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1.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 51-57, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092787

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La nefropatía falciforme (NF) es una complicación poco estudiada en la edad pediátrica, que se manifiesta en diferentes formas, incluyendo la glomerulopatía y la tubulopatía. Objetivo: Descri bir las complicaciones renales agudas y crónicas de niños con anemia de células falciformes (ACF). Pacientes y Método: Estudio de cohorte restrospectiva. Se incluyeron pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico confirmado de enfermedad de células falciformes que tuvieran estudio nefro-urológico. Se consignó patrón electroforético de hemoglobina, presencia y tipo de afectación renal, y presencia de compromiso cardiológico. Se realizó análisis bivariado para comparar pacientes con y sin NF. Resultados: Se incluyeron 79 pacientes, 59.5% hombres, siendo el patrón electroforético más fre cuente Hb-SS (60.9%). La NF se presentó en el 70% de ellos, con una edad de 114 meses (RIQ 65-157). Las alteraciones más frecuentemente encontradas fueron hiperfiltración glomerular, mi croalbuminuria, lesión renal aguda, hipertensión arterial e hipostenuria. En el análisis bivariado, un ecocardiograma anormal fue más frecuente en los pacientes con NF (84,8% vs 54,3% p = 0,01), así como tuvieron una tendencia a mayor uso de medicamentos nefrotóxicos (74,5% vs 54,2% p = 0,07). Conclusiones: Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que la nefropatía falciforme puede presentarse a tempra na edad, siendo muy frecuente la hiperfiltración glomerular. Las complicaciones cardiopulmonares en ACF se podrían asociar con la presencia NF.


Abstract: Introduction: Sickle cell nephropathy (SCN) is a poorly studied complication of pediatric patients. It appears in different forms, including glomerulopathy, and tubulopathies. Objective: To describe acute and chronic renal complications in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Patients and Method: Re trospective study. Pediatric patients with confirmed diagnosis of sickle cell disease were included who had a nephro-urology study. Hemoglobin electrophoresis pattern, presence and type of renal involvement, and presence of cardiac involvement were recorded. Bivariate analysis was perfor med to compare patients with and without SCN. Results: 79 patients were included, 59.5% of them were men, and the most frequent electrophoresis pattern was Hb-SS (60.9%). The SCN oc curred in 70% of patients with an average age of 114 months (RIQ 65-157). The most frequently observed alterations were glomerular hyperfiltration, microalbuminuria, acute kidney injury, ar terial hypertension, and hyposthenuria. In the bivariate analysis, an abnormal echocardiogram result was presented more frequently in patients with SCN (84.8% vs. 54.3% p = 0.01), as well as more frequent use of nephrotoxic drugs (74.5% vs. 54.2% p = 0.07). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that sickle cell nephropathy may occur at an early age, where glomerular hyperfiltration is very common. Cardiopulmonary complications in patients with SCA may be related to the presence of SCN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e8625, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132515

ABSTRACT

Amyloidosis comprises a group of disorders that accumulate modified autologous proteins in organs, mainly the kidneys. Few studies have addressed the amyloid compartmental distribution and associated clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to present a case series of renal amyloidosis correlating histopathological data with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during kidney biopsy. We studied 53 cases reviewed by nephropathologists from 2000 to 2018 in a single kidney biopsy center in Brazil. GFR was estimated using the CKD-EPI formula. Cases were divided into Group A ≥60 and Group B <60 mL·min−1·(1.73 m2)−1 using the estimated GFR during kidney biopsy. Semiquantitative histopathological study was performed, including extension and distribution of amyloid deposits by compartments (glomeruli, tubulointerstitial tissue, and vessels). Statistical analyses were made to understand associations with lower GFR. No difference was seen for age, gender, proteinuria, hematuria, subtype of amyloid protein, arteriosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/infiltrate, or glomerular and interstitial amyloid deposits. After a previous P value <0.1 in the descriptive analysis, the following variables were selected: globally sclerotic glomeruli, high blood pressure, and the extension of vascular amyloid deposition. A binary logistic regression model with GFR as the dependent variable showed history of hypertension and vascular amyloid to be robust and independent predictors of Group B <60 mL·min−1·(1.73 m2)−1. Beyond the histopathologic diagnosis of amyloidosis, a semiquantitative approach on renal biopsy could provide new insights. Vascular amyloid is an independent predictor of renal dysfunction in cases of renal amyloidosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Amyloid/physiology , Amyloidosis/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Biopsy , Retrospective Studies , Amyloidosis/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology
3.
Actual. osteol ; 15(3): 180-191, Sept-Dic. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104226

