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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The best approach to reduce congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMVi) is to practice behaviors that reduce cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission during pregnancy. Expanding awareness and knowledge of CMV is expected to result in increased practice of preventative behaviors. To this end, it is necessary to understand current awareness and knowledge of CMV.@*METHODS@#This web-based cross-sectional survey assessed the awareness and knowledge of cCMVi among pregnant women and the general public in Japan. Participants aged 20-45 years (pregnant and non-pregnant women, and men) were identified from a consumer panel. Study outcomes (all participants) included awareness of cCMVi and other congenital conditions. Among those aware of cCMVi, outcomes included knowledge of CMV transmission routes, long-term outcomes of cCMVi, and behaviors to prevent CMV transmission during pregnancy. Outcomes limited to pregnant women included the practice of preventative behaviors and opinion on how easy it is to implement these behaviors. The data of the pregnant group (pregnant at the time of the survey) were compared with those of the general group (non-pregnant women and men).@*RESULTS@#There were 535 participants in the pregnant group and 571 in the general group. Awareness of cCMVi was generally low (pregnant, 16.1%; general, 10.2%). Pregnant participants were significantly more aware of most congenital conditions than those in the general group, including cCMVi (P = 0.004). Knowledge about CMV/cCMVi was limited; there were no significant differences between the two groups for 24 of the 26 knowledge questions. A small proportion (one third or less) of pregnant women practiced behaviors to prevent the transmission of CMV, though most (73.3-95.3%) pregnant women who were aware of cCMVi considered such behaviors easy to implement.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Awareness and knowledge of CMV/cCMVi is low among pregnant women in Japan; the level of knowledge is similar to that among the general public. This needs to be improved. Most pregnant women considered behaviors to prevent CMV transmission easy to perform, which indicates that effectively educating pregnant women regarding the long-term outcomes of cCMVi, CMV transmission routes, and preventative behaviors will contribute to a reduced incidence of cCMVi.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, UMIN000041260 .


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Internet , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#We investigated factors associated with prolonged viral clearance of SARS-CoV-2 among non-severe adult patients in Osaka, Japan. A total of 706 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolled in this longitudinal observational study between 29 January 2020 and 31 May 2020, across 62 hospitals and three non-hospital recuperation facilities.@*METHODS@#Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the factors associated with prolonged (29 days: upper 25% in duration) viral clearance of SARS-CoV-2. Linear regression analysis was conducted to assess these factors 14 days after symptom onset.@*RESULTS@#The median duration of viral clearance was 22 days from symptom onset. After adjustment for sex, age, symptoms, comorbidity, and location of recuperation, comorbidities were associated with prolonged duration: (OR, 1.77 [95% CI, 1.11-2.82]) for one, (OR, 2.47 [95% CI, 1.32-4.61]) for two or more comorbidities. Viral clearance 14 days after symptom onset was 3 days longer for one comorbidity and 4 days longer for two or more comorbidities compared to clearance when there was no comorbidity.@*CONCLUSION@#The presence of comorbidity was a robust factor associated with a longer duration of viral clearance, extending by 3 to 4 days compared to patients with no comorbidity.


