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Mastology (Online) ; 332023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1433826


:Breast cancer is the object of thousands of studies worldwide. Nevertheless, few tools are available to corroborate prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Artificial intelligence is being researched for its potential utility in several fields of knowledge, including oncology. The development of a standardized Artificial intelligence-based predictive model for patients with breast cancer may help make clinical management more personalized and effective. We aimed to apply Artificial intelligence models to predict the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy based solely on clinical and pathological data. Methods: Medical records of 130 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were reviewed and divided into two groups: 90 samples to train the network and 40 samples to perform prospective testingand validate the results obtained by the Artificial intelligence method. Results: Using clinicopathologic data alone, the artificial neural network was able to correctly predict pathologic complete response in 83.3% of the cases. It also correctly predicted 95.6% of locoregional recurrence, as well as correctly determined whether patients were alive or dead at a given time point in 90% of the time. To date, no published research has used clinicopathologic data to predict the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer, thus highlighting the importance of the present study. Conclusions: Artificial neural network may become an interesting tool for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, locoregional recurrence, systemic disease progression, and survival in patients with breast cancer (AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Artificial Intelligence , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Progesterone/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Neural Networks, Computer , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Estrogens/metabolism , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929047


At present, endometriosis remains a worldwide health burden, with the main symptoms of dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility, markedly reducing the quality of life (de Ziegler et al., 2010). Although there is no proof that the disease is associated with high mortality, this disorder can significantly contribute to the deterioration of women's general well-being (McPeak et al., 2018). The main current treatment for endometriosis is surgery to remove endometriotic lesions; however, the recurrence rate following surgical treatment is as high as 21.5% at two years and 40.0%‍-‍50.0% at five years post-surgery (Koga et al., 2015). To prevent recurrence, adjuvant treatment with drugs after surgery is recommended to prolong relapse-free intervals. However, it is inconvenient for patients to continuously use such medications in terms of adverse effects and cost (Turk, 2002).

Female , Humans , Endometriosis/pathology , Endometrium/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Telomerase/metabolism , Up-Regulation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927420


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of fire needling on psoriasis-like lesion and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway in mice and compare the therapeutic effect between different interventions of fire needling therapy (surrounding technique of fire needling, fire needling at "Dazhui" [GV 14] and "Zusanli" [ST 36]).@*METHODS@#Thirty male BALB/c mice were randomized into a blank group, a model group, a dexamthasone group, a surrounding technique group and an acupoint group, 6 mice in each one. Except the blank group, the mice in the rest groups were established as psoriasis-like lesion model by topical application with imiquimod cream, once daily, consecutively for 8 days. From day 4 to day 8, in the dexamthasone group, gastric infusion with 0.2 mL dexamthasone was administered, once daily. On day 4, 6 and 8, in the surrounding technique group, fire needling was exerted around the skin lesion; and fire needling was applied to "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) in the acupoint group, once a day. The changes in skin lesion on the dorsal parts of mice were observed in each group to score the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). Using HE staining, the dermal morphological changes and epidermal thickness were observed in the mice of each group. The positive expression of proliferating cell-associated antigen Ki-67 was determined by immunofluorescence. Immunohistochemistry method was used to determine the expressions of , and T cells of skin tissue in each group. Using real-time PCR, the expressions of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) mRNA were determined. Western blot method was adopted to determine the protein expressions of STAT3 and p-STAT3 in skin tissue in each group.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, the scores of each item and the total scores of PASI, as well as the epidermal thickness were all increased in the mice of the model group (P<0.01). Except for the erythema scores of the dexamethasone group and the surrounding technique group, the scores of each item and the total scores of PASI, as well as the epidermal thickness were all decreased in each intervention group as compared with the model group (P<0.01). The infiltration scores and the total scores in the dexamethasone group and the acupoint group were lower than those in the surrounding technique group respectively (P<0.01, P<0.05). In comparison with the blank group, Ki-67 positive cell numbers and the numbers of , and T cells in skin tissue were increased in the mice of the model group (P<0.01). Ki-67 positive cell numbers and the numbers of , and T cells were reduced in each intervention group as compared with the model group (P<0.01), and the numbers of and T cells in the acupoint group were less than the surrounding technique group (P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, the mRNA expressions of IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α and the ratio of p-STAT3 to STAT3 were all increased in the model group (P<0.01). The mRNA expressions of IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α and the ratio of p-STAT3 to STAT3 were all decreased in each intervention group as compared with the model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The mRNA expressions of IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α in the acupoint group, as well as mRNA expression of IL-17 in the surrounding technique group were all lower than the dexamethasone group (P<0.01), while, the mRNA expression of IL-22 in the acupoint group was lower than the surrounding technique group (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Fire needling therapy improves skin lesion severity in imiquimod induced psoriasis-like lesion of the mice, which is probably related to the inhibition of STAT3 pathway activation and the decrease of Th17 inflammatory factors expression. The systemic regulation of fire needling at "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) is superior to the local treatment.

Animals , Male , Mice , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Imiquimod/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Psoriasis/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/pharmacology , Skin/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939682


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression of cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its correlation with clinical characteristics.@*METHODS@#The expression of CAS in bone marrow tissue of 54 patients with AML and 24 patients with non-hematological malignant diseases was detected by Western blot and immune-histochemical method, and compared between AML group and control group. Also the relationship of CAS expression in AML and sex, age, WBC count, Hb, platelet count, bone marrow blast cell ratio, ki-67 index, cytogenetic and molecular biological prognostic risk stratification, extramedullary infiltration and other clinical characteristics was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Western blot showed that the expression of CAS protein in bone marrow biopsies of AML patients was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05). Immune-histochemical method revealed that CAS was mainly located in the cytoplasm in both AML group and control group. Among 54 AML patients, 14 patients (25.9%) showed high expression of CAS, while all the 24 patients in the control group showed low expression of CAS. The high expression rate of CAS in AML patients was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences in prognostic risk stratification and the remission rate of the first chemotherapy between CAS high expression group and CAS low expression group in AML (P<0.05). The proportion of high risk patients and unremission patients after the first chemotherapy in CAS high expression group were significantly higher than those in CAS low expression group (57.1% vs 27.5%, 30.8% vs 7.9%), while the proportion of low risk patients and complete remission patients after the first chemotherapy were significantly lower than those in CAS low expression group (14.3% vs 37.5%, 53.8% vs 84.2%). In AML patients, the ki-67 index of bone marrow tissue in CAS high expression group was higher than that in CAS low expression group (60% vs 50%) (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#CAS is localized in cytoplasm in both AML and non-hematological malignant diseases, and its expression increases in AML. CAS is related to the risk stratification of cytogenetics and molecular biology, the remission rate after the first chemotherapy and ki-67 index in AML, which suggests that CAS may be involved in the occurrence and development of AML.

Humans , Bone Marrow/metabolism , Cellular Apoptosis Susceptibility Protein/metabolism , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Prognosis , Remission Induction
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(4): e1570, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152630


ABSTRACT Background: Intestinal diversions have revolutionized the treatment of morbid obesity due to its viability and sustained response. However, experimental studies suggest, after these derivations, a higher risk of colon cancer. Aim: To analyze the histological and immunohistological changes that the jejunojejunal shunt can produce in the jejunum, ileum and ascending colon. Method: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups, control (n=12) and experiment (n=12) and subdivided into groups of four. Nine weeks after the jejunojejunal shunt, segmental resection of the excluded jejunum, terminal ileum and ascending colon was performed. Histological analysis focused on the thickness of the mucosa, height of the villi, depth of the crypts and immunohistochemistry in the expression of Ki-67 and p53. Results: Significant differences were found between the experiment and control groups in relation to the thickness of the mucosa in the jejunum (p=0.011), in the ileum (p<0.001) and in the colon (p=0.027). There was also a significant difference in relation to the height of the villus in the ileum (p<0.001) and the depth of the crypts in the jejunum (p0.001). The results indicated that there is a significant difference between the groups regarding the expression of Ki-67 in the colon (p<0.001). No significant differences were found between the groups regarding the expression of Ki-67 in the jejunum and ileum. In the P53 evaluation, negative nuclear staining was found in all cases. Conclusion: The jejunojejunal deviation performed in the Roux-in-Y gastrojejunal bypass, predispose epithelial proliferative effects, causing an increase in the thickness of the mucosa, height of the villi and depth of the crypts of the jejunum, ileum and ascending colon.

RESUMO Racional: As derivações intestinais revolucionaram o tratamento da obesidade mórbida pela sua viabilidade e resposta sustentada. Porém, estudos experimentais sugerem, após estas derivações, risco maior de câncer de cólon. Objetivo: Analisar as alterações histológicas e imunoistológicas que a derivação jejunojejunal possa produzir no jejuno, íleo e cólon ascendente. Método: Foram utilizados 24 ratos Wistar machos randomicamente divididos em dois grupos, controle (n=12) e experimento (n=12) e subdivididos em grupos de quatro. Nove semanas após a derivação jejunojejunal procedeu-se a ressecção segmentar do jejuno excluso, íleo terminal e cólon ascendente. Análise histológica focou na espessura da mucosa, altura dos vilos, profundidade das criptas e a imunoistoquímica na expressão do Ki-67 e p53. Resultados: Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos experimento e controle em relação à espessura da mucosa no jejuno (p=0,011), no íleo (p<0,001) e no cólon (p=0,027). Também houve diferença significativa em relação à altura dos vilos no íleo (p<0,001) e profundidade das criptas no jejuno (p<0,001). Os resultados indicaram que existe diferença significativa entre os grupos em relação à expressão do Ki-67 no cólon (p<0,001). Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação à expressão do Ki-67 no jejuno e no íleo. Na avaliação do P53, foi encontrada coloração nuclear negativa em todos os casos. Conclusão: O desvio realizado na derivação gastrojejunal em Y-de-Roux, predispõem efeitos proliferativos epiteliais, causando aumento da espessura da mucosa, altura dos vilos e profundidade das criptas do jejuno, íleo e cólon ascendente.

Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Gastric Bypass/adverse effects , Colonic Diseases/etiology , Rats, Wistar , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Ileum , Intestinal Mucosa , Intestine, Small , Intestines , Jejunum/surgery
Clinics ; 75: e1643, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089594


OBJECTIVES: Aromatase inhibitors are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of hormone sensitive breast cancer. However, in addition to the scarcity of studies, there are controversies about their effects on vaginal epithelial cell proliferation in rats, especially those in persistent estrus. METHODS: To investigate vaginal epithelial cell proliferation by Ki-67 antigen expression, persistent estrus was induced in 42 randomly selected rats. These rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: group I (control, n=21), which received 0.1 mL of propylene glycol (vehicle) daily, and group II (experimental, n=21), which received 0.5 mg/kg or 0.125 mg/day of anastrozole diluted with 0.1 mL of propylene glycol. RESULTS: Light microscopy showed a higher concentration of cells with brown Ki-67 stained nuclei in the control compared to the experimental group. The mean percentage of Ki-67 stained nuclei per 500 cells in the vaginal epithelium was 68.64±2.64 and 30.46±2.00 [mean±standard error of the mean (SEM)] in the control and experimental groups, respectively (p<0.003). CONCLUSION: This study showed that anastrozole, at the dose and treatment duration selected, significantly decreased cell proliferation in the vaginal mucosa of the rats in persistent estrus.

Animals , Female , Rats , Vagina/drug effects , Estrus/metabolism , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Epithelium/drug effects , Anastrozole/pharmacology , Vagina/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Ki-67 Antigen/drug effects , Epithelium/metabolism
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 407-416, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114915


El adenocarcinoma NOS (no especificado de otra manera) es un tumor salival sin patrón especial poco mencionado en la literatura; su diagnóstico es un desafío porque estructuralmente no se identifica con otros carcinomas salivales más definidos. Por otro lado, Ki67 es un marcador de proliferación celular que brinda información pronóstica de las neoplasias. En cuanto a la mucina humana transmembrana MUC-1 se sobre-expresa en las neoplasias malignas perdiendo su localización exclusivamente apical. Presentamos dos casos de adenocarcinoma NOS diagnosticados con H/E y correlacionamos la expresión de Ki67 y la localización y sobreexpresión de MUC-1 con su grado histológico y pronóstico. Cortes histológicos de dos adenocarcinomas NOS de parótida en mujeres de 62 y 63 años respectivamente se colorearon con H/E e inmunomarcaron para Ki67 y MUC-1. En ambos tumores predominaban estructuras ductales, algunas quísticas, cordones celulares ramificados e islotes sólidos. Las formaciones glandulares presentaban células claras y algunas de aspecto oncocítico. Había importante atipia celular, comedonecrosis, invasión perineural, áreas hemorrágicas y compromiso de los márgenes quirúrgicos. La marcación nuclear con Ki67 fue importante; MUC-1 presentó una fuerte coloración en membranas y citoplasmas. Las dos lesiones se diagnosticaron como de alto grado de malignidad. Nuestros resultados demuestran que existe una importante proliferación marcada con Ki67 y una sobre-expresión de MUC-1 asociadas a atipia celular, infiltración perineural, necrosis y compromiso de márgenes quirúrgicos, factores asociados a un peor pronóstico. El reconocimiento de este tumor es trascendente para médicos y odontólogos ya que por la ausencia de rasgos distintivos que sí presentan otros carcinomas más específicos es fundamental el diagnóstico de exclusión.

Adenocarcinoma NOS (not otherwise specified) is a no special pattern salivary tumor briefly mentioned in the literature; its diagnosis is a challenge because structurally it is not identified with other more definite salivary carcinomas. On the other hand, Ki67 is a marker of cellular proliferation that provides prognostic information of neoplasms. As for human transmembrane mucin, MUC-1 is overexpressed in malignant neoplasms, losing their exclusively apical location. We present two cases of adenocarcinoma NOS diagnosed with H/E and correlate the expression of Ki67 and the location and over-expression of MUC-1 with its histological grade and prognosis. Histological sections of two NOS adenocarcinomas of parotid in women of 62 and 63 ages respectively were stained with H/E and immunolabelled for Ki67 and MUC-1. Both are predominated by ductal structures, some cystic, branched cell cords and solid islets. The glandular formations presented clear cells and some of oncocytic appearance. There was important cellular atypia, comedonecrosis, perineural growth, haemorrhagic areas and compromise of surgical margins. Nuclear marking with Ki67 was important; MUC-1 presented a strong staining in membranes and cytoplasms. They were diagnosed as high-grade malignancy. Our results show that there is an important proliferation marked with Ki67 and overexpression of MUC-1 associated with cellular atypia, perineural growth, necrosis and compromise of surgical margins, factorsassociated with a poor prognosis. The recognition of this tumor is transcendent for physicians and dentists since, due to the absence of distinctive features that other more specific carcinomas present, the diagnosis of exclusion is essential.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Parotid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Parotid Neoplasms/metabolism , Parotid Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Prognosis , Salivary Gland Neoplasms , Immunohistochemistry , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor , Mucin-1/metabolism , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Cell Proliferation
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(12): 710-717, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057890


Abstract Objective To identify the biomarkers of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in early luminal breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional study that included all patients with early or locallyadvanced luminal breast cancer submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy between 2013 and 2014. Demographic, clinic and pathologic data were retrieved from patient records. The expressions of the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and Ki67 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The status of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was evaluated by IHC and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Independent predictors of clinic and pathologic response were evaluated by stepwise logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results Out of 298 patients identified, 115 were included in the analysis. Clinical complete response (cCR) was observed in 43.4% of the patients (49/113), and pathologic complete response (pCR) was observed in 7.1% (8/115) of the patients. The independent predictors of cCR were premenopausal status (p < 0.001), low PR expression (≤ 50% versus > 50%; p = 0.048), and Ki67 expression ≥ 14% (versus < 14%; p = 0.01). Patients with cCR were more commonly submitted to breast conserving surgery (34.7% versus 7.8%; p < 0.001). Increasing cut-off points for Ki67 expression were associated with an increase in specificity and a decrease in sensitivity to identify patients with cCR. Conclusion Premenopausal status, lower PR expression and higher Ki67 expression were associated with a higher rate of cCR to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in luminal breast cancer.

Resumo Objetivo Identificar biomarcadores de resposta à quimioterapia neoadjuvante em câncer luminal de mama. Métodos Estudo transversal em que foram incluídas todas as pacientes com câncer luminal de mama em estádio inicial ou localmente avançado que foram submetidas a quimioterapia neoadjuvante nos anos de 2013 e 2014. Dados demográficos, clínicos e patológicos foram obtidos de prontuários médicos. As expressões de receptor de estrogênio (RE), de receptor de progesterona (RP), e de Ki67 foram avaliadas por imuno-histoquímica (IHQ). A expressão do receptor tipo 2 do fator de crescimento epidérmico humano (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, HER2) foi avaliada por IHQ e hibridização in situ por imunofluorescência (HISI). Análises de regressão logística e de curva de característica de operação do receptor (COR) foram usadas para investigar fatores preditivos independentes de resposta clínica e patológica. Resultados De 298 pacientes identificadas, 115 foram incluídas na análise. Resposta clínica completa (RCc) foi observada em 43.4% das pacientes (49/113), e resposta patológica completa (RPc), em 7.1% (8/115). Os fatores preditivos independentes de RCc foram status menopausal (p < 0.001), baixa expressão de RP (≤ 50% versus > 50%; p = 0.048), e expressão de Ki67 ≥ 14% (versus < 14%; p = 0.01). Pacientes com RCc apresentaram maior probabilidade de serem submetidas a cirurgia conservadora da mama (34.7% versus 7.8%; p < 0.001). Aumento no ponto de corte para expressão de Ki67 foi associado a aumento da especificidade e redução da sensibilidade na identificação de pacientes com RCc. Conclusão Status premenopausal, baixa expressão de RP e maior expressão de Ki67 estiveram associados a maior taxa de RCc à quimioterapia neoadjuvante no câncer luminal de mama.

Humans , Female , Adult , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Menopause , Receptors, Progesterone/genetics , Ki-67 Antigen/genetics , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Receptors, Progesterone/metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen/genetics , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Gene Expression , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Receptor, ErbB-2/genetics , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Middle Aged
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(2): 142-149, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002297


ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of mandibular canal alterations in regions with dental inflammation by means of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A database of 2,484 CBCTs was reviewed for identifying dental inflammation in mandibular alveolar ridges. The final sample consisted of 150 CBCTs, including 91 females and 59 males, with ages ranging from 13 to 89 years (mean age of 47.06; ± SD=18.722). The presence and location of dental inflammation, gender, age, as well as presence and location of mandibular canal branching (MCB) were evaluated. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square, and T-test were applied to verify the statistical relationship of the data. There were 178 images of dental inflammation on 150 CBCTs, mainly located at molars' region (75 %). Apical lesions were the most common type of dental inflammation found (79 or 44.4 % of the sample), followed by pericoronitis (32; 18.0 %). This study identified 135 mandibular canal branches in the exams that presented dental inflammation. The MCB were also most commonly located at molars' region (74.07 %). No statistical difference was identified regarding the distribution of mandibular canal branching in relation to the sites with dental inflammation (p=0.370).The MCB found were mostly single (86 or 63.7 % of the total). Sex had no influence on mandibular canal branching occurrence (p=0.308), not did age (p=0.728). A high prevalence of mandibular canal branching was observed in the regions where dental inflammation were identified, most commonly found in the molar region.

RESUMEN: El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la ocurrencia de ramificación del canal mandibular (RCM) en regiones con inflamación dental mediante tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (TCHC). Se revisó una base de datos de 2.484 TCHC para identificar la inflamación dental en las crestas alveolares mandibulares. La muestra final consistió en 150 TCHC, incluidas 91 mujeres y 59 hombres, con edades comprendidas entre 13 y 89 años (edad media de 47,06 ± DE = 18,722). Se evaluaron el sexo, la edad, la presencia y la ubicación de la inflamación dental, así como la presencia y ubicación de RCM. KolmogorovSmirnov, Chi-cuadrado y prueba-T se aplicaron para verificar la relación estadística de los datos. Hubo 178 imágenes de inflamación dental en 150 TCHC, ubicados principalmente en la región de los molares (75 %). Las lesiones apicales fueron el tipo más común de inflamación dental encontrada (79 o 44,4 % de la muestra), seguidas por pericoronitis (32; 18,0 %). Este estudio identificó 135 ramas del canal mandibular en las regiones que presentaron inflamación dental. El RCM también se localizó con mayor frecuencia en la región de los molares (74,07 %). No se identificaron diferencias estadísticas con respecto a la distribución de la ramificación del canal mandibular en relación con los sitios con inflamación dental (p = 0,370). Las RCM encontrados fueron en su mayoría solteros (86 o 63,7 % del total). El sexo no tuvo influencia en la ocurrencia de la ramificación del canal mandibular (p = 0,308), no la edad (p = 0,728). Se observó una alta prevalencia de ramificación del canal mandibular en las regiones donde se identificó la inflamación dental, que se encuentra con mayor frecuencia en la región molar.

Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Granuloma, Giant Cell/surgery , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Granuloma, Giant Cell/diagnosis , Analysis of Variance , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Guatemala , Mexico
Appl. cancer res ; 39: 1-8, 2019. Ilustr., Tab.
Article in English | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1015366


Background: The capacity for prognostic prediction of cutaneous melanoma, one of the most aggressive cancers, is still difficult due to the tumor heterogeneity and lack of reliable tumor markers. The objective of this study is to correlate, through immunohistochemistry, a Ki-67 and Kindlin-1 staining in malignant melanomas with the prognosis of the disease. Methods: A historical cohort study. Immunohistochemistry, using mouse anti-human Kindlin-1 and Ki-67 monoclonal antibodies, was performed using tissue blocks from primary cutaneous melanoma patients treated between 2006 and 2014 at our institution. Information regarding pathological data and outcomes were retrieved from medical records. Statistical analyses were conducted in SPSS version 18.0. Results: Thirty patients were included. The median age was from 50.93 ± 15.31 years old. The expression of Ki-67 was detected in all patients with primary cutaneous melanoma, while Kindlin-1 was negative in two. Kindlin expression was not significantly correlated with Ki-67 expression by Spearman's rank correlation analysis (P = 0.46), as well as the expression of both markers and the clinical stage (P = 0.34 and 0.18, respectively). Breslow, Clark and mitotic rate were significantly correlated with AJCC stage (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Other studies investigating clinical evolution are needed to further test the potential of these markers as possible prognostic markers (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Melanoma/pathology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Prognosis , Staining and Labeling , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor , Cohort Studies , Melanoma/diagnosis , Neoplasm Staging
Acta cir. bras ; 34(6): e201900606, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019270


Abstract Purpose To investigate the effects of pine needle extract (PNE) on the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 during liver regeneration induced by 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) in rat. Methods Forty-eight male rats (SD, 7 weeks) had surgery (70% PH). They were randomly divided into two groups. PH + PNE group was only provided PNE diluted in water (10%) for drinking and PH group was provided water from 5 days before surgery to the time of sacrifice. PNE was made by pressing and filtering. Animals were sacrificed at 12h, 24h, 36h, 60h, 84h, 168h after PH, respectively. The expressions of PCNA and Ki-67 were determined as proliferation indices. Results Immunohistochemistry turned out to increase the expression of PCNA and Ki-67. PCNA expression of PH+PNE group increased up to twice of that of PH group. Western blot also seemed to increase the PCNA expression. These results indicated the promotion of cell proliferation in liver tissue and hepatic regeneration. Conclusions Pine needle extract stimulates the expression of some mitotic proteins during liver regeneration induced by 70% PH in rats. It suggests that administration of pine needle extract could accelerate the liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/drug effects , Ki-67 Antigen/adverse effects , Pinus/chemistry , Hepatectomy/methods , Liver Regeneration/drug effects , Time Factors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/metabolism , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Mitotic Index
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(6): 525-529, June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956491


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Ki-67 is a nuclear protein associated with cellular proliferation in normal or leukemic conditions that can help identify more aggressive diseases and is usually evaluated with immunohistochemistry. The aim of this was to assess Ki-67 expression on mature B-cell neoplasms samples with flow cytometry immunophenotyping. METHOD: After surface staining with CD19 and CD45, intracellular staining for Ki-67 was performed in leukemic mature B-cells. Ki-67 expression was evaluated with flow cytometry. RESULTS: Ki-67 expression was higher in mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases. It was also associated with CD38 mean fluorescence intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Ki-67 expression evaluated by flow cytometry can be a useful tool in the diagnosis of mature B-cell neoplasms. More studies are needed to validate Ki-67 assessment with flow cytometry immunophenotyping.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: Ki-67 é uma proteína nuclear associada à proliferação celular em condições normais ou leucêmicas que pode ajudar a Identificar doenças mais agressivas. Este marcador é geralmente avaliado com imuno-histoquímica. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expressão de Ki-67 em amostras de neoplasias de células B maduras com imunofenotipagem por citometria de fluxo. MÉTODO: Após marcação de superfície com CD19 e CD45, foi realizada marcação intracelular para Ki-67 em células B maduras leucémicas. A expressão de Ki-67 foi avaliada por citometria de fluxo. RESULTADOS: A expressão de Ki-67 foi maior em células de linfomas de manto, linfoma de Burkitt e linfoma difuso de grandes células B. Também houve associação de Ki-67 à intensidade de fluorescência média de CD38. CONCLUSÃO: A expressão de Ki-67 avaliada por citometria de fluxo pode ser útil no diagnóstico de neoplasias de células B maduras. São necessários mais estudos para validar a avaliação de Ki-67 com Imunofenotipagem por citometria de fluxo.

Humans , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Leukemia, B-Cell/metabolism , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Immunophenotyping/methods , Antigens, CD19 , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/metabolism , Flow Cytometry/methods
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 109-112, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893196


SUMMARY: Severe preeclampsia (HELLP syndrome) is a life-threatening pregnancy complication, usually a severe form of preeclampsia. In this study, we aimed to examine histopathologic changes and Endothelin-1 and KI-67 expression levels by immunohistochemical methods in severe preeclamptic placentas. Severe preeclampsia and obstetric characteristics and biochemical and hematological characteristics of healthy subjects were compared. Placenta sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological examination. In the histopathological examination of severe preeclamptic placenta, degeneration in synaptic and cytotrophoblastic cells, increase in insidious knots, fibrinoid necrosis, degeneration in endothelial cells, calcification and hyaline villous stains were observed. In the severe preeclampsia group, Ki-67 expression increased in decidua cells and inflammatory cells, while endothelial cells in the vessel wall and inflammatory cells in the villus and intervillous spaces increased. It is thought that angiogenetic and cellular proliferation is induced in a co-ordinated manner and significantly influences fetal development.

RESUMEN: La preeclampsia severa (síndrome de HELLP) es una complicación del embarazo potencialmente mortal, generalmente una forma grave de preeclampsia. En este estudio, nuestro objetivo fue examinar los cambios histopatológicos y los niveles de expresión de Endotelina-1 y Ki-67 mediante métodos inmunohistoquímicos en placentas preeclámpsicas graves. Se compararon la preeclampsia grave y las características obstétricas, además de las características bioquímicas y hematológicas de pacientes sanas. Las secciones de placenta se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina para examen histopatológico. En el examen histopatológico de placenta preeclampsia severa, se observó la degeneración en células sinápticas y citotrofoblásticas, un aumento de nudos insidiosos, necrosis fibrinoide, degeneración en las células endoteliales,calcificación y manchas vellosas hialinas. En el grupo de preeclampsia grave, la expresión de Ki-67 aumentó en células deciduas y células inflamatorias, mientras que las células endoteliales en la pared del vaso, y las células inflamatorias en las vellosidades y los espacios intervellosos aumentaron. Se cree que la proliferación angiogenética y celular se induce de forma coordinada y que influye significativamente en el desarrollo fetal.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Endothelin-1/metabolism , HELLP Syndrome/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Placenta/pathology , HELLP Syndrome/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Pre-Eclampsia/pathology
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(4): 308-314, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888221


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Endoscopic mucosal resection is still considered an accepted treatment for early gastric cancer for selected cases. Histopathologic criteria for curative endoscopic resection are intramucosal well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, lateral and deep margins free of tumor, no histological ulceration, and no venous or lymphatic embolism. A 5% local recurrence rate has been described even when all the above-mentioned criteria are met. On the other hand, antigen expression by tumoral cells has been related to the biological behavior of several tumors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether early gastric cancer mucin immunoexpression, p53 and Ki-67, can predict recurrence after endoscopic mucosal resection, even when standard histopathologic criteria for curative measures have been attempted. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with early gastric cancer were considered to have been completely resected by endoscopic mucosal resection. Local recurrence occurred in 5/22 (22.7%). Immunohistochemical study was possible in 18 (81.8%) resected specimens. Patients were divided in two groups: those with and those without local recurrence. They were compared across demographic, endoscopic, histologic data, and immunohistochemical factors for MUC2, MUC5a, CD10, p53, and Ki-67. RESULTS: Mucin immunoexpression allowed a reclassification of gastric adenocarcinoma in intestinal (10), gastric (2), mixed (4), and null phenotypes (2). Mixed phenotype (positive for both MUC2 and MUC5a) was found in 80% of cases in the local recurrence group, while the intestinal type (positive MUC2 and negative MUC5a) was found in 76.9% of cases without local recurrence (P=0.004). Other observed features did not correlate with neoplastic recurrence. CONCLUSION: The mixed phenotype of early gastric adenocarcinoma is associated with a higher probability of local recurrence after endoscopic mucosal resection.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A ressecção endoscópica da mucosa é tratamento aceito para o tratamento do câncer gástrico precoce em casos selecionados. Os critérios histopatológicos favoráveis à ressecção endoscópica curativa são adenocarcinomas intramucosos, bem diferenciados, com margens lateral e profunda livres, ausência de ulceração ou de embolização angiolinfática. Taxas de recorrência local próximas a 5% têm sido descritas mesmo quando se cumprem tais critérios. Por outro lado, a expressão antigênica por células tumorais tem sido relacionada com o comportamento biológico de diversos tumores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a imunoexpressão de mucinas, p53 e Ki-67 podem predizer a recorrência tumoral após mucosectomia endoscópica no câncer gástrico precoce, mesmo se critérios de cura histopatológicos forem atingidos. MÉTODOS: Vinte e dois pacientes com critérios de cura para ressecção endoscópica e sumetidos a mucosectomia foram selecionados. A recorrência local ocorreu em 5/22 (22,7%). O estudo imunohistoquímico foi realizado em 18 (81,8%) espécimens. Os pacientes foram divididos em grupos com e sem recorrência local. Foram comparados quanto a dados demográficos, endoscópicos, histológicos e fatores imunohistoquímicos para MUC2, MUC5A, CD10, p53, e Ki-67. RESULTADOS: A imunoexpressão de mucinas permitiu a reclassificação dos adenocarcinomas gástricos em intestinal (10), gástrico (2), e de fenótipo misto (4) e nulo (2). Os fenótipos mistos (positivos tanto para MUC2 quanto para MUC5A) foram encontrados em 80% dos casos no grupo de recorrência local, enquanto tipos intestinais (MUC2 positivo e MUC5A negativo) foram identificados em 76,9% dos casos sem recorrência (P=0,004). Os outros fatores observados não se relacionaram com a recorrência tumoral. CONCLUSÃO: O fenótipo misto do câncer gástrico precoce está associado a maior probabilidade de recorrência local após a mucosectomia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/metabolism , Phenotype , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/classification , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/classification , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Endoscopic Mucosal Resection , Gastric Mucosa/surgery , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Middle Aged , Mucins
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(2): 178-185, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891376


ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the influence of portal vein ligation in hepatic regeneration by immunohistochemical criteria. Methods Ten pigs divided into two groups of five animals underwent hepatectomy in two stages, and the groups were differentiated by ligation or not of the left portal vein tributary, which is responsible for vascularization of the left lateral and medial lobes of the pig liver. Five days after the procedure, the animals underwent liver biopsies for further analysis of histological and immunohistochemical with marker Ki67. Results The group submitted to hepatectomy with vascular ligation showed an increase of approximately 4% of hepatocytes in regeneration status, as well as a greater presence of Kupffer and inflammatory cells as compared to control. Conclusion As a result of positive cell replication observed through the Ki67 marker, we can suspect that the ligation of a tributary of the portal vein associated with liver resection promoted a greater stimulus of liver regeneration when compared to liver resection alone.

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a influência da ligadura da tributária da veia porta no estímulo regenerativo hepático por meio de critérios imuno-histoquímicos. Métodos Dez suínos, divididos em dois grupos de cinco animais, foram submetidos à hepatectomia em dois estágios, sendo que os grupos foram diferenciados pela ligadura ou não da tributária da veia porta, responsável pela vascularização dos lobos lateral e medial esquerdos do fígado do suíno. Cinco dias após o procedimento, os animais foram reabordados para retirada de amostras hepáticas para posterior análise de histológica e imunoistoquímica com o marcador Ki67. Resultados O grupo submetido à hepatectomia com ligadura vascular apresentou incremento de 4% aproximadamente de hepatócitos em processo de regeneração, bem como grande número de células de Kupffer e células inflamatórias, quando comparado ao controle. Conclusão Em virtude da análise positiva da replicação celular observada por meio do marcador Ki67, pode-se observar que a ligadura de uma tributária da veia porta promoveu um maior estímulo de regeneração hepática, efeito observado com menor intensidade no grupo submetido apenas à ressecção hepática.

Animals , Portal Vein/surgery , Parenchymal Tissue/surgery , Hepatectomy/methods , Liver/surgery , Liver Regeneration , Swine , Random Allocation , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Models, Animal , Parenchymal Tissue/pathology , Leukocytes , Ligation/methods , Liver/pathology
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 76(3): 157-160, maio-jun. 2017. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899062


Resumo Pterígios são lesões geralmente benignas que na maioria dos casos não requer tratamento específico. É um crescimento fibrovascular sobre a córnea, geralmente a partir do lado nasal. Sua causa ainda não foi elucidada, mas parece estar relacionada à exposição aos raios ultravioleta. Quando os sintomas não são controlados com tratamento conservador, a cirurgia é indicada, porém o índice de recidiva ainda é alto, e os esforços têm sido no sentido de reduzir esse índice. A mitomicina C (MMC) é uma opção de adjuvante à cirurgia por ser um inibidor da proliferação de fibroblastos, diminuindo o risco de recorrência do pterígio. Relatamos aqui um caso que descreve cirurgia de pterígio realizada em ambos os olhos de uma mesma paciente, sendo um com MMC e outro sem ela. Os resultados e o índice de proliferação celular dos dois olhos foram comparados entre si.

Abstract Pterygia are usually benign lesions that do not require specific treatment. It is a fibrovascular growth onto the nasal side of the cornea. It`s cause has not been fully elucidated yet, but seems to be related to long -term ultraviolet ray exposure. When symptoms are not controlled with conservative treatment surgery is considered, but the recurrence rate is still high, and efforts have been made to avoid it. Mitomycin C (MMC) is a fibroblast proliferation inhibitor that can be used as adjuvant to surgery to reduce recurrence. We report here a case that describes pterygium surgery performed in both eyes of the same patient, being one with MMC and the other eye without it. Both pterygium were sent to laboratory analysis. The results and proliferation index were compared between the eyes.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pterygium/drug therapy , Mitomycin/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Transplantation, Autologous , Preoperative Care , Pterygium/surgery , Pterygium/diagnosis , Pterygium/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Conjunctiva/surgery , Conjunctiva/transplantation , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Administration, Ophthalmic , Injections
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e66, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952096


Abstract The aim of this study was to identify the expression of Ki-67 and MCM3 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as well as to address the correlation with patient survival and clinical features. Samples were collected from 51 patients with OSCC who presented for follow-up. Immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 and MCM3 in all groups was performed. The scoring system was previous published by Tsurutani in 2005. We used Kappa index to evaluate observers agreement degree. The associations between protein expression and clinical variables were examined for statistical significance using the chi-squared test. The overall survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the relationship between protein expression and survival was compared using the log-rank test (p < 0.05). The overall survival time for a patient with positive immunostaining for Ki-67 is shorter than for a patient with negative immunostaining, (log-rank test, p = 0.00882). Patients with tumor size T3 and T4 showed a statistically significant relationship with Ki-67 immunoexpression (log-rank test, p = 0.0174). The relationship between Ki-67 expression and the relation between age, gender, smoking, tumor site, lymph node metastasis and disease stage was not significant. The examiners agreement degree by Kappa presented p value < 0.05. There was not a significant correlation when we evaluated MCM3 expression regarding clinical characteristics and survival rate. From these results, the present study suggests that positive Ki-67 expression found in OSCC patients may contribute to predict the survival in OSCC samples, as well as the relation between the protein and the tumor size.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Mouth Neoplasms/mortality , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/mortality , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 3/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Biopsy , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Paraffin Embedding , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Tumor Burden , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lymphatic Metastasis , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasm Staging
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 10(3): 513-520, dic. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841003


This study aimed to assess the immunoexpression of cell proliferation markers (Ki-67 and Mcm-2) in oral tongue cancer, correlating it with patients' age and prognostic indicators. Sample was composed of 22 cases under 40 years and 22 over 50 years of age. Clinical staging and histological grade of malignancy were obtained. Cell proliferation was evaluated through labeling indices. Statistical analysis was performed (p<0.05 for statistical significance). Most young patients were stages III/IV (n=13/65 %) and most older patients were stages I/II (n=11/61.1 %) (p>0.05). Mean Ki-67-LI in young and older patients was 42.4 % and 44.15 %, respectively (p>0.05). Mean Mcm-2-LI was higher in older (63.6 %) than in young patients (55.75 %) (p<0.05). We found that young patients presented more aggressive lesions in comparison to older patients, however Mcm-2 expression was significantly higher in older than in young patients. SCC of tongue can be more aggressive in young patients, and this may not be related to cell proliferation. Our findings for Mcm-2 LI and Ki-67 LI suggests that Mcm-2 could be a more sensitive marker for cell proliferation.

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la inmunoexpresión de marcadores de proliferación celular (Ki-67 y Mcm-2) en el cáncer de lengua oral, correlacionándolo con la edad de los pacientes y los indicadores pronósticos. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 22 personas menores de 40 años y 22 personas mayores de 50 años. Se identificaron los estadios clínicos y el grado histológico de malignidad. La proliferación celular se evaluó mediante índices de marcado. Se realizó análisis estadístico (p <0,05 para significación estadística). La mayoría de los pacientes jóvenes eran estadios III / IV (n = 13/65 %) y la mayoría de los pacientes mayores eran estadios I / II (n = 11 / 61,1 %) (p> 0,05). La media de Ki-67-LI en pacientes jóvenes y mayores fue 42,4% y 44,15%, respectivamente (p> 0,05). La media de Mcm-2-LI fue mayor en pacientes mayores (63,6 %) que en pacientes jóvenes (55,75 %) (p <0,05). Se encontró que los pacientes jóvenes presentaron lesiones más agresivas en comparación con los pacientes mayores, sin embargo la expresión de Mcm-2 fue significativamente mayor en pacientes mayores que en pacientes jóvenes. SCC de la lengua puede ser más agresivo en pacientes jóvenes, y esto no puede estar relacionado con la proliferación celular. Nuestros hallazgos para Mcm-2 LI y Ki-67 LI sugieren que Mcm-2 podría ser un marcador más sensible para la proliferación celular.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/immunology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Mouth Neoplasms/immunology , Age Factors , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Immunohistochemistry , Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2/metabolism , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Prognosis , Tongue Neoplasms/metabolism
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1166-1170, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163285


We report a rare case of primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma on dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. A 38-year-old, asymptomatic woman was hospitalized because of an abnormality on chest radiography. A dynamic contrast-enhanced chest CT showed a 1.2 cm-sized irregular-margined nodule with strong and persistent enhancement in the right lower lobe. The lesion had low metabolic activity on an 18F-FDG PET/CT scan. The patient underwent a wedge resection for the lesion, and pathology revealed a primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma.

Adult , Female , Humans , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/chemistry , Hemangiosarcoma/diagnosis , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Multimodal Imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals/chemistry , Tomography, Spiral Computed
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148912


PURPOSE: To compare the expression of survivin and its association with clinicopathological criteria in major types of urinary bladder carcinoma, specifically, transitional cell carcinoma with and without squamous differentiation and squamous cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for survivin and Ki67 was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of 104 carcinomas: 52 transitional cell carcinoma, 20 transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation, and 32 squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of survivin in >10% of tumor cells was described as altered survivin status. Ki67 staining in >20% of tumor cells was described as a high proliferation index. RESULTS: Altered survivin expression was detected in 60/104 specimens (58%) and was significantly more frequent in transitional cell carcinoma (78%) than in squamous cell carcinoma (38%) or transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation (40%) (p<0.0001). In transitional cell carcinoma but not in squamous cell carcinoma, altered survivin status was associated with higher tumor grade, higher proliferation index, and recurrence. In the whole specimens, altered survivin expression was significantly associated with advanced stage (p<0.001), recurrence (p=0.005), distant metastasis (p<0.001), and death (p=0.001). In the multivariate analysis, altered survivin was an independent poor prognostic factor for recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike in transitional cell carcinoma, alteration of survivin expression in squamous cell carcinoma occurs less frequently and is not associated with features of tumor aggression or patient outcome. These findings raise a question: are urinary bladder carcinoma patients with squamous cell carcinoma type suitable candidates for survivin vaccine? This is an important question to be answered before approving the vaccine in management.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/genetics , Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins/genetics , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome , Biomarkers, Tumor , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics