamientos fueron resistentes al itraconazol, y 89 % y 54,5 % fueron resistentes a la amfotericina B y al voriconazol, respectivamente. Discusión Los resultados confirman el alto nivel de resistencia reportado, independiente de la especie o la cepa de Fusarium involucrada. Los valores tan altos de MICs son preocupantes y sugieren la necesidad de evaluar nuevos medicamentos.(AU)

Itraconazole/pharmacology , Voriconazole/pharmacology , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Colombia , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests/instrumentation
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 843-847, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041438


Abstract INTRODUCTION Incidence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. from two teaching public hospitals are described. METHODS The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute broth microdilution and genomic differentiation using PCR. RESULTS Of 221 Candida isolates, 50.2% were obtained from intensive care unit patients; 71.5% were recovered from urine and 9.1% from bloodstream samples. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto was the most common candidemia agent. CONCLUSIONS We observed variations in Candida species distribution in hospitals in the same geographic region and documented the emergence of non-C. albicans species resistant to azoles.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Voriconazole/pharmacology , Hospitals, Public , Middle Aged
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(5): 376-381, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841795


BACKGROUND Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent sporotrichosis agent. This species usually responds to antifungal drugs, but therapeutic failure can occur in some patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests have been performed on this species, but no clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available. In this situation, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) support the detection of identification of resistant strains. OBJECTIVES To study the MIC distributions of five antifungal drugs against S. brasiliensis and to propose tentative ECVs. METHODS MICs of amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITR), ketoconazole (KET), posaconazole (POS), and terbinafine (TRB) against 335 S. brasiliensis strains were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. FINDINGS The proposed ECV, in µg/mL, for AMB, ITR, KET, POS, and TRB were 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 0.25, respectively. Percentages of wild-type strains in our population for the above antifungal drugs were 98.48, 95.22, 95.33, 100, and 97.67%, respectively. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These ECVs will be useful to detect strains with resistance, to define CBPs, and to elaborate specific therapeutic guidelines for S. brasiliensis. Rational use of antifungals is strongly recommended to avoid the emergence of resistant strains and ensure the therapeutic effectiveness of sporotrichosis.

Humans , Animals , Cats , Sporothrix/drug effects , Triazoles/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , Drug Resistance , Cats , Anti-Infective Agents
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 26(4): 240-245, out.-dez.2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831558


Apesar de a doença de Chagas ter sido intensamente estudada ao longo de mais de um século desde sua descoberta, existem lacunas de conhecimento com relação aos mecanismos fisiopatogênicos que levam ao desenvolvimento tardio da cardiomiopatia chagásica crônica. Um aspecto intrigante da doença é a complexa interação entre o hospedeiro e o parasita e suas repercussões. A ocorrência de documentada inflamação tecidual, presente mais intensamente na fase aguda, mas persistente em baixa intensidade também na fase crônica, pode ser consequência do tropismo cardíaco do parasita ou de alterações autoimunes. Nesta revisão, nós abordaremos as evidências do papel patológico da persistência do parasita e da autoimunidade na patogênese da doença de Chagas

Although Chagas disease has been studied intensely for more than a century since it was first discovered, there are gaps in the knowledge of the physiopathogenic mechanism that lead to the late development of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. An intriguing aspect of the disease is the complex interaction between the host and the parasite and its repercussions. The occurrence of documented tissue inflammation, which is more intensely present in the acute phase but also persists with lower intensity in the chronic phase, may be a consequence of cardiac tropism of the parasite or of autoimmune changes. In this review, we address the evidence of the pathological role of persistence of the parasite and autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of Chagas disease

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Chagas Disease/etiology , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Echocardiography , Radiography , Allopurinol/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Electrocardiography
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(6): 539-545, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828164


