Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 210
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879959

ABSTRACT

: To assess the () recombinant gingivalis gingipain R2 (rRgpB)-induced Ca mobilization in human gingival fibroblast (HGF) mediated by protease-activated receptor (PAR) and its downstream signal transduction pathways. : Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of PAR in HGF. The proliferation of HGF was measured by CCK-8. The dynamic changes of intracellular Ca concentration in HGF induced by rRgpB and the blocking effect of PAR-1 antagonist were observed by laser confocal microscopy. Western blot was performed to determine the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and p65 in HGF. : PAR-1 and PAR-3 were expressed in HGF, and the rRgpB could promote the proliferation of HGF. rRgpB caused a transient increase in [Ca], which could be completely suppressed by vorapaxar, a PAR-1 antagonist. The phosphorylation levels of JNK, ERK1/2 and p65 were significantly up-regulated after the induction of rRgpB for and (all <0.05), which was completely inhibited by vorapaxar. However, the phosphorylation level of p38 MAPK had no significant change after rRgpB stimulation. : rRgpB causes an increase in [Ca] in HGF mediated by PAR-1. JNK, ERK1/2 and nuclear factor-κB may be involved in intracellular signal transduction after PAR-1 activation.


Subject(s)
Fibroblasts , Humans , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Phosphorylation , Signal Transduction , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to determine the regulatory role of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, in interleukin 17 (IL-17)-induced osteoclast differentiation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: After RA synovial fibroblasts were stimulated by IL-17, the expression and production of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Osteoclastogenesis was also determined after co-cultures of IL-17-stimulated RA synovial fibroblasts, Th17 cells and various concentrations of NAC with monocytes. After human peripheral CD4⁺ T cells were cultured with NAC under Th17 condition, IL-17, interferon γ, IL-4, Foxp3, RANKL, and IL-2 expression and production was determined by flow cytometry or ELISA. RESULTS: When RA synovial fibroblasts were stimulated by IL-17, IL-17 stimulated the production of RANKL, and NAC reduced the IL-17-induced RANKL production in a dose-dependent manner. NAC decreased IL-17-activated phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and inhibitor of κB. When human peripheral blood CD14⁺ monocytes were cultured with macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-17 or RANKL, osteoclasts were differentiated, and NAC reduced the osteoclastogenesis. After human peripheral CD4⁺ T cells were co-cultured with IL-17-pretreated RA synovial fibroblasts or Th17 cells, NAC reduced their osteoclastogenesis. Under Th17 polarizing condition, NAC decreased Th17 cell differentiation and IL-17 and RANKL production. CONCLUSIONS: NAC inhibits the IL-17-induced RANKL production in RA synovial fibroblasts and IL-17-induced osteoclast differentiation. NAC also reduced Th17 polarization. NAC could be a supplementary therapeutic option for inflammatory and bony destructive processes in RA.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Coculture Techniques , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fibroblasts , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Interferons , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-4 , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Monocytes , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Phosphorylation , RANK Ligand , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sirolimus , T-Lymphocytes , Th17 Cells
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776516

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of myeloid differentiation-2 (MD2) gene silencing on high glucose-induced proliferation inhibition, apoptosis and inflammation in rat cardiomyocytes.@*METHODS@#The immortalized rat cardiomyocyte cell line H9C2 were transfected with MD2 small interfering RNA (si-MD2) and negative control for 24 h, then stimulated with high glucose (HG) for 48 h. RT-qPCR was performed to detect the mRNA levels of MD2 and inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. MTS and flow cytometry were used to evaluate cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis rate. Western blot was used to detect protein expression levels and phosphorylation levels.@*RESULTS@#The mRNA and protein levels of MD2 in H9C2 cells were dramatically decreased after transfected with si-MD2 (P<0.01). After stimulation of high glucose, the mRNA levels of inflammatory factors, the cells in G0/G1 phase , the cell apoptosis rate and the protein level of cleaved Caspase-3 were significantly increased, while the cell proliferation ability was decreased (P<0.01). MD2 gene silencing antagonized the effects of high glucose on cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis and the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β , IL-6(P<0.05). Western blot analysis showed that the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK1/2), P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(P38 MAPK) and C-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK) protein were increased significantly in H9C2 cells treated with high glucose, which could be reversed by silencing of MD2 (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#This study demonstrates that MD2 gene silencing reverses high glucose-induced myocardial inflammation, apoptosis and proliferation inhibition via the mechanisms involving suppression of ERK, P38 MAPK, JNK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines , Metabolism , Gene Silencing , Glucose , Inflammation , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Lymphocyte Antigen 96 , Genetics , Myocytes, Cardiac , Cell Biology , Rats , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763027

ABSTRACT

Daidzein isolated from soybean (Glycine max) has been widely studied for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the protective effects of 7,8,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone (THIF), a major metabolite of daidzein, on 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity are not well understood. In the current study, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly inhibited neuronal cell death and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells, which were used as an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, pretreatment with 7,8,4′-THIF significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly recovered 6-OHDA-induced cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), increased Bax, and decreased Bcl-2 levels. Additionally, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly restored the expression levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Further, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly increased the reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) level induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells. Collectively, these results suggest that 7,8,4′-THIF protects against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death in cellular PD models. Also, these effects are mediated partly by inhibiting activation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathways.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Catalase , Cell Death , Glutathione , Glycogen Synthase , In Vitro Techniques , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Malondialdehyde , Neurons , Oxidopamine , Parkinson Disease , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Soybeans , Superoxide Dismutase , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
5.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 312-323, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762231

ABSTRACT

Cyclosporin A (CsA) does not only exert a toxic effect on kidney parenchymal cells, but also protects them against necrotic cell death by inhibiting opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. However, whether CsA plays a role in hydrogen peroxide-induced kidney proximal tubular cell death is currently unclear. In the present study, treatment with CsA further increased apoptosis and necrosis in HK-2 human kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells during exposure to hydrogen peroxide. In addition, hydrogen peroxide-induced p53 activation and BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) expression were higher in CsA-treated cells than those in non-treated cells, whereas hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and activation of protein kinase B were not significantly altered by treatment with CsA. In oxidant-antioxidant system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by hydrogen peroxide was further enhanced by treatment with CsA. However, expression levels of antioxidant enzymes including manganese superoxide dismutase, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, and catalase were not altered by treatment with hydrogen peroxide or CsA. Treatment with CsA further enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential induced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide, although it did not alter endoplasmic reticulum stress based on expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 and 94. Taken together, these data suggest that CsA can aggravate hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death through p53 activation, BID expression, and ROS production.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Catalase , Cell Death , Cyclosporine , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Kidney , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Necrosis , Permeability , Phosphotransferases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The primary aims of periodontal disease treatment is to remove dental plaque and calculus, the main causes of tooth loss, and restore periodontal tissue destroyed by inflammation. Periodontal disease treatment should also help maintain the alveolar bone, alleviate inflammation, and promote periodontal ligament cell proliferation, which is essential for tissue regeneration. Conventional antibiotics and anti-inflammatories have adverse side effects, especially during long-term use, so there is a need for adjunct treatment agents derived from natural products. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the herbal flavone baicalein has the osteogenic activity under inflammatory conditions, and assess the involvement of osteoblast immediate early response 3 (IER3) expression.METHODS: Human osteoblastic MG-63 cells were cultured with the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β in the presence and absence of baicalein. Proliferation was assessed using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and expression of IER3 mRNA was assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of IER3 protein levels and activation of associated signal transduction pathways were assessed using western blotting.RESULTS: Baicalein increased IER3 mRNA and protein expression synergistically. In addition, baicalein reversed the suppression of cell proliferation, and the downregulation of osteogenic transcription factor runt-related transcription factor 2 and osterix induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Baicalein also upregulated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2). The upregulation of IER3 by pro-inflammatory cytokines was blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of AKT, p38, JNK, and ERK 1/2.CONCLUSION: Baicalein mitigates the deleterious responses of osteoblasts to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Further, IER3 enhanced the effect of baicalein via activation of AKT, p38, JNK, and ERK pathways.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Biological Products , Blotting, Western , Calculi , Cell Proliferation , Cytokines , Dental Plaque , Down-Regulation , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukins , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Osteoblasts , Osteogenesis , Periodontal Diseases , Periodontal Ligament , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Regeneration , RNA, Messenger , Signal Transduction , Tooth Loss , Transcription Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Up-Regulation
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813301

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect of propofol on human cardiac AC16 cells under CoCl2-induced hypoxic injury and the possible mechanisms.
 Methods: Human AC16 cardiomyocytes were treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to mimic hypoxic condition in cultured cardiomyocytes. The AC16 cells were divided into 3 groups: a control group, a CoCl2 hypoxia group (CoCl2 group), and a propofol+CoCl2 group (propofol+ CoCl2 group). The cell viability was assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell apoptosis ratio (AR) and the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were detected by flow cytometry. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in AC16 cells were determined with the ROS-sensitive fluorescent probe. Meanwhile, total intracellular levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in AC16 cells were detected with commercially available kits. Western blot was used to evaluate the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 signaling pathways.
 Results: 1) Compared with the control group, AC16 cell viability was decreased significantly in the CoCl2 group following the treatment with 500 μmol/L CoCl2 (P<0.01); 2) Compared with the control group, AR value in AC16 cells was increased significantly in the CoCl2 group, while Δψm was decreased significantly (all P<0.01). Compared with the CoCl2 group, AR value in AC16 cells was decreased significantly in the propofol+CoCl2 group, while Δψm was increased significantly (both P<0.05); 3) Compared with the control group, the levels of ROS and MDA were increased significantly, and the level of SOD was significantly decreased in the CoCl2 group (all P<0.01). Compared with the CoCl2 group, the ROS and MDA levels in the propofol+CoCl2 group were increased significantly and the SOD levels were decreased significantly (all P<0.05); 4) Compared with the control group, the phosphorylation levels of JNK and p38 were increased significantly (both P<0.05) in the CoCl2 group. Compared with the CoCl2 group, the phosphorylation levels of JNK and p38 were decreased significantly in the propofol+CoCl2 group (both P<0.05).
 Conclusion: The pretreatment with propofol may protect human cardiac AC16 cells from the chemical hypoxia-induced injury through regulation of JNK and p38 signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Cobalt , Pharmacology , Humans , Hypoxia , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Propofol , Reactive Oxygen Species
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728017

ABSTRACT

Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipids and have several pharmacological efficacies. MELs also show skin-moisturizing efficacy through a yet-unknown underlying mechanism. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a membrane protein that contributes to the water homeostasis of the epidermis, and decreased AQP3 expression following ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation of the skin is associated with reduced skin moisture. No previous study has examined whether the skin-moisturizing effect of MELs might act through the modulation of AQP3 expression. Here, we report for the first time that MELs ameliorate the UVA-induced downregulation of AQP3 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT keratinocytes). Our results revealed that UVA irradiation decreases AQP3 expression at the protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, but that MEL treatment significantly ameliorated these effects. Our mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor analysis revealed that phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase or p38, mediates UVA-induced AQP3 downregulation, and that MEL treatment significantly suppressed the UVA-induced phosphorylation of JNK. To explore a possible mechanism, we tested whether MELs could regulate the expression of peroxidase proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), which acts as a potent transcription factor for AQP3 expression. Interestingly, UVA irradiation significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of PPAR-γ in HaCaT keratinocytes, whereas a JNK inhibitor and MELs significantly rescued this effect. Taken together, these findings suggest that MELs ameliorate UVA-induced AQP3 downregulation in HaCaT keratinocytes by suppressing JNK activation to block the decrease of PPAR-γ. Collectively, our findings suggest that MELs can be used as a potential ingredient that modulates AQP3 expression to improve skin moisturization following UVA irradiation-induced damage.


Subject(s)
Down-Regulation , Epidermis , Glycolipids , Homeostasis , Humans , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Keratinocytes , Membrane Proteins , Peroxidase , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , PPAR gamma , Protein Kinases , RNA, Messenger , Skin , Transcription Factors , Water
9.
Biol. Res ; 52: 41, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Di-N-butyl-phthalate (DBP) is an endocrine disrupting substance. We investigated the adverse effect of DBP on testis of male rat and reveal its potential mechanism of MAPK signaling pathway involved this effect in vivo and in vitro. Gonadal hormone, sperm quality, morphological change and the activation status of JNK, ERK1/2 and p38 was determined in vivo. Primary Sertoli cell was established and cultivated with JNK, ERK1/2 inhibitors, then determine the cell viability, apoptosis and the expression of p-JNK, p-ERK1/2. Data in this study were presented as mean ± SD and determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni's test. Difference was considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. RESULTS: In vivo experiment, DBP impaired the normal structure of testicular tissue, reduced testosterone levels in blood serum, decreased sperm count and increased sperm abnormality, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK in rat testicular tissue increased in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro studies, DBP could decrease the viability of Sertoli cells and increase p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK. Cell apoptosis in SP600125 + DBP group was significantly lower than in DBP group (P < 0.05). p-JNK was not significantly decreased in SP600125 + DBP group, while p-ERK1/2 was significantly decreased in U0126 + DBP group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that DBP can lead to testicular damage and the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK pathways, the JNK signaling pathway may be primarily associated with its effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/injuries , Testis/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Dibutyl Phthalate/pharmacology , Testis/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/physiology , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/physiology
10.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 442-446, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689736

ABSTRACT

The MAPK signaling pathway plays a key role in the differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis of cells, and its family members mainly include extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), stress-activated protein kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Recent studies have shown that the ERK, JNK and p38MAPK signaling pathways are closely associated with the development and progression of erectile dysfunction (ED). This review focuses on the correlation between the MAPK signaling pathway and ED.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Erectile Dysfunction , Metabolism , Humans , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Male , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To define the effect of statins on interleukin 1β (IL-1β)-induced osteoclastogenesis and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Bone marrow cells were obtained from 5-week-old male ICR (Institute for Cancer Research) mice, and they were cultured to differentiate them into osteoclasts with macrophage colony-stimulating factor and the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand in the presence or absence of IL-1β or atorvastatin. The formation of osteoclasts was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and resorption pit assay with dentine slice. The molecular mechanisms of the effects of atorvastatin on osteoclastogenesis were investigated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting for osteoclast specific molecules. RESULTS: Atorvastatin significantly reduced the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells as well as the bone resorption area. Atorvastatin also downregulated the expression of the NF of activated T-cell c1 messenger RNA and inhibited the expression of osteoclast-specific genes. A possible underlying mechanism may be that atorvastatin suppresses the degradation of the inhibitors of NF-κB and blocks the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38; thus, implicating the NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway in this process. CONCLUSIONS: Atorvastatin is a strong inhibitor of inflammation-induced osteoclastogenesis in inflammatory joint diseases.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Animals , Atorvastatin , Bone Marrow Cells , Bone Resorption , Dentin , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Immunoblotting , Interleukins , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Joint Diseases , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Male , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Osteoclasts , Osteoprotegerin , Phosphotransferases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , T-Lymphocytes
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 960-967, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717933

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous molecule with important physiological roles. It is synthesized from cysteine by cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS). The present study examined the benefits of exogenous H2S on renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, as well as the effects of CGL or CBS inhibition. Furthermore, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the action of H2S in the kidneys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: a sham, renal IR control, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) treatment, H2S donor, and CGL or CBS inhibitor administration group. Levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), renal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated. Histological changes, apoptosis, and expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38) were also evaluated. RESULTS: NaHS attenuated serum BUN and Cr levels, as well as histological damage caused by renal IR injury. Administration of NaHS also reduced oxidative stress as evident from decreased MDA, preserved SOD, and reduced apoptotic cells. Additionally, NaHS prevented renal IR-induced MAPK phosphorylation. The CGL or CBS group showed increased MAPK family activity; however, there was no significant difference in the IR control group. CONCLUSION: Exogenous H2S can mitigate IR injury-led renal damage. The proposed beneficial effect of H2S is, in part, because of the anti-oxidative stress associated with modulation of the MAPK signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Creatinine , Cystathionine , Cysteine , Humans , Hydrogen Sulfide , Hydrogen , Ischemia , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Kidney , Male , Malondialdehyde , Oxidative Stress , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury , Sodium , Superoxide Dismutase , Tissue Donors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects of compound K (CK), a ginsenoside metabolite, on chondrocytes from osteoarthritis (OA) patients following stimulation with interleukin (IL)-1β. METHODS: Articular cartilage samples were obtained from six OA patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery. Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured by the Griess reaction. Subsequently, the mRNA and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were examined by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Cartilage degradation was assessed using a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) assay. RESULTS: CK inhibited IL-1β-induced NO production and iNOS expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, it inhibited the IL-1 β-stimulated release of MMP-1, -3, and -13 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 from OA patient chondrocytes. In addition, CK effectively suppressed the IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase MAPKs. Moreover, the IL-1β-mediated release of GAG was inhibited by CK in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: CK inhibited the IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory mediators and MMPs by, at least in part, inhibiting MAPK activation, and has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of OA.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Blotting, Western , Cartilage , Cartilage, Articular , Chondrocytes , Ginsenosides , Humans , Interleukin-1 , Interleukins , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Osteoarthritis , Panax , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinases , RNA, Messenger
14.
Gut and Liver ; : 449-456, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is associated with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, little is known regarding the effects of inflammation and fibrosis on the β-Klotho and FGF21 pathway in the liver. METHODS: Enrolled patients had biopsy-confirmed viral or alcoholic hepatitis. FGF19, FGF21 and β-Klotho levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanisms for this process by evaluating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway involvement in Huh-7 cells. RESULTS: We observed that the FGF19 and FGF21 serum and mRNA levels in the biopsied liver tissue gradually increased and were correlated with fibrosis stage. Inflammatory markers (interleukin 1β [IL-1β], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were positively correlated, while β-Klotho expression was negatively correlated with the degree of fibrosis. In Huh-7 cells, IL-1β increased FGF21 levels and decreased β-Klotho levels. NF-κB and JNK inhibitors abolished the effect of IL-1β on both FGF21 and β-Klotho expression. FGF21 protected IL-1β-induced growth retardation in Huh-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the inflammatory response during fibrogenesis increases FGF21 levels and suppresses β-Klotho via the NF-κB and JNK pathway. In addition, FGF21 likely protects hepatocytes from hepatic inflammation and fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Fibroblasts , Fibrosis , Hepatitis, Alcoholic , Hepatocytes , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-6 , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Liver , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Necrosis , NF-kappa B , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(12): e7665, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974250

