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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 174-179, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136174


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Although estrogen therapy is widely used against post-menopausal symptoms, it can present adverse effects, including endometrial cancer. Soy isoflavones are considered a possible alternative to estrogen therapy. However, there are still concerns whether isoflavones exert trophic effects on the uterine cervix. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in the uterine cervix of ovariectomized rats treated with soy isoflavones (Iso). METHODS Fifteen adult Wistar rats were ovariectomized (Ovx) and divided into three groups: Group I (Ovx), administered with vehicle solution; Group II (OVX-Iso), administered with concentrated extract of Iso (150 mg/kg) by gavage; and Group III (OVX-E2), treated with 17β-estradiol (10 µg/kg), subcutaneously. After 30 days of treatments, the uterine cervix was fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for paraffin-embedding. Sections were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin for morphological and morphometric studies or subjected to immunohistochemistry for detections of Ki-67 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A). The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS We noted an atrophic uterine cervix in GI, whereas it was more voluminous in GII and even more voluminous in GIII. The thickness of the cervical mucosa was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to GI and GII. The cell proliferation (Ki-67) was significantly elevated in the estradiol and isoflavones treated groups, whereas Vegf-A immunoexpression was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to groups GII and GI. CONCLUSIONS Soy isoflavones cause less trophic and proliferative effects in the uterine cervix of rats as compared to estrogen.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO Embora a terapia estrogênica seja amplamente utilizada contra sintomas pós-menopausais, ela pode apresentar efeitos adversos, incluindo câncer de mama e endometrial. Assim, as isoflavonas da soja são consideradas uma alternativa possível à terapia estrogênica. No entanto, ainda há controvérsias se estes compostos exercem efeitos tróficos significativos no colo do útero. OBJETIVOS Avaliar as alterações histomorfométricas e imuno-histoquímicas no colo do útero de ratas ovariectomizadas tratadas com isoflavonas da soja (iso). MÉTODOS Quinze ratas Wistar adultas foram ovariectomizadas bilateralmente (Ovx) e separadas em três grupos: Grupo I (Ovx) - veículo (propilenoglicol); Grupo II (Ovx-Iso) - receberam extrato concentrado de Iso (150 mg/kg) e Grupo III (Ovx-E2) - tratado com 17β-estradiol (10 µg/kg); as soluções foram administradas via gavagem por 30 dias consecutivos. Posteriormente, os colos uterinos foram retirados, fixados em formaldeído a 10% tamponado e processados para inclusão em parafina. Cortes (4 µm) foram coradas com hematoxilina e eosina para estudo morfológico e morfométricos, enquanto outros foram submetidos à imuno-histoquímica para detecção de Ki-67 e do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular-A (Vegf-A). Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística (p≤0,05). RESULTADOS Observamos a presença de colo uterino atrófico no GI (Ovx), sendo este mais volumoso no GII (Ovx+Iso) e ainda mais volumoso no GIII (Ovx+E2). A espessura da mucosa cervical foi significativamente maior no GIII (Ovx-E2), em comparação ao GI (Ovx) e ao GII (Ovx-Iso). A proliferação celular (Ki-67) foi significativamente mais elevada nos grupos tratados com estradiol e isoflavonas, enquanto a imunoexpressão de Vegf-A foi significativamente maior no GIII (Ovx-E2), em comparação ao GII (Ovx-Iso) e ao GI (Ovx-E2). CONCLUSÕES As isoflavonas da soja causam menos efeitos tróficos e proliferativos no colo do útero de ratas em comparação ao estrogênio.

Humans , Animals , Cervix Uteri/drug effects , Phytoestrogens/pharmacology , Estrogens/pharmacology , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Ovariectomy , Random Allocation , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Epithelium/drug effects , Mucous Membrane/drug effects
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190532, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1101257


Abstract Oral leukoplakia (OL) is a white lesion of an indeterminate risk not related to any excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk for cancer. Many biological markers have been used in an attempt to predict malignant transformation; however, no reliable markers have been established so far. Objective To evaluate cell proliferation and immortalization in OL, comparing non-dysplastic (Non-dys OL) and dysplastic OL (Dys OL). Methodology This is a cross-sectional observational study. Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 28 specimens of Non-dys OL, 33 of Dys OL, 9 of normal oral mucosa (NOM), 17 of inflammatory hyperplasia (IH), and 19 of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were stained for Ki-67 and BMI-1 using immunohistochemistry. Results A gradual increase in BMI-1 and K-i67 expression was found in oral carcinogenesis. The immunolabeling for those markers was higher in OSCC when compared with the other groups (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0.05). Ki-67 expression percentage was higher in OL and in IH when compared with NOM (Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn, p<0.05). Increased expression of BMI-1 was also observed in OL when compared with NOM (Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn, p<0.05). No differences were observed in expression of both markers when non-dysplastic and dysplastic leukoplakias were compared. A significant positive correlation between Ki-67 and BMI-1 was found (Spearman correlation coefficient, R=0.26, p=0.01). High-grade epithelial dysplasia was associated with malignant transformation (Chi-squared, p=0.03). Conclusions These findings indicate that BMI-1 expression increases in early oral carcinogenesis and is possibly associated with the occurrence of dysplastic changes. Furthermore, our findings indicate that both Ki-67 and BMI-1 are directly correlated and play a role in initiation and progression of OSCC.

Humans , Animals , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Leukoplakia, Oral/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Polycomb Repressive Complex 1/analysis , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Disease Progression , Cell Proliferation , Carcinogenesis/pathology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(12): 1459-1463, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057087


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Evaluate the expression of KI-67 in uterine leiomyomas and adjacent myometrial tissue and verify the existence of a correlation between clinical parameters and KI-67 expression in tumors. METHODS This is a cross-sectional, controlled, analytical study. Samples of leiomyomas and myometrium were obtained from patients who underwent hysterectomy. The samples were processed by immunohistochemistry using KI-67 antibody, and the expression was evaluated by two blinded observers. Student›s T-test was used for comparison of means, and Pearson›s P test for correlation with clinical parameters. RESULTS A total of 9 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 40.7 years, ranging from 35 to 44 years. The mean expression of KI-67 in myometrium was 1.63%, and, in leiomyomas, 5.96% (p <0.001). The highest expression of KI-67 was moderately related to the severity of anemia, bleeding, and pain level. CONCLUSION The expression of KI-67 in normal myometrium was significantly lower than in leiomyomas. The highest expression of KI-67 was moderately related to the severity of anemia, bleeding, and pain level in the patients of this study.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a expressão do KI-67 em leiomiomas uterinos e tecido miometrial adjacente e verificar a existência de correlação entre parâmetros clínicos e expressão do KI-67 em tumores. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal, controlado e analítico. Amostras de leiomiomas e miométrio foram obtidas de pacientes que realizaram histerectomia. As amostras foram processadas por imuno-histoquímica utilizando anticorpo para KI-67 e a expressão avaliada por dois observadores cegos. O teste t de Student foi utilizado para comparação de médias e o teste P de Pearson para correlação com parâmetros clínicos. RESULTADOS Um total de 9 pacientes foi incluído no estudo. A idade média foi de 40,7 anos, variando de 35 a 44 anos. A expressão média do KI-67 no miométrio foi de 1,63% e nos leiomiomas de 5,96% (p <0,001). A maior expressão do KI-67 foi moderadamente relacionada com a gravidade da anemia, sangramento e nível de dor. CONCLUSÃO A expressão do KI-67 no miométrio normal foi significativamente menor que nos leiomiomas. A maior expressão do KI-67 foi moderadamente relacionada à gravidade da anemia, sangramento e nível de dor nos pacientes deste estudo.

Humans , Female , Adult , Uterine Neoplasms/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Leiomyoma/pathology , Myometrium/chemistry , Reference Values , Immunohistochemistry , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tumor Burden , Hysterectomy
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(5): 557-567, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014264


ABSTRACT Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in women. Aim: To assess the impact of HER2 status on axillary lymph node (ALN) involvement in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (IDC-NST) both at diagnosis and during the 4-year postoperative period. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively included 375 women with an early clinical stage of non-luminal IDC-NST who between 2007 and 2013 underwent breast surgery at a clinical hospital. They were divided into phenotype-based groups: HR+HER2-, HR+HER2+, HR-HER2+ and HR-HER2-. Only patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN) macrometastases underwent ALN dissection. If > 3 ALNs were positive, radiotherapy was delivered. All patients were treated with chemotherapy, HER2+ BC patients received trastuzumab, and hormone receptor (HR)-positive BC patients received hormonal therapy. Results: Larger tumor size, higher grade, HR+, HER2+ status, and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) were predictive for ALN metastases at diagnosis. The poorest overall, disease-free, and distant recurrence-free survival (OS, DFS, DRFS) were found in the HR-HER2- group, while the poorest locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was observed in HR-HER2+ and HR-HER2- groups. HER2 status was not predictor of survival. Conclusions: HER2+ status was predictive for ALN involvement at diagnosis but had no effect on 4-year LRFS in these patients.

Antecedentes: El cáncer de mama es el tumor maligno más común en mujeres. Objetivo: Conocer el impacto del estado HER2 sobre el compromiso ganglionar axilar al momento del diagnóstico y durante los primeros cuatro años después de la cirugía en mujeres con carcinoma ductal invasivo de tipo no especial (IDC-NST). Pacientes y Métodos: Incluimos retrospectivamente a 375 mujeres en etapas clínicas iniciales de IDC-NST que fueron operadas en un hospital clínico. Ellas se dividieron en grupos de acuerdo al fenotipo: HR+HER2-, HR+HER2+, HR-HER2+y HR-HER2-. La disección de ganglios axilares se efectuó solo en las pacientes con macrometástasis en el ganglio centinela. Si había más de tres ganglios comprometidos, se efectuó radioterapia. Todas las pacientes se trataron con quimioterapia. Las pacientes HER2+ recibieron trastuzumab y las pacientes HR+ recibieron hormonoterapia. Resultados: Tumores más grandes, de mayor grado de malignidad, HR+, HER2+ y la invasión linfovascular fueron predictivos de la presencia de metástasis axilares al momento del diagnóstico. La sobrevida más baja se observó en pacientes HR-HER2+. La sobrevida libre de recurrencia locorregional más baja, se observó en pacientes HR-HER2+ y HR-HER2-. HER2 no fue predictor de sobrevida. Conclusiones: En estas mujeres, HER2+fue predictor de la presencia de compromiso ganglionar axilar al momento del diagnóstico pero no de la sobrevida a cuatro años.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology , Receptor, ErbB-2/analysis , Sentinel Lymph Node/pathology , Axilla , Time Factors , Breast Neoplasms/mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/mortality , Statistics, Nonparametric , Disease-Free Survival , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Tumor Burden , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180135, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975900


Abstract Objective: Myofibroblasts have been associated with the development of several pathologic fibrotic conditions. This longitudinal study aims to assess the proliferative and antiapoptotic effects of cyclosporin, nifedipine and phenytoin on gingival connective tissue cells of nonhuman primate, as well as to analyze a possible role of myofibroblasts in gingival overgrowth. Materials and Methods: Gingival samples from the right superior canine area were obtained from 12 male monkeys ( Sapajus spp ) to comprise the control group. After one week, the animals were randomly assigned to three groups, which received daily oral doses of cyclosporin, nifedipine or phenytoin for 120 days. Gingival samples were collected from the left superior canine area of two animals of each group at 52 and 120 days. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and immunoreacted against α-SMA, Ki- 67 and bcl-2. Results: α-SMA immunoreaction was negative in the control and experimental groups. Similarly, no difference between groups concerning immunostaining against Ki-67 and bcl-2 was observed in connective tissue cells. Conclusion: Based on this methodology, it may be concluded that gingival overgrowths induced by cyclosporin, nifedipine and phenytoin are not associated with neither myofibroblast transdifferentiation, proliferation nor apoptosis of gingival connective cells in monkeys.

Animals , Male , Phenytoin/pharmacology , Nifedipine/pharmacology , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Cell Transdifferentiation/drug effects , Myofibroblasts/drug effects , Gingiva/cytology , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Longitudinal Studies , Actins/analysis , Haplorhini , Apoptosis/drug effects , Gingival Overgrowth/chemically induced , Gingival Overgrowth/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Ki-67 Antigen/drug effects , Genes, bcl-2/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Myofibroblasts/cytology , Gingiva/drug effects
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(5): e20180140, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040277


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze determinants of prognosis in patients with bronchial carcinoid tumors treated surgically and the potential concomitance of such tumors with second primary neoplasms. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 51 bronchial carcinoid tumors treated surgically between 2007 and 2016. Disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and determinants of prognosis were evaluated. Primary neoplasms that were concomitant with the bronchial carcinoid tumors were identified by reviewing patient charts. Results: The median age was 51.2 years, 58.8% of the patients were female, and 52.9% were asymptomatic. The most common histology was typical carcinoid (in 80.4%). Five-year DFS was 89.8%. Ki-67 expression was determined in 27 patients, and five-year DFS was better among the patients in whom Ki-67 expression was ≤ 5% than among those in whom it was > 5% (100% vs. 47.6%; p = 0.01). Concomitant primary neoplasms were observed in 14 (27.4%) of the 51 cases. Among the concomitant primary neoplasms that were malignant, the most common was lung adenocarcinoma, which was observed in 3 cases. Concomitant primary neoplasms were more common in patients who were asymptomatic and in those with small tumors. Conclusions: Surgical resection is the mainstay treatment of bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors and confers a good prognosis. Bronchial carcinoid tumors are likely to be accompanied by second primary neoplasms.

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar os determinantes do prognóstico em pacientes com tumores carcinoides brônquicos tratados cirurgicamente e possível segunda neoplasia primária concomitante. Métodos: Trata-se de uma análise retrospectiva de 51 tumores carcinoides brônquicos tratados cirurgicamente entre 2007 e 2016. A sobrevida livre de doença (SLD) foi calculada pelo método de Kaplan-Meier, e os determinantes do prognóstico foram avaliados. As neoplasias primárias concomitantes aos tumores carcinoides brônquicos foram identificadas por meio da análise dos prontuários dos pacientes. Resultados: A mediana de idade foi de 51,2 anos, 58,8% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino e 52,9% eram assintomáticos. A classificação histológica mais comum foi carcinoide típico (em 80,4%). A SLD em cinco anos foi de 89,8%. A expressão de Ki-67 foi determinada em 27 pacientes, e a SLD em cinco anos foi melhor nos pacientes nos quais a expressão de Ki-67 foi ≤ 5% do que naqueles nos quais a expressão de Ki-67 foi > 5% (100% vs. 47,6%; p = 0,01). Neoplasias primárias concomitantes foram observadas em 14 (27,4%) dos 51 casos. Entre as neoplasias primárias malignas concomitantes, a mais comum foi o adenocarcinoma pulmonar, observado em 3 casos. Neoplasias primárias concomitantes foram mais comuns em pacientes assintomáticos e naqueles com tumores pequenos. Conclusões: A resseção cirúrgica é o principal tratamento de tumores carcinoides broncopulmonares e propicia um bom prognóstico. É provável que tumores carcinoides brônquicos se relacionem com segunda neoplasia primária.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Bronchial Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoid Tumor/surgery , Neoplasms, Second Primary/surgery , Time Factors , Bronchial Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoid Tumor/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasms, Second Primary/pathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Disease-Free Survival , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Length of Stay
Acta cir. bras ; 33(2): 110-116, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886264


Abstract Purpose: To investigate thymoquinone, curcumin and a combination of these two drugs were effective or not at the growth of liver. Methods: Forty female Wistar-Albino rats distributed into five groups of eight rats each, control, thymoquinone, curcumin, and thymoquinone/curcumin groups. Pathological specimens were studied using the Ki-67 Proliferation Index(PI); and arginase(Arg), tissue plasminogen activator(tPA), ceruloplasmin(Cer) and nitric oxide(NO) were studied in biochemical analysis. Results: Our results showed that Ki-67 proliferation index was low in Groups 1. The proliferation coefficient was significantly higher in the Group 2 and Group 4 than in the Group 1 and Group 3.(P < 0.001 between Groups 1 and 2, 1 and 4, and 3 and 4). There was no difference between Groups 2 and 4 (P = 1). The results of the biochemical Arg, tPA and Cer test showed statistically between the Group 1 and Group 2. NO showed significant differences Group 1 and 3. Conclusions: Thymoquinone and curcumin both have known positive effects on the organism. Histological and biochemical tests showed that thymoquinone is more effective than curcumin.

Animals , Female , Rats , Liver Regeneration/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Arginase/blood , Ceruloplasmin/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , Liver Transplantation , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/blood , Rats, Wistar , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Curcumin/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , Hepatectomy/methods , Liver/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/blood
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(5): 682-685, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887043


Abstract: Inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus and linear psoriasis are sometimes hard to differentiate clinically and pathologically. Although immunohistochemical expression of keratin 10 (K10), K16, Ki-67, and involucrin may be useful for differentiating both entities, these results have been reported in only a few cases. We collected data from 8 patients with inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus, 11 with psoriasis vulgaris, and 8 healthy controls and evaluated immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67, K16, involucrin, and filaggrin among them. Ki-67 and K16 overexpression was similar in inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus and psoriasis vulgaris compared with normal skin. Although staining for involucrin showed discontinuous expression in parakeratotic regions in 4 inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus cases, it was continuous in the other 4 cases and in all psoriasis vulgaris cases. Filaggrin expression was present in hyperkeratotic regions but scarce in parakeratotic areas in both inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus and psoriasis vulgaris. The immunostaining pattern of Ki-67, K16, involucrin, and filaggrin may be insufficient to discriminate inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus from psoriasis vulgaris.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Protein Precursors/analysis , Psoriasis/diagnosis , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Keratin-16/analysis , Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn/diagnosis , Intermediate Filament Proteins/analysis , Psoriasis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn/pathology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(10): 856-861, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896295


Summary Objective: To compare the frequency of neuroendocrine tumors in our service with that reported in the literature considering age, gender, location, degree of differentiation and increase in incidence by means of a retrospective study. Method: Search of variables from a database of neuroendocrine tumor cases diagnosed at the Department of Pathological Sciences, Hospital da Santa Casa de São Paulo over the past 10 years, relating them to epidemiological data such as gender, age, distribution across organs, most-used immunohistochemical markers and presence or absence of either lymph node or distant metastases. Results: In all, 250 cases were reviewed, 133 involving females, predominantly in the 61-70 age range. The lung was the most frequent site, followed by the stomach. CD56, synaptophysin and chromogranin were the immunohistochemical markers used most often and to a lesser extent Ki67, a marker of cell proliferation that indicates a higher or lower degree of histological malignancy. Metastases, either in lymph nodes and/or distant sites, were found in 44 cases (17.6%). Conclusion: The results were largely consistent with those in the literature, including age group, gender and location. Most metastases originated from high-grade tumors, with high Ki67 levels and greater impairment of the liver. However, only 36.4% of the cases had Ki67 index. Reevaluation of the Ki67 proliferative index using image analysis in doubtful cases will allow for a correlation between progression and prognosis.

Resumo Objetivo: Comparar a frequência de tumores neuroendócrinos em nosso serviço com a literatura em relação idade, sexo, localização, grau de diferenciação e aumento da incidência por meio de um estudo retrospectivo. Método: Levantamento em banco de dados de casos de tumores neuroendócrinos diagnosticados no Serviço de Anatomia Patológica do Hospital da Santa Casa de São Paulo nos últimos 10 anos, relacionando com os dados epidemiológicos, como sexo, idade, distribuição pelos diversos órgãos, marcadores imuno-histoquímicos mais utilizados e presença ou não de metástase em linfonodos ou a distância. Resultados: Foram revistos 250 casos, 133 femininos, com faixa etária predominante entre 61 e 70 anos. O pulmão foi o local com maior frequência, seguido do estômago. Os marcadores imuno-histoquímicos mais utilizados foram CD56, sinaptofisina e cromogranina, às vezes complementados pelo Ki67, que permite avaliar o grau de proliferação celular, indicativo de maior ou menor grau de malignidade histológica. Metástases em linfonodos e/ou a distância foram constatadas em 44 casos (17,6%). Conclusão: Os resultados foram em grande parte concordantes com os dados da literatura, como idade, sexo e localização. A maioria das metástases se originou de neoplasias de alto grau, com alto índice do Ki67, com maior comprometimento do fígado. No entanto, o índice proliferativo do Ki67 foi feito em apenas 36,4% dos casos. A reavaliação dos índices proliferativos do Ki67 por meio de análise de imagem, de casos duvidosos, permitirão relacionar com a evolução e o prognóstico dos pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Neuroendocrine Tumors/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunohistochemistry , Retrospective Studies , Neuroendocrine Tumors/pathology , Neuroendocrine Tumors/secondary , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Neoplasm Grading , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(3): 318-323, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO, BNUY, BNUY-Odon | ID: biblio-893624


Abstract Objectives To evaluate the number of AgNORs per nucleus and the expression of Ki-67 at the tumor invasion front (TIF) in relation to clinical parameters (TNM), TIF classification and the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas in an Uruguayan population. Material and Methods This study was conducted through a retrospective survey from 2000 to 2010 at the National Institute of Cancer Montevideo, Uruguay and included 40 patients. The samples were obtained from the resection of the tumor and the TIF was defined according with Bryne, et al.5 (1992). Expression of Ki-67 was assessed by the percentage of positive tumor cells and the AgNOR was recorded as the mean AgNOR (mAgNOR) and the percentage of AgNOR per nucleus (pAgNOR). All analyzes were performed by a blinded and calibrated observer. Results No statistically significant association was observed between immunostaining of Ki-67 and AgNOR with the different types of TIF, regional metastasis and patients prognosis, however it was observed an increase in Ki-67 expression associated with worse patient's clinical staging, although not statistically significant. Conclusions Our results suggest that proliferation markers as AgNOR and Ki-67 are not prognostic markers at the tumor invasive front of carcinoma of oral squamous cell.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Antigens, Nuclear/analysis , Prognosis , Reference Values , Uruguay , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Tumor Burden , Cell Proliferation , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 39(6): 288-293, June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-898869


Abstract Objective To evaluate the expressions of biomarkers p16 and Ki-67 in low-grade (LG) or high-grade (HG) lesions, and to relate them to risk factors and the recurrence of these lesions. Methods A retrospective case-control study of 86 patients with LG and HG lesions who underwent a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) between 1999 and 2004. The control group was composed of 69 women with no recurrence, and the study group, of 17 patients with recurrence. All patients were followed-up over a two-year period after surgery, and screened every six months, including cytology and colposcopy. Biopsy samples collected from LEEP were submitted to immunohistochemical analysis for p16 and Ki-67. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS, IBM-SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, US), with a significant p < 0.05. Results The biomarkers p16 and Ki-67, separately or combined, showed no relation to recurrence on the total analysis. However, evaluating specifically HG lesions, the positive expression (2+ and 3 + ) of p16/Ki-67 was associated with recurrence (0.010). In addition, p16 isolated was also more expressive in HG lesions (2+ and 3 + , p= 0.018), but it was unrelated to recurrence. Conclusion Proteins p16 and Ki-67, both isolated and combined, are not reliable primary markers for the recurrence of cervical lesions in the majority of LG lesions. However, analyzing only the group with prior diagnosis of HG lesions, the expressions of p16 and of p16/Ki-67 were associated with recurrence, and they may be useful in monitoring these cases.

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar as positividades dos biomarcadores p16 e Ki-67 em lesões de baixo grau (BG) ou de alto grau (AG), e relacioná-las com os fatores de risco e com a recidiva dessas lesões. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo caso-controle, com 86 pacientes com lesões de BG e AG, submetidas à conização por cirurgia de alta frequência entre 1999 e 2004. O grupo de controle foi constituído de 69 mulheres sem recidivas, e o grupo de estudo, de 17 pacientes que recidivaram. Todas as pacientes foram acompanhadas durante dois anos após a cirurgia, com controle a cada seis meses, incluindo citologia e colposcopia. As peças provenientes de cirurgia de alta frequência (CAF) foram submetidas a imunohistoquímica para p16 e Ki-67. A análise estatística foi realizada com o programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, IBM-SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, EUA), com p significante quando < 0,05. Resultados Isoladamente ou em conjunto, p16 e Ki-67 não se relacionaram com as recidivas quando analisados na totalidade dos casos. Entretanto, avaliando especificamente as lesões de AG, a positividade (2+ e 3 + ) do conjunto p16/Ki-67 foi relacionada com recidiva (0,010). No mais, p16, isoladamente, foi também mais expresso nas lesões de AG (2+ e 3 + , p= 0,018), mas sem relação com recidiva. Conclusão Quando testadas na totalidade dos casos, as proteínas p16 e Ki-67, separadas ou em conjunto, se mostraram ineficientes como marcadores primários de recidiva de lesões precursoras. Entretanto, quando avaliadas somente no grupo diagnóstico prévio de lesão de AG, as expressões das proteínas p16 e p16/Ki-67 têm relação com a recidiva, e podem ser úteis no acompanhamento desses casos.

Humans , Female , Precancerous Conditions/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/chemistry , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16/analysis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Conization/methods , Electrosurgery , Neoplasm Grading
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(3): 440-454, May.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840859


ABSTRACT Purpose Clear cell renal cell cancers frequently harbor Von Hippel-Lindau gene mutations, leading to stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and their target genes. In this study, we investigated the relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), HIF-1α, HIF-2α, p53 positivity, microvessel density, and Ki-67 rates with prognostic histopathologic factors (Fuhrman nuclear grade, stage, and sarcomatoid differentiation) and survival in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Material and Methods Seventy-two nephrectomy specimens diagnosed as clear cell renal cell carcinoma between 2000 and 2012 were reevaluated. Immunohistochemically VEGF, HIF-1α, HIF-2α, p53, CD34 (for microvessel density evaluation), and Ki-67 antibodies were applied to the tumor areas. The relationships of these antibodies with prognostic factors and survival rates were evaluated with statistical analyses. Results Mean survival time was 105.6 months in patients with ccRCC. Patients with high expression of VEGF, HIF-1α and HIF-2α positivity, a high Ki-67 proliferation index, and a high microvessel density evaluation score had a shorter survival time (p<0.05). Conclusions Our findings supported that with the use of these immunohistochemical markers, prognosis of renal cell carcinoma may be predicted at the first step of patient management. New treatment modalities targeted to HIF-1α and HIF-2α might be planned as well as VEGF-targeted therapies in the management of clear cell renal cell carcinomas.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism , Prognosis , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/blood supply , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/mortality , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/analysis , Antigens, CD34/analysis , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/analysis , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/analysis , Kidney Neoplasms/blood supply , Kidney Neoplasms/mortality , Middle Aged
Acta cir. bras ; 32(3): 236-242, Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837688


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (r-IPC) administered to pregnant rats, in the ileum of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation. Methods: We used three pregnant rats and their newborn rats distributed in three groups: 1) Control (C) - Newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which did not undergo any intervention; 2) Hypoxia-Reoxygenation (H/R) - Newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which did not undergo any intervention, and were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation; 3) Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (r-IPC) - newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which was subjected to remote ischemic preconditioning twenty-four hours before giving birth and the newborn rats were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Segments of ileum were prepared for histological analysis by HE and immunohistochemistry by the Ki67 to evaluate cell proliferation, crypt depth and villus height and evaluation of apoptosis by cleaved caspase-3. Results: The intensity of the lesions was lower in the r-IPC than in the H/R group, showing significant difference (p<0.01). The r-IPC group showed a higher proliferative activity compared to the H/R group (p<0.01), with deeper crypts (r-IPC > H/R - p < 0.05), and higher villi, showing significant difference (r-IPC > H/R - (p <0.01). The occurrence of apoptosis in the H/R group was lower in comparison to groups C and r-IPC, with significant difference (H/R < r-IPC; p<0.05). Conclusion: The remote ischemic preconditioning applied to the pregnant rat protected the ileum of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation, with decreased intensity of the lesions in the ileum mucosa and preservation of proliferative activity, keeping the villus height and crypt depth similar to group C.

Animals , Female , Rats , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/prevention & control , Ileum/blood supply , Time Factors , Pregnancy , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Cell Hypoxia , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Apoptosis , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Caspase 3/analysis , Ileum/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/blood supply , Animals, Newborn
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e66, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952096


Abstract The aim of this study was to identify the expression of Ki-67 and MCM3 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as well as to address the correlation with patient survival and clinical features. Samples were collected from 51 patients with OSCC who presented for follow-up. Immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 and MCM3 in all groups was performed. The scoring system was previous published by Tsurutani in 2005. We used Kappa index to evaluate observers agreement degree. The associations between protein expression and clinical variables were examined for statistical significance using the chi-squared test. The overall survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the relationship between protein expression and survival was compared using the log-rank test (p < 0.05). The overall survival time for a patient with positive immunostaining for Ki-67 is shorter than for a patient with negative immunostaining, (log-rank test, p = 0.00882). Patients with tumor size T3 and T4 showed a statistically significant relationship with Ki-67 immunoexpression (log-rank test, p = 0.0174). The relationship between Ki-67 expression and the relation between age, gender, smoking, tumor site, lymph node metastasis and disease stage was not significant. The examiners agreement degree by Kappa presented p value < 0.05. There was not a significant correlation when we evaluated MCM3 expression regarding clinical characteristics and survival rate. From these results, the present study suggests that positive Ki-67 expression found in OSCC patients may contribute to predict the survival in OSCC samples, as well as the relation between the protein and the tumor size.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Mouth Neoplasms/mortality , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/mortality , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 3/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Biopsy , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Paraffin Embedding , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Tumor Burden , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lymphatic Metastasis , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasm Staging
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(6): 1121-1128, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828921


ABSTRACT Introduction/Background: Fuhrman nuclear grade is the most important histological parameter to predict prognosis in a patient of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, it suffers from inter-observer and intra-observer variation giving rise to need of a parameter that not only correlates with nuclear grade but is also objective and reproducible. Proliferation is the measure of aggressiveness of a tumour and it is strongly correlated with Fuhrman nuclear grade, clinical survival and recurrence in RCC. Ki-67 is conventionally used to assess proliferation. Mini-chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM-2) is a lesser known marker of proliferation and identifies a greater proliferation faction. This study was designed to assess the prognostic significance of MCM-2 by comparing it with Fuhrman nuclear grade and Ki-67. Material and Methods: n=50 cases of various ages, stages, histological subtypes and grades of RCC were selected for this study. Immunohistochemical staining using Ki-67(MIB-1, Mouse monoclonal antibody, Dako) and MCM-2 (Mouse monoclonal antibody, Thermo) was performed on the paraffin embedded blocks in the department of Morbid anatomy and Histopathology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore. Labeling indices (LI) were determined by two pathologists independently using quantitative and semi-quantitative analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 20.0. Kruskall-Wallis test was used to determine a correlation of proliferation markers with grade, and Pearson's correlate was used to determine correlation between the two proliferation markers. Results: Labeling index of MCM-2 (median=24.29%) was found to be much higher than Ki-67(median=13.05%). Both markers were significantly related with grade (p=0.00; Kruskall-Wallis test). LI of MCM-2 was found to correlate significantly with LI of Ki-67(r=0.0934;p=0.01 with Pearson's correlate). Results of semi-quantitative analysis correlated well with quantitative analysis. Conclusion: Both Ki-67 and MCM-2 are markers of proliferation which are closely linked to grade. Therefore, they can act as surrogate markers for grade in a manner that is more objective and reproducible.

Humans , Male , Female , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/chemistry , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Cell Proliferation , Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2/chemistry , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Observer Variation , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(4): 430-435, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792425


Abstract: Background: c-Kit is a proto-oncogene that encodes tyrosine kinase receptor (CD117). Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a useful marker, providing information on platelet function and diameter. Objective: To investigate c-Kit expression and intensity in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and to investigate the relation between Ki-67 proliferation and MPV. Methods: A total of 32 patients, diagnosed with classic cutaneous KS, were included in this study. We reevaluated the histopathological reports with the preparations, confirmed the diagnosis and then determined the patients' histopathological stages. c-Kit expression and Ki-67 proliferation were investigated immunohistochemically in KS cases, while MPV in all cases was checked. Results: Although c-Kit expression was detected in 22 cases (68.8%), it was not expressed in 10 cases (31.2%). We detected 8 cases with + (25%), 6 with ++ (18.8%) and 8 with +++ (25%). Ki-67 expression was 5.0% (min-max 1.0-20.0). Relapse was observed in 5 cases (15.6%) out of 32. There was positive correlation between c-Kit expression and MPV (rs=0.598, p<0.001), and between c-Kit intensity and MPV (rs=0.588, p<0.001). Conclusion: c-Kit is highly positive in KS. c-Kit positivity indicates a high risk of tumor growth, invasion and relapse. Furthermore, c-Kit expression stimulates megakaryocytes to release young and large thrombocytes into the periphery. Thus, high MPV, c-Kit expression and immunostaining intensity indicate high invasion and relapse in KS subjects.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sarcoma, Kaposi/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/analysis , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Mean Platelet Volume , Reference Values , Blood Platelets/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor , Sex Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
Gut and Liver ; : 13-23, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208927


BACKGROUND/AIMS: A single gene mutation alone cannot explain the poor prognosis of colorectal cancer. This study aimed to establish a correlation between the expression of six proteins and the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: Tissue samples were collected from 266 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer at our institution from January 2006 to December 2007. The expression of six proteins were determined using immunohistochemical staining of specimens. RESULTS: Cathepsin D, p53, COX-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, c-erbB-2, and Ki-67 expression were detected in 38.7%, 60.9%, 37.6%, 35.7%, 30.1%, and 74.4% of the samples, respectively. The expression of cathepsin D was significantly correlated with reduced cancer-free survival (p=0.036) and colorectal cancer-specific survival (p=0.003), but the other expression levels were not. In a multivariate analysis, cathepsin D expression was found to be an independent prognostic factor for poorer colorectal cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio, 8.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 68.49). Furthermore, patients with tumors expressing four or more of the proteins had a significantly decreased cancer-free survival rate (p=0.006) and colorectal cancer-specific survival rate (p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cathepsin D positivity had a poorer outcome than patients who were cathepsin D-negative. Thus, cathepsin D may provide an indicator for appropriate intensive follow-up and adjuvant chemotherapy.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/pathology , Cathepsin D/analysis , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Cyclooxygenase 2/analysis , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors/analysis , Receptor, ErbB-2/analysis , Survival Analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/analysis
Indian J Cancer ; 2013 July-Sept; 50(3): 200-205
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148649


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The present study was done to analyze the immunoexpression of diagnostic markers (MIB-1: molecular immunology borstel and PCNA: proliferating cell nuclear antigen) in grading cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in cervix. SETTING AND DESIGN: Total 150 cervical biopsies were divided into four groups respectively; Group I-Normal (n = 32), Group II- CIN (n = 60), Group III- SCC (n = 44), Group IV- CA cervix (n = 14) respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: These biopsies were stained with monoclonal antibodies by streptavidin-- biotin method. Mean labeling index was calculated and grading was performed using the I--III scoring system. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Findings were correlated with age and menopausal status. Statistical analysis was done by using student sample‘t’ test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) by SPSS 10 package. RESULTS: MIB-1 immunostaining was positive in 112/150 (74.6%) cases and PCNA in 118 /150 (78.6%) cases. Labeling indices showed linear progression from normal to CIN to SCC to cancer lesion. Few cases of low-grade CIN lesion had high proliferative index. A significant positive correlation was found between age and PCNA and MIB-1 values (P < 0.05) when comparison was made for all the cases. CONCLUSION: These markers may be useful in identifying low-grade CIN lesion with high proliferative index. These cases should be kept for follow up studies so that proper intervention can be taken at an early stage. This method is simple and cost effective and can easily be done in formaline-fixed paraffin embedded tissues in a clinical laboratory for grading CIN and SCC lesions in cervix.

Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/metabolism , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Ki-67 Antigen/biosynthesis , Middle Aged , Precancerous Conditions/metabolism , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/analysis , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/biosynthesis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/metabolism , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Young Adult