ABSTRACT The antifungal activity of tacrolimus in combination with antifungal agents against different fungal species has been previously reported. Here we report the in vitro interactions between tacrolimus and amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and caspofungin against 30 clinical isolates of both fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Trichosporon asahii. For these analyses, we used the broth microdilution method based on the M27-A3 technique and checkerboard microdilution method. Tacrolimus showed no activity against T. asahii strains (minimal inhibitory concentrations, MICs > 64.0 µg mL−1). However, a larger synergistic interaction was observed by the combinations tacrolimus + amphotericin B (96.67%) and tacrolimus + caspofungin (73.33%) against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. Combinations with azole antifungal agents resulted in low rates of synergism for this group (fluconazole + tacrolimus = 40% and itraconazole + tacrolimus = 10%). Antagonistic interactions were not observed. For the fluconazole-resistant T. asahii group, all tested combinations showed indifferent interactions. The synergism showed against fluconazole-susceptible T. asahii isolates suggests that the potential antifungal activity of tacrolimus deserves in vivo experimental investigation, notably, the combination of tacrolimus with amphotericin B or caspofungin.

Humans , Trichosporon/drug effects , Tacrolimus/pharmacology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Drug Interactions , Drug Synergism , Echinocandins/pharmacology , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Caspofungin
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(2): 155-159, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780810


Abstract Recent studies have shown that some drugs that are not routinely used to treat fungal infections have antifungal activity, such as protease inhibitor antiretroviral drugs. This study investigated the in vitro susceptibility of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum to saquinavir and ritonavir, and its combination with the antifungal itraconazole. The susceptibility assay was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. All strains were inhibited by the protease inhibitor antiretroviral drugs. Saquinavir showed minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 1 μg mL−1 for both phases, and ritonavir presented minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.0312 to 4 μg mL−1and from 0.0625 to 1 μg mL−1 for filamentous and yeast phase, respectively. Concerning the antifungal itraconazole, the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged from 0.0019 to 0.125 μg mL−1 and from 0.0039 to 0.0312 μg mL−1 for the filamentous and yeast phase, respectively. The combination of saquinavir or ritonavir with itraconazole was synergistic against H. capsulatum, with a significant reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations of both drugs against the strains (p < 0.05). These data show an important in vitro synergy between protease inhibitors and itraconazole against the fungus H. capsulatum.

HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Saquinavir/pharmacology , Histoplasma/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Synergism
Bauru; s.n; 2016. 157 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-880939


Este estudo investigou a resistência à tração (ou limite de resistência à tração- LRT) e a porosidade de reembasadores resilientes temporários modificados por concentrações inibitórias mínimas (CIMs) de agentes antifúngicos para o biofilme Candida albicans (SC5314). Para os testes de LRT, corpos de prova em forma de halteres (n=7) com uma área transversal de 33 mm x 6 mm x 3 mm foram produzidos para os materiais resilientes (Trusoft e Softone) sem (controle) ou com incorporação de cinco fármacos em suas CIMs: nistatina- 0,032 g; diacetato de clorexidina- 0,064; cetoconazol- 0,128 g; miconazol- 0,256 g; itraconazol-0,256 g (grama de fármaco por grama de pó de material resiliente). Após a plastificação, as amostras foram imersas em água destilada a 37°C durante 24 h, 7 e 14 dias e, então, testadas em tensão em uma máquina universal de ensaios (EMIC DL-500 MF) a 40 mm/min. A porosidade foi mensurada por absorção de água, com base na exclusão do efeito plastificante. Inicialmente, determinou-se por isotermas de sorção, que a solução de armazenagem adequada para os corpos de prova (65 mm x 10 mm x 3,3 mm) de ambos os materiais foi o cloreto de cálcio anidro a 50% (S50). Assim, o fator de porosidade (FP) foi calculado para os grupos de estudo (n=10) formados por espécimes sem (controle) ou com incorporação de fármaco em suas CIMs (nistatina, clorexidina ou cetoconazol) após a armazenagem em água destilada ou S50 por 24 h, 7 e 14 dias. Os dados de resistência à tração (MPa) e percentagem de alongamento (%) foram submetidos à ANOVA de 3 fatores seguida pelo teste de Tukey (=0,05). Os dados de porosidade foram analisados estatisticamente por ANOVA de medidas repetidas para 4 fatores e teste de Tukey (=0,05). Ao final de 14 dias, a resistência à tração para ambos os materiais foi significativamente menor nos grupos modificados pelo miconazol e itraconazol em relação aos outros grupos (P<0,0001), que não mostraram diferenças significativas entre si (P>0,05). Após 7 e 14 dias em água, o miconazol e itraconazol adicionados a ambos os materiais resultaram em percentagens significativamente menores de alongamento em comparação com os outros fármacos e ao controle (P<0,0001), que foram semelhantes entre si (P>0,05). O cetoconazol não resultou em alterações significativas no FP para ambos os materiais resilientes em água ao longo de 14 dias (P>0,05). Em comparação aos controles, houve aumento dos FPs do Softone e Trusoft aos 14 dias de imersão em água somente após a adição de nistatina e clorexidina e de clorexidina, respectivamente (P<0,05). Ambos os materiais não apresentaram alterações significativas no FP em até 14 dias de imersão na S50, em comparação aos controles (P>0,05). Em todas as condições experimentais, os FPs do Softone e Trusoft foram significativamente menores quando imersos em S50 em comparação com a água destilada (P<0,05). Concluiu-se que a adição de nistatina, clorexidina e cetoconazol nas CIMs para o biofilme de C. albicans não resultou em efeitos deletérios na resistência à tração e na percentagem de alongamento dos materiais resilientes temporários para base de prótese até o período de 14 dias. A adição de antifúngicos nas CIMs não resultou em efeitos adversos à porosidade de ambos os materiais resilientes temporários em diferentes períodos de imersão em água, com exceção da clorexidina e nistatina no Softone e clorexidina no Trusoft aos 14 dias. Não foram observados efeitos deletérios para a porosidade de ambos os materiais resilientes modificados com as CIMs dos fármacos durante os 14 dias de imersão na S50.(AU)

This study investigated the tensile strength (ultimate tensile strength- UTS) and porosity of temporary soft denture liners modified by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents for Candida albicans biofilm (SC5314). For UTS tests, dumbbell-shaped specimens (n=7) with a central cross-sectional area of 33 mm x 6 mm x 3 mm were produced by resilient materials (Trusoft and Softone) without (control) or with incorporation of five drugs at MICs: nystatin- 0.032 g; chlorhexidine diacetate-0.064 g; ketoconazole- 0.128 g; miconazole- 0.256 g; itraconazole- 0.256 g (each per gram of soft liner powder). After plasticization, specimens were immersed in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h, 7 and 14 days, and then tested in tension in a universal testing machine (EMIC DL-500 MF) at 40 mm/min. The porosity was measured by water absorption, based on exclusion of the plasticizer effect. Initially, it was determined by sorption isotherms that the adequate storage solution for specimens (65 mm x 10 mm x 3.3 mm) of both materials was 50% anhydrous calcium chloride (S50). Then, the porosity factor (PF) was calculated for the study groups (n=10) formed by specimens without (control) or with drug incorporation at MICs (nystatin, chlorhexidine or ketoconazole) after storage in distilled water or S50 for 24 h, 7 and 14 days. Data of tensile strength (MPa) and elongation percentage (%) were submitted to 3-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (=0.05). Data of porosity were statistically analyzed by 4-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukeys test (=0.05). At the end of 14 days, the tensile strength for both materials was significantly lower in the groups modified by miconazole and itraconazole compared to the other groups (P<0.0001), which showed no significant difference between them (P>0.05). After 7 and 14 days in water, miconazole and itraconazole added into both materials result in significant lower elongation percentages compared to the other drugs and control (P<.0001), which were similar to each other (P>0.05). Ketoconazole resulted in no significant changes in PF for both liners in water over 14 days (P>0.05). Compared to the controls, Softone and Trusoft PFs were increased at 14-day water immersion only after addition of nystatin and chlorhexidine, and chlorhexidine, respectively (P<0.05). Both materials showed no significant changes in PF in up to 14 days of S50 immersion, compared to the controls (P>0.05). In all experimental conditions, Softone and Trusoft PFs were significantly lower when immersed in S50 compared to distilled water (P<0.05). It was concluded that the addition of the nystatin, chlorhexidine and ketoconazole at MICs for C. albicans biofilm resulted in no harmful effects on the ultimate tensile strength and elongation percentage of the temporary soft denture liners up to 14-day period. The addition of antifungals at MICs resulted in no detrimental effects for the porosity of both temporary soft liners in different periods of water immersion, except for chlorhexidine and nystatin in Softone and chlorhexidine in Trusoft at 14 days. No deleterious effect was observed for the porosity of both soft liners modified by the drugs at MICs over 14 days of S50 immersion.(AU)

Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Denture Liners , Polymethacrylic Acids/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Itraconazole/chemistry , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/chemistry , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Miconazole/chemistry , Miconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nystatin/chemistry , Nystatin/pharmacology , Porosity , Reproducibility of Results , Tensile Strength
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1125-1133, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769665


In this study, we present antifungal susceptibility data of clinical and environmental isolates of Central Indian Cryptococcus neoformans (Serotype A, n = 8 and n = 50 respectively) and Cryptococcus gattii (Serotype B, n = 01 and n = 04 respectively). Susceptibilities to fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined by using NCCLS broth micro-dilution methodology. The total number of resistant strains for fluconazole in case of C. neoformans and C. gattii showed a significant difference by using chi-square test (p < 0.05*), while considering fisher's exact p value was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). However, the total number of resistant strains for itraconazole and ketoconazole was not found statistically significant. A comparison of geometric means of clinical and environmental strains of C. gattii and C. neoformans was not found statistically significant using student ‘t’ test (p value > 0.05 NS). Though less, the antifungal data obtained in this study suggests that primary resistance among environmental and clinical isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii against tested antifungal was present and C. gattii comparatively was less susceptible than C. neoformans var. grubii isolates to fluconazole than to itraconazole and ketoconazole. A continuous surveillance of antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii is desirable to monitor the emergence of any resistant strains for better management of cryptococcosis patients.

Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcus gattii/drug effects , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Environmental Microbiology , Cryptococcosis/epidemiology , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fluconazole/pharmacology , India/epidemiology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(5): 459-465, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764506


ABSTRACTThe antifungal activity of some statins against different fungal species has been reported. Thus, at the first moment, the in vitro antifungal activity of simvastatin, atorvastatin and pravastatin was tested againstCandida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. Then, in a second approach, considering that the best results were obtained for simvastatin, this drug was evaluated in combination with antifungal drugs against planktonic growth and tested against biofilms ofCandida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the microdilution broth method, as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The interaction between simvastatin and antifungals against planktonic cells was analyzed by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration index. Regarding biofilm susceptibility, simvastatin was tested against growing biofilm and mature biofilm of one strain of each tested yeast species. Simvastatin showed inhibitory effect against Candida spp. andCryptococcus spp. with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 15.6 to 1000 mg L-1 and from 62.5 to 1000 mg L-1, respectively. The combination of simvastatin with itraconazole and fluconazole showed synergism against Candidaspp. and Cryptococcus spp., while the combination of simvastatin with amphotericin B was synergistic only againstCryptococcus spp. Concerning the biofilm assays, simvastatin was able to inhibit both growing biofilm and mature biofilm ofCandida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The present study showed that simvastatin inhibits planktonic cells and biofilms ofCandida and Cryptococcus species.