ABSTRACT

Osteosarcoma (OS) has a high incidence, malignity, and frequency of recurrence and metastasis. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential anti-cancer effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on human OS MG63 cells as well as underlying mechanisms. Viability of MG63 cells was assessed by CCK-8 assay to determine the adequate concentration of APS. Then, effects of APS on MG63 cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and migration and invasion were analyzed by BrdU incorporation, PI staining, flow cytometry, and transwell assays, respectively. The expression levels of proteins involved in these physiological processes were assessed by western blot analysis. Afterwards, miR-133a level in APS-treated cells was determined by qRT-PCR, and whether APS affected MG63 cells through regulation of miR-133a was determined. Finally, the activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway was detected. We found that APS treatment suppressed the viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion of MG63 cells, as well as induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, APS enhanced the expression of miR-133a in MG63 cells. Knockdown of miR-133a reversed the APS treatment-induced MG63 cell proliferation, migration and invasion inhibition, as well as cell apoptosis. Furthermore, APS inactivated JNK pathway in MG63 cells. Knockdown of miR-133a reversed the APS treatment-induced inactivation of JNK pathway in MG63 cells. To conclude, APS repressed proliferation, migration, and invasion while induced apoptosis of OS MG63 cells by up-regulating miR-133a and then inactivating JNK pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Movement/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Astragalus Plant/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Bone Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , MicroRNAs/analysis , Cell Line, Tumor , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187091

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although static magnetic fields (SMFs) have been used in dental prostheses and osseointegrated implants, their biological effects on osteoblastic and cementoblastic differentiation in cells involved in periodontal regeneration remain unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of SMFs (15 mT) on the osteoblastic and cementoblastic differentiation of human osteoblasts, periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs), and cementoblasts, and to explore the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. METHODS: Differentiation was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralized nodule formation based on Alizarin red staining, calcium content, and the expression of marker mRNAs assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Signaling pathways were analyzed by western blotting and immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: The activities of the early marker ALP and the late markers matrix mineralization and calcium content, as well as osteoblast- and cementoblast-specific gene expression in osteoblasts, PDLCs, and cementoblasts were enhanced. SMFs upregulated the expression of Wnt proteins, and increased the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and total β-catenin protein expression. Furthermore, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways were activated. CONCLUSIONS: SMF treatment enhanced osteoblastic and/or cementoblastic differentiation in osteoblasts, cementoblasts, and PDLCs. These findings provide a molecular basis for the beneficial osteogenic and/or cementogenic effect of SMFs, which could have potential in stimulating bone or cementum formation during bone regeneration and in patients with periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Blotting, Western , Bone Regeneration , Calcium , Dental Cementum , Dental Prosthesis , Gene Expression , Glycogen Synthase , Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Magnetic Fields , Miners , Osteoblasts , Periodontal Diseases , Periodontal Ligament , Phosphorylation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein Kinases , Regeneration , Relative Biological Effectiveness , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Signal Transduction , Wnt Proteins
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197942

ABSTRACT

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play important roles in various cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. We showed that MAPKs are developmentally regulated in the rat kidney. p38 MAPK (p38) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were strongly expressed in the fetal kidney, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was detected predominantly in the adult kidney. The inhibition of p38 or ERK in organ culture resulted in reduced nephron formation with or without reduced kidney size. On the other hand, persistent fetal expression pattern of MAPKs, i.e., upregulation of p38 and ERK and downregulation of JNK, was observed in the cyst epithelium of human renal dysplasia, ovine fetal obstructive uropathy, and pcy mice, a model of polycystic kidney disease. Furthermore, activated p38 and ERK induced by cyclic stretch mediated proliferation and TGF-β1 expression in ureteric bud cells, probably leading to cyst formation and dysplastic changes. Inhibition of ERK slowed the disease progression in pcy mice. Finally, ERK and p38 were inactivated in the early embryonic kidney subjected to maternal nutrient restriction, characterized by reduced ureteric branching and nephron number. Thus, MAPKs mediate the development of normal and diseased kidney. Their modulation may result in novel therapeutic strategies against developmental abnormalities of the kidney.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Apoptosis , Disease Progression , Down-Regulation , Epithelium , Hand , Humans , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Kidney , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Nephrons , Organ Culture Techniques , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphotransferases , Polycystic Kidney Diseases , Rats , Up-Regulation , Ureter
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205040

ABSTRACT

Although anti-aging activities of melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, have been reported in senescence-accelerated mouse models and several types of cells, its impact and mechanism on the senescence of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) remains unknown. In this study, we examined the impact of melatonin on cellular premature senescence of HDPCs. Here, we found that melatonin markedly inhibited senescent characteristics of HDPCs after exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), including the increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal)-positive HDPCs and the upregulation of p21 protein, an indicator for senescence. In addition, as melatonin attenuated H₂O₂-stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), while selective inhibition of JNK activity with SP600125 significantly attenuated H₂O₂-induced increase in SA-beta-gal activity. Results reveal that melatonin antagonizes premature senescence of HDPCs via JNK pathway. Thus, melatonin may have therapeutic potential to prevent stress-induced premature senescence, possibly correlated with development of dental pulp diseases, and to maintain oral health across the life span.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Dental Pulp Diseases , Dental Pulp , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Melatonin , Mice , Oral Health , Phosphorylation , Pineal Gland , Up-Regulation
19.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 104-112, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-212099

ABSTRACT

Movement defects in obesity are associated with peripheral muscle defects, arthritis, and dysfunction of motor control by the brain. Although movement functionality is negatively correlated with obesity, the brain regions and downstream signaling pathways associated with movement defects in obesity are unclear. A dopaminergic neuronal pathway from the substantia nigra (SN) to the striatum is responsible for regulating grip strength and motor initiation through tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity-dependent dopamine release. We found that mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited decreased movement in open-field tests and an increase in missteps in a vertical grid test compared with normally fed mice. This motor abnormality was associated with a significant reduction of TH in the SN and striatum. We further found that phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which modulates TH expression in the SN and striatum, was decreased under excess-energy conditions. Our findings suggest that high calorie intake impairs motor function through JNK-dependent dysregulation of TH in the SN and striatum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis , Brain , Diet, High-Fat , Dopamine , Dopaminergic Neurons , Hand Strength , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Mesencephalon , Mice , Obesity , Phosphorylation , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38705

ABSTRACT

Excessive activation of microglia causes the continuous production of neurotoxic mediators, which further causes neuron degeneration. Therefore, inhibition of microglial activation is a possible target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Balanophonin, a natural neolignoid from Firmiana simplex, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-neuroinflammatory effects and mechanism of balanophonin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. BV2 microglia cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of balanophonin. The results indicated that balanophonin reduced not only the LPS-mediated TLR4 activation but also the production of inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in BV2 cells. Balanophonin also inhibited LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) protein expression and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK. Interestingly, it also inhibited neuronal cell death resulting from LPS-activated microglia by regulating cleaved caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage in N2a cells. In conclusion, our data indicated that balanophonin may delay the progression of neuronal cell death by inhibiting microglial activation.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Dinoprostone , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Microglia , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Necrosis , Nerve Degeneration , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotection , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphotransferases , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL