Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 28
Filter
1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(6): 463-472, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153079

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aims of this study were to characterize alpha-hemolytic streptococci among isolates from cases of infectious endophthalmitis and keratitis and to determine their distributions. Methods: The sample included 27 and 35 nonduplicated isolates of alpha-hemolytic streptococci recovered from patients with infectious endophthalmitis (2002-2013) and keratitis (2008-2013), respectively. Isolates were identified by the optochin susceptibility and bile solubility tests, using a biochemical identification system. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the broth microdilution method. Molecular identification was performed by analyses of three constitutive genes and the complementary multilocus sequence. The molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae was investigated using multilocus sequence typing, and the presence of the capsular polysaccharide-encoding gene was assessed using conventional polymerase chain reaction. Outcomes were evaluated using the patients' medical records. Results: Phenotypic tests differentiated S. pneumoniae from other alpha-hemolytic streptococci, consistent with later molecular identifications. Streptococcus oralis was significantly prevalent among the endophthalmitis isolates, as was S. pneumoniae in the keratitis isolates. High levels of susceptibility to antibiotics were observed, including vancomycin, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. High genetic variability was detected among the 19 S. pneumoniae strains, with 15 predicted to be encapsulated. The medical records of patients with infectious endophthalmitis were reviewed (n=15/27; 56%), and final visual acuity was assessed in 12 cases (44%). Many patients progressed to a final visual acuity state of "no light perception" (6/12; 50%), "light perception" (3/12; 25%), or "hand motion" (1/12; 8%). The medical records of patients with infectious keratitis were also reviewed (n=24/35; 69%), and final visual acuity was assessed in 18 cases (51%). Similarly, most patients progressed to a final visual acuity state of "no light perception" (6/18; 33%), "light perception" (1/18; 6%), or "hand motion" (6/18; 33%). Overall, the majority of patients progressed to a final visual acuity state of "no light perception" (12/30), "light perception" (4/30), or "hand motion" (7/30). Conclusions: The distribution of alpha-hemolytic streptococci in ocular infections suggested the presence of a species-specific tissue tropism. The prognoses of patients with ocular streptococcal infections were highly unfavorable, and antibiotic resistance did not contribute to the unfavorable clinical progressions and poor outcomes.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar os estreptococos alfa-hemolíticos isolados de endoftalmite infecciosa e ceratite e determinar sua distribuição. Métodos: A amostra incluiu 27 e 35 isolados não-duplicados de estreptococos alfa-hemolíticos recuperados de pacientes com endoftalmite infecciosa (2002-2013) e ceratite (2008-2013), respectivamente. Os isolados foram identificados pelos testes de suscetibilidade à optoquina e bile solubilidade, utilizando um sistema de identificação bioquímica. A concentração inibitória mínima foi determinada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. A identificação molecular foi realizada pela análise de três genes constitutivos e análise complementar de sequências multilocus. A epidemiologia molecular do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi investigada por tipagem de sequência multilocus, e a presença do gene codificador do polissacarídeo capsular foi avaliada por reação em cadeia da polymerase convencional. Os resultados foram avaliados utilizando os prontuários médicos dos pacientes. Resultados: Os testes fenotípicos diferenciaram S. pneumoniae dos outros estreptococos alpha-hemolíticos, consistentes com identificações moleculares posteriores. S. oralis foi significativamente prevalente entre os isolados de endoftalmite, assim como S. pneumoniae nos isolados de ceratite. Foram observados altos níveis de suscetibilidade a antibióticos, incluindo vancomicina, cefalosporinas e fluoroquinolonas. Alta variabilidade genética foi detectada entre as 19 cepas de S. pneumoniae, com 15 previstas para serem encapsuladas. Os prontuários médicos dos pacientes com endoftalmite infecciosa foram revisados (n=15/27; 56%), e a acuidade visual final foi avaliada em 12 casos (44%). Muitos pacientes evoluiram para um estado final de acuidade visual de "sem percepção luminosa" (6/12; 50%), "percepção luminosa" (3/12; 25%) ou "movimentos de mãos" (1/12; 8%). Também foram revisados os prontuários médicos dos pacientes com ceratite infecciosa (n=24/35; 69%), e a acuidade visual final foi avaliada em 18 casos (51%). Da mesma foram, a maioria dos pacientes evoluiu para um estado final de acuidade visual de "sem percepção luminosa" (6/18; 33%), "percepção luminosa" (1/18; 6%) ou "movimentos de mãos" (6/18; 33%). No geral, a maioria dos pacientes evoluiu para um estado final de acuidade visual de "sem percepção luminosa" (12/30), "percepção luminosa" (4/30) ou "movimentos de mãos" (7/30). Conclusões: A distribuição de estreptococos alfa-hemolíticos nas infecções oculares sugeriu a presença de um tropismo de tecido específico da espécie. Os prognósticos dos pacientes com infeções oculares por estreptococos foram altamente desfavoráveis e a resistência a antibióticos contribuiu não para as progressões clínicas des­favoráveis e os maus resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endophthalmitis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Keratitis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Keratitis/drug therapy , Keratitis/epidemiology
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(1): 46-52, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092661

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To compare clinical-epidemiological profile and treatment outcome between culture negative and culture positive keratitis patients. Methods: Patients with suspected infectious keratitis seen at two ophthalmic hospitals in Curitiba, Brazil, between June 2014 and April 2016, were prospectively studied. Ophthalmological exam with corneal scraping and microbiological tests were performed. Data regarding follow up, surgical interventions and treatment outcome were collected after 12 weeks of the first visit trough medical chart review. From the results of the culture, two groups were formed: culture negative keratitis (CNK) and culture positive keratitis (CPK). Results: According to inclusion criteria 21 patients were classified as culture negative keratitis and 20 patients as culture positive keratitis. The number of patients on antibiotic drops at the first visit was greater in CNK group (90.5% versus 60%; p=0.032). Surgical procedures were necessary in 3 patients (15%) in CNK group and in 7 patients (36,8%) in CPK group (p=0.155). Treatment success was achieved by 85% (17/20) of the patients in CNK group and by 61% (11/18) of the patients in CPK group (p=0.144). There was no significant difference between groups regarding age, gender, place of residence, presence of comorbidities, risk factors for infectious keratitis, duration of symptoms and characteristics of corneal ulcer. Conclusions: Previous treatment with antibiotics correlates with negative culture results. There was no significant difference in treatment outcome between culture negative and culture positive keratitis patients.


Resumo Objetivo: Comparar os perfis clinico-epidemiológicos e os desfechos entre pacientes com ceratite com cultura positiva e pacientes com ceratite com cultura negativa. Métodos: Pacientes com ceratite infecciosa, atendidos em dois hospitais oftalmológicos em Curitiba, Brasil, entre junho de 2014 e abril de 2016, foram estudados prospectivamente. Exame oftalmológico, raspado de córnea e exames microbiológicos foram realizados no primeiro atendimento. Os dados quanto a seguimento e desfecho foram coletados após 12 semanas do primeiro atendimento através de revisão de prontuário. A partir dos resultados das culturas, dois grupos foram formados: ceratite com cultura negativa e ceratite com cultura positiva. Resultados: Vinte e um pacientes foram classificados como ceratite com cultura negativa e 20 como ceratite com cultura positiva. O número de pacientes em uso de colírio antibiótico no primeiro atendimento foi maior no grupo de cultura negativa (90,5% versus 60%; p=0,032). Sete pacientes (37%) no grupo cultura positiva precisaram de procedimentos cirúrgicos no manejo da ceratite, versus 3 pacientes (15%) do grupo cultura negativa (p=0,155). Oitenta e cinco por cento (17/20) dos pacientes do grupo cultura negativa alcançaram sucesso no tratamento, contra 61% (11/18) dos pacientes no grupo cultura positiva (p=0,144). Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto a idade, gênero, local de procedência, presença de comorbidades, fatores de risco, duração dos sintomas e características da úlcera de córnea. Conclusão: Tratamento prévio com colírio de antibiótico correlaciona-se com resultados negativos de cultura. Não houve diferença no desfecho após tratamento entre os pacientes com cultura negativa e cultura positiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Keratitis/diagnosis , Keratitis/microbiology , Keratitis/parasitology , Keratitis/drug therapy , Keratitis/epidemiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Acanthamoeba/isolation & purification , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/diagnosis , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/parasitology , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/drug therapy , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Treatment Outcome , Fungi/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(6): 370-374, nov.-dez. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057909

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: A queratite infeciosa é uma doença de incidência relativamente elevada e é responsável por um número importante de internamentos. Neste estudo pretende-se estudar diversas características epidemiológicas e clínicas associadas às queratites infeciosas de alto risco num hospital terciário em Portugal. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo retrospetivo, onde foram incluídos todos os doentes internados por abcesso da córnea no Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto (CHUP), entre Abril de 2013 a Março de 2018. Caracterizou-se a população em relação aos fatores de risco, apresentação clínica, tempo de internamento, resultados de culturas, resistência antibiótica in vitro, tratamento efetuado e resultado funcional. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 105 doentes. Os principais fatores de risco foram antecedentes de cirurgia de córnea, uso de lentes de contacto e história recente de trauma ocular. 74,3% dos doentes tiveram cultura positiva com 87,9% a corresponderem a cultura bacteriana pura, sendo a Pseudomonas aeruginosa e o Streptococcus pneumoniae os agentes etiológicos mais frequentes. 27,9% das culturas positivas eram resistentes a 3 ou mais classes de antibióticos. Todos os doentes iniciaram tratamento com colírios fortificados. 29,5% dos doentes necessitaram de realizar transplante de córnea. Ao final de 6 meses de seguimento, apenas 20,9% apresentavam AV>20/40. Conclusão: Na maioria dos casos, a etiologia foi bacteriana. Observou-se um número considerável de bactérias multirresistentes. Apesar do tratamento ter permitido uma melhoria da visão na maioria dos casos, um número considerável de doentes ficou com sequelas visuais importantes.


Abstract Objective: Infectious keratitis is a pathology with a high incidence and is responsible for a large number of prolonged stay hospital admissions. The purpose was to analyze the epidemiological and clinical data associated with high risk microbial keratitis at a central hospital in Portugal. Methods: A retrospective study of all inpatients presenting with corneal abscess in Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto, from April 2013 to March 2018 was performed. Target population was characterized by risk factors, clinical features, length of stay, culture results, in vitro antibiotic resistance, treatment and outcome. Results: This study included 105 patients. The main risk factors were previous corneal surgery, contact lenses wear and recent history of ocular trauma. 74.3% of patients had a positive culture, 87.9% of these corresponding to a pure bacterial culture, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae being the most common pathogens. 27.9% of positive cultures were resistant to 3 or more classes of antibiotics. All patients began treatment with fortified drops. 29.5% of patients required a corneal transplant. After 6 months of follow-up, only 20.9% presented a VA>20/40. Conclusion: Most cases were caused by bacteria. A considerable number of multi-resistant bacteria was identified. Despite most cases having improved after treatment, a large number of patients had a significant visual acuity sequelae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Parasitic/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Viral/epidemiology , Keratitis/epidemiology , Ophthalmic Solutions , Portugal , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Viruses/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Acanthamoeba/isolation & purification , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/therapy , Eye Infections, Parasitic/microbiology , Eye Infections, Parasitic/therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/microbiology , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Corneal Transplantation , Fungi/isolation & purification , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients , Keratitis/microbiology , Keratitis/therapy
4.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): 281-284, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888145

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the causes of a diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) outbreak using a systematic search tool in a case-control analysis. Methods: An Ishikawa diagram was used to guide physicians to determine the potential risk factors involved in this outbreak. Coherence between the occurrences and each possible cause listed in the diagram was verified, and the total number of eyes at risk was used to calculate the proportion of affected eyes. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression to determine the independent effect of the risk factors, after controlling for confounders and test interactions. Results: All DLK cases were reported in 2007 between June 13 and December 21; during this period, 3,698 procedures were performed. Of the 1,682 flap-related procedures, 204 eyes of 141 individuals presented with DLK. No direct relationship was observed between the occurrence of DLK and the presence of any specific factors; however, flap-lifting enhancements, procedures performed during the morning shift, and non-use of therapeutic contact lenses after the surgery were significantly related to higher occurrence percentages of this condition. Conclusions: The Ishikawa diagram, like most quality tools, is a visualization and knowledge organization tool. This systematization allowed the investigators to thoroughly assess all the possible causes of DLK outbreak. A clear view of the entire surgical logistics permitted even more rigid management of the main factors involved in the process and, as a result, highlighted factors that deserved attention. The case-control analysis on every factor raised by the Ishikawa diagram indicated that the commonly suspected factors such as biofilm contamination of the water reservoir in autoclaves, the air-conditioning filter system, glove powder, microkeratome motor oil, and gentian violet markers were not related to the outbreak.


RESUMO Objetivos: Identificar as causas de um surto de ceratite lamelar difusa (DLK) uti­lizando uma ferramenta de busca sistemática em uma análise de caso-controle. Métodos: O diagrama de Ishikawa foi usado para orientar os médicos a identificar os potenciais fatores de risco envolvidos neste surto. Coerência entre as ocorrências e cada causa possível listada no diagrama foi verificada. O número total de olhos em risco foi usada para calcular a percentagem de olhos afetados. A análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para determinar o efeito independente dos fatores de risco, controle de fatores de confusão e interações de teste. Resultados: Todos os casos de ceratite lamelar difusa foram relatados em 2007 entre 13 de junho e 21 de dezembro, durante este tempo foram realizados no total 3.698 procedimentos. De um total de 1.682 procedimentos relacionados a confecção de um flap, 204 olhos de 141 indivíduos apresentaram ceratite lamelar difusa. Não foi observada relação direta entre a ocorrência de ceratite lamelar difusa e a presença de qualquer fator específico; no entanto, procedimentos que incluíam um novo levantamento do flap, procedimentos realizados no turno da manhã, e o não-uso de lentes de contato terapêuticas após a cirurgia foram significativamente relacionados com a ocorrência desta complicação. Conclusão: O diagrama de Ishikawa é uma ferramenta de visualização e organização do conhecimento. Essa sistematização permitiu aos investigadores pesquisar todas as possíveis causas do surto de ceratite lamelar difusa. Uma visão clara de toda a logística cirúrgica permitiu a gestão mais rígida dos principais fatores envolvidos no processo. A análise de caso-controle em relação a cada fatores levantados pelo diagrama indicou que fatores sempre suspeitos, tais como: contaminação do biofilme da água do reservatório das autoclaves, sistema de filtro de ar-condicionado, pó de luva, óleo de motor do microcerátomo e marcador violeta de genciana, não foram relacionados com o surto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Risk Assessment/methods , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ/adverse effects , Keratitis/etiology , Keratitis/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Surgical Flaps/adverse effects , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 289-293, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827970

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze epidemiological and microbiological aspects of microbial keratitis in children and adolescents. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, between July 15, 1975, and December 31, 2010. We analyzed corneal samples from 859 patients with clinical suspicion of infectious keratitis, comparing epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of bacterial keratitis with those of non-bacterial and non-viral keratitis. We also compared Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens in patients with bacterial keratitis. We created a susceptibility profile of the bacterial microorganisms studied. Results: Of the 859 patients, 346 (40.3%) showed positive culture results for non-viral microorganisms. Teenagers (13-18 years) made up the group with the highest number of patients with keratitis (164, 47.4%). The most frequent risk factors for keratitis were trauma (33.5%) and previous ocular surgery (24.9%). Gram-positive bacteria (71.8%) were the most often isolated, with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (23.8%) the most prevalent microorganism. Logistic regression analysis showed age (p=0.002), topical antimicrobial drug use (p=0.01), and trauma due to non-chemical burns (p=0.005) were risk factors for non-bacterial keratitis. Age (p=0.01) was also a risk factor for Gram-negative bacterial keratitis. Conclusion: Our study showed that in the age range studied, the prevalence of keratitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria or by the non-viral microorganisms evaluated increases with age. Previous use of topical antimicrobial drug and trauma due to non-chemical burns are associated with non-bacterial keratitis. Knowledge of the risk factors and the microorganisms involved may help improve treatment of keratitis in children and adolescents and minimize visual impairment.


RESUMO Objetivos: Descrever o perfil epidemiológico e microbiológico de ceratite microbiana em crianças e adolescentes. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo tipo coorte, utilizando fichas laboratoriais de pacientes, atendidos no Departamento de Oftalmologia e Ciências Visuais - Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, entre 15 de julho de 1975 a 31 de dezembro de 2010. Foram comparados pacientes com ceratite bacteriana e não bacteriana (não viral). Entre os pacientes com ceratite bacteriana, foram comparados aqueles em que a ceratite foi causada por bactérias Gram positivas e Gram negativas. O perfil de sensibilidade dos microrganismos bacterianos aos antimicrobianos também foi estudado. Resultados: Foram analisadas amostras corneanas de 859 pacientes com suspeita clínica de ceratite infecciosa, na faixa etária estudada. Destes, 346 (40,3%) apresentaram resultados de culturas positivas para microrganismos não virais. Adolescentes (13 a 18 anos) compuseram o grupo com maior número de pacientes com ceratite (164-47,4%). Os principais fatores de risco foram trauma (33,5%) e cirurgias oculares prévias (24,9%). Bactérias Gram positivas foram isoladas com maior frequência (71,8%), sendo prevalente o patógeno Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (23,8%). De acordo com a análise de regressão logística, idade (p=0,002), uso tópico de drogas antimicrobianas (p=0,01) e trauma por queimadura não química (p=0,005) foram fatores predisponentes para ceratite não bacteriana. Idade (p=0,01) também foi fator de risco para ceratite causada por bactérias Gram negativas. Conclusões: Nosso estudo mostrou que quanto maior a idade, na faixa etária estudada, maior a probabilidade da ceratite ser causada por bactérias Gram negativas e/ou por outros microrganismos não virais avaliados. O uso tópico de drogas antimicrobianas prévias e trauma devido à queimadura não química predispõe à ceratite não bacteriana. O conhecimento dos fatores de risco e dos microrganismos envolvidos resultarão em tratamento específico da ceratite em crianças e adolescentes, com menores danos visuais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cornea/microbiology , Keratitis/microbiology , Keratitis/epidemiology , Reference Values , Brazil/epidemiology , Acanthamoeba/isolation & purification , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Prevalence , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification
6.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 29(3): 465-473, jul.-set. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830481

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir la asociación entre aspectos clinicoepidemiológicos y los resultados microbiológicos en pacientes con queratitis infecciosa ingresados en el Servicio de Córnea del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología Ramón Pando Ferrer en el período 2010-2014. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, de corte transversal, de 39 ojos. Se estudiaron las variables edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución, tratamiento previo con antibióticos, factores predisponentes y concordancia del tratamiento empírico. Se utilizaron medidas de resumen para variables cualitativas y cuantitativas, prueba no paramétrica de probabilidad exacta de Fisher, prueba de Chi cuadrado de Pearson y Prueba U de Mann Whitney. Resultados: en los aislamientos de bacterias, el 42,3 por ciento de los pacientes eran menores de 30 años; 53,8 por ciento pertenecían al sexo femenino y el tiempo de evolución promedio fue de 7 días. Los factores predisponentes fueron: enfermedad ocular previa (23,1 %), uso de lentes de contacto (30,8 por ciento) y enfermedades sistémicas (11,5 por ciento). Los mayores de 69 años (46,5 por ciento), el sexo masculino (92,3 por ciento); el tiempo de evolución promedio de 14,5 días y el antecedente de traumatismo ocular no quirúrgico (15,4 por ciento) se observaron en aislamientos micóticos. La perforación corneal se produjo en el 7,7 por ciento de los crecimientos bacterianos; en crecimientos micóticos el 15,4 por ciento desarrolló descemetocele y el 23,1 por ciento perforación corneal. Se realizó queratoplastia penetrante en el 30,8 por ciento(AU) Conclusiones: los aislamientos bacterianos son más frecuentes en pacientes jóvenes, del sexo femenino y con antecedentes de enfermedad ocular previa y uso de lentes de contacto, mientras que la etiología micótica se produce en pacientes del sexo masculino, mayores de 60 años y con antecedentes de trauma corneal no quirúrgico


Objective: to describe the association of clinical and epidemiological aspects with the microbiological results of patients with infectious keratitis, who were admitted to the corneal service of "Ramon Pando Ferrer" Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology in the period of 2010 to 2014. Methods: cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study of 39 eyes. The analyzed variables were age, sex, time of progression, previous antibiotic treatment, predisposing factors and agreement of the empirical treatment. Summary measures for qualitative and quantitative variables; non-parametric Fisher´s exact probability test, Pearson´s Chi square test, and Mann Whitney's U test. Results: in the bacterial isolates, 42.3 percent of patients were younger than 30 years; 53.8 percent were females and average time of progression of disease was 7 days. The predisposing factors were previous eye disease (23.1 percent), use of contact lenses (30.8 percent) and systemic diseases (11.5 percent). Regarding mycotic isolates, patients aged over 69 years (46.5 percent), males (92.3 percent), average time of progression of 14.5 percent and history of non surgical ocular trauma (15.4 percent) predominated. The corneal perforation occurred in 7.7 percent of bacterial infection whereas 15.4 percent developed descemetocele and 23.1 percent corneal perforation in the mycotic infection group. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed in 30.8 percent of patients. Conclusions: bacterial isolates were more frequent in young female patients with a history of previous ocular diseases and contact lenses whereas mycotic etiology was more commonly observed in males over 60 years and history of non surgical corneal trauma(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Corneal Ulcer/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Keratitis/epidemiology , Keratoplasty, Penetrating/methods , Corneal Ulcer/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Eye Infections, Bacterial/therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/therapy , Keratitis/microbiology , Observational Study
7.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 28(2): 220-227, abr.-jun. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-761027

ABSTRACT

El empleo de lentes de contacto se ha incrementado a nivel mundial. En la actualidad su uso no se restringe solamente a la corrección óptica, sino que se utilizan con fines terapéuticos, ya que generan comodidad y estética en múltiples afecciones oculares. Es de esperar el creciente aumento de las complicaciones relacionadas con el uso de estos, por ser la queratitis bacteriana potencialmente grave y devastadora para el globo ocular. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica acerca de las úlceras corneales en portadores de lentes de contacto con el objetivo de describir su epidemiología y las formas de prevenir esta complicación(AU)


The use of contact lenses has increased worldwide. Their current uses comprise optical correction as well as therapeutic purposes since they bring comfortableness and esthetics in a number of ocular diseases. It is expected that contact lenses-related complications will grow because bacterial keratitis is potentially severe and devastating for the eyeball. A literature review on the presence of corneal ulcers in contact lens wearers was made to describe the epidemiology and the ways of preventing this complication(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Contact Lenses/adverse effects , Corneal Ulcer/complications , Keratitis/complications , Keratitis/epidemiology , Corneal Ulcer/prevention & control , Keratitis/therapy , Review Literature as Topic
8.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 76(6): 350-353, nov.-dez. 2013. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-701285

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among S. aureus ocular infections in a tertiary health center in Brazil and compare antibiotic susceptibility patterns between MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates. METHODS: Electronic records from the ocular microbiology laboratory of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo were retrospectively reviewed. During a 10-year period (between January 2000 and December 2009) all conjunctivitis, keratitis, and endophthalmitis cases with a positive culture for S. aureus were identified. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Five hundred sixty-six S. aureus isolates were identified; of those, 56 (9.9%) were resistant to methicillin. Throughout the 10-year period, Staphylococcus aureus showed a significant increasing trend from 7.55% to 16.18% among overall S. aurues infections (p=0.001) and from 3.7% to 13.16% in conjunctivitis (p=0.001). Conversely, we did not observe the same trend among those with keratitis (p=0.38). Staphylococcus aureus isolates showed higher resistance rates to tobramycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin when compared with S. aureus isolates (p< 0.001). All cases were susceptible to vancomycin. CONCLUSION: We observed an increasing trend in the overall prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus ocular infections and statistically significant higher resistance rates to commonly used antibiotics compared to Staphylococcus aureus. Our data supports the need for constant bacterial surveillance and should be taken into consideration before initiating empiric treatment of ocular infections.


OBJETIVO: Estudar a prevalência do Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina nas infecções oculares causadas por S. aureus em um centro de saúde terciário no Brasil e comparar o perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana entre as cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina e S. aureus susceptível à meticilina MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma análise retrospectiva dos arquivos do laboratório de microbiologia ocular da Universidade Federal de São Paulo e selecionados todos os casos de conjuntivite, ceratite e endoftalmite com cultivo positivo para S. aureus, durante um período de 10 anos (entre janeiro de 2000 e dezembro de 2009). Foi avaliada a prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina e comparado o perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiano dos Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina e S. aureus susceptível à meticilina. RESULTADOS: Quinhentos e sessenta e seis isolados de S. aureus foram identificados. Desses, 56 (9,9%) apresentaram resistência à meticilina. Durante o período de 10 anos estudado, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina mostrou uma tendência significante de aumento de 7,6% para 16,2% entre as infecções oculares causadas por S. aureus em geral (p=0,001) e de 3,7% para 13,2% nas conjuntivites (p=0,001). A mesma tendência não foi observada entre as amostras de ceratite (p=0,38). Os isolados de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina mostraram maiores taxas de resistência à tobramicina, gentamicina, ciprofloxacino, gatifloxacino e moxifloxacino em comparação com os isolados de S. aureus susceptível à meticilina (p<0,001). Todos os casos foram susceptíveis à vancomicina. CONCLUSÃO:Foi observada uma tendência de aumento na prevalência do Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina nas infecções oculares causadas por S. aureus, bem como taxas de resistência significantemente maiores aos antibióticos comumente utilizados na prática oftalmológica. Nossos dados alertam para a necessidade de constante vigilância de resistência bacteriana a antimicrobianos e devem ser considerados na eleição do tratamento empírico das infecções oculares.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Brazil/epidemiology , Conjunctivitis/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Keratitis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 76(6): 370-373, nov.-dez. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-701290

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Investigar sazonalidade de ceratities infecciosas em serviço terciário no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de dados coletados do Laboratório de Microbiologia Ocular do Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo de 2005 a 2009. Foram definidas como ceratites infecciosas aquelas com cultura positiva para o agente. Dados foram distribuídos de acordo com os meses do ano e modelos de regressão linear com variáveis "dummy" foram utilizados para testar sazonalidade. RESULTADOS: Foram diagnosticados 1.468 casos de ceratite infecciosa durante o período do estudo. Bactérias foram responsáveis por 80,3% dos casos seguidas por fungos (7%), Acanthamoeba (6%) e casos mistos (6,7%). Testes estatísticos não mostraram sazonalidade para bactérias (p=0,064), fungos (p=0,379), Acanthamoeba (p=0,062) ou casos mistos (p=0,441). CONCLUSÃO: Não foi observada sazonalidade nas ceratites infecciosas em nossa amostra.


PURPOSE: To investigate the seasonality of infectious keratitis in a tertiary hospital in Brazil. METHODS: Charts from the Ocular Microbiology Laboratory of the Department of Ophthalmology of the Federal University of Sao Paulo were reviewed from 2005 to 2009. Infectious keratitis were defined as those with positive culture. Data were distributed monthly and linear regressions with seasonal dummy models were used to test for seasonal trends. RESULTS: Total of 1,468 cases of keratitis was diagnosed during the study period. Bacterial keratitis were reponsible for 80.3% of all cases, followed by fungal (7%), and Acanthamoeba (6%); 6.7% were mixed cases. Statistical tests showed that there were no seasonal trends for bacteria (p=0.064), fungi (p=0.379), Acanthamoeba (p=0.062) or mixed infections (p=0.441). Conclusions: No seasonal trends for infectious keratitis were observed in our sample.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Parasitic/epidemiology , Keratitis/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Acanthamoeba/pathogenicity , Brazil/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Eye Infections, Parasitic/microbiology , Keratitis/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , Time Factors
10.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 26(3): 379-389, sep.-dic. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-706669

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la queratitis infecciosa en la queratoplastia penetrante óptica. Métodos: se realizó una investigación observacional, descriptiva, longitudinal prospectiva, con una muestra de 31 pacientes con diagnóstico de queratitis infecciosa en el injerto corneal, después de una queratoplastia penetrante óptica. Atendidos en el Servicio de Córnea del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología Ramón Pando Ferrer en fecha comprendida de marzo a noviembre del 2010. Las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, intervalo de tiempo entre la queratoplastia penetrante y el inicio de la infección, factores predisponentes asociados a la queratitis infecciosa, manifestaciones clínicas, complicaciones y estado final del injerto. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino 61,3 por ciento y el grupo de edades de 30-44 años 45,2 por ciento. La mayoría de los casos presentaron una infección tardía, siendo el principal factor predisponente el uso de esteroides tópicos. El síntoma más frecuente fue la secreción 77,4 por ciento y el signo más significativo fue el edema corneal 74,1 por ciento. Predominó la localización periférica del infiltrado 51,6 por ciento, con un tamaño de 1-3 mm 48,4 por ciento y una profundidad hasta el tercio anterior 58,1 por ciento. La complicación más frecuente fue la hipertensión ocular secundaria con un 50 por ciento. El injerto mantuvo la transparencia solo en el 12,9 por ciento de los pacientes. Conclusiones: la queratitis microbiana después del trasplante de córnea es una complicación amenazante para la visión y puede llevar a la pérdida de la transparencia, debido a la formación de cicatriz corneal. Es necesario mantener el control de los factores predisponentes para disminuir la frecuencia de esta complicación


Objective: to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of infectious keratitis in optic penetrating keratoplasty. Methods: prospective, longitudinal, descriptive and observational research of a sample of 31 patients diagnosed with infectious ketatitis in their corneal graft, after undergoing optic penetrating keratoplasty. They had been attended to in the Corneal Service of Ramon Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from March to November 2010. The studied variables were age, sex, time lapse from the penetrating keratoplasty to the starting of infection, predisposing factors associated to infectious keratitis, clinical manifestations, complications and final condition of the graft. Results: males 61.3 percent and 30-44 y age group 45.2 percent were predominant. The majority of cases presented with late infection, being the use of topical steroids the main predisposing factor. The most frequent symptom was secretion 77.4 percent and the most significant sign was corneal edema 74.1 percent. Peripheral location of infiltrates 51.6 percent predominated, with size of 1-3 mm 48.4 percent percent.1 percent. The most common complication was secondary ocular hypertension 50 percent. The graft kept transparency just in 12.9 percent of patients. Conclusions: microbial keratitis after corneal transplantation is a threatening complication for the vision and may lead to loss of transparency due to formation of corneal scar. It is necessary to keep control over the predisposing factors to reduce the frequency of this complication


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Keratitis/epidemiology , Keratoplasty, Penetrating/adverse effects , Corneal Transplantation/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 75(4): 247-250, jul.-ago. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-659617

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A ceratite fúngica é uma importante causa de infecção corneana, principalmente em países tropicais. Com alta morbidade devido à demora no diagnóstico, o exame laboratorial torna-se obrigatório nesses casos. Dificuldades técnicas na obtenção das amostras, porém, geram um grande número de exames falso-negativos. Nesses casos, uma detalhada avaliação do paciente em busca de características específicas dessa entidade pode auxiliar na elucidação diagnóstica. OBJETIVOS: Formar um perfil epidemiológico dos portadores de ceratomicose para auxiliar no diagnóstico e tratamento precoces. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo em base de dados de portadores de úlceras corneanas em busca de pacientes com diagnóstico de ceratomicose. Foram coletadas informações a respeito de sexo, situação do domicílio, grau de instrução, profissão, idade, fatores desencadeantes e predisponentes (oculares e sistêmicos), hipótese etiológica inicial, resultado laboratorial, tempo de cicatrização, complicações e tratamentos adjuvantes. RESULTADOS: Dos 599 pacientes atendidos por úlcera de córnea, 150 (25%) foram diagnosticados como de etiologia fúngica. Houve maior prevalência em homens em idade produtiva e baixo nível de escolaridade. Trauma com material vegetal esteve presente em 74 (49,33%) casos. Demais fatores identificados como trabalhadores e moradores de áreas rurais também suportam o trauma vegetal como principal fator de risco identificado no estudo. CONCLUSÕES: Com base nos dados do estudo foi possível formar um perfil dos portadores de úlceras fúngicas atendidos pelo HC-UNICAMP.


BACKGROUND: Fungal keratitis is an important cause of corneal infection mainly in tropical countries. With high morbidity due to delay in diagnosis, laboratory examination is mandatory in these cases. However, technical difficulties in obtaining samples generate a large number of false negatives. In these cases a detailed patient assessment for specific characteristics of this entity may help in diagnosis. PURPOSE: To create an epidemiological profile of patients with keratomycosis to assist in early diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed by searching patients with keratomycosis diagnostic on the corneal ulcers database. Information about gender, household location, educational level, occupation, age, predisposing and precipitating factors (ocular and systemic), initial etiological hypothesis, laboratory results, healing time, complications, and adjuvant treatments were collected. RESULTS: Of 599 patients with corneal ulcer, 150 (25%) were diagnosed as fungal infection. There was a higher prevalence in males of working age and low educational level. Trauma with plant material was involved in 74 (49.33%) cases. Other factors such as workers and residents of rural areas also supports trauma with vegetal as the main risk factor identified in the study. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the collected data, it was possible to form a profile of patients with fungal ulcers treated by HC-UNICAMP.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Keratitis/epidemiology , Mycoses/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Keratitis/diagnosis , Mycoses/diagnosis , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
12.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2012 Jul-Aug; 60(4): 267-272
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144851

ABSTRACT

Context: Study of patients attending tertiary care ophthalmology institute at Ahmedabad. Aims: To study the microbiological etiology and epidemiological factors associated with suppurative keratitis. Settings and Design: A total of 150 corneal scrapings were evaluated from patients presenting with corneal ulcers at a tertiary ophthalmology center, Ahmedabad from July 2007 to June 2008. Materials and Methods: Scrapings were subjected to Gram stain, potassium hydroxide preparation and culture for bacterial and fungal pathogens. Socio-demographic data and risk factors were recorded. Results: Ninety percent (135/150) people with corneal ulcers had trauma as predisposing factor for keratitis. Trauma due to wooden objects was the leading cause (46/135) followed by vegetable matter and stone injury (23/135). Microbial etiology was established in 59.3% (89/150) of scrapings. Out of 89 positive isolates, 65.1% (58/89) were bacterial while 34.9% (31/89) were fungal. Among the bacterial isolates, 60.3% (35/58) were Gram-positive cocci while 39.7% (23/58) were Gram-negative bacilli. The most common bacterial isolate was Staphylococus aureus (32.7%, 19/58) followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococci (25.8%, 15/58) and Pseudomonas (18.9%, 11/58). Among the 31 fungal pathogens, Aspergillus species was the most common (35.4%11/31), followed by Fusarium species (22.5%, 7/31). Conclusion: Trauma with wooden material is the most common predisposing factor for suppurative keratitis. Males were more affected than females. Bacterial ulcers were more common than fungal in areas in and around Ahmedabad. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus were the commonest bacterial and fungal isolates respectively. Geographical variation persists in microbial etiology of suppurative keratitis.


Subject(s)
Corneal Ulcer/epidemiology , Corneal Ulcer/etiology , Corneal Ulcer/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Eye Injuries/epidemiology , Eye Injuries/etiology , Eye Injuries/microbiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Keratitis/epidemiology , Keratitis/etiology , Keratitis/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas Infections/etiology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/etiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology
13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2011 July; 59(4): 291-296
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136192

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine the incidence, outcomes and establish factors determining visual prognosis of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi in comparison with nonpigmented fungi. Materials and Methods: All culture-proven cases of fungal keratitis from January 2006 to August 2008 were drawn from a computerized database and cases with adequate documentation were analyzed for predisposing factors, clinical characteristics, microbiology and treatment methods. Outcomes of keratitis due to pigmented and nonpigmented fungi were compared using t-test and χ2 test. Results: Of 373 cases of keratomycosis during the study period, pigmented fungi were etiological agents in 117 eyes (31.3%) and nonpigmented fungi in 256 eyes (68.7%). Eyes with nonpigmented keratitis had significantly larger ulcers (14.96 mm2 ) and poorer vision (1.42 logMAR) at presentation compared to those with keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi (P=0.01). The characteristic macroscopic pigmentation was seen in only 14.5% in the pigmented keratitis group. Both groups responded favorably to medical therapy (78.1% vs. 69.1%) with scar formation (P=0.32) and showed a significant improvement in mean visual acuity compared with that at presentation (P<0.01). Visual improvement in terms of line gainers and losers in the subgroup of eyes that experienced healing was also similar. Location of the ulcer was the only factor that had significant predictive value for visual outcome (P=0.021). Conclusion: Incidence of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi may be increasing as compared to previous data. These eyes have similar response to medical therapy and similar visual outcome compared to nonpigmented keratitis. Central ulcers have a poor visual outcome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cicatrix/etiology , Corneal Ulcer/microbiology , Databases, Factual , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Female , Fungi/physiology , Humans , Incidence , Keratitis/complications , Keratitis/epidemiology , Keratitis/microbiology , Keratitis/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pigmentation , Prognosis , Visual Acuity/drug effects , Wound Healing
14.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 74(1): 7-12, Jan.-Feb. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589930

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The goals of the study were the following: 1) to show the epidemiology of microbial keratitis (MK) in the southeast Brazil, 2) to compare the epidemiological differences between fungal (FK) and bacterial keratitis (BK), and 3) to evaluate the frequency which ophthalmologists accurately differentiate bacterial keratitis from fungal keratitis based on clinical diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective chart analysis of all clinically diagnosed microbial keratitis patients presenting between October, 2003 and September, 2006 was performed. Demographic features, ocular and laboratory findings, and information regarding the risk factors and clinical evolution were recorded. RESULTS: Among 118 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of microbial keratitis, the positive culture rate was 61 percent. The predominant bacterial and fungal pathogens isolated were S. epidermidis and Fusarium spp. Prior corneal injury was more frequent among fungal keratitis than bacterial keratitis cases (p<0.0001). Coexisting systemic diseases, ocular diseases, and previous ocular surgery were more frequent among BK cases (p=0.001; p=0.001; p=0.004; respectively). The following clinical findings were more frequent in bacterial keratitis: hypopion, corneal peripheral superficial vascularisation, and ulceration area >20 mm² (p<0.05). The diagnosis was predicted correctly in 81.6 percent of bacterial keratitis cases and in 48.1 percent of fungal keratitis cases. CONCLUSION: Medical judgment of microbial keratitis agent is possible based on clinical and epidemiological data, but it is more difficult for fungal infection. Thus, such data cannot be the only basis for the diagnosis of suspected microbial keratitis, but oriented clinical suspicion based on these data may be beneficial for guiding antimicrobial treatment and earlier therapy.


OBJETIVO: Os objetivos deste estudo foram os seguintes: 1) mostrar epidemiologia da ceratite microbiana (CM) no sudeste do Brasil, 2) para comparar as diferenças epidemiológicas entre ceratites fúngicas (CF) e bacterianas (CB) e 3) avaliar a frequência com que os oftalmologistas distinguem com precisão ceratite fúngica de ceratite bacteriana baseado no diagnóstico clínico. MÉTODOS: Uma análise retrospectiva de todas as ceratites microbianas diagnosticadas clinicamente apresentando entre outubro de 2003 e setembro de 2006 foi realizada. As características demográficas, relativas ocular e de laboratório, e informações aos fatores de risco e evolução clínica foram registrados. RESULTADOS: Dentre 118 pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico clínico de ceratite microbiana, a taxa de cultura positiva foi de 61 por cento. Os patógenos predominantes de bactérias e fungos isolados foram S. epidermidis e Fusarium spp. O trauma de córnea foi mais frequente entre os casos de ceratite fúngica do que ceratite bacteriana (p<0,0001). A coexistência de doenças sistêmicas, doenças oculares e cirurgia ocular prévia foram mais frequentes entre os casos de ceratite bacteriana (p=0,001, p=0,001, p=0,004, respectivamente). Os seguintes achados clínicos foram mais frequentes em ceratite bacteriana: hipópio, vascularização periférica da córnea superficial e área de ulceração >20 mm² (p<0,05). O diagnóstico foi corretamente estimado em 81,6 por cento dos casos de CB e em 48,1 por cento dos casos de CF. CONCLUSÃO: A presunção clínica do agente da ceratite microbiana é possível baseada em dados clínicos e epidemiológicos, mas é mais difícil para infecção fúngica. Assim, esses dados não podem ser a única base para o diagnóstico de suspeita de ceratite microbiana, mas a suspeita clínica orientada com base nesses dados pode ser benéfica para orientar o tratamento antimicrobiano e terapia precoce.


Subject(s)
Humans , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Keratitis/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Keratitis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 73(4): 315-319, July-Aug. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-560601

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the demographic characteristics, associated factors and causative agents of infectious keratitis in the elderly in a tertiary referral center in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients aged 60 years and over with a presumptive diagnosis of infectious keratitis who had material collected for microbiological analysis, between the years 1975 and 2007 (32-year span). RESULTS: From a total of 7,060 age-independent cases of microbial keratitis, 1,545 cases in the elderly were reviewed, which had a mean age of 71.0 ± 7.8 years, ranging from 60 to 101 years. There were 707 males (45.6 percent) and 838 females (54.3 percent). Associated factors were: past ocular surgery (25.1 percent), ocular trauma (7.2 percent) and contact lens use (3.0 percent). Bacterioscopy was positive in 40.5 percent of cases. Culture positivity for any agent was 53.5 percent (bacteria 47.0 percent, fungi 6.1 percent, Acanthamoeba 0.4 percent). The most frequent bacteria were the gram-positive cocci (mostly coagulase-negative Staphylococci) and gram-negative bacilli (mostly the genera Pseudomonas, Moraxella and Proteus), while the most frequent fungi were the filamentous (mostly the genus Fusarium). CONCLUSIONS: This study represents a large series of microbial keratitis in the elderly in a single referral center. The most important factor associated with this condition in the elderly was past ocular surgery. The most frequent causative agents were bacteria, especially gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli.


OBJETIVO: Descrever as características demográficas, fatores associados e agentes etiológicos das ceratites infecciosas em idosos em um centro de referência terciário em São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de todos os pacientes a partir de 60 anos com diagnóstico clínico de ceratite infecciosa que tiveram material colhido para análise microbiológica, entre os anos de 1975 e 2007 (intervalo de 32 anos). RESULTADOS: De um total de 7.060 casos de ceratite infecciosa em todas as idades, 1.545 casos em idosos foram revisados. A idade média foi de 71,0 ± 7,8 anos, variando de 60 a 101 anos. Foram 707 homens (45,6 por cento) e 838 mulheres (54,3 por cento). Os principais fatores associados foram: cirurgia ocular prévia (25,1 por cento), trauma ocular (7,2 por cento) e uso de lentes de contato (3,0 por cento). Bacterioscopia foi positiva em 40,5 por cento dos casos. A positividade das culturas para qualquer agente foi de 53,5 por cento (bactérias 47,0 por cento, fungos 6,1 por cento, Acanthamoeba 0,4 por cento). As bactérias mais frequentes foram os cocos gram positivos (principalmente Staphylococcus coagulase negativo) e bacilos gram negativos (principalmente Pseudomonas, Moraxella e Proteus), enquanto os fungos mais frequentes foram os filamentosos (Fusarium). CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo representa até o momento a maior série de casos de ceratite infecciosa em idosos em um centro único. O fator mais associado a esta condição em idosos foi cirurgia ocular prévia. Os agentes etiológicos mais frequentes foram as bactérias, principalmente cocos gram positivos e bacilos gram negativos.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Eye Infections, Bacterial/etiology , Keratitis/microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Contact Lenses/adverse effects , Demography , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Injuries/complications , Fungi/isolation & purification , Keratitis/epidemiology , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors
16.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2010 Jul; 58(4): 281-285
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136072

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine whether the inclusion of Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) is essential in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis. Materials and Methods: Corneal scrapings of 141 patients with microbial keratitis were smeared and cultured. Sheep blood agar (BA), chocolate agar (CA), SDA, non-nutrient agar (NNA) with Escherichia coli overlay, and brain heart infusion broth (BHI) were evaluated for time taken for growth and cost. The media were also evaluated experimentally for rate of growth and time taken for identification. Results: Twenty-six of 39 patients positive for fungus in corneal scrapings by microscopy were culture-positive. Fungus grew on BA in 22/39, on CA in 18/39, on SDA in 17/39, on NNA in 17/39, and on BHI in 13/39 cases. Growth on SDA was higher in ulcers with larger infiltrate (6/18 versus 9/13, P = 0.04). Estimated saving with inclusion of only BA/CA was Rs. 600 per patient. Performance of all media was similar in in vitro experiment although the characteristic spores and color were seen earlier on SDA. Conclusion: Fungal keratitis can be reliably confirmed on BA or CA, which support growth of both bacteria and fungus.


Subject(s)
Agar , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cornea/microbiology , Developing Countries , Fungi/growth & development , Glucose , Humans , Keratitis/diagnosis , Keratitis/epidemiology , Keratitis/microbiology , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
17.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2009 Jul; 57(4): 273-279
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135959

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To review the epidemiological characteristics, microbiological profile, and treatment outcome of patients with suspected microbial keratitis. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of a non-comparative series from the database was done. All the patients presenting with corneal stromal infiltrate underwent standard microbiologic evaluation of their corneal scrapings, and smear and culture-guided antimicrobial therapy. Results: Out of 5897 suspected cases of microbial keratitis 3563 (60.4%) were culture-proven (bacterial – 1849, 51.9%; fungal – 1360, 38.2%; Acanthamoeba – 86, 2.4%; mixed – 268, 7.5%). Patients with agriculture-based activities were at 1.33 times (CI 1.16–1.51) greater risk of developing microbial keratitis and patients with ocular trauma were 5.33 times (CI 6.41–6.44) more likely to develop microbial keratitis. Potassium hydroxide with calcofluor white was most sensitive for detecting fungi (90.6%) and Acanthamoeba (84.0%) in corneal scrapings, however, Gram stain had a low sensitivity of 56.6% in detection of bacteria. Majority of the bacterial infections were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis (42.3%) and Fusarium species (36.6%) was the leading cause of fungal infections. A significantly larger number of patients (691/1360, 50.8%) with fungal keratitis required surgical intervention compared to bacterial (799/1849, 43.2%) and Acanthamoeba (15/86, 17.4%) keratitis. Corneal healed scar was achieved in 75.5%, 64.8%, and 90.0% of patients with bacterial, fungal, and Acanthamoeba keratitis respectively. Conclusions: While diagnostic and treatment modalities are well in place the final outcome is suboptimal in fungal keratitis. With more effective treatment available for bacterial and Acanthamoeba keratitis, the treatment of fungal keratitis is truly a challenge.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba , Adult , Amebiasis/diagnosis , Amebiasis/drug therapy , Amebicides/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Keratitis/epidemiology , Keratitis/microbiology , Keratitis/parasitology , Keratitis/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/therapy , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2008 Apr-Jun; 51(2): 304-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-73656

ABSTRACT

To find out the prevalence and epidemiological features of keratomycosis in Chandigarh, the present study was carried out jointly by the Departments of Microbiology and Ophthalmology, Government Medical College Hospital, Chandigarh, over a period of 5 years from January 1999 to December 2003. Corneal scrapings were collected from a total of 154 suspected patients of keratomycosis and were processed and identified by standard laboratory techniques. The study revealed that a total of 64 cases (41.55%) were positive for fungal agents. Direct microscopy was positive in 52 cases (76.47%) and culture in 34 cases (53.12%). Most common fungal isolates were Aspergillus species 14 (41.18%), Fusarium species 8 (23.53%), Candida species 3 (8.82%), Curvularia species 2 (5.88%) and Bipolaris species 2 (5.88%). Thus, hyaline filamentous fungi were the most common etiological agents and mechanical trauma with vegetative matter was the most common predisposing factor. Males in age group of 21-50 years were more commonly affected.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Candida/isolation & purification , Corneal Ulcer/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Female , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Humans , India/epidemiology , Keratitis/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-43157

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical and microbiological profile in patients with contact lens-related microbial keratitis (CLRMK). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Hospital records of 435 patients with a diagnosis of microbial keratitis seen at Ramathibodi Hospital from January 1998 to December 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients with CLRMK were included in the present study. RESULTS: Of the 435 cases, 81 (18.6%) were related to contact lens use. The disposable or frequent replacement of lenses were the most common lens-wearing type. Thirty-four percent of patients did not practice proper contact lens care and 67% wore contact lenses overnight. Corneal cultures were performed in 58 of 81 cases (72%) and were positive in 42 of 58 cases (72%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common organism (59%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (11%). Polymicrobial infection was found in 19 cases. Most of the patients responded to medical treatment that led to the healing of ulcers whereas four patients required therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Most, of the organisms were sensitive to antibiotics. After treatment, 43% of the patients have continued contact lenses-wearing. CONCLUSION: CLRMK remains an essential problem in Thailand. Soft contact lens wear and overnight wearing seem to be the most important risk factors. Although the treatment outcome with medical therapy is good, keratitits may result in loss of vision. Ophthalmologist should warn contact lens wearers of this potential problem and instruct them on how to care for their lenses.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Contact Lenses/adverse effects , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Keratitis/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL