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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(6): 463-472, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153079

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aims of this study were to characterize alpha-hemolytic streptococci among isolates from cases of infectious endophthalmitis and keratitis and to determine their distributions. Methods: The sample included 27 and 35 nonduplicated isolates of alpha-hemolytic streptococci recovered from patients with infectious endophthalmitis (2002-2013) and keratitis (2008-2013), respectively. Isolates were identified by the optochin susceptibility and bile solubility tests, using a biochemical identification system. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the broth microdilution method. Molecular identification was performed by analyses of three constitutive genes and the complementary multilocus sequence. The molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae was investigated using multilocus sequence typing, and the presence of the capsular polysaccharide-encoding gene was assessed using conventional polymerase chain reaction. Outcomes were evaluated using the patients' medical records. Results: Phenotypic tests differentiated S. pneumoniae from other alpha-hemolytic streptococci, consistent with later molecular identifications. Streptococcus oralis was significantly prevalent among the endophthalmitis isolates, as was S. pneumoniae in the keratitis isolates. High levels of susceptibility to antibiotics were observed, including vancomycin, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. High genetic variability was detected among the 19 S. pneumoniae strains, with 15 predicted to be encapsulated. The medical records of patients with infectious endophthalmitis were reviewed (n=15/27; 56%), and final visual acuity was assessed in 12 cases (44%). Many patients progressed to a final visual acuity state of "no light perception" (6/12; 50%), "light perception" (3/12; 25%), or "hand motion" (1/12; 8%). The medical records of patients with infectious keratitis were also reviewed (n=24/35; 69%), and final visual acuity was assessed in 18 cases (51%). Similarly, most patients progressed to a final visual acuity state of "no light perception" (6/18; 33%), "light perception" (1/18; 6%), or "hand motion" (6/18; 33%). Overall, the majority of patients progressed to a final visual acuity state of "no light perception" (12/30), "light perception" (4/30), or "hand motion" (7/30). Conclusions: The distribution of alpha-hemolytic streptococci in ocular infections suggested the presence of a species-specific tissue tropism. The prognoses of patients with ocular streptococcal infections were highly unfavorable, and antibiotic resistance did not contribute to the unfavorable clinical progressions and poor outcomes.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar os estreptococos alfa-hemolíticos isolados de endoftalmite infecciosa e ceratite e determinar sua distribuição. Métodos: A amostra incluiu 27 e 35 isolados não-duplicados de estreptococos alfa-hemolíticos recuperados de pacientes com endoftalmite infecciosa (2002-2013) e ceratite (2008-2013), respectivamente. Os isolados foram identificados pelos testes de suscetibilidade à optoquina e bile solubilidade, utilizando um sistema de identificação bioquímica. A concentração inibitória mínima foi determinada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. A identificação molecular foi realizada pela análise de três genes constitutivos e análise complementar de sequências multilocus. A epidemiologia molecular do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi investigada por tipagem de sequência multilocus, e a presença do gene codificador do polissacarídeo capsular foi avaliada por reação em cadeia da polymerase convencional. Os resultados foram avaliados utilizando os prontuários médicos dos pacientes. Resultados: Os testes fenotípicos diferenciaram S. pneumoniae dos outros estreptococos alpha-hemolíticos, consistentes com identificações moleculares posteriores. S. oralis foi significativamente prevalente entre os isolados de endoftalmite, assim como S. pneumoniae nos isolados de ceratite. Foram observados altos níveis de suscetibilidade a antibióticos, incluindo vancomicina, cefalosporinas e fluoroquinolonas. Alta variabilidade genética foi detectada entre as 19 cepas de S. pneumoniae, com 15 previstas para serem encapsuladas. Os prontuários médicos dos pacientes com endoftalmite infecciosa foram revisados (n=15/27; 56%), e a acuidade visual final foi avaliada em 12 casos (44%). Muitos pacientes evoluiram para um estado final de acuidade visual de "sem percepção luminosa" (6/12; 50%), "percepção luminosa" (3/12; 25%) ou "movimentos de mãos" (1/12; 8%). Também foram revisados os prontuários médicos dos pacientes com ceratite infecciosa (n=24/35; 69%), e a acuidade visual final foi avaliada em 18 casos (51%). Da mesma foram, a maioria dos pacientes evoluiu para um estado final de acuidade visual de "sem percepção luminosa" (6/18; 33%), "percepção luminosa" (1/18; 6%) ou "movimentos de mãos" (6/18; 33%). No geral, a maioria dos pacientes evoluiu para um estado final de acuidade visual de "sem percepção luminosa" (12/30), "percepção luminosa" (4/30) ou "movimentos de mãos" (7/30). Conclusões: A distribuição de estreptococos alfa-hemolíticos nas infecções oculares sugeriu a presença de um tropismo de tecido específico da espécie. Os prognósticos dos pacientes com infeções oculares por estreptococos foram altamente desfavoráveis e a resistência a antibióticos contribuiu não para as progressões clínicas des­favoráveis e os maus resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endophthalmitis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Keratitis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Keratitis/drug therapy , Keratitis/epidemiology
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 65-68, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088960

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We describe a case of keratomycosis caused by Arthographis kalrae after excimer laser keratomileusis. A 38-year-old female developed stromal keratitis eight weeks after refractive surgery. She developed severe corneal stromal infiltration and mild anterior segment inflammation, which could not be treated with topical voriconazole 1%, but topical natamycin 5% ameliorated her condition. A reactivation of keratomycosis symptoms was observed; therefore, longer treatment was administered to the patient. It has been reported that A. kalrae keratomycosis is associated with exposure to soil and contact lens usage. However, the patient, who lived in a rural location, was neither involved in gardening activities nor had a history of wearing contact lenses. This is the first case of post-refractive A. kalrae keratomycosis.


RESUMO Descrevemos um caso de ceratomicose por Arthographis kalrae após ceratomileusis por excimer laser. Uma mulher de 38 anos desenvolveu ceratite estromal oito semanas após a cirurgia refrativa. Ela desenvolveu infiltração estromal grave da córnea e uma leve inflamação do segmento anterior, que não pode ser tratada com voriconazol tópico a 1%, mas a natamicina tópica a 5% melhorou sua condição. Uma reativação dos síntomas de ceratomicose foi observada; portanto, tratamento mais prolongado foi administrado a paciente. Tem sido relatado que a ceratomicose por A. kalrae está associada à exposição ao solo e ao uso de lentes de contato. No entanto, a paciente, que vivía em um local rural, não estava envolvida em atividades de jardinagem e nem tinha histórico de uso de lentes de contato. Este é o primeiro caso de ceratomicose pós-refrativa por A. kalrae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Keratitis/microbiology , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Natamycin/therapeutic use , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ/adverse effects , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Keratitis/drug therapy
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1007853

ABSTRACT

La córnea es un órgano transparente e inmunológicamente privilegiado, debido a la falta de vasos sanguíneos, distribución y acomodación de sus fibras de colágeno. Sus ingeniosos métodos de defensa incluyen barreras físicas como el epitelio corneal, el recambio y composición de la película lágrima, y finalmente, la protección recibida del medio ambiente por medio del párpado. La córnea tiene 5 capas, incluyendo un epitelio de 5 a 7 células de espesor, estroma y endotelio, con capas de apoyo entre el estroma y las otras dos capas. A la infección de la córnea secundaria a bacterias, hongos, ó protozoarios se le conoce como queratitis1, una afección que amenaza a la visión y que puede llegar a perforación corneal o a una extensión de la infección como la endoftalmitis. De hecho, la complicación más seria de la queratitis es la ceguera producida por cicatrización corneal(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Keratitis/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Contact Lenses/adverse effects , Keratitis/etiology , Keratitis/drug therapy
4.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(2): 152-154, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989405

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT - We describe here a case of a 21-year-old woman who presented with low visual acuity, pain, and hyperemia in the left eye for 45 days. Her eye had extensive corneal infiltrate, with melting and a central perforation that was glued with cyanoacrylate, but with Seidel (+). She underwent tectonic corneal transplantation, and anterior chamber lavage with subconjunctival infiltration with voriconazole, as well as intracameral injections of amphotericin B. Laboratory tests revealed Paecilomyces lilacinus as the infectious agent. The patient was then maintained with oral voriconazole and eye drops for three months, after which the infection was considered cured. However, in the sixth postoperative month she presented with endothelial rejection, and two weeks later signs of recurrence of the fungal infection. She was treated with two further washes of the anterior chamber and subconjunctival injection of voriconazole, followed by intravenous voriconazole that was replaced with drops after ten days. The infection initially worsened, but then regressed, and at last follow-up, the patient was still infection-free.


RESUMO - Descrevemos aqui um caso de uma mulher de 21 anos que apresentou baixa acuidade visual, dor e hiperemia no olho esquerdo por 45 dias. O olho apresentava infiltrado corneano extenso, com fusão e perfuração central colada com cianoacrilato, mas com Seidel (+). Ela foi submetida a transplante de córnea tectônica e lavagem de câmara anterior com infiltração subconjuntival com voriconazol, além de injeções intracamerais de anfoterecina B. Testes laboratoriais revelaram Paecilomyces lilacinus como agente infeccioso. A paciente foi então mantida com voriconazol oral e colírio por período de três meses, após o qual a infecção foi considerada curada. No entanto, no sexto mês de pós-operatório, ela apresentou rejeição endotelial e, duas semanas após, sinais de recidiva de infecção fúngica. Ela foi tratada com mais duas lavagens de câmara anterior e injeção subconjuntival de voriconazol, seguida por voriconazol intravenoso que foi substituído por gotas após 10 dias. A infecção piorou inicialmente, mas depois regrediu e, no último seguimento, o paciente ainda estava livre de infecção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Paecilomyces/isolation & purification , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Keratitis/microbiology , Keratitis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Fungal/surgery , Corneal Transplantation/methods , Treatment Outcome , Injections, Intraocular , Keratitis/surgery
5.
Medwave ; 18(8): e7387, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-969322

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La queratitis infecciosa de origen fúngico afecta principalmente a personas de países tropicales y subtropicales, y constituye una importante causa de ceguera prevenible. Los antifúngicos tópicos, en particular la natamicina y el voriconazol, se consideran efectivos, pero no está claro cuál de ellos constituye la mejor alternativa de tratamiento. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron tres estudios primarios, todos correspondientes a ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que natamicina probablemente se asocia a mejor agudeza visual tras la infección, y que previene la perforación corneal y/o la necesidad de realizar queratoplastia terapéutica en comparación a voriconazol en queratitis fúngica.


INTRODUCTION: Infectious keratitis of fungal origin mainly affects people in tropical and subtropical countries, and is an important cause of preventable blindness. Topical antifungals, particularly natamycin and voriconazole, are considered effective, but it is not clear which one is the best treatment alternative. METHODS: We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified three systematic reviews including three studies overall,all of which were randomized trials. We concluded natamycin probably is associated with better visual acuity after infection, and it prevents corneal perforation and/or need to perform therapeutic keratoplasty compared to voriconazole in fungal keratitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Natamycin/administration & dosage , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Keratitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Databases, Factual , Keratitis/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 205-212, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974346

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study compares patients with and without non-viral microbial keratitis in relation to sociodemographic variables, clinical aspects, and involved causative agent. Clinical aspects, etiology and therapeutic procedures were assessed in patients with and without keratitis that were diagnosed in an Eye Care Center in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: (a) cases: 64 patients with non-viral microbial keratitis diagnosed at biomicroscopy; and (b) controls: 47 patients with other eye disorders that were not keratitis. Labor activity related to agriculture, cattle raising, and contact lens use were all linked to keratitis occurrence (p < 0.005). In patients with keratitis, the most common symptoms were pain and photophobia, and the most frequently used medicines were fourth-generation fluoroquinolones (34.4%), amphotericin B (31.3%), and natamycin (28.1%). Microbial keratitis evolved to corneal perforation in 15.6% of cases; transplant was indicated in 10.9% of cases. Regarding the etiology of this condition, 23 (42.2%) keratitis cases were caused by bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 12.5%), 17 (39.1%) by fungi (Fusarium spp., 14.1% and Aspergillus spp., 4.7%), and 4 (6.3%) by Acanthamoeba. Patients with keratitis present with a poorer prognosis. Rapid identification of the etiologic agent is indispensable and depends on appropriate ophthalmological collection and microbiological techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Keratitis/microbiology , Mycoses/microbiology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Brazil , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/genetics , Keratitis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(6): 750-754, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734770

ABSTRACT

We report a case of mycotic keratitis caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae in a 60-year-old man with a history of ocular trauma with vegetable matter. Ophthalmological assessment with slit-lamp and microbiological evaluation of the corneal ulcer by conventional microbiological techniques were performed. Mycology study of the corneal scraping showed the presence of fungal filaments and the isolate was identified as Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Patient was treated with natamycin 5% and fluconazole 0.2% for 37 days. The infection was controlled but the corneal scars required a cornea transplant. This is the first case of keratitis by Lasiodiplodia theobromae in Paraguay. Difficulties in the management of these cases, which often requires surgical procedures, are discussed.


Se presenta un caso clínico de queratitis causada por Lasiodiplodia theobromae en un agricultor de 60 años de edad, con antecedentes de un trauma ocular con un vegetal. Se realizó un examen oftalmológico con lámpara de hendidura y estudio microbiológico de la úlcera corneal por técnicas microbiológicas convencionales. El examen micológico del raspado corneal reveló la presencia de hifas septadas y el cultivo fue identificado como Lasiodiplodia theobromae. El paciente fue tratado con natamicina al 5% y fluconazol al 0,2% durante 37 días. La infección fue controlada, sin embargo, el paciente quedó con cicatrices corneales y con necesidad de trasplante. Es el primer caso de queratitis por Lasiodiplodia theobromae en Paraguay. Se discute la dificultad de manejo de estos casos que a menudo requieren procedimientos quirúrgicos y trasplante de córnea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Keratitis/diagnosis , Ascomycota/classification , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Keratitis/drug therapy
8.
MEAJO-Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2014; 21 (1): 92-94
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-139611

ABSTRACT

To describe a case of Alternaria keratitis in a 30-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral vascularised central corneal opacity and underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty [DALK] in the left eye. Patient was treated for recurrent epithelial defect with a bandage contact lens in the follow-up visits after DALK. Subsequently, patient presented with pigmented fungal keratitis, which on culture examination of the corneal scrapping demonstrated Alternaria species. Patient had to undergo a repeat DALK as the keratitis did not resolve with medical therapy alone. Patient did not have a recurrence for 11 months following the regraft. This case report highlights the importance of considering the Alternaria species as a possibile cause of non-resolving fungal keratitis after DALK


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , Eye Infections, Fungal , Risk Factors , Keratitis/drug therapy
9.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 72(6): 366-372, nov.-dez. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-704737

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do crosslinking (CXL) no tratamento de ceratite infecciosa, resistente ao tratamento clínico, e investigar a relação com o agente etiológico. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 11 pacientes com diagnóstico de ceratite infecciosa de etiologia bacteriana (sete olhos) e fúngica (quatro olhos) na Fundação Altino Ventura (FAV) no período de outubro de 2011 a maio de 2012. Os pacientes incluídos estavam em uso de colírios há pelo menos sete dias e não apresentavam melhora da infecção. Estes foram avaliados antes da realização do CXL e no período pós-operatório até cicatrização da úlcera. Para realização do CXL foram instiladas gotas de riboflavina a 0,1% e dextrano a 20%, a cada cinco minutos em um período de 30 minutos antes do procedimento, e durante a aplicação da luz ultravioleta A (UVA). A córnea foi exposta à UVA com comprimento de onda de 370ηm ± 5ηm e uma irradiância de 3mW/cm2. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes com infecção bacteriana obtiveram cura do processo infeccioso após o CXL e nenhum paciente com ceratite fúngica apresentou cicatrização. Observou-se associação significante (p = 0,003) entre o agente etiológico e a cicatrização. CONCLUSÃO: O CXL mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento da ceratite bacteriana resistente ao tratamento clínico, evitando a realização de transplante tectônico. Em relação à ceratite fúngica, este procedimento não influenciou na melhora do processo infeccioso.


PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of corneal crosslinking (CXL) in the treatment of infectious keratitis resistant to medical treatment, and investigate the relation with the CXL outcome to the etiologic agent. METHODS: The study included 11 patients who were diagnosed with bacterial (seven eyes) or fungal keratitis (four eyes) at Altino Ventura Foundation from october 2011 to may 2012. All patients were using antibiotic eye drops for at least 7 days and have had no infection improvement. Patients were evaluated prior to CXL and the postoperative period until healing of the keratitis. For CXL, eyes were first instilled with a solution containing 0.1% riboflavin and 20% dextran for 30 min at a 5-minutes interval. Riboflavin-soaked eyes were then irradiated with UVA light (370ηm ± 5ηm) at 3mW/cm2 for 30 minutes. RESULTS: Eyes with bacterial infection exhibited improvement of infectious symptoms after CXL whereas eyes with fungal keratitis showed no improvement. Thus, there was a statistically significant correlation (p = 0.003) between the etiologic agent and the effectiveness of healing. CONCLUSION: CXL was effective in the treatment of bacterial keratitis resistant to clinical treatment, eliminating the need for surgery. However, CXL was not effective in managing fungal keratitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Keratitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Cross-Linking Reagents/therapeutic use , Corneal Ulcer/diagnosis , Corneal Ulcer/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143904

ABSTRACT

We report a case of CMV corneal endotheliitis that was treated with intravitreal ganciclovir injection. A 56-year-old man who has suffered from uveitis was referred to our clinic due to corneal endothelial abnormality. Slit lamp examination showed a localized sectoral corneal edema and linear keratic precipitates along the boundary of edema. In spite of treatment with oral steroid and acyclovir, the disease progressed and two new coin-like lesions were developed. After topical ganciclovir and intavitreal injection of ganciclovir, the corneal lesions disappeared.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Endothelium, Corneal/virology , Ganciclovir/administration & dosage , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Keratitis/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143897

ABSTRACT

We report a case of CMV corneal endotheliitis that was treated with intravitreal ganciclovir injection. A 56-year-old man who has suffered from uveitis was referred to our clinic due to corneal endothelial abnormality. Slit lamp examination showed a localized sectoral corneal edema and linear keratic precipitates along the boundary of edema. In spite of treatment with oral steroid and acyclovir, the disease progressed and two new coin-like lesions were developed. After topical ganciclovir and intavitreal injection of ganciclovir, the corneal lesions disappeared.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Endothelium, Corneal/virology , Ganciclovir/administration & dosage , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Keratitis/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 25(2): 342-349, oct.-dic. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657939

ABSTRACT

La queratitis lamelar difusa es una inflamación estéril de la interfase lamelar que suele presentarse 24 horas después de la realización de la queratomileusis in situ asistida con láser y potencialmente puede comprometer la agudeza visual final. Se presenta un paciente de 25 años de edad con antecedentes de cirugía refractiva corneal mediante queratomileusis in situ con láser en el ojo derecho, que tuvo como complicación durante el acto quirúrgico un corte incompleto. En el posoperatorio inmediato se le diagnosticó una queratitis lamelar difusa. Se aplicó tratamiento local y se obtuvo la recuperación visual total del paciente con estabilidad del defecto refractivo. Esto permite posteriormente realizarle la corrección mediante cirugía refractiva de superficie


The diffuse lamellar keratitis is a sterile swelling of the lamellar interface which arises generally 24 hours after laser in situ keratomileusis and might affect the final visual acuity. A 25 years- old patient with history of corneal refractive surgery by laser in situ keratomileusis on his right eye was reported. He suffered from an incomplete corneal flap cut as complication during the surgical procedure, and a diffuse lamellar keratitis was detected at the immediate postsurgical visit. Total visual recovery and the refractive defect stability were attained through local treatment. This allows further correcting the defect by means of a surface refractive surgery in the future


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Keratitis/complications , Keratitis/drug therapy , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ/adverse effects , Case Reports
13.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 75(6): 423-426, nov.-dez. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675627

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess S. aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet light A (UVA) and riboflavin (B2). METHODS: Samples of S. aureus in 96 well plates (in triplicate) were exposed to riboflavin (B2) and ultraviolet light A (365 nm wavelength) at a power density of 3 mW/cm², 8 mm spot diameter, for 30 minutes. Control groups were prepared as well in triplicate: blank control, ultraviolet light A only, riboflavin only and dead bacteria Control. The bacterial viability was measured using fluorescent microscopy. In order to investigate the occurrence of "viable but non-culturable" microorganisms after treatment, the cell viability was also investigated by plate culture procedure onto a broth medium. Statistical analysis was performed using the triplicate values from each experimental condition. RESULTS: No difference was observed among the treatment group and the control samples (p=1). CONCLUSION: The combination of riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet light A at 365 nm did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against oxacillin susceptible S. aureus.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade celular de S. aureus in vitro após a exposição de riboflavina (B2) e luz ultravioleta A (UVA). MÉTODOS: Amostras de S. aureus colocadas em uma placa de 96 poços (em triplicata) foram expostas a riboflavina 0,1% (B2) e luz ultravioleta (comprimento de onda de 365 nm) poder de 3 mW/cm², 8 mm de diâmetro, por 30 minutos. Grupos controles foram também preparados em triplicata: controle branco, somente luz ultravioleta A, somente riboflavina e controle morto. A viabilidade bacteriana foi analisada usando microscópio de fluorescência. Para investigar a ocorrência de micro-organismos "viáveis porem não cultiváveis" a viabilidade celular foi avaliada utilizando-se placas de meio de cultivo bacteriano. Analise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se os valores obtidos em triplicata de cada grupo experimental. RESULTADOS: Nenhuma diferença foi observada entre o grupo tratamento e os grupos controle (p=1). CONCLUSÃO: A combinação riboflavina 0,1% e luz ultravioleta 365 nm de comprimento de onda não demonstrou atividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus oxacilina sensível.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Keratitis/microbiology , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Riboflavin/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Colony Count, Microbial , Keratitis/drug therapy , Microbial Viability , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Riboflavin/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Vitamin B Complex/therapeutic use
14.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2012 Apr-Jun 55(2): 248-249
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142235

ABSTRACT

We report a case of keratomycosis caused by Exserohilum rostratum. A 46-year-old farmer presented with history of pain, watery discharge and redness of the right eye for the past 2 weeks following trauma with vegetable matter. On ocular examination, a central corneal ulcer of about 8 mm with a greyish-white slough, feathery edges and diffuse corneal edema was seen in the right eye. KOH examination of corneal scrapings revealed thick, brown, branched, septate hyphae. Culture of corneal scrapings on Sabouraud dextrose agar showed velvety greenish-black colony with a black pigment on the reverse. The culture was identified as E. rostratum on the basis of microscopic morphology. The patient responded well to treatment with topical natamycin and oral itraconazole.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Ascomycota/cytology , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Culture Media/chemistry , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/pathology , Humans , Itraconazole/administration & dosage , Keratitis/diagnosis , Keratitis/drug therapy , Keratitis/microbiology , Keratitis/pathology , Male , Microscopy , Middle Aged , Mycology/methods , Natamycin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Wounds and Injuries/complications
15.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2011 Nov; 59(6): 512-514
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136241

ABSTRACT

In this study, 60 fungal isolates from 60 patients with fungal keratitis were tested in vitro for their susceptibility to natamycin and the mean minimum inhibitory concentrations of natamycin (MICn) were correlated with clinical outcome. The mean MICn for various groups of fungi from patients with either early (<10 days) or late (≥10 days) presentation was correlated with the outcome. Aspergillus flavus showed resistance to natamycin with a high mean MICn (>16 μg/ml). While the clinical response in all patients with early A. flavus keratitis was good it was poor in late cases (5/8 patients, 62.5%). Fusarium species, Acremonium species and dematiaceous fungi were sensitive with low mean MICn (Fusarium: 5.7-7.2 μg/ml, Acremonium: 5.7-6.8 μg/ml, dematiaceous: (1.6-4 μg/ml). However, 46.6% (7/15) patients in Fusarium and 57.1% (4/7) in Acremonium group needed keratoplasty. We conclude that despite susceptibility of most fungal species causing keratitis to natamycin, the treatment outcome is poor in advanced fungal keratitis.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Keratitis/drug therapy , Keratitis/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Natamycin/administration & dosage , Ophthalmic Solutions , Prospective Studies
16.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 43(3): 195-197, jun.-set. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-634693

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del presente informe es describir un caso de queratopatía cristalina causada por microorganismos pertenecientes al grupo Streptococcus mitis en una paciente que concurrió a la consulta oftalmológica por molestias en su ojo derecho. Al examen oftalmológico presentó un punto de sutura interrumpida de nylon 10-0 sin tensión y con secreciones mucosas adheridas. El punto flojo fue retirado bajo normas de asepsia. Se indicó colirio de moxifloxacina al 0,5 %; el ojo tuvo una evolución adecuada, con una correcta epitelización. Sin embargo, luego de 15 días desarrolló un infiltrado blanquecino arboriforme. Se tomó una muestra en el quirófano, enhebrando el trayecto intraestromal de la sutura retirada con sutura de vicryl 7-0. Se indicaron colirios de vancomicina con 50 mg/ml. El infiltrado se mantuvo estable durante 45 días, luego se incrementó el tamaño y se produjo necrosis tisular con peligro de perforación corneal. Se realizó un recubrimiento conjuntival bipediculado. La paciente evolucionó favorablemente y luego de la retracción espontánea del recubrimiento, se observó leucoma cicatrizal y neovasos corneales.


Crystalline keratopathy: an infrequent corneal infection produced by the Streptococcus mitis group. The objective of this report is to describe a case of crystalline keratopathy caused by the Streptococcus mitis group corresponding to a patient who attended hospital for discomfort in his right eye. The ophthalmological examination showed an interrupted stitch of 10-0 nylon suture without tension and with attached mucus secretions. The loose suture was removed under aseptic conditions. Moxifloxacin 0.5 % eye drops were topically indicated. The treated eye successfully epithelialized and evolved favorably. However, after 15 days, a white tree-shaped infiltrate developed. A corneal sample was taken in the operating room, threading the intrastromal path of the removed stitch with a 7-0 vicryl suture. Vancomycin 50 mg/ml drops were indicated. The infiltrate, which was stable for 45 days, later increased its size and tissue necrosis occurred with danger of corneal perforation. A bipedicle conjunctival flap was performed in the affected corneal area, which evolved favorably. After spontaneous conjunctival flap retraction, only corneal scarring and neovascularization outside the visual axis were observed.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , Keratitis/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus mitis/isolation & purification , Surgical Wound Infection/microbiology , Sutures/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Combined Modality Therapy , Conjunctiva/surgery , Equipment Contamination , Keratitis/diagnosis , Keratitis/drug therapy , Keratitis/surgery , Surgical Flaps , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcal Infections/surgery , Streptococcus mitis/drug effects , Surgical Wound Infection/diagnosis , Sutures/microbiology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125046

ABSTRACT

We report on a case of necrotizing keratoscleritis in primary Sjogren's syndrome. A 66-year-old female patient who was complaining of ocular pain, tearing and decreased vision in her right eye for the previous two days was admitted to our hospital. Visual acuity in the right eye was hand movement, and initial examination showed a 3.0 x 1.8 mm uveal mass bulging through a corneoscleral melting site in the nasal region of the right eye. Positive anti-nuclear antibody was identified at a titer of 1:320 with a speckled pattern, and both Sjogren's syndrome A and Sjogren's syndrome B antibody tests were positive, with titers >200 U/mL. A technetium 99m pertechnetate salivary scan revealed chronic sialoadenitis in the submandibular glands. We diagnosed the lesion as necrotizing keratoscleritis due to primary Sjogren's syndrome. A corneoscleral patch graft was performed, followed by immunosuppression including oral cyclosporin and topical prednisolone. During a follow-up period of 12 months, the corneoscleral graft was well maintained with no recurrence.


Subject(s)
Aged , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Keratitis/drug therapy , Necrosis , Ophthalmic Solutions , Scleritis/drug therapy , Sjogren's Syndrome/complications , Visual Acuity
18.
Clinics ; 66(8): 1443-1450, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598402

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of subconjunctival bevacizumab on corneal neovascularization in an experimental rabbit model for its effect on vessel extension, inflammation, and corneal epithelialization. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, blinded, experimental study, 20 rabbits were submitted to a chemical trauma with sodium hydroxide and subsequently divided into two groups. The experimental group received a subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab (0.15 m; 3.75 mg), and the control group received an injection of 0.15 ml saline solution. After 14 days, two blinded digital photograph analyses were conducted to evaluate the inflammation/diameter of the vessels according to pre-established criteria. A histopathological analysis of the cornea evaluated the state of the epithelium and the number of polymorphonuclear cells. RESULTS: A concordance analysis using Kappa's statistic showed a satisfactory level of agreement between the two blinded digital photography analyses. The neovascular vessel length was greater in the control group (p<0.01) than in the study group. However, the histopathological examination revealed no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the state of the epithelium and the number of polymorphonuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: Subconjunctival bevacizumab inhibited neovascularization in the rabbit cornea. However, this drug was not effective at reducing inflammation. The drug did not induce persistent corneal epithelial defects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Corneal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Endothelium, Corneal/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Keratitis/drug therapy , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Burns, Chemical/complications , Caustics , Corneal Neovascularization/etiology , Corneal Neovascularization/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelium, Corneal/growth & development , Eye Burns/complications , Injections, Intraocular , Keratitis/pathology , Prospective Studies , Random Allocation , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium Hydroxide
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 62(4): 791-796, Aug. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-562042

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se a concentração de ofloxacina liberada por uma lente de contato de membrana de celulose biossintética, para tratamento de ceratite bacteriana experimental em cães, pela inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus intraestromal. Comparou-se o tratamento com a lente de contato biossintética impregnada com ofloxacina à terapia tópica convencional. Realizou-se avaliação microbiológica e dosagem de ofloxacina no humor aquoso por meio do método de cromatografia líquida de alto rendimento (HPLC). Houve diferença estatística na contagem de colônias bacterianas entre os olhos com ceratite e os demais grupos, no primeiro dia de coleta. O biomaterial, impregnado com ofloxacina, promoveu liberação gradual durante o período de avaliação, aos três e sete dias; no terceiro dia, o grupo tratado com a lente de contato obteve mediana de 3,72μg/mL, enquanto o grupo tratado com colírio resultou em 49,56μg/mL. Apesar do valor inferior, o grupo com lente de contato atingiu a concentração inibitória mínima, sendo eficaz no controle da infecção bacteriana.


The concentration of ofloxacin released by contact lens made of biosynthetic cellulose membrane was evaluated for the treatment of experimental bacterial keratitis in dogs by intrastromal inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus. The biosynthetic contact lens impregnated with ofloxacin was compared with the conventional topical therapy. The microbiological evaluation and the determination of ofloxacin in aqueous humor were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). There was not statistical difference in the counting of bacterial colonies among the eyes with keratitis and other groups, on the first day of collection. The biomaterial, impregnated with ofloxacin, promoted gradual release during the evaluation period, at three and seven days; on the third day, the group treated with the contact lens obtained a median of 3.72μg/mL, while the group treated with eye drops resulted in 49.56μg/mL. Despite the lower value, the group with contact lens reached the minimum inhibitory concentration, which was effective in controlling the bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Biocompatible Materials , Contact Lenses , Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Keratitis/drug therapy , Keratitis/veterinary , Fluoroquinolones/analysis
20.
Medical Journal of Mashad University of Medical Sciences. 2010; 53 (1): 16-25
in English, Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-98948

ABSTRACT

Mycotic Keratitis is a suppurative, usually ulcerative, and sight threatening infection of cornea that sometimes leads to loss of vision. The peak of incidence is observed in the tropical and subtropical regions. To investigate the etiological agent, predisposing factors and treatment follow up of mycotic keratitis; this study was undertaken over a period of 2 years in Mashhad. In this prospective, cross sectional study, among 466 individuals suffering from keratitis,65 patients, highly suspected to mycotic keratitis were examined by direct fresh smear [KOH 10%] and culture in Mycology Media. The results were analyzed by SPSS method. Among 65 clinically suspected individuals, the results of direct smear and culture of 44 patients were positive, of patients, 21 were male [47.1%] and 24 were female [52.3%]. The patients were between 8 to 84 years old. More than 40% of them were farmers. Trauma was the most common predisposing factor in more than 47% of cases due to vegetable materials. Molds and Yeasts were isolated from 86.4% and 13.6% of the samples respectively. Fusarium spp. were the most frequent isolates [44.4%].Others included Aspergillus spp. [21.8%], Acremonium spp. [8.3%], Penicillium spp. [5.6%] and Candida albicam [13.9%]. Tearing and redness were the most common symptoms observed [93.2%]. Amphotricin B was used in patients with Aspergillus and Candida Keratitis., but for Fusarium and other molds keratitis, Natamycin was used for 6 to 12 weeks. In one patient with Fusarium Keratitis, medical therapy was failed and therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Six months follow up showed that prognosis was good in all of the patients. In relation to the last decade, the incidence of Mycotic Keratitis is increased in Mashhad. Keratitis due to the molds is more prevalent than yeast keratitis. Entrance of foreign body [Plant particles] is the most common predisposing factor. However, it needs long term therapy but the prognosis is good


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Keratitis/microbiology , Keratitis/etiology , Prognosis , Keratitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Prospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
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