Subject(s)
Adult , COVID-19 , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The July 2018 Japan Floods caused enormous damage to western Japan. Such disasters can especially impact elderly persons. Research has shown that natural disasters exacerbated a decline in cognitive function, but to date, there have been no studies examining the effects of this disaster on the elderly. The object of this study was to reveal the effect of this disaster in terms of cognitive decline among the elderly.@*METHODS@#Study participants were certified users of the long-term care insurance (LTCI) system in Hiroshima, Okayama, and Ehime prefectures from May 2018 to June 2018. The observation period was from July 2018 to December 2018. Our primary outcome was cognitive decline after the disaster using a dementia symptomatology assessment. In addition to a crude model, a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the cognitive decline of victims, adjusting for age classification, gender, the level of dementia scale before the disaster occurred, residential environment, whether a participant used facilities shut down after the disaster, and population density. After we confirmed that the interaction term between victims and residential environment was statistically significant, we stratified them for the analysis.@*RESULTS@#The total number of participants was 264,614. Victims accounted for 1.10% of the total participants (n = 2,908). For the Cox proportional hazards model, the hazard ratio of the victims was 1.18 (95% confidential interval (CI): 1.05-1.32) in the crude model and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.00-1.26) in the adjusted model. After being stratified by residential environment, the hazard ratio of home victims was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.06-1.36) and the hazard ratio of facility victims was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.67-1.17).@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study showed that elderly living at home during the 2018 Japan Floods were at risk for cognitive decline. Medical providers, care providers, and local governments should establish a system to check on the cognitive function of elderly victims and provide necessary care support.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Floods , Humans , Insurance, Long-Term Care , Japan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#We aimed to examine the cross-sectional association between occupational class and self-reported low back pain (LBP) in a representative sample of the Japanese general population.@*METHODS@#We used anonymized data from a nationwide survey (31,443 men and 35,870 women aged ≥ 20). Occupational class variables included working status, occupation, employment status, and company size (number of employees). Covariates included age, socio-economic status, lifestyle, and comorbidities. Poisson regression models stratified by gender were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for self-reported LBP.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of self-reported LBP was 11.7% in men and 14.2% in women. After adjustment for covariates and mutual adjustment for all occupational class variables, among both genders, agricultural/forestry/fishery workers and non-workers had a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported LBP: APR (95% CI) of agricultural/forestry/fishery was 1.36 (1.08-1.70) in men and 1.59 (1.30-1.93) in women; that of non-workers was 1.42 (1.18-1.70) in men and 1.23 (1.08-1.40) in women. Among men, non-regular employees were more likely to have self-reported LBP than regular employees: APR (95% CI) was 1.25 (1.07-1.46) in part-timers and casual staff and 1.18 (1.03-1.35) in other types of non-regular employees. Moreover, compared to men working at companies with ≥ 100 employees, men working at companies with 30-99 employees had a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported LBP (APR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.34). Among women, professionals and technicians (1.26; 1.11-1.43) and sales workers (1.22; 1.04-1.43) had a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported LBP than clerks. Neither employment status nor company size was associated with self-reported LBP in women. After stratified analyses by age group, similar patterns were observed in participants aged 20-64, but not in those aged ≥ 65.@*CONCLUSION@#Our results suggest that self-reported LBP is highly prevalent among agricultural/forestry/fishery workers and the unemployed, regardless of gender, and that there are also gender differences in the association of occupational class factors with self-reported LBP. It is necessary, therefore, to take preventive measures against LBP based on gender and occupational class factors in Japan.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Low Back Pain/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Self Report , Sex Distribution
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#How community-based group resistance exercises affect the transition from robustness to frailty remains unclear. Thus, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine whether the trajectory from robustness to frailty over age differed depending on the duration of participation in group exercises.@*METHODS@#We analyzed the Kihon Checklist (KCL) score of community-dwelling elderly residents of Sumoto city, Hyogo prefecture, who participated in community-based group resistance exercises between April 2010 and December 2019. Finally, 2567 older individuals were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The explanatory variables of interest were the frailty score measured using the KCL for each individual, where 0-3, 4-7, and ≥8 points denoted robustness, pre-frailty, and frailty, respectively. We considered age, sex, systolic blood pressure, pulse, duration of participation, and change in KCL score from baseline as possible confounders. Participants were classified as follows based on the duration of participation in the exercises: <3 times, short-term participation group; 4-6 times; mid-term participation group; and 7-13 times, long-term participation group. The mean duration from the baseline physical test for the total sample was 2.35 years (SD=2.51).@*RESULTS@#The participants' mean total KCL score at baseline was 4.9±3.7. Multilevel modeling analysis revealed that the KCL scores changed by 0.82 points for each additional year of age (p<0.001) and changed by - 0.93 points for long-term participate group (p<0.001). The Estimated Marginal Means (EMM) of the KCL score was 3.98 (95%CI: 3.69, 4.28) points in the short-term participation group and was significantly worse than that of the long-term participation group at 70 years of age (p=0.001). The EMM was 4.49 (95%CI: 4.24, 4.74) at 75 years of age in the mid-term participation group and was significantly worse than that of the long-term participation group. The EMM was 3.87 (95%CI: 3.57, 4.16) in the long-term participation group and significantly better than that of the short-term (p<0.001) and mid-term (p=0.002) participation groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Participation in community-based group resistance exercises prolongs the transition from robustness to frailty. The improved KCL scores at baseline in the long-term participation group remained in the robust range at 75 years of age, which suggests the importance of initiating participation before the onset of functional decline.


Subject(s)
Aged , Checklist , Cohort Studies , Exercise Test , Female , Frailty/prevention & control , Humans , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Resistance Training , Retrospective Studies , Social Participation
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Excess winter mortality caused by cardiovascular disease is particularly profound in cold houses. Consistent with this, accumulating evidence indicates that low indoor temperatures at home increase blood pressure. However, it remains unclear whether low indoor temperatures affect other cardiovascular biomarkers. In its latest list of priority medical devices for management of cardiovascular diseases, the World Health Organization (WHO) included electrocardiography systems as capital medical devices. We therefore examined the association between indoor temperature and electrocardiogram findings.@*METHODS@#We collected electrocardiogram data from 1480 participants during health checkups. We also measured the indoor temperature in the living room and bedroom for 2 weeks in winter, and divided participants into those living in warm houses (average exposure temperature ≥ 18 °C), slightly cold houses (12-18 °C), and cold houses (< 12 °C) in accordance with guidelines issued by the WHO and United Kingdom. The association between indoor temperature (warm vs. slightly cold vs. cold houses) and electrocardiogram findings was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models, with adjustment for confounders such as demographics (e.g., age, sex, body mass index, household income), lifestyle (e.g., eating habit, exercise, smoking, alcohol drinking), and region.@*RESULTS@#The average temperature at home was 14.7 °C, and 238, 924, and 318 participants lived in warm, slightly cold, and cold houses, respectively. Electrocardiogram abnormalities were observed in 17.6%, 25.4%, and 30.2% of participants living in warm, slightly cold, and cold houses, respectively (p = 0.003, chi-squared test). Compared to participants living in warm houses, the odds ratio of having electrocardiogram abnormalities was 1.79 (95% confidence interval: 1.14-2.81, p = 0.011) for those living in slightly cold houses and 2.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.27-3.75, p = 0.005) for those living in cold houses.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In addition to blood pressure, living in cold houses may have adverse effects on electrocardiogram. Conversely, keeping the indoor thermal environment within an appropriate range through a combination of living in highly thermal insulated houses and appropriate use of heating devices may contribute to good cardiovascular health.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#The trial was retrospectively registered on 27 Dec 2017 to the University hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR, https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ , registration identifier number UMIN000030601 ).


Subject(s)
Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cold Temperature/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrocardiography , Female , Housing , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Temperature
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for progression to an end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. We investigated the association of lifestyle behaviors with the initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) among CKD patients using an employment-based health insurance claims database linked with specific health checkup (SHC) data.@*METHODS@#This retrospective cohort study included 149,620 CKD patients aged 40-74 years who underwent a SHC between April 2008 and March 2016. CKD patients were identified using ICD-10 diagnostic codes and SHC results. We investigated lifestyle behaviors recorded at SHC. Initiation of RRT was defined by medical procedure claims. Lifestyle behaviors related to the initiation of RRT were identified using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with recency-weighted cumulative exposure as a time-dependent covariate.@*RESULTS@#During 384,042 patient-years of follow-up by the end of March 2016, 295 dialysis and no kidney transplantation cases were identified. Current smoking (hazard ratio: 1.87, 95% confidence interval, 1.04─3.36), skipping breakfast (4.80, 1.98─11.62), and taking sufficient rest along with sleep (2.09, 1.14─3.85) were associated with the initiation of RRT.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Among CKD patients, the lifestyle behaviors of smoking, skipping breakfast, and sufficient rest along with sleep were independently associated with the initiation of RRT. Our study strengthens the importance of monitoring lifestyle behaviors to delay the progression of mild CKD to RRT in the Japanese working generation. A substantial portion of subjects had missing data for eGFR and drinking frequency, warranting verification of these results in prospective studies.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Disease Progression , Female , Health Benefit Plans, Employee , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Meals , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sleep , Smoking/epidemiology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The COVID-19 pandemic has caused changes in people's drinking habits and the emergency management system for various diseases. However, no studies have investigated the pandemic's impact on emergency transportation for acute alcoholic intoxication. This study examines the effect of the pandemic on emergency transportation due to acute alcoholic intoxication in Kochi Prefecture, Japan, a region with high alcohol consumption.@*METHODS@#A retrospective observational study was conducted using data of 180,747 patients from the Kochi-Iryo-Net database, Kochi Prefecture's emergency medical and wide-area disaster information system. Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. The association between emergency transportation and alcoholic intoxication was examined. The differences between the number of transportations during the voluntary isolation period in Japan (March and April 2020) and the same period for 2016-2019 were measured.@*RESULTS@#In 2020, emergency transportations due to acute alcoholic intoxication declined by 0.2%, compared with previous years. Emergency transportation due to acute alcoholic intoxication decreased significantly between March and April 2020, compared with the same period in 2016-2019, even after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.96).@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study showed that lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected the number of emergency transportations; in particular, those due to acute alcoholic intoxication decreased significantly.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Intoxication/epidemiology , Ambulances , COVID-19/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Emergency Medical Dispatch/trends , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Transportation of Patients/trends
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#To combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries have used contact tracing apps, including Japan's voluntary-use contact-confirming application (COCOA). The current study aimed to identify industry and workplace characteristics associated with the downloading of this COVID-19 contact tracing app.@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study of full-time workers used an online survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of industry and workplace characteristics with contact tracing app use.@*RESULTS@#Of the 27,036 participants, 25.1% had downloaded the COCOA. Workers in the public service (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.45) and information technology (aOR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.20-1.58) industries were more likely to use the app than were those in the manufacturing industry. In contrast, app usage was less common among workers in the retail and wholesale (aOR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99) and food/beverage (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94) industries, but further adjustment for company size attenuated these associations. Workers at larger companies were more likely to use the app. Compared with permanent employees, the odds of using the app were higher for managers and civil servants but lower for those who were self-employed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Downloading of COCOA among Japanese workers was insufficient; thus, the mitigating effect of COCOA on the COVID-19 pandemic is considered to be limited. One possible reason for the under-implementation of the contact tracing app in the retail and wholesale and food/beverage industries is small company size, as suggested by the fully adjusted model results. An awareness campaign should be conducted to promote the widespread use of the contact tracing app in these industries.


Subject(s)
Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Industry/classification , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Epidemiological evidence for the relationship between education and income and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been limited and inconsistent. The present cross-sectional study investigated this issue using baseline data from the Aidai Cohort Study.@*METHODS@#Study subjects were 2012 Japanese men and women aged 34-88 years. Right and left CIMT were measured at the common carotid artery using an automated carotid ultrasonography device. Maximum CIMT was defined as the largest CIMT value in either the left or right common carotid artery. Carotid wall thickening was defined as a maximum CIMT value > 1.0 mm.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of carotid wall thickening was 13.0%. In participants under 60 years of age (n = 703) and in those aged 60 to 69 years (n = 837), neither education nor household income was associated with carotid wall thickening or with maximum CIMT. Among those aged 70 years or older (n = 472), however, higher educational level, but not household income, was independently related to a lower prevalence of carotid wall thickening: the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for high vs. low educational level was 0.43 (95% confidence interval 0.21-0.83, p for trend = 0.01). A significant inverse association was observed between education, but not household income, and maximum CIMT (p for trend = 0.006).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Higher educational level may be associated with a lower prevalence of carotid wall thickening and a decrease in maximum CIMT only in participants aged 70 years or older.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Income , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prevalence
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Aging is a process that increases oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress leads to the development of atherosclerosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria contribute to energy production that might have a beneficial influence on maintaining muscle strength. Therefore, the height-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17081935, which is also reported to be associated with mitochondrial metabolism, might be associated with reduced muscle strength and this association might be affected by atherosclerosis status. To clarify those associations, a cross-sectional study of 1374 elderly Japanese individuals aged 60-89 years was conducted.@*METHODS@#Logistic regression was used to clarify the association between rs17081935 and reduced handgrip strength. Since atherosclerosis might affect handgrip strength, participants were stratified by atherosclerosis status. Reduced handgrip strength was defined as being in the lowest quintile of handgrip strength (< 25.6 kg for men and < 16.1 kg for women).@*RESULTS@#No significant associations were found between a minor allele of rs17081935 and reduced handgrip strength among elderly participants without atherosclerosis. A significant inverse association was observed among elderly participants with atherosclerosis. After adjusting for known cardiovascular risk factors and height, the adjusted odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for reduced handgrip strength and a minor allele of rs17081935 were 1.13 (0.86, 1.43) for elderly participants without atherosclerosis and 0.55 (0.36, 0.86) for those with atherosclerosis, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#A minor allele of the height-related SNP rs17081935 was significantly inversely associated with reduced handgrip strength among older individuals with atherosclerosis, but not among those without atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Body Height , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Prevalence
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although the postpartum period is suggested to provide an ideal opportunity for interventions to prevent hazardous drinking, evidence on the associations of education and income with hazardous drinking during this period is limited, including in Japan.@*METHODS@#We analyzed data from 11,031 women who participated in the Tohoku Medical Megabank Project Birth and Three-Generation Cohort Study in Japan. Hazardous drinking was defined as ethanol intake of ≥20 g/day 1 year after delivery. We conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to examine whether educational attainment or equivalent household income was associated with hazardous drinking, adjusting for age, parity, drinking status during pregnancy, work status, postpartum depression, breastfeeding, and income/education. We also conducted stratified analyses by income and education groups.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of hazardous drinking 1 year after delivery was 3.6%. Lower education was associated with hazardous drinking; the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of high school education or lower compared with university education or higher was 2.17 (1.59-2.98). Lower income was also associated with hazardous drinking, but this association disappeared after further adjustments for education; the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the lowest compared with highest level of income were 1.42 (1.04-1.94) and 1.12 (0.81-1.54), respectively. A significant interaction was detected; lower education and lower income were associated with increased risks of hazardous drinking only in a lower income group and lower education group, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Postpartum women with lower education and lower income had higher risks of hazardous drinking in Japan.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Cohort Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Japan/epidemiology , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Young Adult
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Ambient temperature may contribute to seasonality of mortality; in particular, a warming climate is likely to influence the seasonality of mortality. However, few studies have investigated seasonality of mortality under a warming climate.@*METHODS@#Daily mean temperature, daily counts for all-cause, circulatory, and respiratory mortality, and annual data on prefecture-specific characteristics were collected for 47 prefectures in Japan between 1972 and 2015. A quasi-Poisson regression model was used to assess the seasonal variation of mortality with a focus on its amplitude, which was quantified as the ratio of mortality estimates between the peak and trough days (peak-to-trough ratio (PTR)). We quantified the contribution of temperature to seasonality by comparing PTR before and after temperature adjustment. Associations between annual mean temperature and annual estimates of the temperature-unadjusted PTR were examined using multilevel multivariate meta-regression models controlling for prefecture-specific characteristics.@*RESULTS@#The temperature-unadjusted PTRs for all-cause, circulatory, and respiratory mortality were 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27-1.30), 1.53 (95% CI: 1.50-1.55), and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.44-1.48), respectively; adjusting for temperature reduced these PTRs to 1.08 (95% CI: 1.08-1.10), 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08-1.11), and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.32-1.39), respectively. During the period of rising temperature (1.3 °C on average), decreases in the temperature-unadjusted PTRs were observed for all mortality causes except circulatory mortality. For each 1 °C increase in annual mean temperature, the temperature-unadjusted PTR for all-cause, circulatory, and respiratory mortality decreased by 0.98% (95% CI: 0.54-1.42), 1.39% (95% CI: 0.82-1.97), and 0.13% (95% CI: - 1.24 to 1.48), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Seasonality of mortality is driven partly by temperature, and its amplitude may be decreasing under a warming climate.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cause of Death , Climate Change/mortality , Cold Temperature/adverse effects , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mortality/trends , Regression Analysis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Seasons , Time
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary objectives are to (1) examine the effects that low-level environmental chemical exposures have on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders, as well as perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco.@*METHODS@#The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of the Hokkaido Study, summarize recent results, and suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the latest details from questionnaire surveys, face-to-face examinations, and a collection of biological specimens from children and measurements of their chemical exposures.@*RESULTS@#The latest findings indicate different risk factors of parental characteristics on birth outcomes and the mediating effect between socioeconomic status and children that are small for the gestational age. Maternal serum folate was not associated with birth defects. Prenatal chemical exposure and smoking were associated with birth size and growth, as well as cord blood biomarkers, such as adiponectin, leptin, thyroid, and reproductive hormones. We also found significant associations between the chemical levels and neuro development, asthma, and allergies.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Chemical exposure to children can occur both before and after birth. Longer follow-up for children is crucial in birth cohort studies to reinforce the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. In contrast, considering shifts in the exposure levels due to regulation is also essential, which may also change the association to health outcomes. This study found that individual susceptibility to adverse health effects depends on the genotype. Epigenome modification of DNA methylation was also discovered, indicating the necessity of examining molecular biology perspectives. International collaborations can add a new dimension to the current knowledge and provide novel discoveries in the future.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Child , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Health , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Female , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Follow-Up Studies , Growth/drug effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Prevalence , Smoking/adverse effects
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) study was launched to investigate risk factors for osteoporotic fractures, interactions of osteoporosis with other non-communicable chronic diseases, and effects of fracture on QOL and mortality.@*METHODS@#FORMEN baseline study participants (in 2007 and 2008) included 2012 community-dwelling men (aged 65-93 years) in Nara prefecture, Japan. Clinical follow-up surveys were conducted 5 and 10 years after the baseline survey, and 1539 and 906 men completed them, respectively. Supplemental mail, telephone, and visit surveys were conducted with non-participants to obtain outcome information. Survival and fracture outcomes were determined for 2006 men, with 566 deaths identified and 1233 men remaining in the cohort at 10-year follow-up.@*COMMENTS@#The baseline survey covered a wide range of bone health-related indices including bone mineral density, trabecular microarchitecture assessment, vertebral imaging for detecting vertebral fractures, and biochemical markers of bone turnover, as well as comprehensive geriatric assessment items. Follow-up surveys were conducted to obtain outcomes including osteoporotic fracture, cardiovascular diseases, initiation of long-term care, and mortality. A complete list of publications relating to the FORMEN study can be found at https://www.med.kindai.ac.jp/pubheal/FORMEN/Publications.html .


Subject(s)
Aged , Bone Density , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cohort Studies , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Long-Term Care/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Osteoporosis/etiology , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Risk Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Epidemiological evidence has shown that serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations, a diagnostic biomarker for heart failure, are positively associated with cardiovascular risk. Since NT-proBNP in serum is excreted in urine, it is hypothesized that urinary NT-proBNP concentrations are correlated with serum concentrations and linked with cardiovascular risk in the general population.@*METHODS@#A total of 3060 community-dwelling residents aged ≥ 40 years without history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were followed up for a median of 8.3 years (2007-2015). Serum and urinary concentrations of NT-proBNP at baseline were compared. The hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between NT-proBNP concentrations and the risk of developing CVD were computed using the Cox proportional hazards model.@*RESULTS@#The median values (interquartile ranges) of serum and urinary NT-proBNP concentrations at baseline were 56 (32-104) pg/mL and 20 (18-25) pg/mL, respectively. There was a strong quadratic correlation between the serum and urinary concentrations of NT-proBNP (coefficient of determination [R@*CONCLUSIONS@#The present study demonstrated that urinary NT-proBNP concentrations were well-correlated with serum concentrations and were positively associated with cardiovascular risk. Given that urine sampling is noninvasive and does not require specially trained personnel, urinary NT-proBNP concentrations have the potential to be an easy and useful biomarker for detecting people at higher cardiovascular risk.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/urine , Cardiovascular Diseases/urine , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/urine , Peptide Fragments/urine , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Physical activity is reported to prevent metabolic syndrome. However, it is unclear whether exercise or daily physical activity is more beneficial for residents of semi-mountainous areas. This study aimed to identify whether daily physical activity is more beneficial than exercise for the prevention of metabolic syndrome among middle-aged and older residents in semi-mountainous areas.@*METHODS@#We analyzed secondary data of 636 people who underwent a specific health checkup in a semi-mountainous area of Japan. Physical activity was classified into four types: inactivity (I-type; without exercise and without daily physical activity), only exercise (E-type; with exercise and without daily physical activity), only daily physical activity (D-type; without exercise and with daily physical activity), and full physical activity type (F-type; with exercise and with daily physical activity). We compared the means of risk factors for metabolic syndrome by these four types, followed by logistic regression analysis, to identify whether and to what extent the D-type was less likely to have metabolic syndrome than the E-type.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 28.5% (men 45.7%, women 15.8%). The proportions of men with exercise and daily physical activity were 38.7% and 52.8%, respectively. For women, the proportions were 33.0% and 47.1%, respectively. In women, the D-type had the significantly lowest BMI, smallest waist circumference, highest HDL-C, and lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome of the four types; the same was not observed in men. Additionally, D-type activity was more strongly associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome than E-type activity in women (adjusted odds ratio 0.24; 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.85, P = 0.028).