ABSTRACT

Bone metabolism disorders are characterized by an imbalance of bone resorption and formation in the bone remodeling process. Glucocorticoids that are used to treat kidney diseases exacerbate these disorders. P-selectin and galectin-3 are molecules involved in the sclerotic process in kidney, whereas bone resorption is regulated by the interaction between the nuclear factor activator kappa b receptor (RANK), its ligand (RANKL) and the RANKL decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of disruption of bone remodeling regulation processes, reflected by intercellular mediators (RANKL, OPG, P-selectin and galectin-3) in chronic kidney disease experimental model treated with glucocorticoids. Rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. The first group, the control group, included intact animals. The second group consisted of rats with impaired bone remodeling resulting from chronic kidney disease (experimental group (CKD). The third group was a group of animals with impaired bone remodeling due to exposure to glucocorticoids (experimental group (GCs)). The fourth group consisted of rats with impaired bone remodeling in chronic kidney disease, followed by exposure to glucocorticoids (experimental group (CKD + GCs)). The effects of CKD and glucocorticoid were evaluated biochemically, histologically and by measuring bone density. An enzymelinked immunoassay was used to measure intercellular mediator levels in the serum. The bone density in the experimental groups was reduced compared to the control group. RANKL levels in animals of three experimental groups were higher than in intact animals. Serum levels of OPG were higher in CKD and GCs groups than in intact animals. At the same time, in the animals' blood serum of the CKD + GCs group, the levels of OPG were lower, than those in animals from the control group. The levels of galectin-3 in the serum of the experimental groups GCs and CKD + GCs were lower than in intact animals. The serum levels of galectin-3 in animals of the CKD group were higher than those in animals from the control group. The levels of P-selectin were lower in the serum of the GCs group than in intact animals. At the same time, the levels of P-selectin were higher in the CKD and CKD + GCs groups, than those in animals from the control group. In conclusion, the study of the complex system of bone remodeling regulation, which includes many factors and their interactions, may lead to the development of new methods for treating patients with chronic kidney disease in order to prevent osteoporosis in the future. (AU)


Las enfermedades metabólicas óseas se caracterizan por un desequilibrio en el proceso de remodelación ósea en los que participan mediadores tales como receptor del activador del factor nuclear- kappa- b (RANK), su ligando (RANKL) y la osteoprotegerina (OPG). Los glucocorticoides, recuentemente empleados en el tratamiento de la enfermedad renal crónica, exacerban este desequilibrio. En la enfermedad esclerótica renal, las moléculas de adhesión celular P-selectina and galectina-3 tienen un rol fundamental. El objetivo de esta trabajo fue estudiar las alteraciones en los mediadores de la remodelación ósea (RANKL, OPG, P-selectina and galectina-3) en un modelo de enfermedad renal crónica con tratamiento glucocorticoideo. Ratas Wistar hembras fueron divididos en 4 grupos: control (C); enfermedad renal crónica con afección de la remodelación ósea (ERC); animales con afección de la remodelación ósea expuestos a glucocorticoides (GC); enfermedad renal crónica con afección de la remodelación ósea tratados con glucocorticoides (ERC+GC). Los efectos de la ERC y los GC fueron evaluados bioquímicamente, histológicamente y por medición de la densidad ósea. RANKL, OPG, Pselectina and galectina-3 se cuantificaron en muestras de sangre venosa empleando enzimoinmuno análisis. En los 3 grupos experimentales la densidad ósea se evidenció reducida y los niveles séricos de RANKL elevados respecto al grupo control. Los niveles de OPG en los grupos ERC y GC fueron superiores mientras que en el grupo ERC+GC menores respecto a los animales controles. Galectina 3 plasmática en GC y ERC+GC se encontró reducida y aumentada en los animales ERC, en comparación con los animales controles. La concentración sérica de P-selectina sérica fue mayor en los grupos ERC y ERC+GC, y menor en los animales GC respecto a los niveles plasmáticos de los animales intactos. El avance del conocimiento sobre la regulación de la remodelación ósea a través de la interacción de mediadores sistémicos, en un futuro, puede conducir al desarrollo de nuevas estrategias terapéuticas para la prevención de la osteoporosis en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/chemically induced , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Bone Density/drug effects , Chloroform/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , P-Selectin/drug effects , P-Selectin/blood , Galectin 3/drug effects , Galectin 3/blood , RANK Ligand/drug effects , RANK Ligand/blood , Osteoprotegerin/drug effects , Osteoprotegerin/blood , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Glycerol/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(5): 628-633, mayo 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014271

ABSTRACT

Creatine supplements may transitorily rise serum creatinine levels and mimic a kidney disease. If its use is associated with a high protein diet, the resulting increase in blood urea nitrogen will increase the confusion. Since clinical laboratories usually inform the estimated glomerular filtration rate based on serum creatinine, its elevation may lead to over diagnose a chronic renal failure, with the inherent personal and public health consequences. Creatine supplements are safe and do not cause renal disease. Reports of kidney damage associated with its use are scanty. However, creatine supplements should not be used in people with chronic renal disease or using potentially nephrotoxic medications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Creatine/adverse effects , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Risk Factors , Creatinine/blood , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology
5.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(1): 39-44, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004743

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Up to 5% of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) cases are unresponsive to colchicine, through resistance, side effects and toxicity. Anakinra is an alternative treatment for FMF patients whose disease remains uncontrolled with colchicine. We aimed to evaluate anti-interleukin-1 treatment regarding clinical findings, laboratory parameters and quality of life (QoL) among FMF patients presenting resistance and toxicity towards colchicine. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive observational study at the rheumatology clinic, Adnan Menderes University Medical School, Aydın, Turkey. METHODS: Among the patients included, age, sex, MEFV genotypes, acute-phase reactants, hepatic/renal function tests, average colchicine dose, disease duration, attack frequency, attack duration, disease severity, proteinuria, amyloidosis and QoL were evaluated. Colchicine resistance was defined as > 6 typical episodes/year or > 3 per 4-6 months. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Friedman and two-way analysis of variance tests were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Between 2015 and 2017, 14 FMF patients receiving anakinra were enrolled. The mean colchicine dose was 1.7 ± 0.3 mg/day before use of anakinra. Ten patients were attack-free after treatment, while three showed reductions of at least 50% in attack frequency, attack duration and disease severity. Proteinuria levels in all patients with renal amyloidosis decreased after treatment. QoL among patients with renal amyloidosis differed significantly from QoL among non-amyloidosis patients. Mean visual analogue scale scores significantly improved in both groups after use of anakinra. CONCLUSIONS: Use of anakinra reduced attack frequency and proteinuria and acute-phase reactant levels, and improved QoL, with only a few uncomplicated side effects among colchicine-resistant or intolerant FMF patients. Injection-site reactions of severity insufficient to require discontinuation of treatment were seen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Familial Mediterranean Fever/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Familial Mediterranean Fever/physiopathology , Proteinuria/urine , Reference Values , Time Factors , Turkey , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Sedimentation , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Visual Analog Scale , Amyloidosis/physiopathology , Amyloidosis/drug therapy , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(3): 608-616, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954055

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the fetal stem cell (FSC) response to maternal renal injury with emphasis on renal integrity improvement and Y chromosome detection in damaged maternal kidney. Materials and Methods: Eight non-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic Sprague-Dawley rats were mated with GFP-positive transgenic male rats. Renal damage was induced on the right kidney at gestational day 11. The same procedure was performed in eight non-pregnant rats as control group. Three months after delivery, right ne- phrectomy was performed in order to evaluate the injured kidney. The fresh perfused kidneys were stained with anti-GFP antibody. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was also performed for the Y chromosome detection. Cell culture was performed to detect the GFP-positive cells. Technetium-99m-DMSA renal scan and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed after renal damage induction and 3 months later to evaluate the improvement of renal integrity. Results: The presence of FSCs was confirmed by immune histochemical staining as well as immunofluorescent imaging of the damaged part. Gradient PCR of female rat purified DNA demonstrated the presence of Y-chromosome in the damaged maternal kidney. Moreover, the culture of kidney cells showed GPF- positive cells by immuno- fluorescence microscopy. The acute renal scar was repaired and the integrity of dam- aged kidney reached to near normal levels in experimental group as shown in DMSA scan. However, no significant improvement was observed in control group. Conclusion: FSC seems to be the main mechanism in repairing of the maternal renal injury during pregnancy as indicated by Y chromosome and GFP-positive cells in the sub-cultured medium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Wound Healing/physiology , Chimerism , Fetal Stem Cells/physiology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/physiology , Time Factors , Y Chromosome , Immunohistochemistry , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Cells, Cultured , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Radiopharmaceuticals , Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid , Disease Models, Animal , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Kidney Diseases/diagnostic imaging
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e7174, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889044

ABSTRACT

Excess weight (overweight and obesity) is associated with kidney and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between syndecan-1 and renal function among adolescents with excess weight. A total of 56 students from a public school at Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, were investigated. The adolescents were submitted to anthropometric evaluation, including weight, height, blood pressure and body mass index. Blood and urine samples were collected for the determination of serum lipids (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides), and the endothelial injury biomarker syndecan-1. Participants' mean age was 16±1 years (range 14-19 years), and 68% were females. Overweight was observed in 4 cases (7.1%) and obesity in 7 (12.5%). Changes in serum lipid levels were more frequent in the overweight group. A positive correlation between syndecan-1 and serum creatinine (r=0.5, P=0.001) and triglycerides (r=0.37, P=0.004), and a negative correlation with glomerular filtration rate (r=-0.33, P=0.02) were found. These findings suggest that adolescents with excess weight present incipient changes at the cellular level that make them more vulnerable to the development of kidney and cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Syndecan-1/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Mass Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Obesity/blood , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Risk Factors , Syndecan-1/urine
8.
Clinics ; 71(9): 521-527, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Considering that changes in the maternal environment may result in changes in progeny, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sleep restriction during the last week of pregnancy on renal function and autonomic responses in male descendants at an adult age. METHODS: After confirmation of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control or a sleep restriction group. The sleep-restricted rats were subjected to sleep restriction using the multiple platforms method for over 20 hours per day between the 14th and 20th day of pregnancy. After delivery, the litters were limited to 6 offspring that were designated as offspring from control and offspring from sleep-restricted mothers. Indirect measurements of systolic blood pressure (BPi), renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, glomerular area and number of glomeruli per field were evaluated at three months of age. Direct measurements of cardiovascular function (heart rate and mean arterial pressure), cardiac sympathetic tone, cardiac parasympathetic tone, and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated at four months of age. RESULTS: The sleep-restricted offspring presented increases in BPi, glomerular filtration rate and glomerular area compared with the control offspring. The sleep-restricted offspring also showed higher basal heart rate, increased mean arterial pressure, increased sympathetic cardiac tone, decreased parasympathetic cardiac tone and reduced baroreflex sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that reductions in sleep during the last week of pregnancy lead to alterations in cardiovascular autonomic regulation and renal morpho-functional changes in offspring, triggering increases in blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Sleep Deprivation/complications , Hypertension/etiology , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Sleep Deprivation/physiopathology , Autonomic Nervous System/physiopathology , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Random Allocation , Risk Factors , Rats, Wistar , Baroreflex/physiology , Fetal Development/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Fourier Analysis , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Heart Rate/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology
10.
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.753-770.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971566
11.
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.789-799.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971568
12.
J. bras. nefrol ; 37(3): 385-398, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-760428

ABSTRACT

ResumoNesta revisão, descrevemos a função tubular de cada segmento do néfron seguida das descrições das principais alterações moleculares que possam ocorrer nos transportadores expressos nestes locais. Assim, o conhecimento das modificações na função tubular renal permite o entendimento e o reconhecimento clínico das doenças tubulares renais que podem causar a morte fetal, neonatal ou infantil. Além disso, as crianças com tubulopatias podem evoluir para doença renal crônica terminal numa fase precoce da vida e também podem apresentar distúrbios do crescimento e do desenvolvimento acompanhados ou não de alterações neurológicas. Então, nós utilizamos o unitermo "inherited tubular disorders" a fim de selecionar na base de dados do PubMed os estudos publicados desde 2006. Esperamos que a leitura desta revisão auxilie no rápido diagnóstico dos pacientes com tubulopatias, o que poderá permitir o tratamento especializado e a possível melhora do prognóstico e qualidade de vida destes indivíduos.


AbstractIn this review, we described the tubular function of each nephron segment followed by the most important changes that may occur in the transporters expressed therein. Thus, knowledge of the changes in renal tubular function allows the understanding and recognition of renal tubular diseases that can cause stillbirth or death in newborns or in childhood. Moreover, children with tubular disorders may progress to chronic renal disease at an early stage of life and they may also show disturbances of growth and development associate or not with neurological dysfunction. Therefore, we used the keyword "inherited tubular disorders" to select the children studies that have been published in the PubMed database since 2006. We hope that this review may help physicians to perform an early diagnosis in patients with tubular disorders allowing a specialized treatment and an improvement in their prognosis and quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Kidney Tubules , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/genetics
13.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 23(2): 84-90, abr.-jun. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: lil-786988

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Cardiodesfibriladores implantáveis (CDIs) são geralmente indicados para pacientes com arritmias malignas considerados de alto risco. A hiperatividade simpática desempenha um papel crítico no desenvolvimento, na manutenção e no agravamento de arritmias ventriculares. Novas opçõesde tratamento nessa população representam uma necessidade clínica. Nosso objetivo foi relatar osresultados de pacientes com CDIs e tempestade elétrica submetidos à denervação simpática renal paracontrole da arritmia. Métodos: Oito pacientes com CDIs internados por tempestade elétrica refratária ao tratamento médico otimizado foram submetidos à denervação simpática renal. Condições subjacentes foram: doença de Chagas (n = 6), cardiomiopatia dilatada não isquêmica (n = 1) e cardiomiopatia isquêmica (n = 1). As informações sobre o número de taquicardias ventriculares/fibrilações ventriculares e episódios de terapiasantitaquicardia na última semana pré-procedimento e nos 30 dias pós-tratamento foram obtidas por meiode interrogação dos CDIs. Resultados: As medianas dos episódios de taquicardias ventriculares/fibrilações ventriculares, sobreestimulaçãoe choques na semana que antecedeu a denervação simpática renal foram de 29 (9 a 106), 23 (2 a 94) e 7,5 (1 a 88), sendo significativamente reduzidas para 0 (0 a 12), 0 (0 a 30) e 0 (0 a 1), respectivamente, 1 mês após o procedimento (p = 0,002; p = 0,01; p = 0,003). Nenhum paciente morreu durante o acompanhamento. Não ocorreram complicações maiores relacionadas ao procedimento.Conclusões: Em pacientes com CDIs e tempestade elétrica refratária ao tratamento médico otimizado, a denervação simpática renal reduziu significativamente a carga de arritmia e, consequentemente, as sobre-estimulações e os choques. Ensaios clínicos randomizados, no contexto de denervação simpática renal para controle de arritmias cardíacas refratárias, são necessários para trazer maior robustez aos nossos achados.


Background: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are usually indicated for patients with malignant arrhythmias considered as high risk. Sympathetic hyperactivity plays a critical role in thedevelopment, maintenance, and worsening of ventricular arrhythmias. New treatment options in thispopulation represent a clinical necessity. This study’s objective was to report the outcomes of patients with ICDs and electrical storm submitted to renal sympathetic denervation for arrhythmia control. Methods: Eight patients with ICDs admitted for electrical storm refractory to optimal medical therapy underwent renal sympathetic denervation. Underlying diseases included Chagas disease (n = 6), non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 1), and ischemic cardiomyopathy (n = 1).Information on the number of episodes of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation and antitachycardia therapies in the week before the procedure and 30 days after treatment were obtained through interrogation of the ICDs.Results: The median numbers of episodes of ventricular achycardia/ ventricular fibrillation,antitachycardia pacing, and shocks in the week before renal sympathetic denervation were 29 (9 to 106), 23 (2 to 94), and 7.5 (1 to 88), and significantly reduced to 0 (0 to 12), 0 (0 to 30), and 0 (0 to 1), respectively, 1 month after the procedure (p = 0.002; p = 0.01; p = 0.003, respectively). No patients diedduring follow-up. There were no major complications related to the procedure.Conclusions: In patients with ICDs and electrical storm refractory to optimal medical treatment, renal sympathetic denervation significantly reduced arrhythmia load and, consequently, antitachycardia pacing and shocks. Randomized clinical trials in the context of renal sympathetic denervation tocontrol refractory cardiac arrhythmias are needed to further support these findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Catheter Ablation/methods , Heart Diseases/etiology , Defibrillators, Implantable , Sympathectomy/methods , Therapeutics , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Renal Artery/physiopathology , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Heparin/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(2): 127-133, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741031

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate renal histological changes and renal function in single kidney rats submitted to renal ischemia-reperfusion and to immunosuppression with tacrolimus and mycophenolate-mofetil. METHODS: Experimental study with 80 Wistar rats distributed into control, Sham and six other groups treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Animals undergoing surgery, right nephrectomy and left renal clamping, killed on the 14th day and analyzed for renal histology, urea and creatinine. RESULTS: The group receiving tacrolimus at higher doses (T3) showed renal histological lesions indicative of early nephrotoxicity, and significant increase in urea and creatinine. The group M (mycophenolate-mofetil alone) and the group M2 (mycophenolate-mofetil combined with half the usual dose of tacrolimus) presented a slight rise in serum urea. The groups using mycophenolate-mofetil alone or combined with tacrolimus showed creatinine levels similar to that of the group T3. CONCLUSIONS: Histologically, the association of injury by ischemia-reperfusion with the use of tacrolimus or mycophenolate-mofetil alone demonstrated a higher rate of renal changes typical of early nephrotoxicity. In laboratory, the combination of injury by ischemia-reperfusion with tacrolimus at higher doses proved to be nephrotoxic. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Ischemia/complications , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney/blood supply , Mycophenolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Calcineurin Inhibitors/adverse effects , Creatinine/blood , Immunosuppression/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/blood , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney/pathology , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , Nephrons/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Tacrolimus/blood , Urea/blood
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 18(4): 434-440, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719309

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects of the genus Lutzomyia sp. or Phlebotomus sp. The main syndromes are cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. This article reviews kidney involvement in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, highlighting the aspects of their pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, histopathological findings, outcome and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Diseases/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/complications , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/complications , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/physiopathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/physiopathology
16.
An. venez. nutr ; 26(2): 69-72, dic. 2013. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: lil-746257

ABSTRACT

Excederse en el consumo de sal es una práctica común, que conlleva a consecuencias patológicas en la población en general, más aún en el paciente renal. Un consumo elevado de este elemento se asocia con mayor riesgo de desarrollo de hipertensión, enfermedad cardiovascular y renal, patologías responsables de 60% de la morbi-mortalidad mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda un consumo máximo de 5g. sal/día. Esta investigación busca determinar las prácticas vinculadas al consumo de sal y estimar su consumo en pacientes con enfermedad renal, que asisten al departamento de nefrología del hospital Guanare, Portuguesa-Venezuela. Es un estudio mixto, realizado en 66 pacientes (n=36 grupos focales, n=30 entrevistas cuantitativas). Las variables estudiadas fueron: disponibilidad de sal en hogar, consumo de alimentos con elevado contenido de sodio y prácticas cualitativas vinculadas al consumo de sal. Los pacientes consumieron 12,5 (♀) y 11,3 (♂) g/día de sal, provenientes del consumo directo y alimentos procesados. Los alimentos con elevado contenido de sodio más frecuentemente consumidos fueron: leche entera en polvo, quesos llanero y blanco pasteurizado, embutidos, enlatados, bebidas gaseosas, margarina, sazonadores y salsas (mayonesa, inglesa, ajo y soya). Los pacientes no leen el etiquetado nutricional y desconocen la cantidad de sodio de alimentos procesados. Los pacientes evitan el uso de sal de mesa, pero no el consumo de alimentos procesados. El consumo de sal de los pacientes, duplica las recomendaciones internacionales y nacionales que regulan el consumo de sodio, lo que conlleva a una disminución de la expectativa y calidad de vida(AU)


Exceed salt intake is a common practice, that leads to pathological consequences in the whole population, even more in the patient with renal disease. High salt consumption has been associated with hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease that are responsible for 60% of worldwide morbi-mortality. The World Health Organization recommends a maximum intake of 5 g of salt/day. The aim of this study is to determine practices related with salt intake, and estimate the consumption in patients with renal disease, who attended the nephrology department in Guanare´s Hospital, Portuguesa State, Venezuela. We used a mixed-method approach in 66 patients (n=36 subjects from focus groups, n=30 who participated in quantitative interviews). The main variables studied were: availability of salt at household, intake of foods with high Sodium content, practices related with use of salt. The patients consumed 12.5 (♀) and 11.3 (♂) g/day, from salt alone and processed foods. The most consumed foods with high sodium content were: whole milk powder, white local cheese, ham, canned food, soft drinks, margarine, mayonnaise, garlic and soy sauce. Patients do not read the food label, ignore the amount of sodium in processed foods, avoid the salt on the table, but not from processed food. The salt intakes of these patients exceed more than double the international and national recommendations, and as a consequence they diminished their life expectancy and reduced their quality of life(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sodium/adverse effects , Sodium Chloride/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Eating , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Diet Therapy , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Food Handling , Nephrology
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(12): 1520-1527, dic. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705570

ABSTRACT

Background: High blood pressure causes left ventricular hypertrophy, which is a negative prognostic factor among hypertensive patients. Aim: To assess left ventricular geometric remodeling patterns in patients with essential hypertension or with hypertension secondary to parenchymal renal disease. Material and Methods: We analyzed data from echocardiograms performed in 250patients with essential hypertension (150 females) and 100 patients with secondary hypertension (60 females). The interventricular septum and the left ventricular posterior wall thickness were measured in the parasternal long-axis. Left ventricular mass was calculated using the Devereaux formula. Results: The most common remodeling type in females and males with essential hypertension were eccentric and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (cLVH), respectively. Among patients with secondary arterial hypertension, cLVH was most commonly observed in both genders. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was higher among patients with secondary hypertension. The left ventricular mass index and the relative left ventricular wall thickness were higher in males and also in the secondary hypertension group. Age, blood pressure values and the duration of hypertension, influenced remodeling patterns. Conclusions: We documented a higher prevalence of LVH among patients with secondary hypertension. The type of ventricular remodeling depends on gender, age, type of hypertension, blood pressure values and the duration of hypertension.


