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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248814, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339390

ABSTRACT

Abstract The karyotype and constitutive heterochromatin pattern of the white stork Ciconia ciconia samples obtained from Manzala lake, Dimiaat, Egypt was described. Somatic cells of Ciconia ciconia samples have diploid number 2n= 68 chromosomes. Out of 68 chromosomes, 11 pairs including sex chromosomes were macrochromosomes and the remaining pairs were microchromosomes. Of the 11 macrochromosome pairs, no.1, 2, 4 and 5 were submetacentric and pairs no. 6, 7 and 8 were described as metacentric. In addition, the autosome pair no.3 was subtelocentric, while autosome pair no.9 was acrocentric. Also, the sex chromosome Z represents the fourth one in size and it was classified as submetacentric while, W chromosome appeared as medium size and was acrocentric. Furthermore, C-banding pattern (constitutive heterochromatin) revealed variation in their sizes and occurrence between macrochromosomes. Pairs no. 7 and 8 of autosomes exhibited unusual distribution of heterochromatin, where they appeared as entirely heterochromatic. This may be related to the origin of sex chromosomes Z and W. However, there is no sufficient evidence illustrate the appearance of entirely heterochromatic autosomes. Therefore, there is no available cytogenetic literature that describes the C-banding and karyotype of Ciconia Ciconia, so the results herein are important and may assist in cytogenetic study and evolutionary pattern of Ciconiiformes.


Resumo O cariótipo e o padrão constitutivo de heterocromatina das amostras de cegonha-branca Ciconia ciconia obtidas no lago Manzala, Dimiaat, Egito, foram descritos. As células somáticas de amostras de Ciconia ciconia possuem número diploide 2n = 68 cromossomos. Dos 68 cromossomos, 11 pares incluindo cromossomos sexuais eram macrocromossomos e os pares restantes eram microcromossomos. Dos 11 pares de macrocromossomos, os nos 1, 2, 4 e 5 eram submetacêntricos, e os pares nos 6, 7 e 8 foram descritos como metacêntricos. Além disso, o par de autossomos no 3 era subtelocêntrico, enquanto o par de autossomos no 9 era acrocêntrico. Além disso, o cromossomo sexual Z representa o quarto em tamanho e foi classificado como submetacêntrico, enquanto o cromossomo W apareceu como de tamanho médio e acrocêntrico. Além disso, o padrão de bandamento C (heterocromatina constitutiva) revelou variação em seus tamanhos e ocorrência entre macrocromossomos. Pares nos 7 e 8 dos autossomos exibiram distribuição incomum de heterocromatina, onde apareceram como totalmente heterocromáticos. Isso pode estar relacionado à origem dos cromossomos sexuais Z e W. No entanto, não há evidências suficientes para ilustrar o aparecimento de autossomos totalmente heterocromáticos. Portanto, não há literatura citogenética disponível que descreva o bandamento C e o cariótipo de Ciconia ciconia, portanto os resultados aqui apresentados são importantes e podem auxiliar no estudo citogenético e no padrão evolutivo de Ciconiiformes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sex Chromosomes/genetics , Heterochromatin/genetics , Birds , Karyotype , Karyotyping
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Chromosome Aberrations , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Karyotyping
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243514, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278560

ABSTRACT

Abstract Allium sativum L. is an herb of the Alliaceae family with a specific taste and aroma and medicinal and nutraceutical properties that are widely marketed in several countries. Brazil is one of the largest importers of garlic in the world, despite of its production is restricted and limited to internal consumption. Thus, explore the genetic diversity of commercial garlic conserved at germplasm banks is essential to generate additional genetic information about its economically important crop. A suitable tool for this purpose is the cytogenetic characterisation of these accessions. This study aimed to characterise the cytogenetic diversity among seven accessions of garlic from a Germplasm Bank in Brazil. The karyotypes were obtained by conventional staining and with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorochromes. All accessions analysed showed chromosome number 2n = 16, karyotype formula 6M+2SM, symmetrical karyotypes, reticulate interphase nuclei, and chromosomes with uniform chromatin condensation from prophase to metaphase. The fluorochromes staining showed differences in the amount and distribution of heterochromatin along the chromosomes and between accessions studied. Based on the distribution pattern of these small polymorphisms, it was possible to separate the seven accessions into three groups. It was also possible to differentiate some of the accessions individually. One of the results obtained showed a heteromorphic distension of the nucleolar organiser region observed on the chromosome pairs 6 or 7 with peculiar characteristics. It was suggested for example, that the heteromorphic block of heterochromatin (CMA+++/DAPI-) on chromosome 6 of the "Branco Mineiro Piauí" accession can be used as a marker to identify this genotype or may be associated with some character of economic interest.