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared to middle-aged and older women residents with exercise in a semi-mountainous area of Japan, those with daily physical activity may effectively prevent metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Altitude , Exercise , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Food allergy (FA) is a common disease in children, and its prevalence has increased in developed countries. The impact of overweight on children health also becomes an important social problem. However, the relationship between overweight and FA is still unclear. We examined the association between overweight and the prevalence of FA among Japanese children.@*METHODS@#We analyzed data obtained using a self-administered questionnaire from 1772 Japanese children. Weight groups according to body mass index cutoff points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force were used to create two groups: overweight and non-overweight. Children were separated into four age groups (3-6 years, 6-9 years, 9-12 years, and 12-15 years) to examine age differences. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic models to examine the association between overweight and FA.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of FA was significantly higher in boys (10.6%, p = 0.014) than girls (4.5%) and girls (7.9%, p = 0.012) than boys (2.5%) for 6-9 and 12-15 age groups, respectively. While the prevalence of FA was significantly higher in overweight than non-overweight girls (26.1%, p = 0.005) in the 12-15 age group, no significant difference was found in boys. In girls, overweight was significantly associated with FA after adjustment for age and asthma (odds ratio 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.89, p = 0.046).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results showed that being overweight was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of FA in girls, but not in boys. Further prospective studies are necessary to find the causal relationship between overweight and FA.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Food Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Prevalence , Sex Factors
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#This study aimed to examine the change in health status of the general public after starting the COVID-19 pandemic and its association with changes in workload and lifestyle.@*METHODS@#A web-based survey was conducted in November 2020, about 9 months after starting the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, among 8000 Japanese men and women aged 25-64 years. Participants asked for the changes after starting the COVID-19 pandemic in health status, workload, daily life, and health behavior. Ordinal logistic regression was performed to elucidate factors associated with deterioration in general health status.@*RESULTS@#A deterioration in general health status was reported by 17.0% of male and 19.4% of female. There has been a clear shift to sedentary life with decreasing moderate activity and increasing screen time. The multivariate analysis revealed that deteriorated work style, increased burden of housework, decreased moderate activity, increased digital media exposure, and increased body weight were significantly associated with deteriorating health status.@*CONCLUSION@#Both men and women have experienced significant changes in workload and lifestyle since the COVID-19 pandemic started. People should be aware of the risks associated with their recent life changes and take self-care measures to prevent serious health consequences.


Subject(s)
Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Health Behavior , Health Status , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workload
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Among former Olympic-level athletes, engagement in different sport disciplines has been associated with mortality risk in subsequent years. However, limited evidence is available on whether engagement in different sport disciplines at a young age is associated with locomotive syndrome (LS) risk later in life. This study examined the relationship between engagement in different sport disciplines during university years and LS risk in older age among former university athletes.@*METHODS@#Participants were 274 middle-aged and 294 older men alumni who graduated from a school of physical education in Japan. LS risk was defined as answering "yes" to any of the Loco-check questions. Data on university sports club membership were collected using questionnaires. University clubs were classified into three groups of cardiovascular intensity (low, moderate, high), following the classification system of sport disciplines by the American College of Cardiology. This classification considers the static and dynamic components of an activity, which correspond to the estimated percent of maximal voluntary contraction reached and maximal oxygen uptake achieved, respectively. University clubs were grouped based on the risk of bodily collision (no, yes) and extent of physical contact (low, moderate, high). Relationships between engagement in different sport disciplines and LS risk were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models, and adjusted for age, height, weight, joint disease, habitual exercise, and smoking and drinking status.@*RESULTS@#Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the low, moderate, and high cardiovascular intensity sports were 1.00 (reference), 0.48 (0.22-1.06, P = 0.070), and 0.44 (0.20-0.97, P = 0.042) in older men, respectively; however, there was no significant association between these parameters among middle-aged men. Engagement in sports associated with physical contact and collision did not affect LS risk in either group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Engagement in sports associated with high cardiovascular intensity during university years may reduce the risk of LS in later life. Encouraging young people to participate in such activities might help reduce LS prevalence among older populations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Athletes/statistics & numerical data , Exercise , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Locomotion , Male , Middle Aged , Mobility Limitation , Motor Disorders/etiology , Postural Balance , Prevalence , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , Sports/statistics & numerical data , Syndrome , Young Adult
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