Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.
Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.
Subject(s)Animals , Chickens , Feathers , Fermentation , Fungi , Industrial Waste , Keratins/metabolism
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effects of family-integrated diabetes education on diabetes knowthe ledge of patients and family members, as well as its impact on patients' glycosylated haemoglobin (A1C). Design: The design was a two-group Pretest Posttest quasi-experimental. Setting: The study took place at the diabetes clinics of two tertiary hospitals in southwestern Nigeria. Participants: People Living with Diabetes (PLWD) and family members aged 18 years and over and without cognitive impairment were placed, as clusters, into either a control group (CG) or an intervention group (IG) The CG comprised 88 patients and 88 family members while IG comprised 82 patients and 82 family members. Of these, 78 and 74 patients completed the study in CG and IG, respectively. Interventions: PLWD in IG along with their family members were given an educational intervention on diabetes management and collaborative support with an information booklet provided. This was followed by three (3) complimentary Short Messaging Service (SMS). Main outcome measures: A1C and diabetes knowledge. Results: Over half (52.4%) and about a fifth (18.2%) of family members and patients, respectively, had never had diabetes education. There was a statistically significant increase in the knowledge of patients and family members in IG. Unlike CG, the A1C of patients in IG improved significantly at three and six-month post-intervention, (p<0.01). Regression showed an independent effect of family members' knowledge on IG's A1C. Conclusions: Improved family members' diabetes knowledge positively impacted patients' glucose level. There is a need to integrate family members into diabetes care better
Subject(s)Humans , Family , Hemoglobins , Diabetes Mellitus , Patient Medication Knowledge , Keratins
The incidence and mortality rates of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer remain high. Despite constant improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, the early diagnosis, mid- and late-stage treatment, drug tolerance, and cancer recurrence and metastasis in GI cancer remain challenging. In this review article we summarize the recent research advance in the roles of keratins in GI cancer, with the hope that they will become efficient biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, or treatment of these malignancies.
Subject(s)Biomarkers, Tumor , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Keratins
Abstract To investigate the optimal androgen concentration for culturing Hetian sheep wool follicle and to detect effects of androgen concentration on wool follicle cell proliferation and apoptosis using immunofluorescence labeling and real-time quantitative fluorescence determinations of wool keratin-associated protein gene expression levels. Wool follicles were isolated by microdissection and wool follicles and skin pieces were cultured in various concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in culture medium. Next, daily lengthwise growth measurements of wool follicles were obtained using a microscopic micrometer. Cultured Hetian wool follicles were stained using the SACPIC method to reveal wool follicle structure, while sheep skin slices were used to observe cell proliferation by immunostaining and cell apoptosis using the TUNEL method. At the molecular biological level, keratin-associated protein (Kap) gene expression was studied using wool follicles cultured for various numbers of days in vitro. Effects of androgen concentrations on Hetian wool follicle growth and development were experimentally studied. EdU proliferation assays revealed that androgen promoted cell proliferation within wool follicle dermal papillae. TUNEL apoptosis detection demonstrated that androgen treatment could delay cell apoptosis. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results demonstrated that gene expression level patterns of Hetian mountain sheep super-high sulfur protein. Kap1.1, KIF1.2, Kap2.12 and Kap4.2 gene expression level of the mountainous experimental group was significantly higher than plains Hetian sheep. An androgen concentration of 100 nM can promote the growth of Hetian wool follicle cells in vitro, resulting in overexpression of some genes of the Kap family.