Resumo Allium sativum L. é uma erva da família Alliaceae com sabor e aroma específicos e propriedades medicinais e nutracêuticas amplamente comercializada em diversos países. O Brasil é um dos maiores importadores de alho do mundo, apesar da sua produção ser restrita e limitada ao consumo interno. Assim, explorar a diversidade genética do alho comercial conservado em bancos de germoplasma é essencial para fornecer informações genéticas adicionais acerca dessa cultura economicamente importante. Uma ferramenta adequada para esse fim é a caracterização citogenética desses acessos. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a diversidade citogenética entre sete acessos de alho de um Banco de Germoplasma no Brasil. Os cariótipos foram obtidos por coloração convencional e com os fluorocromos de cromomicina A3 (CMA) e 4,6-diamidino-2-fenilindol (DAPI). Todos os acessos analisados ​​apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 16, fórmula cariotípica 6M + 2SM, cariótipos simétricos, núcleos reticulados em intérfase e cromossomos com condensação uniforme da cromatina da prófase para a metáfase. A coloração com fluorocromos mostrou diferenças na quantidade e distribuição de heterocromatina ao longo dos cromossomos e entre os acessos estudados. Com base no padrão de distribuição desses pequenos polimorfismos, foi possível separar os sete acessos em três grupos. Também foi possível diferenciar individualmente alguns dos acessos. Um dos resultados obtidos mostrou distensão heteromórfica da região organizadora nucleolar observada nos pares dos cromossomos 6 ou 7 com características peculiares. Foi sugerido, por exemplo, que o bloco heteromórfico de heterocromatina (CMA +++ / DAPI-) no cromossomo 6 do acesso "Branco Mineiro Piauí" pode ser usado como um marcador para identificar esse genótipo ou pode estar associado a algum caráter de interesse econômico.


Subject(s)
Garlic , Brazil , Heterochromatin/genetics , Chromosome Banding , Karyotype , Karyotyping
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935336

ABSTRACT

To investigate the efficacy and value of optical genome mapping (OGM) in detecting chromosomal structural variations. In a clinical study about high-precision analysis of genomic structural variation for complex genetic diseases, a retrospective study was performed on the cases with karyotyping at the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Endocrinology of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January to December 2021. Ten cases with abnormal karyotype was detected by OGM. Partial cases were verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), SNP array or CNV-seq. Results of ten cases, nine were detected with abnormality by OGM, including unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements (n=3), translocation (n=5) and paracentric inversion (n=1), and the results were in concordance with other standard assays. However, one case with breakpoint and reconnected at centromere has not been detected. In conclusion, ten samples were comprehensively analyzed by karyotyping, FISH, SNP array or CNV-seq, and OGM, and results demonstrated that optical genome mapping as a new technology can not only detect unbalanced rearrangements such as copy number variants as well as balanced translocations and inversions, but more importantly, it can refine breakpoints and orientation of duplicated segments or insertions. So it can contribute to the diagnosis of genetic diseases and prevent birth defect. However, the current technology is not yet capable of detecting breakpoints of balanced structural variations lying within unmapped regions.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Mapping , Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Translocation, Genetic
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935293