Antecedentes: La hipertensión arterial causa hipertrofia ventricular izquierda, un factor de mal pronóstico en pacientes hipertensos. Objetivo: Evaluar patrones de remodelación ventricular en pacientes con hipertensión arterial esencial y secundaria a daño renal. Material y Métodos: Análisis de ecocardiogramas efectuados a 250 pacientes con hipertensión arterial primaria (150 mujeres) y 100 pacientes con hipertensión secundaria (60 mujeres). Se midió el grosor del septum interventricular y de la pared ventricular posterior. La masa ventricular izquierda se calculó usando la fórmula de Devereaux. Resultados: Los tipos más frecuentes de remodelación ventricular en mujeres y hombres con hipertensión esencial fueron la hipertrofia ventricular excéntrica y concéntrica, respectivamente. En pacientes con hipertensión arterial secundaria, la hipertrofia concéntrica fue más frecuente. La prevalencia de hipertrofia ventricular izquierda fue más alta en pacientes con hipertensión secundaria. El índice de masa ventricular izquierda y el grosor relativo de la pared ventricular izquierda fueron mayores en pacientes con hipertensión secundaria. La edad, los valores de presión arterial y la duración de la hipertensión influyeron en los patrones de remodelación. Conclusiones: Documentamos una mayor prevalencia de hipertrofia ventricular izquierda en pacientes con hipertensión secundaria. El tipo de remodelación depende de la edad, género, tipo de hipertensión, valores de presión arterial y duración de la hipertensión.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hypertension , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular , Ventricular Remodeling , Age Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Echocardiography/methods , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases , Prevalence , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Ventricular Septum/physiology
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(10): 824-830, 24/set. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688561

ABSTRACT

Interest in the role of extracellular vesicles in various diseases including cancer has been increasing. Extracellular vesicles include microvesicles, exosomes, apoptotic bodies, and argosomes, and are classified by size, content, synthesis, and function. Currently, the best characterized are exosomes and microvesicles. Exosomes are small vesicles (40-100 nm) involved in intercellular communication regardless of the distance between them. They are found in various biological fluids such as plasma, serum, and breast milk, and are formed from multivesicular bodies through the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Microvesicles are 100-1000 nm vesicles released from the cell by the outward budding of the plasma membrane. The therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles is very broad, with applications including a route of drug delivery and as biomarkers for diagnosis. Extracellular vesicles extracted from stem cells may be used for treatment of many diseases including kidney diseases. This review highlights mechanisms of synthesis and function, and the potential uses of well-characterized extracellular vesicles, mainly exosomes, with a special focus on renal functions and diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Communication/physiology , Cell Membrane/physiology , Exosomes/physiology , Kidney Diseases , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy
19.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 7(1): 4-6, abr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-716198

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La nefropatía diabética es una complicación relevante de la Diabetes Mellitus. Por esto, la American Diabetes Association (ADA) recomienda la determinación de la velocidad de filtración glomerular (VFG) como screening de nefropatía. Existe una fórmula, la MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease), que permite hacer una estimación bastante exacta dela VFG. La utilización de ésta ha sido comparada permanentemente con la Cockcroft-Gault. OBJETIVO: comparar ambas fórmulas para la VFG en la realidad local. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo sobre 243 pacientes, seleccionados al azar, de un total de 1.057 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 registrados en el Plan de Salud Cardiovascular en el CESFAM San Rafael de la comuna La Pintana que contaban con medición seriada de Creatinina plasmática en sus controles periódicos. Se consideraron los valores de creatinina plasmática más recientes tomados en el período Enero 2010-Octubre 2011 y obtuvimos la VFG aplicando ambas fórmulas. RESULTADOS: del total de pacientes seleccionados, 158 fueron mujeres (65 por ciento) y 85 hombres (35 por ciento), con una media de edad de 53 años (DE 8,08). La VFG media estimada con MDRD fue de 89 ml/min/1,73 m2 (DE 21) y con la Cockcroft-Gault fue de 108 ml/min (DE 32), p<0,001. Realizamos un estudio de correlación entre ambas fórmulas. DISCUSIÓN: ambas mostraron correlación aceptable para estimar la VFG, aunque en pacientes obesos las estimaciones de VFG fueron más elevadas con Cockcroft-Gault que con MDRD. Por otro lado, en pacientes añosos la tendencia fue a que la fórmula MDRD diera estimaciones más altas.


INTRODUCTION: Diabetic Nephropathy is a significant complication of Diabetes Mellitus. That’s why, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommended for screening the determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease), is a formula which allows a very exactly estimation of GFR. Permanently, it had always been compared with Cockcroft-Gault formula. OBJECTIVE: Compare both formulas in the local reality. MATERIAL AND METHOD: It was done a retrospective studio over 243 patients, randomly selected, of a total of 1,057 type 2 diabetes patients registered in Cardiovascular program of San Rafael CESFAM that had serial measurement of plasmatic creatinine in their periodic controls. It was considered the most recent values of plasmatic creatinine taken between January 2010 – October 2011. RESULTS: Of the patients selected, 158 women (65 percent) and 85 men (35 percent), with average age of 53 years (SD 8,08), the GFR estimated with MDRD was of 89 ml/min/1.73 m2 (SD 21) and 108 ml/min (SD 32) for Cockcroft-Gault formula, p<0.001. We realized a correlation studio between both formulas. DISCUSSION: Both formulas demonstrated an acceptable correlation to estimated GFR, although obese patients had higher estimations with Cockcroft-Gault formula, on the other side, elderly patients had elevated results with MDRD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/physiopathology , Kidney Function Tests/methods , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Body Weight , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/diagnosis , Diabetic Nephropathies/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 72(2): 171-175, abr. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-639671

ABSTRACT

Desde hace más de cuarenta años que el litio es usado para el tratamiento de la enfermedad bipolar; recientes estudios sugieren también su utilidad en el trastorno cognitivo mínimo tipo amnésico. El litio es filtrado en el glomérulo y un 65-75% del mismo es reabsorbido en el túbulo contorneado proximal y en el asa ascendente de Henle por el transportador Na+, K+, 2Cl- y vía paracelular. Una pequeña fracción del litio entra en las células principales del túbulo colector por medio del canal epitelial de sodio sensible al amiloride (ENaC) localizado en la membrana apical de la célula. Luego de 10- 20 años de tratamiento con litio los enfermos pueden desarrollar poliuria, acidosis tubular e insuficiencia renal crónica que puede terminar en una forma de diabetes que no responde a la arginina vasopresina llamada diabetes insípida nefrogénica. Se cree que estas fallas renales son consecuencias de una reducción en el número de moléculas de acuaporina 2 en la membrana apical. Las causas para esto son complejas. El litio es un poderoso inhibidor de la isoforma beta de la enzima glicógeno sintetasa quinasa y esto está asociado a una menor actividad de la adenilato ciclasa que lleva a una disminución en la concentración intracelular de cAMP. Esto finalmente interferiría con la síntesis de nuevas moléculas de acuaporina 2 y con el tráfico de ellas desde la zona subapical de la célula hacia la membrana celular, causando la disminución en la reabsorción de agua en la parte distal del nefrón.


For more than 40 years lithium has been used to treat bipolar disorder and recent trials suggest a potential efficacy also in the treatment of the amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Lithium is filtered by the glomerulus and 65% - 75% of the filtered amount is reabsorbed along the proximal tubule and in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop by the Na+, K+, 2Cl- transporter and via paracellular. A small fraction of lithium is reabsorbed in the collecting duct's principal cells through the epithelial Na channel (ENaC) located on the apical side of the cells. Polyuria, renal tubular acidosis and chronic renal failure are the most frequent adverse effects of lithium after 10-20 years of treatment and these alterations can reach to a vasopressin nonresponding form of diabetes insipidus entity called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. It is believed that the molecular mechanisms of these renal changes are related to a reduction in the number of aquaporin-2 inserted in the apical membrane of the cells. The causes of this are complex. Lithium is a powerful inhibitor of the enzyme glycogen synthase kinase 3β and this is associated with a lower activity of adenylate cyclase with a reduction in the cAMP levels inside of the cells. The latter may interfere with the synthesis of aquaporin-2 and also with the traffic of these molecules from the subapical site to membrane promoting the impairment of water reabsorption in the distal part of the kidney.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimanic Agents/therapeutic use , /physiology , Epithelial Sodium Channels/physiology , Lithium Compounds/therapeutic use , Antimanic Agents/adverse effects , Antimanic Agents/metabolism , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic/chemically induced , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Lithium Compounds/adverse effects , Lithium Compounds/metabolism , Lithium/adverse effects , Lithium/metabolism , Lithium/pharmacology
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