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2.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 604-608, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981797

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To define the nature and origin of a chromosomal aberration in a child with unexplained growth and development retardation, and to analyze its genotype-phenotype correlation.@*METHODS@#A child who had presented at the Affiliated Children's Hospital of Zhengzhou University on July 9, 2019 was selected as the study subject. Chromosomal karyotypes of the child and her parents were determined with routine G-banding analysis. Their genomic DNA was also analyzed with single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array).@*RESULTS@#Karyotyping analysis combined with SNP array suggested that the chromosomal karyotype of the child was 46,XX,dup(7)(q34q36.3), whilst no karyotypic abnormality was found in either of her parents. SNP array has identified a de novo 20.6 Mb duplication at 7q34q36.3 [arr[hg19] 7q34q36.3(138335828_158923941)×3] in the child.@*CONCLUSION@#The partial trisomy 7q carried by the child was rated as a de novo pathogenic variant. SNP array can clarify the nature and origin of chromosomal aberrations. Analysis of the correlation between genotype and phenotype can facilitate the clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Trisomy/genetics , Phenotype , Genotype , Karyotyping , Chromosome Banding
3.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 593-597, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out prenatal genetic testing for a fetus with de novo 46,X,der(X)t(X;Y)(q26;q11).@*METHODS@#A pregnant woman who had visited the Birth Health Clinic of Lianyungang Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital on May 22, 2021 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the woman was collected. Peripheral blood samples of the woman and her husband and umbilical cord blood of the fetus were collected and subjected to conventional G-banded chromosomal karyotyping analysis. Fetal DNA was also extracted from amniotic fluid sample and subjected to chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA).@*RESULTS@#For the pregnant women, ultrasonography at 25th gestational week had revealed permanent left superior vena cava and mild mitral and tricuspid regurgitation. G-banded karyotyping analysis showed that the pter-q11 segment of the fetal Y chromosome was connected to the Xq26 of the X chromosome, suggesting a Xq-Yq reciprocal translocation. No obvious chromosomal abnormality was found in the pregnant woman and her husband. The CMA results showed that there was approximately 21 Mb loss of heterozygosity at the end of the long arm of the fetal X chromosome [arr [hg19] Xq26.3q28(133912218_154941869)×1], and 42 Mb duplication at the end of the long arm of the Y chromosome [arr [hg19] Yq11.221qter(17405918_59032809)×1]. Combined with the search results of DGV, OMIM, DECIPHER, ClinGen and PubMed databases, and based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the deletion of arr[hg19] Xq26.3q28(133912218_154941869)×1 region was rated as pathogenic, and the duplication of arr[hg19] Yq11.221qter(17405918_59032809)×1 region was rated as variant of uncertain significance.@*CONCLUSION@#The Xq-Yq reciprocal translocation probably underlay the ultrasonographic anomalies in this fetus, and may lead to premature ovarian insufficiency and developmental delay after birth. Combined G-banded karyotyping analysis and CMA can determine the type and origin of fetal chromosomal structural abnormalities as well as distinguish balanced and unbalanced translocations, which has important reference value for the ongoing pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pregnancy , Female , Vena Cava, Superior , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Chromosome Aberrations , Karyotyping , Translocation, Genetic , Fetus , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods
4.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 588-592, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981794