ABSTRACT

To study the parental origin and cell stage of nondisjunction in sex chromosome aneuploidies. Retrospectiving and analyzing the results of 385 cases of SCA confirmed by QF-PCR and karyotype analysis in the prenatal diagnosis center of Guangzhou Women and Children Medical Center from January 2015 to December 2020. The types of samples and prenatal diagnosis indications were analyzed. The parental origin and cell stage of nondisjunction in sex chromosome aneuploidies analyzed by comparing the short tandem repeat (STR) peak patterns of samples from fetuses and maternal peripheral blood. The results show that (1) There were 324 cases of nonmosaic SCA, 113 cases (113/324, 34.9%) were 45, XO, 118 cases (118/324, 36.4%) were 47, XXY, 48 cases (48/324, 14.8%) were 47, XXX and 45 cases (45/324, 13.9%) were 47, XYY. 68 (45/324, 60.2%) cases of 45, X were detected in villus samples. The other SCA cases were mainly detected in amniotic fluid samples. There were 61 mosaic SCA samples, 58(58/61, 95.1%) of mosaic SCA samples were mosaic 45, X. (2) The top two indications of 45, X cases are increased nuchal translucency(53/113, 46.9%) and fetal cystic hygroma (41/113, 36.3%), while the most common indication of other types of SCA was high risk of NIPT(170/272, 62.5%). (3) Among 45, X cases, there were 88 cases (88/113, 77.9%) inherit their single X chromosome from their mother and 25 cases (25/119, 22.1%) from their father. In 47, XXY samples, 47 cases (47/118, 39.8%) of chromosome nondisjunction occurred in meiosis stage Ⅰ of oocytes, 51 cases (51/118, 43.2%) occurred in meiosis stage Ⅰ of spermatocytes, and 20 cases (20/118, 16.9%) occurred in meiosis stage Ⅱ of oocytes. Among 47, XXX samples, 29 cases (29/48, 60.4%) of X chromosome nondisjunction occurred in meiosis stage Ⅰof oocytes, 15 cases (15/48, 31.3%) occurred in meiosis stage Ⅱ of oocytes, and 4 cases (4/48, 8.3%) occurred in meiosis stage Ⅱ of spermatocytes. In summary , the cases of 45, X were mainly diagnosed by villous samples for abnormal ultrasound findings. The other cases of SCA were mainly diagnosed by amniocentesis samples for abnormal NIPT results. Different types of SCA, the origin and occurrence period of sex chromosome nondisjunction were different.


Subject(s)
Aneuploidy , Female , Humans , Karyotyping , Male , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Sex Chromosome Aberrations , Sex Chromosomes/genetics
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the genetic and prognostic characteristics of acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) patients.@*METHODS@#There were 230 non-M3 AML patients treated in Ningbo First Hospital enrolled, among which 58 patients were newly diagnosed AML-MRC, the patients were followed up and SPSS 25.0 was used to statistically analyze.@*RESULTS@#There were 49 patients performed genetic testing, 29 patients (59.2%) showed chromosomal abnormalities, including 7q- 8 cases (16.3%), 5q- 6 cases (12.2%), 5 cases (10.2%) of 17p abnormalities, 13 cases (26.5%) of highly abnormal complex karyotypes (CK) (≥5 unrelated chromosomal abnormalities), CK contained chromosomal abnormalities such as +8, 5q-, and 12 cases (24.5%) of monosomal karyotypes (MK). Genetic testing was performed in 37 patients, and 24 (64.9%) patients showed genetic mutations, among which ASXL1 mutation was the most common (8 cases, 21.6%), followed by TET2 mutation in 6 cases (16.2%). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that AML-MRC patients with high CK (P=0.012), 5q- abnormalities (P=0.038), and TP53 mutations (P=0.008) had poor overall survival.@*CONCLUSION@#AML-MRC has unique genetic characteristics, and high CK, 5q- and TP53 mutations are poor prognostic factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Karyotype , Karyotyping , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Prognosis
7.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 102-108, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928505

ABSTRACT

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most frequent genetic abnormalities and the leading genetic cause of nonobstructive azoospermia. The breeding and study of KS mouse models are essential to advancing our knowledge of the underlying pathological mechanism. Karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization are reliable methods for identifying chromosomal contents. However, technical issues associated with these methods can decrease the efficiency of breeding KS mouse models and limit studies that require rapid identification of target mice. To overcome these limitations, we developed three polymerase chain reaction-based assays to measure specific genetic information, including presence or absence of the sex determining region of chromosome Y (Sry), copy number of amelogenin, X-linked (Amelx), and inactive X specific transcripts (Xist) levels. Through a combined analysis of the assay results, we can infer the karyotype of target mice. We confirmed the utility of our assays with the successful generation of KS mouse models. Our assays are rapid, inexpensive, high capacity, easy to perform, and only require small sample amounts. Therefore, they facilitate the breeding and study of KS mouse models and help advance our knowledge of the pathological mechanism underlying KS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Azoospermia , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Klinefelter Syndrome/genetics , Mice , Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928455

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the parental-origin verification of fetal CNVs in the setting of prenatal diagnosis.@*METHODS@#182 families were recruited in this study. All the pregnant women underwent transabdominal amniocentesis or cordocentesis, and the amniotic fluid or cord blood samples were then subjected to karyotyping and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) respectively. The peripheral blood specimens of fetal parents were also tested by CMA for determining the parental-origin of fetal CNVs. Then we followed up the clinical outcomes of the fetuses.@*RESULTS@#Of the 182 fetuses, 163 (89.6%) had parental-origin CNVs, and 19 (10.4%) had de novo CNVs. 149 (91.4%) of the parental-origin CNVs were classified into the variant of uncertain significance (VUS) before parental-origin tests. After parental source verification, 137 (91.9%) of these VUS cases were changed into likely benign cases. Among the 163 cases of parental-origin CNVs, 122 (74.8%) fetuses were born healthy. Among the 19 de novo cases, 9 of these families chose to terminate the pregnancy.@*CONCLUSION@#The majority of inherited CNVs detected by CMA had a tendency to be benign, and the parental source verification could assist the elucidation of clinical significance of CNVs in prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Aberrations , DNA Copy Number Variations , Female , Humans , Karyotyping , Microarray Analysis , Parents , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical phenotype and genetic diagnosis of an infant featuring multiple hair and hyperbilirubinemia.@*METHODS@#Conventional G-banding analysis, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the patient were conducted, G-banding analyses of peripheral blood for the infant's parents were also performed.@*RESULTS@#We investigated an infant who carries a unbalanced, maternally inherited karyotype 46, X, der (X) t (X;1) (p11.22; q21.3) in which CMA and FISH analyses disclosed a 1q21.3q44 duplication of 93.03 Mb and Xp22.33p11.22 deletion of 54.53 Mb.@*CONCLUSION@#The phenotypes of this infant can probably be attributed to the 1q21.3q44 duplication and Xp22.33p11.22 deletion, which were maternally inherited.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Banding , Chromosome Deletion , Genetic Testing , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Translocation, Genetic
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a fetus with structural brain abnormalities.@*METHODS@#The karyotypes of the fetus and its parents were analyzed by conventional G-banding. Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) was carried out to detect chromosomal microdeletion and microduplication.@*RESULTS@#No kartotypic abnormality was detected in the fetus and its parents. CMA has identified a 194 kb microduplication at Xq25 in the fetus, which encompassed exons 4-35 of the STAG2 gene and was derived from its mother.@*CONCLUSION@#The Xq25 duplication encompassing part of the STAG2 gene probably underlay the brain malformation in the fetus.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Banding , Female , Fetus , Genetic Testing , Humans , Karyotyping , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928420

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) and karyotyping in the prenatal diagnosis for carriers of balanced translocations.@*METHODS@#Clinical records of 135 amniocentesis samples of balanced translocation carriers undergoing simultaneous CNV-seq and karyotyping were analyzed. Chromosomal aberrations were defined as those can definitely lead to birth defects definitely, which included chromosomal numerical abnormality, large deletion/duplication and pathogenic copy number variations (pCNVs).@*RESULTS@#The detection rates for karyotyping and CNV-seq were 4.44% (6/135) and 5.93% (8/135) respectively, and the latter had a detection rate of 1.48(2/135) higher than the former. A total of 68 fetal chromosomal translocations were detected by karyotying analysis.@*CONCLUSION@#For couples carrying a balanced translocation, simultaneous CNV-seq and karyotyping is conducive to the detection of fetal chromosomal abnormalities and genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Female , Humans , Karyotyping , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Translocation, Genetic
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928414

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out prenatal diagnosis for a fetus with normal ultrasonographic finding at 20 weeks' gestation but a copy number variant(CNV) of 13q indicated by non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT).@*METHODS@#Karyotyping analysis and chromosomal CNV assay were carried out on the amniotic fluid sample. Parental peripheral blood sample was collected for chromosomal analysis. Detailed fetal ultrasound scan was carried out to rule out structural abnormalities of the fetus.@*RESULTS@#The fetus was detected with a heterozygous 10.14 Mb deletion at 13q21.1q21.32, which has originated from the phenotypically normal mother. No apparent karyotypic abnormality was detected in the fetus and its parents. No ultrasonic abnormality was found in the fetus.@*CONCLUSION@#Both the fetus and its mother have carried a heterozygous 10.14 Mb deletion at 13q21.1q21.32 and presented normal phenotypes.Combined with literature review, the segmental deletion was judged to be a benign variant.


Subject(s)
Female , Genetic Counseling , Humans , Karyotyping , Pedigree , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To diagnose and fine map a deletion in chromosome region 2q37.@*METHODS@#G-banded chromosomal karyotyping, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were carried out in conjunct for the analysis.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to have karyotype of 46,XY,del(2)(q3?), MLPA revealed one copy number of both CAPN10-3 and ATG4B-7 genes from the 2q37.3 region, Both parents were found to be normal upon chromosome karyotyping and MLPA. SNP-array has found a 9.7 Mb deletion in the 2q37.1.37.3 region. FISH analysis has confirmed there is a single copy for 2q37.3.@*CONCLUSION@#Combination of MLPA, FISH and SNP-array have enabled accurate diagnosis for the patient, and also provided more clues for the correlation of genotype with the phenotype of the disease, and a basis for genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Banding , Chromosome Deletion , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Phenotype
14.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(5): 435-442, May 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290261

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Turner syndrome (TS) is a rare genetic disease. Understanding its clinical findings contributes to better management of clinical conditions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and karyotypic characteristics of patients diagnosed with TS at two reference services for clinical genetics in southern Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in two clinical genetics services in Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil. METHODS: The sample consisted of 59 patients with TS diagnosed from 1993 to 2019. A review of their medical records was performed and a standard protocol was filled out. RESULTS: The average age of the patients at diagnosis was 15.9 years, and 40.7% were over 13 years old. The largest proportion of them (42.4%) had been referred from an endocrinology department and their constitution was 45,X (40.7%). The most common clinical findings were short stature (85.7%), hypoplastic/ hyperconvex nails (61.2%), low posterior hairline (52.1%) and cubitus valgus (45.8%). There was no difference regarding the presence of short stature (P = 0.5943), number of dysmorphia (P = 0.143), anatomical regions affected and malformations identified through imaging examinations (P = 1.0000), regarding the presence or absence of 45,X constitution. Only 6% of the patients had used growth hormone and 43%, estrogen. CONCLUSION: We found that, in general, patients with TS were being diagnosed late. This has important implications for their treatment. In addition, only a small proportion of the patients were undergoing further examination or evaluation, which appeared to be leading to underdiagnosis of many abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Turner Syndrome/diagnosis , Turner Syndrome/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Karyotype , Karyotyping
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888395

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out prenatal diagnosis for a fetus with absent nasal bone by using cytogenetic and molecular techniques.@*METHODS@#Chromosomal karyotyping, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were applied for the diagnoses. Peripheral blood samples were also taken from the parents for chromosomal karyotyping and FISH analysis.@*RESULTS@#The fetus was found to have a 46,XX,add(21)(p11.2) karyotype, and SNP-array has revealed a 11.3 Mb duplication at 21q22.12q22.3 (hg19: 36 762 648-48 093 361), which was confirmed by FISH. Both parents were found to be normal by chromosomal karyotyping and FISH analysis. The fetus was ultimately found to have a karyotype of 46,XX,der(21)t(21;21)(p11.2;q22.1), resulting a de novo partial trisomy of 21q22.1.@*CONCLUSION@#Combined use of various techniques has enabled accurate prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling for the fetus.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Nasal Bone , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Trisomy/genetics
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child with febrile seizures.@*METHODS@#Peripheral venous blood samples were taken from the child and his parents for the analysis of chromosomal karyotype and dynamic variant of the FMR1 gene. The family trio was also subjected to target capture and next generation sequencing (NGS) with a gene panel related to developmental retardation, mental retardation, language retardation, epilepsy and special facial features.@*RESULTS@#The child was found to have a normal karyotype by conventional cytogenetic analysis (400 bands). No abnormal expansion was found with the CGG repeats of the FMR1 gene. NGS revealed that the child has carried a heterozygous c.864+1 delG variant of the MEF2C gene, which may lead to abnormal splicing and affect its protein function. The same variant was found in neither parent, suggesting that it has a de novo origin. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines, c.864+1delG variant of MEF2C gene was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PS2+PM2).@*CONCLUSION@#MEF2C, as the key gene for chromosome 5q14.3 deletion syndrome which was speculated as a cause for febrile seizures, has an autosomal dominant effect. The c.864+1delG variant of the MEF2C gene may account for the febrile seizures in this patient.


Subject(s)
Child , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosome Disorders , Epilepsy , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Karyotyping , MEF2 Transcription Factors/genetics
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888391

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic testing for a pregnant woman with mild mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, and a history of adverse pregnancies and provide prenatal diagnosis for her.@*METHODS@#Routine G-banded karyotyping and single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP-array) analysis were performed on the couple and amniotic fluid sample.@*RESULTS@#No karyotypic abnormality was found with the couple and amniotic fluid sample. SNP-array analysis showed that the woman has carried a 7.801 Mb microdeletion in 10q22.3q23.2, which involved 18 OMIM genes including CDHR1, BMPR1A, NRG3, GRID1 and LDB3, which are associated with facial abnormalities, developmental retardation, mental retardation and autism. The fetus also carried a 7.819 Mb deletion in the same region, while the father showed no abnormality.@*CONCLUSION@#Both the pregnant woman and her fetus have carried a 10q22.3q23.2 microdeletion, which has provided guidance for her subsequent pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Cadherins , Chromosome Banding , Chromosome Deletion , Female , Fetus , Genetic Testing , Humans , Karyotyping , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical features of fetuses with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome(WHS) and explore the diagnostic methods and prenatal ultrasound characteristics and provide evidence for prenatal genetic counseling.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed 5 cases of WHS fetuses diagnosed from March 2016 to February 2020, and analyzed the results of chromosomal karyotype analysis and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) of the fetuses.@*RESULTS@#Five cases of WHS were detected by CMA, four cases were detected by karyotype analysis. Prenatal ultrasound revealed 4 abnormalities, of which 3 had intrauterine growth restriction, and only 1 had abnormalities of the maxillofacial region. The sequence of the fragments was 4p16.3p16.1 with a loss of 6.5 Mb, 4p16.3p15.32 with a loss of 15.6 Mb combined with 2p25.3 increased by 906kb, 4p16.3p15.31 with a loss of 20.4 Mb, 4p16.p15.1 with a loss of 35 Mb and 4p16.3p14 with a loss of 37 Mb.@*CONCLUSION@#Fetal growth restriction may be one of the early manifestations of WHS. Absence of fetal facial abnormality by prenatal ultrasound screening cannot exclude WHS. Karyotype analysis may miss the diagnosis of WHS, while combined CMA techniques can improve the diagnostic accuracy.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4/genetics , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation/genetics , Humans , Karyotyping , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome/genetics
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888377

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) in young children accompany by WT1, MLL-PTD and EVI1, in order to improve the diagnosis level of AMKL.@*METHODS@#EDTA-K@*RESULTS@#White blood cell count was 12.3× 10@*CONCLUSION@#Acute megakaryocytic leukemia has unique and complex phenotypic and genetics characteristics.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Child , Child, Preschool , Chromosome Aberrations , Humans , Karyotyping , Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute/genetics , MDS1 and EVI1 Complex Locus Protein , Megakaryocytes , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion , WT1 Proteins
20.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1528-1532, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with chromosome 21 karyotype abnormality.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 155 patients with MDS were retrospectively analyzed, the clinical characteristics, survival and factors affecting prognosis of chromosome 21 karyotype abnormality patients were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among 155 MDS patients, 4 were 5q- syndrome, 41 were MDS-EB-I, 35 were MDS-EB-II, 27 were MDS-SLD, 46 were MDS-MLD, 1 was MDS-RS-SLD, and 1 was MDS-U. The median follow-up time was 11.0(0.1-120.9) months. Among 155 MDS patients, 13 (9.0%) showed chromosome 21 abnormalities. Among the 13 patients with chromosome 21 karyotype abnormalities, there were 5 cases with simple +21 karyotype, 1 case with del (21q12), 1 case with +8, +21, 1 case with i(21q), 1 case with 20q-, +21, and 4 cases with complex karyotype involving chromosome 21; including 2 cases of MDS-SLD, 4 cases of MDS-MLD, 5 cases of MDS-EB-I and 2 cases of MDS-EB-II. The median survival time of the patients was 3.1 (0.1-6.7) months.@*CONCLUSION@#Chromosome 21 karyotype abnormality is rare in MDS, and the prognosis is worse than the patients without chromosome 21 abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21 , Humans , Karyotype , Karyotyping , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Retrospective Studies
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