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1.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(2): 347-352, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339272

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Ixodes tropicalis is a little-known tick species reported parasitizing wild rodents only in Colombia and Perú. Objective: To report a case of I. tropicalis infesting a human in the south of the metropolitan area of the Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia, and to report the molecular detection of Rickettsia bellii in this species. Materials and methods: The tick was identified using a morphological key and sequencing of tick mitochondrial 16S rRNA. Additionally, bacterial and protozoa pathogens were evaluated using PCR for the detection of Rickettsia spp., family Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia spp., and piroplasmid. Results: We identified the tick as an I. tropicalis female according to Kohls, 1956, description and to partial 16S rRNA sequences showing a minimum of 5% divergencies compAred to Ixodes sequences. We also detected the gltA gene of R. bellii in the tick with 99.87% of identity. Conclusion: This is the first report in Colombia of a species of the Ixodes genus parasitizing a human and the first report of the detection of R. bellii in this tick species.


Resumen | Introducción. Ixodes tropicalis es una especie de garrapata poco conocida que se había reportado parasitando únicamente roedores silvestres en Colombia y Perú. Objetivo. Reportar un caso de infestación por I. tropicalis en un ser humano del sur del área metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá (Antioquia) y reportar la detección molecular de Rickettsia bellii en esta especie. Materiales y métodos. La garrapata se identificó usando claves morfológicas y mediante la secuenciación de su gen 16S ARNr mitocondrial. Además, se evaluó la presencia de agentes patógenos bacterianos y protozoos usando PCR para la detección de Rickettsia spp., la familia Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia spp. y piroplásmidos. Resultados. La garrapata se identificó como una hembra de I. tropicalis, según la descripción de Kohls, 1956, y la secuencia parcial del gen 16S ARNr, la cual mostró una divergencia de mínimo 5 % en la compAración con las secuencias de Ixodes. Además, se detectó el gen gltA de R. bellii en esta garrapata con una similitud del 99,87 %. Conclusión. Este es el primer reporte en Colombia de una especie del género Ixodes parasitando a un humano y el primer reporte de la detección de R. bellii en esta especie de garrapata.


Subject(s)
Rickettsia , Ixodes , Bacteria , Disease Vectors
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e007221, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288704

ABSTRACT

Abstract The state of Acre is in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon region and few studies involving ticks are available. The aim of the present study was to provide the first report of occurrence of Amblyomma latepunctatum and the second record of Ixodes luciae in Acre. Ticks were collected in October 2020 inside an open forested area in the municipality of Rio Branco, the state capital of Acre. Ixodid ticks were identified according to their external morphological characteristics. Three specimens were found on the vegetation by means of a visual search and were identified as Amblyomma scalpturatum (one male and one female) and Amblyomma latepunctatum (one male). Another specimen was found parasitizing a Didelphis marsupialis female that was caught using a Tomahawk trap; this was identified as Ixodes luciae (one male). This first report of A. latepunctatum in the state of Acre increases the number of species recorded here to 22. In addition, presence of I. luciae is confirmed in this state (second record), in the western Brazilian Amazon region.


Resumo O estado do Acre está localizado na Amazônia ocidental brasileira e apresenta poucos estudos envolvendo carrapatos. O presente estudo objetivou relatar, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência da espécie Amblyomma latepunctatum e o segundo registro de Ixodes luciae no estado do Acre, Brasil. A coleta de carrapatos foi realizada em outubro de 2020 no interior de uma floresta aberta no município de Rio Branco, capital do estado do Acre. Carrapatos ixodídeos foram identificados de acordo com suas características morfológicas externas. Três espécimes foram encontrados sobre a vegetação pelo método de inspeção visual e identificados como as espécies Amblyomma scalpturatum (um macho e uma fêmea) e Amblyomma latepunctatum (um macho); e outro foi encontrado parasitando uma fêmea de Didelphis marsupialis que foi capturada por uma armadilha Tomahawk, e identificado como Ixodes luciae (um macho). Este primeiro relato de A. latepunctatum no estado do Acre aumenta o número de espécies registradas aqui para 22. Além disso, a presença de I. luciae é confirmada no estado do Acre (segundo registro), na região da Amazônia ocidental brasileira.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Ixodes , Ixodidae , Brazil , Forests , Amblyomma
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e000120, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138070

ABSTRACT

Abstract Small mammals play an essential role in the transmission and maintenance cycles of Borrelia spirochetes. In Chile, recent studies have characterized novel Borrelia genotypes in ticks collected from small mammals, a fact that suggests these vertebrates are hosts for spirochetes from this genus. Considering this evidence, the goal of this study was to determine the presence of Borrelia DNA in small mammals inhabiting northern Chile. In winter of 2018, 58 small mammals were captured in five localities. Blood samples were collected from rodents and DNA was extracted to determine the presence of Borrelia DNA by PCR targeting the flaB gene and rrs-rrlA intergenic spacer (IGS). From three individuals (5%), belonging to two rodent species of Cricetidae family (Phyllotis xanthopygus and Oligoryzomys longicaudatus), we retrieved three flaB and two IGS Borrelia genotypes. Phylogenetic analyses performed with both Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inferences showed that our sequences grouped with homologous genotypes from the relapsing fever and Lyme borreliosis groups. Our findings suggest that P. xanthopygus and O. longicaudatus rodents may play a role as reservoirs for borrelial spirochetes in Chile.


Resumo Pequenos mamíferos possuem um papel essencial na transmissão e manutenção de espiroquetas do gênero Borrelia. No Chile, estudos recentes têm descrito novos genótipos de Borrelia em carrapatos, parasitando pequenos mamíferos. Isso sugere que esses vertebrados podem atuar como possíveis reservatórios dessas espiroquetas. Considerando-se essa evidência, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a presença de DNA de Borrelia em pequenos mamíferos da região norte do Chile. Durante o inverno de 2018, 58 pequenos mamíferos foram capturados em cinco localidades. Amostras de sangue obtidas a partir dos indivíduos capturados foram submetidas à extração de DNA e ensaios de PCR, para a detecção de Borrelia spp. baseados no gene flaB e espaçador intergênico rrs-rrlA (IGS). A partir de três espécimes (5%) pertencentes a duas espécies de roedores da família Cricetidae (Phyllotis xanthopygus e Oligoryzomys longicaudatus) obtiveram-se três genótipos de Borrelia para o gene flaB e dois para IGS. Análises filogenéticas inferidas, usando-se os métodos Bayesiano e de Máxima Verossimilhança, indicaram que as sequências geradas neste estudo agrupam-se com borrelias do grupo da Febre Recorrente e Borreliose de Lyme. Os achados deste estudo sugerem que roedores P. xanthopygus e O. longicaudatus poderiam atuar como possíveis reservatórios para Borrelia spp. no Chile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodentia/parasitology , Borrelia/classification , Borrelia/genetics , Ixodes/microbiology , Phylogeny , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Chile , Bayes Theorem
4.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 133-136, mar.-abr. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003576

ABSTRACT

Resumo A doença de Lyme é uma infecção sistêmica causada pela espiroqueta Borrelia burgdorferi e transmitida pelo carrapato do gênero Ixodes sp. e espécie Amblyomma cajennense. A doença costuma se manifestar em três estágios clínicos distintos, que podem variar de acordo com as características de cada hospedeiro. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar o caso de uma paciente de 33 anos com doença de Lyme que apresentou como manifestações neuroftalmológicas diplopia, lagoftalmo paralítico e ceratite punctata, com exames laboratoriais negativos. Embora a espiroqueta Borrelia burgdorferi tenha maior tropismo pelos tecidos da pele, sistema nervoso e articulações, o acometimento ocular não deve ter sua importância diminuída, sendo descrito neste relato de caso, que abordou os aspectos mais pertinentes à doença para auxiliar seu diagnóstico e tratamento.


Abstract Lyme disease is a systemic infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by the tick of the genus Ixodes sp. and species Amblyomma cajennense. The disease usually manifests itself in three distinct clinical stages, which may vary according to the characteristics of each host. The objective of this paper is to report the case of a 33-year-old patient with Lyme disease who presented as neuro-ophthalmological manifestations diplopia, paralytic lagophthalmos and punctate keratitis, with negative laboratory tests. Although the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has a greater tropism in the tissues of the skin, nervous system and joints, the ocular involvement should not be diminished, being described in this case report, which approached the most pertinent aspects to the disease to aid its diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Lyme Disease/complications , Diplopia/etiology , Eye Diseases/etiology , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Borrelia Infections/transmission , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Lyme Disease/diagnosis , Lyme Disease/drug therapy , Borrelia burgdorferi Group/isolation & purification , Ixodes , Lyme Neuroborreliosis/complications , Amblyomma , Nervous System Diseases/etiology
5.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 319-324, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761734

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the tick species and give background for tick-borne investigations in Korea. Ticks were collected from the area within 2 km radius of the 4 domestic animal farms, where they were located in mountainous areas and raising animals on pasture, and from animal bodies in 2014 and 2015. In total, 7,973 nymphal and adult ticks were collected from the farms


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Agriculture , Animals, Domestic , Ecosystem , Goats , Ixodes , Korea , Radius , Sus scrofa , Ticks
6.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 691-698, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786632

ABSTRACT

The seasonal abundance of hard ticks that transmit severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus was monitored with a collection trap method every April to November during 2015–2018 and with a flagging method every July and August during 2015–2018 in Ganghwa-do (island) of Incheon Metropolitan City, Republic of Korea. This monitoring was performed in a copse, a short grass field, coniferous forest and broad-leaved forest. A total of 17,457 ticks (8,277 larvae, 4,137 nymphs, 3,389 females, and 1,654 males) of the ixodid ticks comprising 3 species (Haemaphysalis longicornis, H. flava, and Ixodes nipponensis) were collected with collection traps. Of the identified ticks, H. longicornis was the most frequently collected ticks (except larval ticks) (94.26%, 8,653/9,180 ticks (nymphs and adults)), followed by H. flava (5.71%, 524/9,180) and Ix. nipponensis (less than 0.04%, 3/9,180). The ticks collected with collecting traps were pooled and assayed for the presence of SFTS virus with negative results. In addition, for monitoring the prevalence of hard ticks, a total of 7,461 ticks (5,529 larvae, 1,272 nymphs, 469 females, and 191 males) of the ixodid ticks comprising 3 species (H. longicornis, H. flava, and Ix. nipponensis) were collected with flagging method. H. longicornis was the highest collected ticks (except larval ticks) (99.53%, 1,908/1,917 ticks (nymphs and adults)), followed by H. flava (1.15%, 22/1,917).


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Climate Change , Tracheophyta , Fever , Forests , Ixodes , Ixodidae , Larva , Methods , Nymph , Poaceae , Prevalence , Republic of Korea , Seasons , Thrombocytopenia , Ticks
7.
Rev. patol. trop ; 48(3): 161-169, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097028

ABSTRACT

Brazilian Spotted Fever is an important tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and transmitted mainly by the human-biting tick Amblyomma sculptum. During an epidemiological surveillance in Pedro Leopoldo, an endemic area of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil, ectoparasites were collected from vertebrate hosts and from the environment. Rickettsial genes were obtained from a male A. sculptum and the resulting phylogenetic tree grouped this bacterium with Rickettsia sp. isolate Pampulha, a strain closely related to the pathogenic species Rickettsia tamurae and Rickettsia monacensis. This is the first report of sequences phylogenetically related to R. tamurae and R. monacensis infecting A. sculptum in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Rickettsia , Tick Infestations , Ixodes , Endemic Diseases , Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis
8.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0902017, 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-996684

