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Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1648-1655, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421809


SUMMARY: The skin, located on the outermost part of the body, is always exposed to external stimuli such as sunlight. The exposure of skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from sunlight is known to be a major environmental factor in inducing photoaging. After exposure to UVB, an increase in reactive oxygen species can affect the expression and activity of many critical proteins depending on the duration and dose of the UVB radiation. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRTs), which are nicotinamide dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylases, are well known for playing a role in cellular longevity. However, little is known about SIRT protein alterations in keratinocytes upon UVB irradiation according to SIRT subtypes. Therefore, in this study, the distribution of non-mitochondrial SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT6 proteins was investigated by immunofluorescence (IF) staining of the skin of SKH-1 mice (n=12) after UVB irradiation for 10 weeks. After UVB irradiation for 10 weeks, the IF of both SIRT1 and SIRT6 was significantly increased in the UVB-irradiated mice group (UG), but the difference in SIRT2 IF was not statistically significant between the control group (CG) and the UG. The translocation of both SIRT1 and SIRT6 IF from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of keratinocytes was observed in the upper epidermis of the UG, whereas SIRT2 IF was localized in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes in the epidermis in both the CG and the UG. The translocation of SIRT1 and SIRT6 IF from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of keratinocytes may account for the physiologically protective action of keratinocytes against UVB irradiation. However, the exact role of SIRT1 and SIRT6 translocation in keratinocytes, where SIRT1 and SIRT6 shuttle from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, is not well known. Therefore, further studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms of SIRT1 and SIRT6 translocation in keratinocytes upon UVB irradiation.

La piel, situada en la parte más externa del cuerpo, está siempre expuesta a estímulos externos como la luz solar. Se sabe que la exposición de la piel a la radiación ultravioleta B (UVB) de la luz solar es un factor ambiental importante en la inducción del fotoenvejecimiento. Después de la exposición a los rayos UVB, un aumento en las especies reactivas de oxígeno puede afectar la expresión y la actividad de muchas proteínas críticas según la duración y la dosis de la radiación UVB. Las sirtuinas de mamíferos (SIRT), que son proteínas desacetilasas dependientes de dinucleótidos de nicotinamida, son bien conocidas por desempeñar un papel en la longevidad celular. Sin embargo, se sabe poco sobre las alteraciones de la proteína SIRT en los queratinocitos tras la irradiación UVB según los subtipos de SIRT. Por lo tanto, en este estudio, se investigó la distribución de las proteínas SIRT1, SIRT2 y SIRT6 no mitocondriales mediante tinción de inmunofluorescencia (IF) de la piel de ratones SKH-1 (n = 12), después de la irradiación con UVB durante 10 semanas. Posterior a la irradiación, el IF de SIRT1 y SIRT6 aumentaron significativamente en el grupo de ratones irradiados con UVB (UG), pero la diferencia en SIRT2 IF no fue estadísticamente significativa entre el grupo control (CG) y el UG. La translocación de SIRT1 y SIRT6 IF desde el núcleo al citoplasma de los queratinocitos se observó en la epidermis superior de la UG, mientras que SIRT2 IF se localizó en el citoplasma de los queratinocitos en la epidermis, tanto en el GC, como en la UG. La translocación de SIRT1 y SIRT6 IF del núcleo al citoplasma de los queratinocitos puede explicar la acción protectora fisiológica de estos contra la radiación UVB. Sin embargo, el papel exacto de la translocación de SIRT1 y SIRT6 en los queratinocitos, donde SIRT1 y SIRT6 se trasladan desde el núcleo al citoplasma, no se conoce bien. Por lo tanto, se necesitan más estudios para comprender los mecanismos moleculares de la translocación SIRT1 y SIRT6 en los queratinocitos tras la irradiación UVB.

Animals , Male , Mice , Ultraviolet Rays , Keratinocytes/radiation effects , Sirtuins/radiation effects , Time Factors , Skin Aging , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Sirtuins/analysis
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(4): 434-441, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038295


Abstract: Background: In-vitro studies showed that Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 3 (LGI3) is a keratinocyte-derived cytokine that stimulates melanin synthesis and is increased after ultra violet B (UVB) irradiation. So, we postulated that LGI3 may be involved in vitiligo aetiopathogenesis and may participate in narrow band ultra violet B (NB-UVB) induced pigmentation in vitiligo. Objectives: To assess this hypothesis, lesional LGI3 immunohistochemical expression of vitiligo patients before and after NB-UVB phototherapy was studied, and its correlation with repigmentation was evaluated. Methods: Forty vitiligo patients and 20 age, sex, and skin phenotype-matched controls were enrolled. Patients were treated with NB-UVB thrice weekly for 12 weeks. VASI score was evaluated before and after NB-UVB sessions. For vitiligo patients, baseline LGI3 immunohistochemical staining was estimated, and compared to that of controls and to its post-treatment data in those patients. Results: Baseline LGI3 immunohistochemical studied parameters (expression, intensity, percentage and H score) were significantly lower in vitiligo cases than controls (p=0.003, 0.013, 0.001 and 0.001 respectively). After 12 weeks of NB-UVB phototherapy, these LGI3 immunohistochemical parameters were up-regulated and became comparable to that of controls (p >0.05 for all). There was a significant positive correlation between the improvement of both VASI score and LGI3 H score mean values (r=-0.349 , p=0.027). Study limitations: Small number of investigated subjects. Conclusions: Decreased LGI3 protein may play an active role in vitiligo pathogenesis and its up-regulation after NB-UVB phototherapy, may actively participate in NB-UVB photo-induced melanogenesis.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Ultraviolet Therapy/methods , Vitiligo/pathology , Vitiligo/radiotherapy , Proteins/analysis , Cytokines/analysis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Immunohistochemistry , Case-Control Studies , Keratinocytes/radiation effects , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Melanocytes/radiation effects
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(8): e6896, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951743


Excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays can cause damage of the skin and may induce cancer, immunosuppression, photoaging, and inflammation. The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) HOX antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is involved in multiple human biological processes. However, its role in UVB-induced keratinocyte injury is unclear. This study was performed to investigate the effects of HOTAIR in UVB-induced apoptosis and inflammatory injury in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the expression levels of HOTAIR, PKR, TNF-α, and IL-6. Cell viability was measured using trypan blue exclusion method and cell apoptosis using flow cytometry and western blot. ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6. Western blot was used to measure the expression of PKR, apoptosis-related proteins, and PI3K/AKT and NF-κB pathway proteins. UVB induced HaCaT cell injury by inhibiting cell viability and promoting cell apoptosis and expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α. UVB also promoted the expression of HOTAIR. HOTAIR suppression increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis and expression of inflammatory factors in UVB-treated cells. HOTAIR also promoted the expression of PKR. Overexpression of HOTAIR decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis and expression of inflammatory factors in UVB-treated cells by upregulating PKR. Overexpression of PKR decreased cell viability and promoted cell apoptosis in UVB-treated cells. Overexpression of PKR activated PI3K/AKT and NF-κB pathways. Our findings identified an essential role of HOTAIR in promoting UVB-induced apoptosis and inflammatory injury by up-regulating PKR in keratinocytes.

Humans , Keratinocytes/metabolism , Apoptosis/physiology , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Gene Expression , Keratinocytes/radiation effects , Up-Regulation , Cell Survival/physiology , NF-kappa B/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Inflammation/etiology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(12): e7862, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974259


Although the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on diverse cell types have been fully studied, the functional role of LIPUS in keratinocytes remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LIPUS on proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells as well as the regulatory mechanisms associated with signaling pathways. Human HaCaT cells were exposed or not to LIPUS, and cell proliferation and migration were measured by BrdU incorporation assay and Transwell assay, respectively. Expression of proteins associated with proliferation and migration was evaluated by western blot analysis. Expression of key kinases in the PI3K/AKT and JNK pathways was also evaluated by western blot analysis. Effects of LIPUS on the PI3K/AKT and JNK pathways, and whether LIPUS affected HaCaT cells via these two pathways were finally explored. When the parameter of LIPUS (number of cycles) was set at 300, cell viability was the highest after LIPUS stimulation. We then found that the percentage of BrdU positive cells was enhanced by LIPUS, along with up-regulation of cyclinD1, CDK6, CDK4, and VEGF. LIPUS promoted migration, as well as up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Phosphorylation levels of key kinases in the PI3K/AKT and JNK pathways were increased by LIPUS. Inhibition of either PI3K/AKT pathway or JNK pathway attenuated effects of LIPUS on HaCaT cells, and co-inhibition of these two pathways showed augmented effects. LIPUS promoted proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells through activating the PI3K/AKT and JNK pathways.

Keratinocytes/radiation effects , Cell Movement/radiation effects , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/radiation effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/radiation effects , Cell Proliferation/radiation effects , Ultrasonic Waves , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Line, Transformed , Signal Transduction/radiation effects , Keratinocytes/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Cell Survival/radiation effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism
Biol. Res ; 46(1): 39-45, 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676819


Carotenoids are efficient antioxidants that are of great importance for human health. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotinoids present in high concentrations in the human retina which are involved in the photoprotection of the human eye. Lutein may also protect the skin from ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage. The present study investigated the protective effect of lutein extracted from yellow silk cocoons of Bombyx mori on human keratinocytes against UVB irradiation. A human keratinocyte cell line and primary human keratinocytes were used to investigate the UVB protection effects of silk lutein and plant lutein. Silk lutein showed no cytotoxicity to keratinocytes. Treatment with silk lutein prior to UVB irradiation enhanced cell viability and cell proliferation, and reduced cell apoptosis. The protective effects of silk lutein may be superior to those of plant lutein. Silk lutein may have a benefit for protection of keratinocytes against UVB-irradiation.

Animals , Humans , Male , Keratinocytes/radiation effects , Lutein/pharmacology , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Silk/chemistry , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Bombyx/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/radiation effects , Cell Survival/radiation effects , Foreskin/radiation effects , Lutein/isolation & purification , Primary Cell Culture , Radiation-Protective Agents/isolation & purification
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(2): 278-283, mar.-abr. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-587664


FUNDAMENTOS: A laserterapia de baixa potência e os inibidores seletivos da ciclooxigenase-2 (ICOX2) vem sendo muito utilizados para modular a resposta inflamatória, entretanto, os seus efeitos na reepitelização de feridas não são bem compreendidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos isolados e combinados da laserterapia de baixa potência e da ICOX2 na reepitelização de ferida incisional na pele de camundongos. MÉTODO: Foi induzida uma ferida de 1 cm no dorso de cada camundongo, que foram divididos em quatro grupos (N=20): Controle, Laserterapia, Tratados com celecoxib e Terapia conjugada. Os animais dos grupos celecoxib e Terapia conjugada foram tratados com celecoxib por 10 dias antes da incisão cutânea. As feridas experimentais foram irradiadas com laserterapia de baixa potência He-Ne (632nm, dose: 4J/cm2) em varredura, por 12 segundos durante três dias consecutivos nos grupos Laserterapia e Terapia conjugada. Os animais foram sacrificados no 3º dia de pós-operatório. Amostras das feridas foram coletadas e coradas (Tricromio de Masson) para análise histomorfométrica. RESULTADOS: Tanto o grupo Laserterapia, quanto o grupo celecoxib, mostrou aumento da reepitelização cutânea em relação ao grupo Controle, entretanto, o grupo Terapia conjugada não apresentou diferenças. Quanto à queratinização o grupo Laserterapia e Terapia conjugada apresentaram redução dos queratinócitos, comparados com o grupo Controle. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram que o uso da laserterapia de baixa potência e da ICOX2 isoladamente aumentam as células epiteliais, mas somente a laserterapia de baixa potência reduziu os queratinócitos cutâneos. O tratamento conjugado restabelece a reepitelização inata e dimunui a queratinização, embora ocorra uma acelerada contração da ferida com melhora na organização da ferida na pele de camundongos.

BACKGROUND: Low level laser therapy and cyclooxygenase-2 (ICOX2) selective inhibitors have been widely used to modulate inflammatory response; however, their effect on wound reepithelialization are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the isolated and combined effects of low level laser therapy and ICOX2 in the reepithelization of skin incisional wounds in mice. METHODS: We induced a 1-cm wound on the back of each mouse, which were divided into four groups (N = 20): control, laser therapy, treated with celecoxib and combined therapy. The animals in the celecoxib and combined therapy groups were treated with celecoxib for 10 days before skin incision. The experimental wounds were irradiated with He-Ne low power laser (632nm, dose: 4J/cm2) in scanning for 12 seconds during three consecutive days in the laser therapy and combined therapy groups. The animals were sacrificed 3 days after surgery. Samples of the wounds were collected and stained (Masson's Trichrome) for histomorphometric analysis. RESULTS: Both the laser therapy group and the celecoxib group showed an increase in skin reepithelialization compared to the control group; however, the combined therapy group showed no differences. As for keratinization, the laser therapy and combined therapy groups showed a reduction in keratinocytes compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: The results show that the use of low level laser therapy and ICOX2 in isolation increases epithelial cells, but only low level laser therapy reduced skin keratinocytes. The combined treatment restores innate epithelialization and decreases keratinization in spite of accelerating wound contraction with improvement in the organization of the wound in the skin of mice.

Animals , Male , Mice , /administration & dosage , Low-Level Light Therapy , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Wound Healing , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Keratinocytes/drug effects , Keratinocytes/radiation effects , Wound Healing/drug effects , Wound Healing/radiation effects
Biocell ; 20(3): 251-258, Dec. 1996.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-335993


Nucleolar organizer regions stained with colloidal silver techniques (AgNOR) evidence sites of active rRNA transcription. It has been proved that AgNOR undergo a rise in number and variations in size and shape in conditions which traditionally involve enhanced cell proliferation and rRNA transcription. AgNOR have been described as a marker of malignant transformation in multiple entities. Our laboratory has previously described their value as markers of radioinduced damage. The finding, at light microscopy level, that silver staining persisted at later post-irradiation times when cells are characteristically inactive, prompted the present study to correlate findings at light microscopy level with the ultrastructural analysis of nucleoli and their AgNOR in a model of irradiated skin. We herein attempt to explain the biological significance of AgNOR variations in the different phases of radioinduced response (which involves cellular hyperactivity followed by regressive features). Ten Wistar rats were submitted to local irradiation of the left leg (the shielded right leg was used as control) with 50 Gy x rays and killed 15 days post- irradiation. Silver staining was performed on ultrathin sections. In the basal layer of control epithelium silver affinity was established for fibrillar centers (FC) and fibrillar dense components (DFC). During the phase of radioinduced hyperplasia (1-3 days post-exposure) basal cells exhibit large reticular nucleoli, with irregular contours and silver staining on DFC. In the regressive phase (4-5 days post-irradiation) silver staining persists despite the halt in transcriptional activity, associated to homogeneous and compact nucleoli. These findings suggest caution in the interpretation of silver staining patterns.

Animals , Rats , Nucleolus Organizer Region/ultrastructure , Cell Division , Keratinocytes/radiation effects , Keratinocytes/ultrastructure , Colloids , Hyperplasia , Silver Staining , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/pathology , Foot/pathology , Foot/radiation effects , Rats, Wistar , RNA, Ribosomal/biosynthesis , Transcription, Genetic