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the strategies of prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling for fetuses of two families with large deletions of 13q21.@*METHODS@#Two singleton fetuses who were diagnosed with chromosome 13 microdeletions by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) at Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital in March 2021 and December 2021 respectively were selected as the study subjects. Chromosomal karyotyping and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) were carried on amniotic samples. Peripheral blood samples were collected from the two couples for CMA assay to determine the origin of abnormal chromosomes identified in the fetuses.@*RESULTS@#The karyotypes of the two fetuses were both normal. CMA revealed that they have respectively harbored heterozygous deletions spanning 11.935 Mb at 13q21.1q21.33 and 10.995 Mb at 13q14.3q21.32, which were respectively inherited from their mother and father. Both deletions had low gene density and lacked haploinsufficient genes, and were predicted to be likely benign variants based on database and literature search. Both couples had opted to continue with the pregnancy.@*CONCLUSION@#The deletions of the 13q21 region in both families may be of benign variants. As the follow-up time was short, there was no sufficient evidence for the determination of pathogenicity, though our finding may still provide a basis for the prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Child , Female , Humans , Pedigree , East Asian People , Prenatal Diagnosis , Chromosome Aberrations , Karyotyping , Microarray Analysis , DNA Copy Number Variations
5.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 543-546, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of two children with developmental delay.@*METHODS@#Two children who had presented at the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University on August 18, 2021 were enrolled as the study subjects. Clinical and laboratory examination, chromosomal karyotyping and high-throughput sequencing were carried out for both children.@*RESULTS@#Both children had a 46,XX karyotype. High-throughput sequencing showed that they have respectively carried a c.489delG (p.Q165Rfs*14) and a c.1157_1158delAT (p.Y386Cfs*22) frameshifting variant of the CTCF gene, both had a de novo origin and were unreported previously.@*CONCLUSION@#The CTCF gene variants probably underlay the development delay in the two children. Above discovery has enriched the mutational spectrum of the CTCF gene and has important implications for revealing the genotype-phenotype correlation for similar patients.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Karyotyping , Mutation
6.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 538-542, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic etiology of 5 cases of monochorionic-diamniotic (MCDA) with genetic discordance.@*METHODS@#148 cases of MCDA twins who were diagnosed by amniocentesis at the Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from January 2016 to June 2020 were selected as the study subjects. Relevant clinical data of the pregnant women were collected, and amniotic fluid samples of the twins were collected separately. Chromosomal karyotyping analysis and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) assay were carried out.@*RESULTS@#The results of chromosomal karyotyping analysis showed that 5 of the MCDA twins had inconsistent chromosome karyotypes, with an incidence of 3.4% (5/148). SNP array assay showed that 3 fetuses were mosaics.@*CONCLUSION@#Genetic discordance occurs among MCDA twins, and prenatal counseling for such cases should be given by doctors with experience in medical genetics and fetal medicine, and personalized clinical management should be recommended.


Subject(s)
Child , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , China , Twins/genetics , Amniocentesis , Karyotyping , Fetus , Twins, Monozygotic/genetics , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Retrospective Studies
7.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 495-499, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981777

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a Fra(16)(q22)/FRA16B fragile site in a female with secondary infertility.@*METHODS@#The 28-year-old patient was admitted to Chengdu Women's and Children's Central Hospital on October 5, 2021 due to secondary infertility. Peripheral blood sample was collected for G-banded karyotyping analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array), quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to harbor 5 mosaic karyotypes involving chromosome 16 in a total of 126 cells, which yielded a karyotype of mos 46,XX,Fra(16)(q22)[42]/46,XX,del(16)(q22)[4]/47,XX,del(16),+chtb(16)(q22-qter)[4]/46,XX,tr(16)(q22)[2]/46,XX[71]. No obvious abnormality was found by SNP-array, QF-PCR and FISH analysis.@*CONCLUSION@#A female patient with FRA16B was identified by genetic testing. Above finding has enabled genetic counseling of this patient.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Chromosome Fragile Sites , Karyotyping , Karyotype , Infertility
8.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 374-377, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970936

ABSTRACT

Karyotype analysis is the basic method in cytogenetics, and is also recognized as the "gold standard" for diagnosing chromosomal disorders. The teaching and training for traditional karyotyping analysis is time-consuming and even boring. The individual's ability for mastering the chromosome morphology can vary greatly. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the teaching method. On the basis of the traditional method, we have added auxiliary analysis software during the teaching. This type of splicing karyotype teaching has increased the students' interest and improved their ability for karyotyping, allowing them to quickly remember the characteristic bands of chromosomes. Through enhanced memory of a large number of karyotypic images, the students' ability to recognize individual chromosomes has improved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Karyotyping , Karyotype , Cytogenetics , RNA Splicing , Software
9.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 257-262, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for the verification of the clonalities of non-clonal cytogenetic abnormalities (n-CCA) identified by conventional chromosome banding analysis (CBA) in patients with Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).@*METHODS@#Clinical data and results of karyotyping and FISH assays for 91 patients of MDS with n-CCA identified by CBA were retrospectively analyzed. In total 94 non-clonal +8, 5q-, -7/7q- or 20q- were detected by CBA, among which 43 (45.7%) were verified to be clonal abnormalities by FISH.@*RESULTS@#The detection rates for +8, 5q-, -7/7q- and 20q- by FISH were 47.6% (30/63), 25% (2/8), 41.7% (5/12), 40% (2/5) and 66.7% (4/6), respectively, with the positive cells accounting for 4% to 90% of all counted cells, with a median value of 7%. The 91 patients were divided into three groups including ≥ 20, 10 ~< 20 and < 10 based on the numbers of metaphase cells in CBA, and the detection rates by FISH for the three groups were 43.7% (31/71), 33.3% (3/9) and 63.6% (7/11), respectively, which showed no statistically difference (P > 0.05). Continuous CBA and FISH surveys were conducted for 26 patients who received supportive treatment, and the results revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of FISH-verified positive abnormalities had persisted, whereas 92.9% (13/14) of the n-CCA verified as negative by FISH was transient.@*CONCLUSION@#Nearly half of the CBA identified n-CCA have been verified as clonal aberrations by FISH, and the FISH detection rate showed no correlation with the number of metaphase cells. FISH test is strongly recommended for verifying the clonalities of n-CCA detected by CBA, and continuous cytogenetic survey of the patients with MDS is necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Retrospective Studies , Chromosome Aberrations , Karyotyping , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 195-201, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970904

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) for the diagnosis of children with disorders of sex development (DSD).@*METHODS@#Five children with DSD who presented at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from October 2019 to October 2020 were enrolled. In addition to chromosomal karyotyping, whole exome sequencing (WES), SRY gene testing, and CNV-seq were also carried out.@*RESULTS@#Child 1 and 2 had a social gender of female, whilst their karyotypes were both 46,XY. No pathogenic variant was identified by WES. The results of CNV-seq were 46,XY,+Y (1.4) and 46,XY,-Y (0.75), respectively. The remaining three children have all carried an abnormal chromosome Y. Based on the results of CNV-seq, their karyotypes were respectively verified as 45,X[60]/46,X,del(Y)(q11.221)[40], 45,X,16qh+[76]/46,X,del(Y)(q11.222),16qh+[24], and 45,X[75]/46,XY[25].@*CONCLUSION@#CNV-seq may be used to verify the CNVs on the Y chromosome among children with DSD and identify the abnormal chromosome in those with 45,X/46,XY. Above results have provided a basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of such children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Female , DNA Copy Number Variations , Chromosome Aberrations , Karyotyping , Exome Sequencing , Disorders of Sex Development/genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 105-109, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis, clinical phenotype and pathogenesis for a child with mosaicism ring chromosome 4.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the child was collected. Peripheral blood chromosomal karyotype G banding analysis, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were carried out for the child, in addition with a review of the literature.@*RESULTS@#The child was born full-term with low birth weight, facial dysmorphism, patent ductus arteriosus and ventricular septal defect. His karyotype was determined as mos46,XY,r(4)(p16.3q35.2)[259]/45,XY,-4[25]/47,XY,r(4)(p16.3q35.2), +r(4)(p16.3q35.2)[8]/46,XY,der(4)del(4)(p16.3)inv(4)(p16.3q31.1)[6]/46,XY,dic?r(4;4)(p16.3q35.2;p16.3q35.2)[4]/48,XY,r(4)(p16.3q35.2),+r(4)(p16.3q35.2)×2[3]/46,XY,r(4)(p1?q2?)[2]; CMA result was arr[GRCH37]4p16.3(68 345-2 981 614)×1; FISH result was 45,XY,-4[12]/45,XY,-4×2,+mar1.ish r1(4)(WHS-,D4Z1+)[1]/ 46,XY,-4,+mar1.ishr1(4)(WHS-,D4Z1+)[73]/46,XY,-4,+mar2.ishr2(4)(WHS-,D4Z1++)[1]/47,XY,-4,+mar1×2.ishr1(4) (WHS-, D4Z1+)×2[4]/46,XY,del(4)(p16.3).ish del(4)(p16.3)(WHS-,D4Z1+)[9].@*CONCLUSION@#In this case, the ring chromosome 4 as a de novo variant has produced a number of cell lines during embryonic development and given rise to mosaicism. The clinical phenotype of ring chromosome 4 is variable. The instability of the ring chromosome itself, presence of mosaicism, chromosome breakpoint and range of deletion and/or duplication may all affect the ultimate phenotype.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Ring Chromosomes , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Karyotype , Mosaicism
12.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 96-100, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic etiology for a child featuring mental retardation, language delay and autism.@*METHODS@#G-banding chromosomal karyotyping and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) were carried out for the child and her parents.@*RESULTS@#The child was found to have a 46,XX,dup(8p?) karyotype, for which both of her parents were normal. SNP-array revealed that the child has harbored a 6.8 Mb deletion in 8p23.3p23.1 and a 21.8 Mb duplication in 8p23.1p12, both of which were verified as de novo pathogenic copy number variants.@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical features of the child may be attributed to the 8p deletion and duplication. SNP-array can facilitate genetic diagnosis for children featuring mental retardation in conjunct with other developmental anomalies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pregnancy , Female , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Prenatal Diagnosis , Karyotyping , Chromosome Banding , Chromosome Deletion
13.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 12-16, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970869

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the coincidence rate of G-banding karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the diagnosis of children with sex chromosome mosaicisms.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was carried out for 157 children with suspected sex chromosome abnormalities who had presented at Shenzhen Children's Hospital from April 2021 to May 2022. Interphase sex chromosome FISH and G-banding karyotyping results were collected. The coincidence rate of the two methods in children with sex chromosome mosaicisms was compared.@*RESULTS@#The detection rates of G-banding karyotype analysis and FISH were 26.1% (41/157) and 22.9% (36/157) , respectively (P > 0.05). The results of G-banding karyotype analysis showed that 141 cases (89.8%) were in the sex chromosome homogeneity group, of which only 5 cases (3.5%) were inconsistent with the results of FISH. There were 16 cases (10.2%) in the sex chromosome mosaicism group, of which 11 cases (68.8%) were inconsistent with the results of FISH. There was a statistical difference between the two groups in the coincidence rate of the results of the two methods (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#No significant difference was found between G-banding karyotype analysis and FISH in the detection rate of chromosome abnormalities. The coincidence rate in the mosaicism group was lower than that in the homogeneity group, and the difference was statistically significant. The two methods should be combined for clinical diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mosaicism , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , Retrospective Studies , Karyotyping , Chromosome Aberrations , Sex Chromosome Aberrations , Karyotype , Chromosome Banding , Sex Chromosomes
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468938

ABSTRACT

The karyotype and constitutive heterochromatin pattern of the white stork Ciconia ciconia samples obtained from Manzala lake, Dimiaat, Egypt was described. Somatic cells of Ciconia ciconia samples have diploid number 2n= 68 chromosomes. Out of 68 chromosomes, 11 pairs including sex chromosomes were macrochromosomes and the remaining pairs were microchromosomes. Of the 11 macrochromosome pairs, no.1, 2, 4 and 5 were submetacentric and pairs no. 6, 7 and 8 were described as metacentric. In addition, the autosome pair no.3 was subtelocentric, while autosome pair no.9 was acrocentric. Also, the sex chromosome Z represents the fourth one in size and it was classified as submetacentric while, W chromosome appeared as medium size and was acrocentric. Furthermore, C-banding pattern (constitutive heterochromatin) revealed variation in their sizes and occurrence between macrochromosomes. Pairs no. 7 and 8 of autosomes exhibited unusual distribution of heterochromatin, where they appeared as entirely heterochromatic. This may be related to the origin of sex chromosomes Z and W. However, there is no sufficient evidence illustrate the appearance of entirely heterochromatic autosomes. Therefore, there is no available cytogenetic literature that describes the C-banding and karyotype of Ciconia Ciconia, so the results herein are important and may assist in cytogenetic study and evolutionary pattern of Ciconiiformes.


O cariótipo e o padrão constitutivo de heterocromatina das amostras de cegonha-branca Ciconia ciconia obtidas no lago Manzala, Dimiaat, Egito, foram descritos. As células somáticas de amostras de Ciconia ciconia possuem número diploide 2n = 68 cromossomos. Dos 68 cromossomos, 11 pares incluindo cromossomos sexuais eram macrocromossomos e os pares restantes eram microcromossomos. Dos 11 pares de macrocromossomos, os nos 1, 2, 4 e 5 eram submetacêntricos, e os pares nos 6, 7 e 8 foram descritos como metacêntricos. Além disso, o par de autossomos no 3 era subtelocêntrico, enquanto o par de autossomos no 9 era acrocêntrico. Além disso, o cromossomo sexual Z representa o quarto em tamanho e foi classificado como submetacêntrico, enquanto o cromossomo W apareceu como de tamanho médio e acrocêntrico. Além disso, o padrão de bandamento C (heterocromatina constitutiva) revelou variação em seus tamanhos e ocorrência entre macrocromossomos. Pares nºs 7 e 8 dos autossomos exibiram distribuição incomum de heterocromatina, onde apareceram como totalmente heterocromáticos. Isso pode estar relacionado à origem dos cromossomos sexuais Z e W. No entanto, não há evidências suficientes para ilustrar o aparecimento de autossomos totalmente heterocromáticos. Portanto, não há literatura citogenética disponível que descreva o bandamento C e o cariótipo de Ciconia ciconia, portanto os resultados aqui apresentados são importantes e podem auxiliar no estudo citogenético e no padrão evolutivo de Ciconiiformes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds/genetics , Karyotyping/veterinary , Heterochromatin/isolation & purification
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243514, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278560

ABSTRACT

Abstract Allium sativum L. is an herb of the Alliaceae family with a specific taste and aroma and medicinal and nutraceutical properties that are widely marketed in several countries. Brazil is one of the largest importers of garlic in the world, despite of its production is restricted and limited to internal consumption. Thus, explore the genetic diversity of commercial garlic conserved at germplasm banks is essential to generate additional genetic information about its economically important crop. A suitable tool for this purpose is the cytogenetic characterisation of these accessions. This study aimed to characterise the cytogenetic diversity among seven accessions of garlic from a Germplasm Bank in Brazil. The karyotypes were obtained by conventional staining and with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorochromes. All accessions analysed showed chromosome number 2n = 16, karyotype formula 6M+2SM, symmetrical karyotypes, reticulate interphase nuclei, and chromosomes with uniform chromatin condensation from prophase to metaphase. The fluorochromes staining showed differences in the amount and distribution of heterochromatin along the chromosomes and between accessions studied. Based on the distribution pattern of these small polymorphisms, it was possible to separate the seven accessions into three groups. It was also possible to differentiate some of the accessions individually. One of the results obtained showed a heteromorphic distension of the nucleolar organiser region observed on the chromosome pairs 6 or 7 with peculiar characteristics. It was suggested for example, that the heteromorphic block of heterochromatin (CMA+++/DAPI-) on chromosome 6 of the "Branco Mineiro Piauí" accession can be used as a marker to identify this genotype or may be associated with some character of economic interest.


Resumo Allium sativum L. é uma erva da família Alliaceae com sabor e aroma específicos e propriedades medicinais e nutracêuticas amplamente comercializada em diversos países. O Brasil é um dos maiores importadores de alho do mundo, apesar da sua produção ser restrita e limitada ao consumo interno. Assim, explorar a diversidade genética do alho comercial conservado em bancos de germoplasma é essencial para fornecer informações genéticas adicionais acerca dessa cultura economicamente importante. Uma ferramenta adequada para esse fim é a caracterização citogenética desses acessos. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a diversidade citogenética entre sete acessos de alho de um Banco de Germoplasma no Brasil. Os cariótipos foram obtidos por coloração convencional e com os fluorocromos de cromomicina A3 (CMA) e 4,6-diamidino-2-fenilindol (DAPI). Todos os acessos analisados ​​apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 16, fórmula cariotípica 6M + 2SM, cariótipos simétricos, núcleos reticulados em intérfase e cromossomos com condensação uniforme da cromatina da prófase para a metáfase. A coloração com fluorocromos mostrou diferenças na quantidade e distribuição de heterocromatina ao longo dos cromossomos e entre os acessos estudados. Com base no padrão de distribuição desses pequenos polimorfismos, foi possível separar os sete acessos em três grupos. Também foi possível diferenciar individualmente alguns dos acessos. Um dos resultados obtidos mostrou distensão heteromórfica da região organizadora nucleolar observada nos pares dos cromossomos 6 ou 7 com características peculiares. Foi sugerido, por exemplo, que o bloco heteromórfico de heterocromatina (CMA +++ / DAPI-) no cromossomo 6 do acesso "Branco Mineiro Piauí" pode ser usado como um marcador para identificar esse genótipo ou pode estar associado a algum caráter de interesse econômico.


Subject(s)
Garlic , Brazil , Heterochromatin/genetics , Chromosome Banding , Karyotype , Karyotyping
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Chromosome Aberrations , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Karyotyping
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248814, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339390

ABSTRACT

Abstract The karyotype and constitutive heterochromatin pattern of the white stork Ciconia ciconia samples obtained from Manzala lake, Dimiaat, Egypt was described. Somatic cells of Ciconia ciconia samples have diploid number 2n= 68 chromosomes. Out of 68 chromosomes, 11 pairs including sex chromosomes were macrochromosomes and the remaining pairs were microchromosomes. Of the 11 macrochromosome pairs, no.1, 2, 4 and 5 were submetacentric and pairs no. 6, 7 and 8 were described as metacentric. In addition, the autosome pair no.3 was subtelocentric, while autosome pair no.9 was acrocentric. Also, the sex chromosome Z represents the fourth one in size and it was classified as submetacentric while, W chromosome appeared as medium size and was acrocentric. Furthermore, C-banding pattern (constitutive heterochromatin) revealed variation in their sizes and occurrence between macrochromosomes. Pairs no. 7 and 8 of autosomes exhibited unusual distribution of heterochromatin, where they appeared as entirely heterochromatic. This may be related to the origin of sex chromosomes Z and W. However, there is no sufficient evidence illustrate the appearance of entirely heterochromatic autosomes. Therefore, there is no available cytogenetic literature that describes the C-banding and karyotype of Ciconia Ciconia, so the results herein are important and may assist in cytogenetic study and evolutionary pattern of Ciconiiformes.


Resumo O cariótipo e o padrão constitutivo de heterocromatina das amostras de cegonha-branca Ciconia ciconia obtidas no lago Manzala, Dimiaat, Egito, foram descritos. As células somáticas de amostras de Ciconia ciconia possuem número diploide 2n = 68 cromossomos. Dos 68 cromossomos, 11 pares incluindo cromossomos sexuais eram macrocromossomos e os pares restantes eram microcromossomos. Dos 11 pares de macrocromossomos, os nos 1, 2, 4 e 5 eram submetacêntricos, e os pares nos 6, 7 e 8 foram descritos como metacêntricos. Além disso, o par de autossomos no 3 era subtelocêntrico, enquanto o par de autossomos no 9 era acrocêntrico. Além disso, o cromossomo sexual Z representa o quarto em tamanho e foi classificado como submetacêntrico, enquanto o cromossomo W apareceu como de tamanho médio e acrocêntrico. Além disso, o padrão de bandamento C (heterocromatina constitutiva) revelou variação em seus tamanhos e ocorrência entre macrocromossomos. Pares nos 7 e 8 dos autossomos exibiram distribuição incomum de heterocromatina, onde apareceram como totalmente heterocromáticos. Isso pode estar relacionado à origem dos cromossomos sexuais Z e W. No entanto, não há evidências suficientes para ilustrar o aparecimento de autossomos totalmente heterocromáticos. Portanto, não há literatura citogenética disponível que descreva o bandamento C e o cariótipo de Ciconia ciconia, portanto os resultados aqui apresentados são importantes e podem auxiliar no estudo citogenético e no padrão evolutivo de Ciconiiformes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sex Chromosomes/genetics , Heterochromatin/genetics , Birds , Karyotype , Karyotyping
18.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 418-423, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984639

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of 11 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with t (14;19) (q32;q13) . Methods: The case data of 11 patients with CLL with t (14;19) (q32;q13) in the chromosome karyotype analysis results of the Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 1, 2018, to July 30, 2022, were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In all 11 patients, t (14;19) (q32;q13) involved IGH::BCL3 gene rearrangement, and most of them were accompanied by +12 or complex karyotype. An immunophenotypic score of 4-5 was found in 7 patients and 3 in 4 cases. We demonstrated that CLLs with t (14;19) (q32;q13) had a mutational pattern with recurrent mutations in NOTCH1 (3/7), FBXW7 (3/7), and KMT2D (2/7). The very-high-risk, high-risk, intermediate-risk, and low-risk groups consisted of 1, 1, 6, and 3 cases, respectively. Two patients died, 8 survived, and 2 were lost in follow-up. Four patients had disease progression or relapse during treatment. The median time to the first therapy was 1 month. Conclusion: t (14;19) (q32;q13), involving IGH::BCL3 gene rearrangement, is a rare recurrent cytogenetic abnormality in CLL, which is associated with a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Translocation, Genetic , Chromosome Aberrations , Karyotyping
19.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1566-1569, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic characteristics of a child with mosaicism Turner syndrome.@*METHODS@#A child who had presented at Linyi People's Hospital on May 19, 2022 due to short stature was selected as the study subject. The child was subjected to combined chromosomal karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA).@*RESULTS@#The child was found to have a 46,X,i(X)(q10)[94]/45,X[6] karyotype. The result of FISH was nucish(XYpter,XYqter)1[78]/(XYpter)1,(XYqter)3[122]. CMA result for her peripheral blood sample was arr[hg19]Xp22.33p11.1(168551_58526888)×1, and that for her oral mucosal cells was arr[hg19]Xp22.33p11.1(168551_58526888)1-2,Xq11.2q28(63000001_155233098)×2-3. By integrating the above findings, her molecular karyotype was determined as mos 46,X,i(X)(q10)[94]/45,X[6].arr[hg19]Xp22.33p11.1(168551_58526888)×1-2,Xq11.2q28(63000001_155233098)×2-3.nucish(XYpter)1,(XYqter)3[122]/(XYpter,XYqter)1[78], which has indicated mosaicism Turner syndrome.@*CONCLUSION@#The 46,X,i(X)(q10)/45,X mosaicism probably underlay the pathogenesis in this child.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Female , Turner Syndrome/genetics , Mosaicism , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Karyotype
20.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1425-1429, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic analysis for a Chinese pedigree affected with intellectual disability and overgrowth due to a supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC).@*METHODS@#A pedigree which had presented at Jiaxing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital on August 31, 2021 was selected as the study subject, for which chromosomal karyotyping, single nucleotide polymorphism-based microarray (SNP-array), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were carried out in combination.@*RESULTS@#SNP-array analysis showed that the proband and his sister had both harbored a 16.1 Mb duplication which encompassed the critical region of 15q26 overgrowth syndrome. FISH confirmed that the proband was 47,XX,+neo(15)(qter→q25.3:)mat, her mother was 47,XX,del(15)(q25.3:),+neo(15)(qter→q25.3:), whilst her father was normal.@*CONCLUSION@#Application of multiple genetic techniques has facilitated delineation of the origin of sSMC and reliable genetic counseling for this pedigree.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Chromosomes , East Asian People , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Pedigree , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Chromosome Duplication/genetics
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