ABSTRACT

Equine granulocytic anaplasmosis is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a gram negative, obligatory intracellular bacterium, member of Anaplasmataceae family, included in the Rickettsiales order. Little is known about the disease, transmission dynamics, genetic diversity and prevalence in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This work aimed to do a serosurvey using indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) test and evaluation of buffy coat smears, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as diagnostic methods, to determine the disease situation in horses from two manga-larga marchador breeding farms located in the municipalities of Ataléia e São Vicente de Minas, in Minas Gerais state. It was found that 76% (131/172) of the animals were considered reactive for IFA test, and the total of 12.8% was positive at buffy coat smears analysis. At PCR analysis, it was found 1.94% of the samples positive to the infection. Those samples were sequenced and showed 96% of similarity to A. phagocytophilum from a Ixodes ricinus tick. There is a high frequency of animals with the evidence of contact to A. phagocytophilum on the two evaluated properties in this study, which was proved by positiveness in PCR analysis. New researches must be carried out to better understand the epidemiologic and clinical dynamic of the disease in the state of Minas Gerais.(AU)


A anaplasmose granulocítica equina é causada por uma bactéria gram-negativa, intracelular obrigatória, membro da família Anaplasmataceae, incluída na ordem Rickettsiales e denominada de Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Pouco se sabe sobre a doença, sua dinâmica de transmissão, diversidade genética e prevalência em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar o levantamento sorológico utilizando a reação de imunofluorescência indireta, avaliação direta de capa leucocitária e nested reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) como métodos diagnósticos, a fim de avaliar a situação da doença em dois haras de criação de cavalos manga-larga marchador localizados nas cidades de Ataléia e São Vicente de Minas, no estado de Minas Gerais. Foi encontrada prevalência de 76% (131/172) de animais reativos para a reação de imunofluorescência indireta, quando todos os animais das duas propriedades e das duas coletas foram agrupados, e 12,8% dos animais foram positivos na avaliação da capa leucocitária. A reação de imunofluorescência indireta detectou 1,94% das amostras como positivas para o agente. Essas amostras foram submetidas ao sequenciamento de nucleotídeos, e foi observada similaridade de 96% com A. phagocytophilum proveniente de carrapatos Ixodes ricinus. Existe alta prevalência de animais positivos para a infecção por A. phagocytophilum, o que foi provado pela positividade dos animais à PCR. Novas pesquisas devem ser conduzidas a fim de entender a dinâmica epidemiológica e clínica da doença no estado de Minas Gerais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Serologic Tests/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique/methods , Horses , Anaplasmosis , Ixodes , Gram-Negative Bacteria/pathogenicity
9.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 213-214, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715814

ABSTRACT

Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common tick-borne infectious disease in North America, and it was designated as a national notifiable infectious disease in Korea in December 2010. While no cases in Jeju-do were recorded from 2012 to 2016, a recent survey reported that the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in horses in Jeju-do was 19.0% (95% confidence interval, 12.0 to 28.3%). This fact suggests that horses may be a potential reservoir of LB in Jeju-do and that individuals in close contact with horses may be a high-risk group. Thus, a serological study in this high-risk group is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Borrelia burgdorferi , Communicable Diseases , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Horses , Ixodes , Korea , Lyme Disease , North America , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Ticks
10.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 589-596, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742292

ABSTRACT

Ticks are the vectors of various pathogens, threatening human health and animal production across the globe. Here, for the first time we detected Ricketssia spp., Borrelia spp. and protozoan in ticks from Poyang Lake region in Jiangxi Province of eastern China. In 3 habitat categories and on 12 host species, 311 ticks from 11 species were collected. Haemaphysalis longicornis was the predominant species, accounting for 55.63%, followed by Rhipicephalus microplus, Haemaphysalis flava and Ixodes granulatus. Of the collected ticks, 7.07% were positive for tick-borne pathogens, and H. longicornis and H. flava were found to be co-infected with Ricketssia spp. and protozoan. H. flava was the most detected positive for tick-borne pathogens, whereas H. longicornis had the lowest infection rate, and the difference in infection rates between tick species was significant (χ²=61.24, P < 0.001). Furthermore, adult ticks demonstrated remarkably greater infection rate than immature ticks (χ²=10.12, P=0.018), meanwhile ticks on Erinaceidae showed significantly higher positivity than ticks collected on other host species (χ²=108.44, P < 0.001). Genetic fragment sequencing and analyses showed at least 4 pathogen species presence in ticks, namely Borrelia yangtzensis, Rickettsia slovaca or Rickettsia raoultii related genospecies, Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis or Hepatozoon felis related genospecies. The finding indicates that the abundant ticks can carry diverse pathogens in Poyang Lake region, and pathogen infection is highly related to species, vertebrate hosts and life stages of ticks.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cats , Humans , Babesia , Borrelia , China , Ecosystem , Epidemiology , Felis , Hedgehogs , Ixodes , Lakes , Rhipicephalus , Rickettsia , Risk Factors , Ticks , Vertebrates
11.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e31-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750145

ABSTRACT

Tick-induced mammalian meat allergy has become an emergent allergy world-wide after van Nunen et al. first described the association between tick bites and the development of mammalian meat allergy in 2007. Cases of mammalian meat allergy have now been reported on all 6 continents where humans are bitten by ticks, in 17 countries


Subject(s)
Humans , Africa , Americas , Anaphylaxis , Asia , Australia , Belgium , Central America , Europe , Germany , United Kingdom , Hypersensitivity , Italy , Ixodes , Meat , Public Health , South America , Spain , Sweden , Switzerland , Tick Bites , Ticks , United States
12.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 8(32): 7-12, Sept. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-883170

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las garrapatas (Acari, Ixodida) son artrópodos vectores de gran diversidad de patógenos virales, bacterianos y protozoarios, muchos de los cuales son zoonóticos y emergentes. En Argentina se encuentran numerosas especies de garrapatas duras (familia Ixodidae) que también parasitan al hombre. Las áreas urbanas protegidas son ecosistemas naturales que están dentro de grandes urbes o limitan con ellas. En la Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur (RECS) de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA) circulan especies silvestres que no tienen presencia en otras áreas de la ciudad, con potenciales hospedadores y vectores. OBJETIVOS: Determinar las especies de garrapatas presentes en la RECS (CABA). MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo descriptivo transversal mediante muestreos para colectar garrapatas de vegetación y de hospedadores como perros y distintas especies de roedores. RESULTADOS: En total se recolectaron 1090 garrapatas de la vegetación (454 de la especie Amblyomma aureolatum, 635 Ixodes auritulus y 1 Amblyomma triste) y 67 de los perros (64 A. aureolatum, 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato y 1 A. triste). No se detectaron garrapatas en 200 roedores revisados. CONCLUSIONES: Las especies de garrapatas detectadas en este estudio tienen importancia en salud pública, tanto porque parasitan a humanos (A. aureolatum, A. triste y R. sanguineus s. l.) como porque participan en el ciclo y transmisión de distintos patógenos zoonóticos en distintas regiones del mundo, incluso Argentina.


INTRODUCTION: Ticks (Acari, Ixodida) are arthropod vectors of great diversity of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens, many of which are zoonotic and emerging. In Argentina, there are numerous hard tick species (Ixodidae family) which also parasitize humans. Protected urban areas are natural ecosystems located within or near large urban centers. The Costanera Sur Ecological Reserve (RECS) of Buenos Aires city shows a circulation of wild species that have no presence in other areas of the city. There are potential hosts and vectors. OBJECTIVES: A quantitative cross sectional study was carried to detect the species of ticks present in the RECS of Buenos Aires city. METHODS: A quantitative cross - sectional study was carried out by sampling to collect ticks from vegetation and hosts (rodents and dogs). RESULTS: In total, 1090 ticks were collected from the vegetation (454 of the species Amblyomma aureolatum, 635 Ixodes auritulus and 1 Amblyomma triste) and 67 from dogs (64 A. aureolatum, 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and 1 A. triste). No ticks were detected in 200 examined rodents. CONCLUSIONS: Ticks species detected in this study are important for public health, because they are parasites of humans (A. aureolatum, A. triste and R. sanguineus s. l.) and participate in the cycle and transmission of different zoonotic pathogens in different regions of the world, including Argentina.


Subject(s)
Ixodes , Ticks
13.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 458-467, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9120

ABSTRACT

In light of global climate change, the seasonal and geographical distribution of vector species, especially mosquitoes, chigger mites, and ticks, are of great importance for human beings residing in rural and urban environments. A total of 12 species belonging to 4 genera have been identified as vector mosquitoes in the Republic of Korea. The most common of the 56 mosquito species in this country from 2013 through 2015 was found to be a malaria vector, Anopheles sinensis s.l. (species ratio [SR] 52%); followed by a potential vector of West Nile virus, Aedes vexans nipponii (SR 38%); a Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (SR 6%); a West Nile virus vector, Culex pipiens (SR 3%); and a dengue and Zika virus vector, Ae. albopictus (SR 0.3%). Of the scrub typhus vectors, Leptotrombidium scutellare is the predominant chigger mite in Gyongnam province and Jeju island, whereas L. pallidum is the predominant species in other areas of Korea. Ticks were found to be prevalent in most environmental conditions, and high levels of their activity were consistently observed from May to September. Haemaphysalis species of ticks were mostly collected in grasslands, whereas Ixodes species were frequently found in coniferous forests. Haemaphysalis longicornis, known as the main vector of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, was the predominant species and was widely distributed throughout the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aedes , Anopheles , Climate Change , Communicable Diseases , Tracheophyta , Culex , Culicidae , Dengue , Disease Vectors , Encephalitis, Japanese , Fever , Forests , Globus Pallidus , Grassland , Ixodes , Korea , Malaria , Mites , Republic of Korea , Scrub Typhus , Seasons , Thrombocytopenia , Ticks , Trombiculidae , West Nile virus , Zika Virus
14.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 185-191, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50084

ABSTRACT

Tick is one of the most important arthropods in the transmission of vector-borne diseases. In this study, we investigated the abundance and species of ticks associated with swine and their habitats to assess the risk of spread of tick-borne diseases in host species, such as wild boars. Ticks were collected from 24 grazing or traditionally reared domestic pig farms and 8 habitats of wild boars in 8 provinces and 1 city in the Republic of Korea, by using the dragging and flagging methods. Ticks were also collected directly from 49 wild boars by using fine forceps. A total of 9,846 hard ticks were collected, including 4,977 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 4,313 Haemaphysalis flava, 508 Ixodes nipponensis, 1 Ixodes turdus, and 47 Amblyomma testudinarium. A total of 240 hard ticks were collected from 49 wild boars, including 109 H. flava, 84 H. longicornis, and 47 A. testudinarium. A total of 578 hard ticks were collected from areas around domestic pig farms. Only 2 hard tick species, 546 H. longicornis and 32 H. flava, were collected from these areas. A total of 9,028 hard ticks were collected from wild boars of 8 habitats, including 4,347 H. longicornis, 4,172 H. flava, 508 I. nipponensis, and 1 I. turdus. A. testudinarium was collected only from wild boars, and I. nipponensis and I. turdus were collected only from the habitats of wild boars.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Arthropods , Ecosystem , Ixodes , Ixodidae , Republic of Korea , Surgical Instruments , Sus scrofa , Swine , Tick-Borne Diseases , Ticks
15.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 26-31, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296221

ABSTRACT

Until the recent emergence/re-emergence of human-pathogenic viruses in ticks, tick-borne viruses have been neglected as causative agents of human disease (particularly in China). To gain insight into the diversity of tick-borne viruses in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (northwestern China), we conducted illumina deep sequencing-based screening for virus-derived small RNAs in field-collected Ixodes persulcatus ticks. We found 32, 631 unique virus-matched reads. In particular, 77 reads mapped to the tick-borne group within the genus of Flavivirus, and covered 3.8%-2.4% viral genomes. In addition, 32 unique reads were specific to the Siberian subtype of tick-borne encephalitis viruses (TBEV-Sib) which have never been reported in Chinese TBE loci. We confirmed the potential existence of TBEV-Sib by amplification (using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) of genomic fragments from the envelope gene or 3' genomic terminus from the pools of examined ticks. Both sequences demonstrated high homology to TBEV-Sib strains attached geographically to southern Siberia with nucleotide identity of 97.2%-95.5% and aminoacid identity of 99.4%-98.3%, respectively. In conclusion, we report, for the first time, detection of TBEV-Sib in the natural TBE loci of China. These novel data may provide genetic information for further isolation and epidemiologic investigation of TBEV-Sib.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Arachnid Vectors , Virology , China , Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne , Classification , Genetics , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne , Virology , Genome, Viral , Ixodes , Virology , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 807-814, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755802

ABSTRACT

Lyme disease (LD) is a natural focal zoonotic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is mainly transmitted through infected Ixodes ricinus tick bites. The presence and abundance of ticks in various habitats, the infectivity rate, as well as prolonged human exposure to ticks are factors that may affect the infection risk as well as the incidence of LD. In recent years, 20% to 25% of ticks infected with different borrelial species, as well as about 5,300 citizens with LD, have been registered in the Belgrade area. Many of the patients reported tick bites in city’s grassy areas. The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi in high-risk groups (forestry workers and soldiers) in the Belgrade area, and to compare the results with healthy blood donors. A two-step algorithm consisting of ELISA and Western blot tests was used in the study. Immunoreactivity profiles were also compared between the groups. The results obtained showed the seroprevalence to be 11.76% in the group of forestry workers, 17.14% in the group of soldiers infected by tick bites and 8.57% in the population of healthy blood donors. The highest IgM reactivity was detected against the OspC protein, while IgG antibodies showed high reactivity against VlsE, p19, p41, OspC, OspA and p17. Further investigations in this field are necessary in humans and animals in order to improve protective and preventive measures against LD.

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Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Borrelia burgdorferi/immunology , Borrelia burgdorferi/isolation & purification , Lyme Disease/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Forestry , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Ixodes/microbiology , Lyme Disease/microbiology , Lyme Disease/transmission , Military Personnel , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Serbia/epidemiology
17.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 440-442, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152869

ABSTRACT

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction is often classified as idiopathic. The condition is associated with poor quality of life and high morbidity, and treatment options are often unsatisfactory. A case of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction in a 66-year-old woman, presenting with back and abdominal pain, urinary retention and severe constipation is described. The patient lived in an area in which Lyme disease is endemic and had been bitten by ixodes ticks. Intrathecal synthesis of anti-borrelia IgM and IgG and lymphocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid was found, consistent with chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis since symptoms had lasted for more than six months. The patient's gastrointestinal function recovered and the pain subsided significantly following treatment with antibiotics. Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) often results in palsy, but rarely affects the autonomic nervous system. Three patients have been described with intestinal pseudoobstruction due to acute LNB. However, this is the first described case of intestinal pseudoobstruction due to chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis. LNB must be suspected in patients with intestinal pseudoobstruction, in particular in patients who have been bitten by an ixodes tick and in patients living in an endemic area.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Abdominal Pain , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Autonomic Nervous System , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Constipation , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction , Ixodes , Lyme Disease , Lyme Neuroborreliosis , Lymphocytosis , Paralysis , Quality of Life , Ticks , Urinary Retention
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 262-265, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321615

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To identify ticks and determine the Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi genotype from four counties of northern Xinjiang.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sheep ticks were collected from 6 surveillance sites in four counties including Shihezi, Shawan,Yining and Chabuchaer. All ticks were initially screened out based on morphological methods and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. B. burgdorferi was detected and cultivated with BSK-H medium. Combined with nested PCR, silver nitrate staining was employed to detect B. burgdorferi. Genotype of isolated B. burgdorferi was determined by Sequencing and phylogenic analysis based on 11 conference sequences.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor marginatus and Rhipicephalus turanicus were identified from more than 900 ticks. Out of 24 tubes from 102 representative tick specimens, 16 tube were positive for B. burgdorfer. Sequencing of 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer showed 98.6%-99.5% identities to B. burgdorferi Sensu Stricto(B31). Results from the analysis of OspC genotype showed consistent with that of 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>16 strains of B. burgdorferi Sensu Stricto were isolated in four counties, from northern Xinjiang. Additionally, B. burgdorferi Sensu Stricto was isolated from Rhipicephalus turanicus first time in China.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Borrelia burgdorferi , Genetics , China , Epidemiology , DNA, Bacterial , Genetics , Genotype , Ixodes , Microbiology , Lyme Disease , Epidemiology
19.
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2013; 68 (1): 21-30
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-142805

ABSTRACT

Lyme borreliosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. There are no reports on this subject in dogs from Iran. Determining the serologic prevalence level of produced antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in three Caspian littoral provinces of Iran and studying the effect of climatic risk factors on it are the first aims of this study. During the period from July to September 2009 a seroepidemiological study was conducted on 273 dogs in three Caspian provinces of Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan, Iran's known habitats of tick [Ixodes ricinus]. In order to study the correlation between infection distribution and climatic factors by geographic information system [GIS], geographic position of seronegative and seropositive dogs was overlaid on climatic maps of Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces. Multivariate regression model and correlation matrix analyses were used for statistical analysis. From 273 serum samples in the whole studied area, 22 [8.1%] showed antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in provinces of Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan were 0.0% [0.91], 2.2% [2.91] and 22% [20.91], respectively. Mean annual temperature had positive and significant correlation with B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex seroprevalence in sampled dogs of the three north provinces [p<0.05]. Regarding the seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis in dogs of three Caspian provinces of Iran, more attention must be paid to this disease, especially in Golestan province. This is the first study on the role of climatic factors in canine Lyme borreliosis in Iran


Subject(s)
Animals , Climate , Risk Factors , Ixodes , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spirochaetales , Borrelia burgdorferi , Dog Diseases
20.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 584-591, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320300

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To optimize the performance of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) for the comparison of inter-laboratory results and information exchange of Borrelia burgdorferi subtyping.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A panel of 34 strains of B. burgdorferi were used to optimize PFGE for subtyping. In order to optimize the electrophoretic parameters (EPs), all 34 strains of B. burgdorferi were analyzed using four EPs, yielding different Simpson diversity index (D) values and the epidemiological concordance was also evaluated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The EP of a switch time of 1 s to 25 s for 13 h and 1 s to 10 s for 6 h produced the highest D value and was declared to be optimal for MluI and SmaI PFGE of B. burgdorferi. MluI and SmaI were selected as the first and second restriction enzymes for PFGE subtyping of B. burgdorferi according to discrimination and consistency with epidemiological data.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>PFGE can be used as a valuable test for routine genospecies identification of B. burgdorferi.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Bacterial Proteins , Metabolism , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Borrelia burgdorferi , Classification , Genetics , DNA, Bacterial , Metabolism , Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific , Metabolism , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Ixodes
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