Animals , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida/drug effects , Cryptococcus/drug effects , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida/classification , Candida/physiology , Cryptococcus/classification , Cryptococcus/physiology , Drug Synergism , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(4): 289-294, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761166


SUMMARYSporothrix schenckiiwas reclassified as a complex encompassing six cryptic species, which calls for the reassessment of clinical and epidemiological data of these new species. We evaluated the susceptibility of Sporothrix albicans(n = 1) , S. brasiliensis(n = 6) , S. globosa(n = 1), S. mexicana(n = 1) and S. schenckii(n = 36) to terbinafine (TRB) alone and in combination with itraconazole (ITZ), ketoconazole (KTZ), and voriconazole (VRZ) by a checkerboard microdilution method and determined the enzymatic profile of these species with the API-ZYM kit. Most interactions were additive (27.5%, 32.5% and 5%) or indifferent (70%, 50% and 52.5%) for TRB+KTZ, TRB+ITZ and TRB+VRZ, respectively. Antagonisms were observed in 42.5% of isolates for the TRB+VRZ combination. Based on enzymatic profiling, the Sporothrix schenckiistrains were categorized into 14 biotypes. Leucine arylamidase (LA) activity was observed only for S. albicansand S. mexicana. The species S. globosaand S. mexicanawere the only species without β-glucosidase (GS) activity. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of virulence and resistance among species of the genus Sporothrixin further studies.

RESUMOAvaliou-se a susceptibilidade de Sporothrix albicans(n = 1), S. brasiliensis(n = 1), S. globosa(n = 1), S. mexicana(n = 1) e S. schenckii(n = 36) frente à terbinafina (TRB) e a TRB em combinação com itraconazol (ITZ), cetoconazol (KTZ) e voriconazol (VRZ) pelo método de microdiluição ( checkerboard); o perfil enzimático destas espécies foi também avaliado, com base no kit API-ZYM. A maioria das interações foram aditivas (27,5%, 32,5% e 5%) ou indiferentes (70%, 50% e 52,5%) para TRB+KTZ, TRB+ITZ e TRB+VRZ, respectivamente. Antagonismo foi observado em 42,5% dos isolados para a combinação TRB+VRZ. Com base nos perfis enzimáticos, as cepas de Sporothrix schenckiievidenciaram 14 biotipos distintos. A atividade da leucina arilamidase (LA) só foi observada em S. albicanse S. mexicana.As espécies S. globosae S. mexicanaforam as únicas que não evidenciaram atividade da enzima β-glucosidase (GS). Estes resultados poderão contribuir para um melhor entendimento da virulência e resistência entre as espécies do gênero Sporothrixem futuros estudos.

Humans , Animals , Cats , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Sporothrix/drug effects , Sporothrix/enzymology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Voriconazole/pharmacology
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(3): 185-191, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752603


Infections by Candida species are a high-impact problem in public health due to their wide incidence in hospitalized patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate frequency, susceptibility to antifungals, and genetic polymorphism of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients. The Candida isolates included in this study were obtained from blood cultures, abdominal fluids, and central venous catheters (CVC) of hospitalized patients at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia during the period of July 2010 - June 2011. Susceptibility tests were conducted by the broth microdilution method. The RAPD-PCR tests used employed initiator oligonucleotides OPA09, OPB11, and OPE06. Of the 63 Candida isolates, 18 (28.5%) were C. albicans, 20 (31.7%) were C. parapsilosis complex species, 14 (22.2%) C. tropicalis, four (6.4%) C. glabrata, four (6.4%) C. krusei, two (3.3%) C. kefyr, and one (1.6%) C. lusitaniae. In vitro resistance to amphotericin B was observed in 12.7% of isolates. In vitro resistance to azoles was not detected, except for C. krusei. The two primers, OPA09 and OPB11, were able to distinguish different species. Isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex species presented six and five clusters, respectively, with the OPA09 marker by RAPD-PCR, showing the genetic variability of the isolates of those species. It was concluded that members of the C. parapsilosis complex were the most frequent species found, and most isolates were susceptible to the antifungals amphotericin B, flucozanole, and itraconazole. High genetic polymorphisms were observed for isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex species, mainly with the OPA09 marker.

As infecções causadas por espécies de Candida são problema de grande impacto para a saúde pública, devido à alta incidência em pacientes hospitalizados e como causa de mortalidade. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a frequência de Candida spp. isoladas de pacientes hospitalizados, assim como a sensibilidade aos antifúngicos e o polimorfismo genético por RAPD-PCR. Os microrganismos incluíram isolados de hemocultura, líquido abdominal e ponta de cateter venoso central de pacientes internados no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de julho de 2010-junho de 2011. Os testes de sensibilidade aos antifúngicos foram realizados por microdiluição em caldo e na análise por RAPD-PCR foram utilizados os oligonucleotídeos OPA09, OPB11, e OPE06. Dos 63 isolados, 18 (28,5%) foram C. albicans, 20 (31,7%) C. parapsilosis, 14 (22,2%) C. tropicalis, quatro (6,4%) C. glabrata, quatro (6,4%) C. krusei, dois (3,3%) C. kefyr, e um (1,6%) C. lusitaniae. Resistência in-vitro à anfotericina B foi observada em 12,7% dos isolados. Não foi observada resistência in-vitro aos azólicos, exceto para os isolados de C. krusei. Os oligonucleotídeos OPA09 e OPB11 possibilitaram distinguir diferentes espécies. Isolados de C. albicans apresentaram seis clusters e o complexo C. parapsilosis, cinco clusters, com o iniciador OPA09, por RAPD-PCR, mostrando a variabilidade genética daquelas espécies. Conclui-se que o complexo C. parapsilosis foi a espécie mais frequente, e a maioria dos isolados foi sensível in vitro aos antifúngicos testados. Alto polimorfismo genético foi observado para os isolados de C. albicans e complexo C. parapsilosis, principalmente com o oligonucleotídeo OPA09.

Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/classification , Candida/drug effects , DNA, Fungal , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/genetics , Candida/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Mycological Typing Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Tertiary Healthcare
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(4): 581-586, Jul-Aug/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715536


BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis or nail fungal infection is the most common nail disease. Despite the wide range of studies on this condition, it remains difficult to establish the correct diagnosis and effective treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of classical laboratory methods for the diagnosis of onychomycosis, and the in vitro susceptibility of the its main etiological agent to antifungals used in routine. METHODS: Nail samples of 100 patients with clinically suspected feet onychomycosis were collected to confirm the diagnosis by direct mycological examination and fungal culture. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against strains of the main dermatophyte isolated by microdilution, according to the standardized protocol (M38-A2 - CLSI) RESULTS: Clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis was confirmed by laboratory analysis in 59% of patients. Of these, 54.2% were positive only in direct mycological examination, 44.1% in direct mycological examination and culture, and one case (1.7%) was positive only in culture, resulting in weak agreement between these tests (Kappa = 0.385; p <0.001) High minimum inhibitory concentration values of fluconazole and itraconazole were observed in 66.7% and 25.0% of isolates of T. rubrum tested. Additionally, high MIC values of terbinafine and ciclopirox was detected in only one isolate, and this was one of the strains in which in vitro activity of itraconazole and fluconazole has not been proven. CONCLUSIONS: Poor agreement was observed between direct mycological examination and culture for the diagnosis of onychomycosis, with direct mycological examination being significantly more sensitive. Except for fluconazole, the other three antifungals tested showed good in vitro activity against clinical isolates of T. rubrum. .

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Trichophyton/drug effects , Trichophyton/isolation & purification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , Onychomycosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Pyridones/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results
Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 15 (4): 66-71
in English, Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-139742


Aspergillosis is the most current causative agent of exogenous fungal nosocomial infection. This study was done to evaluate the drug susceptibility of Aspergillus flavus and A.fumigatus to itraconazole and amphotericin B. This Laboratory study was done on 25 Aspergillus fumigatus and 25 Aspergillus flavus species isolated from transplant's patients. Drug susceptibility test was done according to NCCLS M38-P document. Fungal suspensions of mentioned fungi were supplied with ranges 0.5-5x10[4] by spectrophotometer at 530 nm. Serial dilutions of drugs were supplied from 0.03125 to 16 microg/ml and MICs determined following 48h incubation at 35C. Obtained MICs ranges for Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus were 1-4 microg/ml and 0.5-4 micro g/ml for itraconazole, respectively while MICs ranges against Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus were 0.5-2 micro g/ml and 0.25-2 microg/ml for amphotericin B, respectively. Amphotericin B MICs were significantly lower than itraconazole [P<0.05]. Aspergillus flavus and A.fumigatus were susceptible to amphotericin B and itraconazole

Humans , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Amphotericin B , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Itraconazole , Aspergillus fumigatus/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Aspergillus flavus/drug effects
Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 15 (4): 53-58
in English, Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-139744


Ultraviolet [UV] radiation is an important disinfectant. Fungal infections with resistant isolates in patients culminate in recurrence of disease even with worse condition. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of ultraviolet radiation on drug susceptibility of Candida Spp. To itraconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B. This laboratory study was done on 12 Candida spp. isolated from patients according to NCCLS M27- A method. Samples were suspended with sterile saline and optical density was read by spectrophotometer at the wavelength of 530 nm. Serial dilutions [0.0313-16 microg/ml] and [0.0313-128 microg/ml] were supplied for itraconazole, amphotericin and fluconazole, respectively. MICs were determined after 48h incubation at 35°C. Following UV radiation for 1, 2, 5, 10, 60, 90 and 120 seconds MICs were determined, subsequently. The highest MIC pre UV radiation was [>128 microg/ml] for fluconazole. After UV radiation, MICs were steadily decreased for all mentioned drugs while after 10 sec, MICs of itraconazole and amphotericin B were >0.0313 microg/ml. Secondary MICs significantly decreased with respect to MICs obtained in pre UV radiation [P<0.05]. UV radiation reduces MICs of Candida spp. to itraconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin B

Candida/drug effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(6): 1635-1640, Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-696841


A histoplasmose é uma das principais doenças micóticas que acometem o trato respiratório inferior de pequenos animais, sendo ocasionada pelo Histoplasma capsulatum, fungo encontrado em solos ricos em compostos nitrogenados, derivados de matéria orgânica em decomposição. Descreve-se um caso de histoplasmose pulmonar em um canino da raça Boxer, domiciliado no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, o qual apresentava uma síndrome respiratória com evolução clínica de aproximadamente seis meses. Na análise citopatológica do lavado broncoalveolar, foram visualizadas estruturas leveduriformes de aproximadamente dois micrômetros de diâmetro, características de H. capsulatum, sendo, então, indicada a terapia com itraconazol. O exame citopatológico do lavado broncoalveolar é uma ferramenta diagnóstica importante na identificação do agente, e o tratamento com itraconazol é eficiente, levando à remissão completa dos sinais clínicos.

Histoplasmosis is a main fungal diseases that affect the lower respiratory tract of small animals, being caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a fungus found in soil rich in nitrogen compounds, derived from decaying organic matter. It is described a case of pulmonary histoplasmosis in a dog of Boxer breed, domiciled in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, which had a respiratory syndrome with clinical course of about six months. On cytopathological examination of bronchoalveolar lavage were visualized yeast structures of approximately two micrometers in diameter, characteristics of H. capsulatum, and then was indicated therapy with itraconazole. The cytopathological examination of bronchoalveolar lavage is an important diagnostic tool in the identification of the agent and the treatment with itraconazole is efficient, leading to complete remission of clinical signs.

Animals , Histoplasmosis/pathology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Lung/anatomy & histology , Remission, Spontaneous , Dogs/classification , Fungi