Resumo Investigar a concentração ideal de andrógenos em cultura de folículos pilosos de carneiro Hetiano e detectar os efeitos da concentração de andrógenos na proliferação e apoptose de células foliculares, por meio de imunofluorescência e de determinação quantitativa, em tempo real, da fluorescência dos níveis de expressão gênica de proteína associada à queratina. Folículos pilosos foram isolados por microdissecção, e folículos de lã e pedaços de pele foram cultivados em várias concentrações de di-hidrotestosterona (DHT) em meio de cultura. Em seguida, medições diárias de crescimento longitudinal dos folículos capilares foram obtidas usando um micrômetro microscópico. Folículos de lã cultivados de Hetianos foram corados pelo método SACPIC para revelar a estrutura do folículo piloso, enquanto fatias de pele de carneiro foram usadas para observar a proliferação celular por imunocoloração e apoptose celular por meio do método TUNEL. Em âmbito da biologia molecular, a expressão gênica da proteína associada à queratina (Kap) foi estudada usando folículos capilares cultivados por vários dias, in vitro. Os efeitos das concentrações de andrógenos no crescimento e desenvolvimento dos folículos de lã de Hetianos foram estudados experimentalmente. Ensaios de proliferação de EdU revelaram que o andrógeno promoveu a proliferação celular dentro das papilas dérmicas do folículo piloso. A detecção de apoptose por TUNEL demonstrou que o tratamento com andrógeno poderia atrasar a apoptose celular. Os resultados da reação em cadeia da polimerase transcrição reversa quantitativa (qPCR) demonstraram que os padrões de expressão gênica da proteína de enxofre Kap1.1, KIF1.2, Kap2.12 e Kap4.2 foram significativamente maiores no grupo de ovinos Hetianos de montanha. Uma concentração de androgênio de 100 nM pode promover o crescimento de células foliculares de lã de Hetianos in vitro, resultando na superexpressão de alguns genes da família Kap.
Subject(s)Animals , Wool , Keratins/genetics , Sheep , Hair Follicle , Androgens/pharmacology
O presente estudo avaliou o perfil mineral de Cálcio (Ca), Cobre (Cu) e Zinco (Zn) no estojo córneo pré e pós-desmame e sua associação com pigmentação, gênero e idade de potros da raça Crioula criados em pastagens nativas no Rio Grande do Sul. Foram coletadas amostras do casco de potros da raça Crioula 41 dias pré e 28 dias pós-desmame. Os teores de Ca, Cu e Zn variaram no casco fetal (571,0±39,4; 14,5±7,6 e 130,0±30,5mg/kg, respectivamente; P<0,05) e no definitivo (653,0±169,2; 33,8±11,5 e 69,3±36,8mg/kg, respectivamente; P<0,05), no pré (620,0±184; 17,2±21,2 e 103,0±75,5mg/kg, respectivamente; P<0,05) e no pós-desmame (517,5±181; 0 e 79,0±41,7mg/kg, respectivamente; P<0,05). Houve associação positiva (P<0,05) com a faixa etária no pré-desmame para Ca (r=0,5) e Cu (r=0,57), e negativa para Zn (r=-0,69; P<0,05). No pós-desmame, houve associação positiva (P<0,05) para Ca (r=0,36) e Zn (r=0,64) e negativa para Cu (r=-0,39; P<0,05). Tanto a pigmentação quanto o gênero não afetaram o perfil mineral. Conclui-se que há diferenças nas concentrações de Ca, Cu e Zn na epiderme do casco de potros da raça Crioula no pré e pós-desmame, independentemente da pigmentação e do gênero, onde as concentrações de Ca e Cu aumentam com a idade, enquanto as de Zn diminuem.(AU)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the mineral profile of Ca, Cu and Zn in the hoof horny capsule at pre and post-weaning and its association with pigmentation, gender and age range of Crioulo foals raised in native pastures in RS. Samples were collected from the epidermis of the Crioulo foal's hoof at two times, 41 pre and 28 post-weaning. The contents of Ca, Cu, Zn Varied in the fetal hoof ( 571.0±139.4, 14.5±7.6 and 130.0±30.5mg/kg, respectively, P<0.05) and definitive (653.0±169.2, 33.8±11.5 and 69.3±36.8mg/kg, respectively, P<0.05), in the pre (620.0±184, 17.2±21.2 and103.0±75.5mg/kg, respectively, P<0.05) and post-weaning (517.5±181, 0.1 and 79.0±41.7mg/kg, respectively, P<0.05).There was a positive association (P<0.05) with a preweaning age for Ca (r=0.5) and Cu (r=0.57) and negative for Zn (r=-0.69, P<0.05). In the post weaning there was a positive association (P<0.05) for Ca (r=0.36) and Zn (r=0.64) and negative for Cu (r=-0.39; P<0.05). Neither pigmentation nor gender affected the mineral profile. It is concluded that there are differences in Ca, Cu, Zn concentrations in the epidermis of foals of the crioulo breed at the pre and post weaning, regardless of pigmentation and sex, where Ca and Cu concentrations increase with age, while Zn concentrations decrease.(AU)
Subject(s)Animals , Skin Pigmentation/physiology , Hoof and Claw/cytology , Horses/growth & development , Minerals , Zinc , Calcium , Copper , Keratins
The esophagus is a muscular tube whose function is to transport food from the mouth to the stomach and basically contain the same layers as the rest of the digestive tract. The morphological knowledge of structures involved in basic physiological processes in organisms is extremely important in the acquisition of ecological and evolutionary knowledge about species. This study produces morphological information proving the structures found in the green turtle's esophagus. The animals were dissected according to the methodology used by Wyneken, allowing analysis of external and internal morphological characteristics of the esophagus. The samples were processed for microscopic analysis by light and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that the esophagus presents thin and conical dermal papillae facing the stomach throughout the mucosa to the gastroesophageal portion, decreasing its size at the end of its extension, covered by a thick keratin layer on keratinized pavement epithelial tissue. It is concluded that the esophagus of Chelonia mydas is covered by a layer of conical keratinized dermal papillae important to exert the mechanical and protective function of the mucosa of this organ, considering that the feeding of these animals is extremely abrasive, besides serving as protection so that the food does not return.
El esófago es un tubo muscular cuya función es transportar los alimentos desde la cavidad oral hasta el estómago y, básicamente, contienen las mismas capas que el resto del tracto digestivo. El conocimiento morfológico de las estructuras involucradas en los procesos fisiológicos básicos en los organismos es extremadamente importante en la adquisición de conocimientos ecológicos y evolutivos sobre las especies. Este estudio produce información morfológica que demuestra las estructuras encontradas en el esófago de la tortuga verde. Los animales se disecaron de acuerdo con la metodología utilizada por Wyneken, lo que permitió el análisis de las características morfológicas internas y externas del esófago. Las muestras se procesaron para análisis microscópico mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido y de luz. Se observó que el esófago presenta papilas dérmicas delgadas y cónicas que se enfrentan al estómago a través de la mucosa hasta la porción gastroesofágica, disminuyendo su tamaño al final de su extensión, cubierta por una capa gruesa de queratina sobre el tejido epitelial queratinizado. Se concluye que el esófago de Chelonia mydas está cubierto por una capa de papilas dérmicas queratinizadas cónicas importantes para ejercer la función mecánica y protectora de la mucosa de este órgano, considerando que la alimentación de estos animales es extremadamente abrasiva, además de servir de protección para que la comida no sea devuelta.
Subject(s)Animals , Turtles/anatomy & histology , Esophagus/ultrastructure , Keratins/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electrochemical, Scanning
La acroqueratoelastoidosis de Costa es una rara genodermatosis autosómica dominante con expresividad variable, que se caracteriza por la presencia de múltiples pápulas hiperqueratósicas en la zona marginal de las manos, los pies o ambas. Debuta predominantemente en la niñez y vida adulta temprana, es de curso crónico y generalmente asintomática. Su diagnóstico diferencial del resto de las acroqueratodermias es un desafío para el clínico, sin embargo, el hallazgo histológico de elastorrexis nos permite categorizarla. Presentamos un caso esporádico de una paciente joven, con características clínicas e histopatológicas típicas de la enfermedad.
The acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa is a rare genodermatosis of autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expressivity. It is characterized by the presence of multiple hyperkeratotic papules in the marginal zone of the hands and / or feet, which appears predominantly in childhood and early adulthood. It is generally asymptomatic and chronic. Its differential diagnosis from the rest of acrokeratodermias is a challenge for the physician; however, the histological finding of elastorhexis allows us to categorize it. We present a sporadic case of a young female patient, with clinical and histopathological characteristics typical of the disease.
A acroqueratoelastoidose de Costa é uma rara genodermatose autossômica dominante com expressividade variável, que se caracteriza pela presença de múltiplos pápulas hiperqueratósicas na zona marginal das mãos, dos pés ou ambas. Debuta predominantemente na infância e vida adulta precoce, é de curso crónico e geralmente assintomática. Seu diagnóstico diferencial do resto das acroqueratodermias é um desafio para o clínico, mas, a descoberta histológica de elastorrexis nos permite categorizá-la. Apresentamos um caso esporádico de uma paciente jovem, com características clínicas e histopatológicas típicas da doença.
Subject(s)Humans , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Keratoderma, Palmoplantar , Keratins
Introdução: Os cistos epidermoides são anomalias de desenvolvimento incomum na região de cabeça e pescoço. Possuem um crescimento lento progressivo, podendo atingir grandes proporções, contendo queratina em seu interior. A teoria mais aceita sobre a origem desses cistos afirma que eles são derivados dos restos epiteliais retidos na linha média, durante o fechamento dos 1° e 2° arcos branquiais, na terceira e na quarta semana de vida intrauterina. São lesões assintomáticas e, dependendo da extensão, podem causar alterações estéticas e funcionais. Relato de caso: Este artigo tem como objetivo relatar um caso clínico, tratado de maneira cirúrgica, de um cisto epidermoide localizado no assoalho da cavidade bucal. Considerações Finais: Apesar de ser uma entidade rara e benigna, esse tipo de doença não deve ser subestimado. Dada a sua relevância, é importante realizar o diagnóstico diferencial tanto clínico como anatomopatológico, uma vez que o conhecimento dessa lesão por parte do cirurgião-dentista é fundamental para um diagnóstico precoce e um tratamento adequado, garantindo a saúde do paciente... (AU)
Introduction: Epidermoid Cysts are an unusual development in the region of the head and neck. It develops slowly and can reach large proportions, and some of them can contain keratin in its interior. The most accepted theory about the origin of the cysts is that they are derived from epithelial debris retained in the midline. This happened at the closure of the 1st and 2nd gill arches, usually after the third and fourth week of intrauterine life. They are asymptomatic lesions, and depending on the extent, it can cause aesthetic and functional alterations. Case report: The purpose of this article is to discuss the origin, location, classification, clinical characteristics and surgical treatments of an epidermoid cyst in the floor of the mouth. Final considerations: This type of disease, despite being a rare and benign entity, should not be underestimated. It is interesting to make the differential diagnosis both clinical and anatomopathological. Therefore, it is of great importance the knowledge of this injury by the dental surgeon for an early diagnosis and an appropriate treatment, guaranteeing the health of the patient... (AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Adolescent , Surgery, Oral , Mouth Neoplasms , Cysts , Diagnosis, Differential , Epidermal Cyst , Mouth Floor , Wounds and Injuries , Keratins , Mouth
We report a rare case of hilar squamous cell carcinoma. A 62-year-old Korean woman complaining of nausea was referred to our hospital. Her biliary computed tomography revealed a 28 mm-sized protruding solid mass in the proximal common bile duct. The patient underwent left hemihepatectomy with S1 segmentectomy and segmental excision of the common bile duct. Microscopically, the tumor was a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct, without any component of adenocarcinoma or metaplastic portion in the biliary epithelium. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK19, p40, and p63. Squamous cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct is rare. To date, only 24 cases of biliary squamous cell carcinomas have been reported. Here, we provide a clinicopathologic review of previously reported extrahepatic bile duct squamous cell carcinomas.
Subject(s)Adenocarcinoma , Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Common Bile Duct , Drug Therapy , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Female , Hepatic Duct, Common , Humans , Keratins , Klatskin Tumor , Mastectomy, Segmental , Middle Aged , Nausea
Primary malignant melanoma of the breast (PMMB) is a rare tumor with only a few case reports available in the literature. We report two cases of PMMB, one derived from the breast parenchyma and the other from the breast skin. The first case consisted of atypical epithelioid cells without overt melanocytic differentiation like melanin pigments. The tumor cells showed diffuse positivity for S100 protein, tyrosinase, and BRAF V600E. However, the tumor cells were negative for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and HMB-45. The second case showed atypical melanocytic proliferation with heavy melanin pigmentation. The tumor cells were positive for S100 protein, HMB-45, tyrosinase, and BRAF V600E. These two cases represent two distinct presentations of PMMB in terms of skin involvement, melanin pigmentation, and HMB-45 positivity. Although PMMB is very rare, the possibility of this entity should be considered in malignant epithelioid neoplasms in the breast parenchyma.
Subject(s)Breast , Epithelioid Cells , Keratins , Melanins , Melanoma , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Mucin-1 , Pigmentation , Skin
The liver is one of the most common sites to which malignancies preferentially metastasize. Although a substantial number of liver malignancies are primary tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, the metastasis of carcinomas to the liver is relatively common and frequently encountered in clinical settings. Representative carcinomas that frequently metastasize to the liver include colorectal carcinoma, breast carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, lung carcinoma, and gastric carcinoma. The diagnostic confirmation of suspected metastatic lesions in the liver is generally achieved through a histopathologic examination of biopsy tissues. Although morphology is the most important feature for a pathologic differential diagnosis of metastatic carcinomas, immunohistochemical studies facilitate the differentiation of metastatic carcinoma origins and subtypes. Useful immunohistochemical markers for the differential diagnosis of metastatic carcinomas in the liver include cytokeratins (CK7, CK19, and CK20), neuroendocrine markers (CD56, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A), and tissue-specific markers (CDX2, SATB2, TTF-1, GCDFP-15, mammaglobin, etc.). Here, we provide a brief review about the pathologic differential diagnosis of major metastatic carcinomas in the liver.
Subject(s)Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cholangiocarcinoma , Colorectal Neoplasms , Diagnosis, Differential , Immunohistochemistry , Keratins , Liver Neoplasms , Liver , Lung , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pathology , Synaptophysin
Bone marrow metastasis of colon cancer is rare. Here, we report a 56-year-old female patient who presented with pancytopenia. She was diagnosed with colon cancer accompanied by lung and axial skeleton metastasis. The bone marrow study showed metastatic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with anti-cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and anti-cytokeratin 20 (CK20) antibodies showed that the bone marrow samples were negative for CK7 and positive for CK20, consistent with metastatic colon cancer. To the best of our knowledge, there has been only one other reported case of bone marrow metastasis of colon cancer as the primary diagnosis in an adult patient in Korea. Bone and bone marrow metastases of colon cancer are regarded as uncommon. However, for proper management, bone marrows should be promptly examined in patients with solid tumors when unexplained cytopenia is noted, even if the origin of the tumor is known to be rarely metastatic to bone marrow. In addition, the use of cytokeratin IHC staining is helpful for determining the origin of metastatic carcinoma.
Subject(s)Adult , Antibodies , Bone Marrow , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Keratins , Korea , Lung , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pancytopenia , Skeleton
A renal oncocytoma was diagnosed in an 8-year-old female Maltese dog with a history of renal cysts. Tumor cells were not detected until six months after observation of renal cysts. Nephrectomy was performed to treat the neoplasia. Tumor-like masses with numerous nodules were observed in the inner surface of cysts present in the caudal part of the left kidney. Histologically, the tumor consisted of cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. The diagnosis was based on histological features, periodic acid-Schiff reaction, and immunohistochemical cytokeratin staining. Based on a literature review, this is the first canine renal oncocytoma case reported in Korea.
Subject(s)Adenoma, Oxyphilic , Animals , Child , Cytoplasm , Diagnosis , Dogs , Eosinophils , Female , Humans , Keratins , Kidney , Korea , Nephrectomy , Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction
Thymus is an encapsulated organ having its bilateral origin from the third pharyngeal pouch. It appears to be a single organ but actually it is bilobed. It attains its maximum development at puberty and then it begins to involute. The parenchyma is replaced by adipocytes and lymphocyte production declines. Here we present a large thymus with a small area of persistent active tissue in it which was obtained during routine undergraduate dissection class. Tissues taken from different quadrants of the large thymic mass were processed, embedded in paraffin and sections were taken for hematoxylin and eosin staining which showed presence of thymic tissue in only one quadrant. Further sections from that quadrant was treated with cytokeratin to confirm its epithelial origin. Therefore knowledge of a large persistent thymus will be helpful to the radiologists and surgeons for making differential diagnosis and in avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention.
Subject(s)Adipocytes , Adolescent , Aged , Cadaver , Diagnosis, Differential , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Keratins , Lymphocytes , Paraffin , Puberty , Surgeons , Thymus Gland
Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC), a very rare neoplasm located mostly in the mandible, has been regarded as a benign tumor. However, due to the accumulation of case reports, CCOC has been reclassified as a malignant entity by the World Health Organization. Patients with CCOC present with regional swelling and periodontal indications with variable pain, often remaining misdiagnosed for a long period. CCOC has slow growth but aggressive behavior, requiring radical resection. Histologic analysis revealed the monophasic, biphasic, and ameloblastic types of CCOC with clear cells and a mixed combination of polygonal and palisading cells. At the molecular level, CCOC shows the expression of cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen, along with markers that assign CCOC to the sarcoma family. At the genetic level, Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1-activating transcription factor 1 fusion is regarded as the key feature for identification. Nevertheless, the scarcity of cases and dependence on histological data delay the development of an efficient therapy. Regarding the high recurrence rate and the potential of distant metastasis, further characterization of CCOC is necessary for an early and accurate diagnosis.
Subject(s)Ameloblasts , Diagnosis , Humans , Keratins , Mandible , Mucin-1 , Neoplasm Metastasis , Odontogenic Tumors , Recurrence , Sarcoma , Sarcoma, Ewing , Transcription Factors , World Health Organization
Objetivou-se padronizar uma reação do tipo multiplex PCR (mPCR) para detectar Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum e o complexo Trichophyton mentagrophytes em amostras de pelos e/ou crostas de cães e gatos. 250 amostras de pelos e/ou crostas de cães e gatos foram analisadas por meio de exame direto e cultura, o DNA das mesmas foi extraído para mPCR. Primers foram desenhados e como controle positivo da reação utilizou-se o DNA extraído de colônias de M. canis (URM 6273), M. gypseum (URM 6921) e T. mentagrophytes (URM 6211), provenientes da Coleção de Culturas (Micoteca URM), Departamento de Micologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CCB/UFPE). Como controles negativos de reação, utilizou-se água destilada esterilizada e DNA extraído de Alternaria sp. para verificar a especificidade dos primers. Do total de amostras analisadas, 15 (6%) foram identificadas, em cultura, como dermatófitos, e destas, 10 foram M. canis, três M. gypseum e dois T. mentagrophytes (complexo). Destas 15 amostras positivas, 11 (73,3%) foram detectadas por meio da mPCR. Além destas, seis outras, negativas em cultura, foram identificadas como M. gypseum. Verificou-se uma boa concordância entre os resultados da cultura e mPCR (Kappa: 0,66). O protocolo padronizado neste estudo pode ser utilizado como um método de triagem, por apresentar uma sensibilidade maior que a da cultura, usado paralelamente aos exames de rotina, permitindo um diagnóstico em menor tempo.(AU)
The aim of this study was to standardize a multiplex PCR (mPCR) reaction to detect Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex in dog and cat fur and/or crusts. 250 fur and/or crusts samples from dogs and cats were analyzed by direct examination and culture, DNA from them was extracted for mPCR. Primers were designed and the DNA extracted from colonies of M. canis (URM 6273), M. gypseum (URM 6921) and T. mentagrophytes (URM 6211) from the Collection of Cultures - URM Micoteca - Department of Mycology, Biological Sciences Center of the Federal University of Pernambuco (CCB / UFPE). As negative controls, sterile distilled water and DNA extracted from Alternaria sp., were used to verify the specificity of the primers. Of the total samples analyzed, 15 (6%) were identified in culture as dermatophytes, and of these, 10 were M. canis, three M. gypseum and two T. mentagrophytes (complex). Of these 15 positive samples, 11 (73.3%) were detected by mPCR. Besides these, six others, negative in culture, were identified as M. gypseum. There was good agreement between culture results and mPCR (Kappa: 0.66). The protocol standardized in this study can be used as a screening method, because it has a sensitivity greater than that of the culture, used in parallel to the routine exams, allowing a diagnosis in a shorter time.(AU)
Subject(s)Animals , Cats , Dogs , Arthrodermataceae , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Keratins , Microsporum/classification
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidences for efficacy of hot spring (HS) water in inflammatory skin disorders have not been substantiated with sufficient, immunological “hard evidence”. Mageumsan HS water, characterized by its weakly-alkaline properties and low total dissolved solids content, has been known to alleviate various immune-inflammatory skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis (AD). OBJECTIVE: The trial attempted to quantitatively analyze in vitro expression levels of chemical mediators in cutaneous inflammation from HaCaT cell line treated with Mageumsan HS, and suggest the likely mode of action through which it exerts the apparent anti-inflammatory effects in AD. METHODS: Using membrane-based human antibody array kit, customized to include 30 different, keratinocyte-derived mediator proteins, their expression levels (including interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-8, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) were assessed in vitro. Selected key proteins were further quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: There was a clear pattern of overall suppression of the mediators, especially those noted for their pro-inflammatory role in AD (monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, cutaneous T-cell-attracting chemokine, Eotaxin, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, etc.). Also, reduced expression of involucrin and cytokeratin 1 was also reduced in the HS-treated group. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that Mageumsan HS water may exert its effects on inflammatory skin disorders through regulation of proinflammatory cytokines. These evidences are to be supported with further future investigations to elucidate immunological mechanism behind these beneficial effects of HS water in the chronically inflamed skin of AD.
Subject(s)Cell Line , Chemokine CCL17 , Chemokine CCL27 , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Granulocytes , Hot Springs , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Keratins , Macrophages , Protein Array Analysis , Skin , Skin Diseases , Water
Colloid carcinoma, which is a very rare tumor of the uterine cervix, is composed of an excessive amount of mucus and a relative paucity of tumoral glandular cells within them. Herein, we report a rare case of colloid carcinoma of the cervix with adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), intestinal and usual types, and endocervical adenocarcinoma (usual type) components. We also discuss the morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of this tumor. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our outpatient clinic with the symptom of genital bleeding lasting for 5 months. She had a cervix surrounded by an irregular tumor with a diameter of 5 cm. The colloid carcinoma cells were positive for MUC2, MUC5AC, and cytokeratin (CK) 7, focal positive for CDX2, and negative for MUC6 and CK20. Also, the intestinal type AIS showed a similar staining pattern. Colloid carcinoma cells producing mucin showed an intestinal phenotype and AIS. The intestinal type can be considered as a precursor lesion of colloid carcinoma.
Subject(s)Adenocarcinoma , Adenocarcinoma in Situ , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Cervix Uteri , Colloids , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Keratins , Middle Aged , Mucins , Mucus , Phenotype
We previously demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances cell migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in a SMAD ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (SMURF1)-dependent manner and that SMURF1 induces degradation of β-catenin in C2C12 cells. However, the relationship between EGF-induced SMURF1 and β-catenin expression in breast cancer cells remains unclear. So, we investigated if EGF and SMURF1 regulate β-catenin expression in MDAMB231 human breast cancer cells. When MDAMB231 cells were incubated with EGF for 24, 48, and 72 hours, EGF significantly increased expression levels of SMURF1 mRNA and protein while suppressing expression levels of β-catenin mRNA and protein. Overexpression of SMURF1 downregulated β-catenin mRNA and protein, whereas knockdown of SMURF1 increased β-catenin expression and blocked EGF-induced β-catenin downregulation. Knockdown of β-catenin enhanced cell migration and invasion of MDAMB231 cells, while β-catenin overexpression suppressed EGF-induced cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, knockdown of β-catenin enhanced vimentin expression and decreased cytokeratin expression, whereas β-catenin overexpression decreased vimentin expression and increased cytokeratin expression. These results suggest that EGF downregulates β-catenin in a SMURF1-dependent manner and that β-catenin downregulation contributes to EGF-induced cell migration and invasion in MDAMB breast cancer cells.
Subject(s)beta Catenin , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Movement , Down-Regulation , Epidermal Growth Factor , Humans , Keratins , RNA, Messenger , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitination , Vimentin
PURPOSE: Accurate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status is important in predicting prognosis and providing treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer patients. However, performing in situ hybridization (ISH) can be an economic burden on developing countries. This study aimed to find an alternative to the ISH test by predicting the HER2 status in patients with equivocal immunohistochemistry (IHC) results. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 15,535 patients who underwent curative surgery for invasive breast cancer between February 2005 and April 2015 at the Samsung Medical Center. Equivocal HER2 IHC results were obtained for 461 patients. Logistic regression analysis using stepwise selection was performed to identify the clinicopathological factors related to silver in situ hybridization (SISH) status. We analyzed the data by dividing the estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor (PR) into three groups according to Allred score. RESULTS: Multivariable analysis identified poorly differentiated histological grade, lower PR score, higher expression of Ki-67 and p53, and lower expression of cytokeratin 5/6 and epidermal growth factor receptor as predictors of SISH-positive results. The area under the curve for the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.74. CONCLUSION: We identified factors related to a positive HER2 status by SISH. However, there was insufficient power in the prediction model for diagnosis and evaluation. Therefore, the SISH test is essential in determining the HER2 status of breast cancer patients when the IHC result is equivocal.