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J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 12(1): 1-4, jan.-dez. 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554327


Introduction: Segmental and Focal Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is an entity characterized by glomerular damage involving the podocyte as the main target. A variant with a worse prognosis, poor response to corticosteroid therapy, and rapid progression to end-stage renal disease is recognized as collapsing FSGS. Case Report: A 102-year-old man with nephrotic syndrome and acute kidney injury underwent renal biopsy, revealing collapsing FSGS. He achieved an excellent response to immunosuppressive treatment, presenting renal recovery, and was discharged from dialysis treatment. Discussion: Diagnosis and definition of treatment in the elderly are challenging, and each case must be individualized and have functionality and risk assessed in a naturally immunosuppressed population.

Introdução: Glomeruloesclerose Segmentar e Focal (GESF) é uma entidade caracterizada por lesão glomerular que envolve o podócito como principal alvo. Uma variante de pior prognóstico, baixa resposta à corticoterapia, e rápida evolução para doença renal terminal é reconhecida como GESF colapsante. Relato de Caso: Um homem de 102 anos com síndrome nefrótica e lesão renal aguda foi submetido a biópsia renal, revelando GESF colapsante. Ele obteve excelente resposta ao tratamento imunossupressor, apresentando recuperação renal e recebendo alta de terapia renal substitutiva. Discussão: Diagnóstico e definição de tratamento nos idosos são desafiadores, devendo-se individualizar cada caso, avaliar funcionalidade e risco em uma população naturalmente imunossupressa.

Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Frail Elderly , Glomerulonephritis , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Nephrotic Syndrome
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 44-49, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011100


Objective:To investigate long-term auditory changes and characteristics of Alport syndrome(AS) patients with different degrees of renal injury. Methods:Retrospectively analyzing clinical data of patients diagnosed AS from January 2007 to September 2022, including renal pathology, genetic detection and hearing examination. A long-term follow-up focusing on hearing and renal function was conducted. Results:This study included 70 AS patients, of which 33(25 males, 8 females, aged 3.4-27.8 years) were followed up, resulting in a loss rate of 52.9%.The follow-up period ranged from 1.1to 15.8 years, with 16 patients followed-up for over 10 years. During the follow-up, 10 patients presenting with hearing abnormalities at the time of diagnosis of AS had progressive hearing loss, and 3 patients with new hearing abnormalities were followed up, which appeared at 5-6 years of disease course. All of which were sensorineural deafness. While only 3 patients with hearing abnormalities among 13 patients received hearing aid intervention. Of these patients,7 developed end-stage renal disease(ESRD), predominantly males (6/7). The rate of long-term hearing loss was significantly different between ESRD group and non-ESRD group(P=0.013). There was no correlation between the progression of renal disease and long-term hearing level(P>0.05). kidney biopsies from 28 patients revealed varying degrees of podocyte lesion and uneven thickness of basement membrane. The severity of podocyte lesion was correlated with the rate of long-term hearing loss(P=0.048), and there was no correlation with the severity of hearing loss(P>0.05). Among 11 cases, theCOL4A5mutationwas most common (8 out of 11), but there was no significant correlation between the mutation type and hearing phenotype(P>0.05). Conclusion:AS patients exhibit progressive hearing loss with significant heterogeneity over the long-term.. THearing loss is more likely to occur 5-6 years into the disease course. Hearing abnormalities are closely related to renal disease status, kidney tissue pathology, and gene mutations, emphasizing the need for vigilant long-term hearing follow-up and early intervention.

Male , Child , Female , Humans , Nephritis, Hereditary/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Kidney , Deafness , Hearing Loss/genetics , Kidney Failure, Chronic/pathology , Mutation
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 1-8, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006389


Background and Objective@#Several studies have examined the predictors of mortality among COVID-19-infected patients; however, to date, few published studies focused on end-stage renal disease patients. The present study,therefore, aims to determine the predictors of in-hospital mortality among end-stage renal disease patients with COVID-19 admitted to a Philippine tertiary hospital. @*Methods@#The researcher utilized a retrospective cohort design. A total of 449 adult end-stage renal disease patients on renal replacement therapy diagnosed with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 and were admitted at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute from June 2020 to 2021 were included. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with in-hospital mortality. @*Results@#In-hospital mortality among end-stage renal disease patients with COVID-19 was 31.18% (95% CI: 26.92- 35.69%). Older age (OR=1.03), male sex (OR=0.56), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.80), coronary artery disease (OR=1.71), encephalopathy (OR=7.58), and intubation (OR=30.78) were associated with in-hospital mortality. @*Conclusion@#Patients with ESRD and COVID-19 showed a high in-hospital mortality rate. Older age, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, encephalopathy, and intubation increased the odds of mortality. Meanwhile, males had lower odds of mortality than females.

COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Hospital Mortality , Renal Replacement Therapy
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 744-750, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520387


Abstract Background and aims: Dexamethasone as adjunct to local anesthetic solution improves the quality of brachial plexus block (BPB). However, evidence for its efficacy at low doses (< 4 mg) is lacking. This study was designed to evaluate the duration of analgesia attained with low dose dexamethasone as adjuvant to local anesthetic for creation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) under BPB. Methods: Sixty-six patients scheduled for AVF creation were randomly allocated to receive either saline (control) or 2 mg dexamethasone, together with 0.5% ropivacaine and 0.2% lignocaine. The primary outcome was duration of analgesia, defined as time from performing the block to the first analgesic request. The secondary outcomes were time from injection to complete sensory block, time from injection to complete motor block, duration of motor block, postoperative analgesic consumption, and fistula patency at three months. Results: All the blocks were effective. In the group that received dexamethasone, the time to first analgesic request was significantly delayed (432 ± 43.8 minutes vs. 386.4 ± 40.2 minutes; p < 0.01). The onset of sensory and motor blockade occurred faster in dexamethasone group and overall analgesic consumption was also reduced. However, dexamethasone addition did not prolong the duration of motor block. There was no statistically significant difference in the patency of fistulas between the two groups at three months. (p = 0.34). Conclusion: Addition of low-dose perineural dexamethasone to local anesthetic solution significantly prolonged the duration of analgesia. Further trials are warranted to compare the adverse effects between dexamethasone doses of 4 mg and lower.

Humans , Arteriovenous Fistula , Brachial Plexus Block , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Pain, Postoperative , Dexamethasone , Analgesics , Anesthetics, Local
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255912, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529214


Pouco se sabe sobre a atuação do psicólogo no Brasil junto a pessoas com Diabetes Mellitus. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar os psicólogos brasileiros que trabalham com essa população e suas ações. Foram convidados a responder a um questionário online psicólogos que atuam ou atuaram junto a pessoas com diabetes. Participaram 79 psicólogos, principalmente da região Sudeste (59,5%). Todos declararam que haviam cursado pósgraduação. Na amostra, predominou o gênero feminino (89,9%), com idade entre 26 e 40 anos (46,8%). A maioria dos que atuam com diabetes declarou-se autônoma ou voluntária, e quase metade trabalhava menos do que 10 horas semanais. Entre aqueles que deixaram de trabalhar com diabetes, apenas uma minoria tinha vínculo empregatício. Além do trabalho com pessoas com diabetes, a maior parte declarou exercer outras atividades profissionais, como atendimentos clínicos em consultórios particulares, sugerindo que esta não é a atividade principal. Majoritariamente, os respondentes declararam não ter conhecimentos suficientes para o atendimento específico às pessoas com diabetes. Discute-se a qualidade da formação profissional dos psicólogos no Brasil, a necessidade de aprimoramento em relação à atuação com pessoas com diabetes e as condições de trabalho.(AU)

Little is known about the practice of psychologists in Brazil caring for people with Diabetes Mellitus. The aim of this research was to identify the Brazilian psychologists who work with this population and describe their actions. Psychologists who work or have worked with people diagnosed with diabetes were invited to answer an online questionnaire. The 79 participants lived mainly in the Southeast Region (59.5%). All of them declared to have a graduate degree, most were female (89.9%), aged 26 to 40 years (46.8%). Most of those working with diabetes declared to be autonomous or voluntary, and almost half had a workload of less than 10 hours a week. Among those who stopped working with diabetes, only a minority had a formal employment contract. In addition, most of them stated that they had other professional activities related to clinical care in private offices, suggesting that working with diabetes is not their main activity. Mostly, respondents stated that they did not have enough knowledge to care for people with diabetes. The quality of professional education of psychologists in Brazil, the need for specific improvement in labor relations and conditions were discussed.(AU)

Son escasas las informaciones del trabajo de los psicólogos en Brasil con las personas con Diabetes Mellitus. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar los psicólogos brasileños que trabajan con esta población y describir sus acciones. Se invitó a psicólogos que trabajan o hayan trabajado con personas con diabetes a responder un cuestionario en línea. Participaron 79 psicólogos, principalmente de la región Sureste de Brasil (59,5%). Todos declararon tener posgrado. En la muestra hubo una mayor prevalencia del género femenino (89,9%), de edades de entre 26 y 40 años (46,8%). La mayoría de los que trabajan con personas con diabetes se declararon autónomos o voluntarios, y casi la mitad trabajaba menos de 10 horas a la semana. Entre los que dejaron de trabajar con las personas con diabetes, solo una minoría tenía una relación laboral. Además de trabajar con personas con diabetes, la mayoría afirmó tener otras actividades profesionales, como la atención clínica en consultorios privados, lo que sugiere que esta no es su actividad principal. La mayoría de los encuestados afirmaron que no tenían los conocimientos suficientes para atender específicamente a las personas con diabetes. Se discuten la calidad de la formación profesional de los psicólogos en Brasil, la necesidad de mejora en relación con el trabajo con personas con diabetes y las condiciones laborales.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Psychology , Acting Out , Diabetes Mellitus , Professional Training , Anxiety , Pain , Patient Care Team , Primary Health Care , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Research Personnel , Self Care , Self-Care Units , Self Concept , Social Sciences , Autoimmune Diseases , Specialization , Stress, Psychological , Therapeutics , Transplantation , Volunteers , Wound Healing , Behavior , Body Composition , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Exercise , Weight Loss , Family , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Blindness , Cholesterol , Mental Health , Disease Outbreaks , Episode of Care , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Cost of Illness , Continuity of Patient Care , Counseling , Universal Access to Health Care Services , Crisis Intervention , Health Law , Death , Diabetes Complications , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Angiopathies , Diagnosis , Dialysis , Emergencies , Disease Prevention , Bariatric Surgery , Fear , Binge-Eating Disorder , Epidemics , Chronic Pain , Insulins , Cognitive Dysfunction , Problem Behavior , Diet, Healthy , Global Burden of Disease , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Burnout, Psychological , Self-Neglect , Sadness , Diabulimia , Psychological Distress , Transtheoretical Model , Psychosocial Intervention , Glycemic Control , Sociodemographic Factors , Psychological Well-Being , Food, Processed , Health Promotion , Health Services Accessibility , Amputation, Surgical , Hospitalization , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Life Style , Mental Disorders , Metabolism , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Obesity
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1026-1036, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980887


With the rapid aging of the global population posing a serious problem, frailty, a non-specific state that reflects physiological senescence rather than aging in time, has become more widely addressed by researchers in various medical fields. A high prevalence of frailty is found among kidney transplant (KT) candidates and recipients. Therefore, their frailty has become a research hotspot in the field of transplantation. However, current studies mainly focus on the cross-sectional survey of the incidence of frailty among KT candidates and recipients and the relationship between frailty and transplantation. Research on the pathogenesis and intervention is scattered, and relevant review literature is scarce. Exploring the pathogenesis of frailty in KT candidates and recipients and determining effective intervention measures may reduce waiting list mortality and improve the long-term quality of life of KT recipients. Therefore, this review explains the pathogenesis and intervention measures for frailty in KT candidates and recipients to provide a reference for the formulation of effective intervention strategies.

Humans , Frailty/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Quality of Life , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Transplant Recipients
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 1109-1117, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013232


Objective: To investigate the etiology, complications, and prognostic factors of stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD5) in children. Methods: A case series study was conducted to retrospectively analyze the general situation, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, genetic testing, and follow-up data (until October 2022) of 174 children with CKD5 who were diagnosed and hospitalized at the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from April 2012 to April 2021. The characteristics of complications in the children were compared based on age, gender, and etiology. Based on the presence or absence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), patients were divided into LVH group and non LVH group for analyzing the influencing factors of cardiovascular disease. Patients were also divided into death group and survival group, peritoneal dialysis group and hemodialysis group based on the follow-up data for analyzing the prognostic factors. The chi-square test, independent sample t-test, Fisher exact probability test, Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test were used to analyze data among different groups. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the prognostic factors. Results: A total of 174 children with CKD5 were enrolled in the study (96 boys and 78 girls), aged 11.2 (8.2, 13.0) years. Congenital kidney and urinary tract malformations (CAKUT) were the most common causes of the CKD5 (84 cases, 48.3%), followed by glomerular diseases (83 cases, 47.7%), and among which 28 cases (16.1%) were hereditary glomerular diseases. The common complications of CKD5 included anemia (98.2%, 165/168), mineral and bone disorder in chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) (97.7%, 170/174), lipid metabolism disorders (87.5%, 63/72), hypertension (81.4%, 127/156) and LVH (57.6%,57/99). The incidences of hypertension in primary glomerular disease were higher than that in CAKUT(93.8%(30/32) vs.73.7%(56/76),χ2=5.59,P<0.05). The incidences of hypertension in secondary glomerular disease were higher than that in CAKUT and that in hereditary kidney disease (100.0%(20/20) vs. 73.7%(56/76), 68.2%(15/22), both P<0.05). The incidence of hypocalcemia in CAKUT, primary glomerular disease, and hereditary kidney disease was higher than that in secondary glomerular disease (82.1%(69/84), 88.2%(30/34), 89.3%(25/28) vs. 47.6%(10/21), χ2=10.21, 10.75, 10.80, all P=0.001); the incidence of secondary hyperparathyroidism in women was higher than that in men (80.0%(64/80) vs. 95.0%(57/60), χ2=6.58, P=0.010). The incidence of LVH in children aged 6-<12 was higher than that in children aged 12-18 (73.5%(25/34) vs. 43.1%(22/51), χ2=7.62, P=0.006). Among 113 follow-up children, the mortality rate was 39.8% (45/113). Compared to the survival group, the children in the death group had lower hemoglobin, higher blood pressure, lower albumin, lower alkaline phosphatase and higher left ventricular mass index ((67±19) vs. (75±20) g/L, 142 (126, 154) vs. 128(113, 145) mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), (91±21) vs. (82±22) mmHg, 32 (26, 41) vs. 40 (31, 43) g/L, 151 (82, 214) vs. 215 (129, 37) U/L, 48 (38, 66) vs. 38(32, 50) g/m2.7,t=2.03, Z=2.89, t=2.70, Z=2.49, 2.79, 2.29,all P<0.05), but no independent risk factors were identified (all P>0.05). The peritoneal dialysis group had better alleviation for anemia, low calcium, and high phosphorus than the hemodialysis group ((87±22) vs. (72±16) g/L, (1.9±0.5) vs. (1.7±0.4) mmol/L, (2.2±0.7) vs. (2.8±0.9) mmol/L, t=2.92, 2.29, 2.82, all P<0.05), and the survival rate of the peritoneal dialysis group was significantly higher than that of the hemodialysis group (77.8% (28/36) vs. 48.4% (30/62), χ2=8.14, P=0.004). Conclusions: CAKUT is the most common etiology in children with CKD 5, and anemia is the most common complication. The incidence of complications in children with CKD 5 varies with age, gender and etiology. Anemia, hypertension, hypoalbuminemia, reduced alkaline phosphatase and elevated LVMI may be the prognostic factors in children with CKD5. Peritoneal dialysis may be more beneficial for improving the long-term survival rate.

Male , Humans , Child , Female , Retrospective Studies , Alkaline Phosphatase , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Hypertension , Risk Factors , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Anemia/etiology
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 961-965, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008153


Since end-stage renal disease leads to a variety of problems such as disability,reduced quality of life,and mental and psychological disorders,it has become a serious public health problem around the globe.Renal palliative care integrates palliative care philosophy in the care for patients with end-stage renal disease.As a planned,comprehensive,patient-centered care,renal palliative care focuses on the patient's symptoms and needs,aiming to reduce the suffering throughout the course of the disease,including but not limited to end-of-life care.This study reports the palliative care practice for a patient on maintenance dialysis in the Blood Purification Center of Peking Union Medical College Hospital and reviews the present situation of palliative care in end-stage renal disease.

Humans , Palliative Care/psychology , Quality of Life , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Terminal Care/psychology , Renal Dialysis/psychology
Ann. Health Res. (Onabanjo Univ. Teach. Hosp.) ; 9(3): 190-198, 2023. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1512876


Anaemia is a global public health problem with high mortality and morbidity. It is also a common consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). There is a paucity of data on the actual burden of anaemia among patients on chronic haemodialysis (CHD) in Lagos, Nigeria. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with the severity of anaemia among Nigerian patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of adult patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance haemodialysis at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos. The data extracted from the clinical case files included the bio-demographic and clinical parameters, including the treatment modalities. Results: A total of 92 patients comprising 69 (75%) males and 23 (25.0%) females with the overall mean age of 48.2±14.0 years were included. Hypertension was the commonest aetiology of CKD and the average duration of haemodialysis was 16.6 months. The commonest access route for haemodialysis was a central line while 96.7% and 81.5% received erythropoietin and intravenous iron sucrose respectively. Seventy-three (79.3%) patients have had intra-dialysis blood transfusions in the past. Mild, moderate, and severe anaemia were recorded in 17%, 67%, and 16% respectively. The use of erythropoietin, iron sucrose, and increased frequency of blood transfusions correlated with the severity of anaemia. Conclusion: Anaemia is highly prevalent among patients with CKD on chronic haemodialysis. Increased frequency of blood transfusions, inadequate utilization of erythropoietin, and iron sucrose administration are associated with anaemia severity.

Humans , Erythropoietin , Renal Dialysis , Anemia, Hemolytic , Blood Transfusion , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Public Health , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Ferric Oxide, Saccharated , Kidney Failure, Chronic
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 213-220, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970060


BACKGROUND@#The clinical importance of hypokalemia is likely underrecognized in Chinese dialysis patients, and whether its clinical effect was mediated by serum albumin is not fully elucidated. This study aimed to explore the association between serum potassium and mortality in dialysis patients of a Chinese nationwide multicenter cohort, taking albumin as a consideration.@*METHODS@#This was a prospective nation-wide multicenter cohort study. Restricted cubic splines were used to test the linearity of serum potassium and relationships with all-cause (AC) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality and a subsequent two-line piecewise linear model was fitted to approach the nadir. A mediation analysis was performed to examine relations of albumin to potassium and mortalities.@*RESULTS@#A total of 10,027 patients were included, of whom 6605 were peritoneal dialysis and 3422 were hemodialysis patients. In the overall population, the mean age was 51.7 ± 14.8 years, 55.3%(5546/10,027) were male, and the median dialysis vintage was 13.60 (4.70, 39.70) months. Baseline serum potassium was 4.30 ± 0.88 mmol/L. After a median follow-up period of 26.87 (14.77, 41.50) months, a U-shape was found between potassium and mortality, and a marked increase in risk at lower potassium but a moderate elevation in risk at higher potassium were observed. The nadir for AC mortality risk was estimated from piecewise linear models to be a potassium concentration of 4.0 mmol/L. Interestingly, the significance of the association between potassium and mortality was attenuated when albumin was introduced into the extended adjusted model. A subsequent significant mediation by albumin for potassium and AC and CV mortalities were found ( P < 0.001 for both), indicating that hypokalemia led to higher mortality mediated by low serum albumin, which was a surrogate of poor nutritional status and inflammation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Associations between potassium and mortalities were U-shaped in the overall population. The nadir for AC mortality risk was at a potassium of 4.0 mmol/L. Serum albumin mediated the association between potassium and AC and CV mortalities.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , East Asian People , Hypokalemia/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Potassium/blood , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , Serum Albumin/analysis
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6257-6268, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008824


According to the systematic review of text and opinion(SrTO) developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute(JBI), this study integrated the evidence of the medical cases, papers, medical experience, and other related research of famous experts and schools on the treatment of chronic renal failure in the field of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) nephropathy, analyzed the academic characteristics and influencing factors from the aspects of the principle, method, recipe, and medicines, and explored the internal logic and law of inheritance and innovation in TCM nephropathy. A total of 36 famous TCM experts and 4 schools were included. The work areas are concentrated in North and South China. 94.0% of the famous TCM experts have experienced master-disciple teaching. 27.8% have studied TCM through family succession. 38.9% have been taught by multiple famous teachers. And 5.6% have not experienced master-disciple teaching. In terms of principle, method, recipe, and medicines, many innovations have been made, with 30.6% of famous TCM experts proposing new theories, 11.1% advocating staged treatment of chronic renal failure, and 47.2% summarizing the treatment methods. The formation of the academic thoughts of contemporary famous TCM experts and schools on the treatment of chronic renal failure is closely related to the learning mode, era, and work area. Contemporary famous TCM experts and schools have the academic characteristics of combining classical and clinical theories and paying more attention to TCM with western medicine supplemented. The field of TCM nephropathy has the characteristics of simultaneous inheritance and innovation. On the basis of inheriting the classical theories of TCM, it absorbs modern medical theories, combines clinical diagnosis with the syndrome and treatment law of contemporary diseases, and makes innovations in principle, method, recipe, and medicines, which has significant clinical efficacy in the treatment of chronic renal failure.

Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Schools , China , Kidney Failure, Chronic/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 725-732, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982342


OBJECTIVES@#Diabetic kidney disease is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), and it is a main cause for chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease (ESRD). It is important to find out the factors that cause the progression of renal function. The study aims to explore the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) trajectory and the progression of renal function in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).@*METHODS@#A total of 846 patients with T2DM, who were admitted to the Department of Nephrology and Endocrinology, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, from January 2009 to December 2021 and met the criteria of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)≥60 mL/(min·1.73 m2), were selected as the research subjects. The SUA data of multiple measurements were collected and identified as different SUA trajectories by group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM). According to the SUA trajectories, the patients were divided into a low trajectory group (105 cases), a middle trajectory group (396 cases), a middle high trajectory group (278 cases), and a high trajectory group (67 cases). Cox regression analysis was used to examine the effect of SUA trajectory on the progression of renal function in patients with T2DM. Subgroup analysis was performed by sex, age, course of disease, body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c).@*RESULTS@#The median follow-up was 4.8 years. At the end of follow-up, 158 patients had different degrees of decline in renal function. After adjusting for multiple confounding factors by Cox regression analysis, the risks of eGFR<60 mL/(min·1.73 m2), eGFR reduction rate≥50%, serum creatinine (Scr) doubling and composite endpoint (eGFR reduction rate≥50%, Scr doubling or ESRD) in the high trajectory group were significantly higher than those in the low trajectory group, with HR of 3.84 (95% CI 1.83 to 8.05), 6.90 (95% CI 2.27 to 20.96), 6.29 (95% CI 2.03 to 19.52), and 8.04 (95% CI 2.68 to 24.18), respectively. There was no significant difference in the risk of ESRD among the above 4 groups (all P>0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that: compared with the low trajectory group, the risks of eGFR<60 mL/(min·1.73 m2) in patients with high trajectory in the subgroup of male, female, age<65 years, course of disease<10 years, BMI≥24 kg/m2 and HbA1c≥7% were increased (all P<0.05). The SUA trajectory had no interaction with sex, age, course of disease, BMI and HbA1c (all interactive P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The high SUA trajectory increases the risk for progression of renal function in patients with T2DM. Long-term longitudinal changes of SUA should be paid attention to.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Cohort Studies , Uric Acid , Glycated Hemoglobin , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney/physiology , Risk Factors
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 601-607, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982327


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is suffered progressive loss of kidney function lasting more than 3 months and is classified according to the degree of kidney damage (level of proteinuria) and the decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The most severe form of CKD is end-stage renal disease. The prevalence of CKD is high with fast growth rate and the disease burden has become increasingly serious. CKD has become an important public health problem threatening human health. The etiology of CKD is complex. In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors are an important cause of CKD. With the development of industrialization, environmental metal pollution has become increasingly severe, and its impact on human health has received widespread attention. A large number of studies have shown that metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic can accumulate in the kidney, which can cause damage to the structure and function of the kidney, and play an important role in the development of CKD. Therefore, summarizing the epidemiological research progress in the relationship between arsenic, cadmium, lead, and other metal exposures and kidney diseases can provide new ideas for the prevention and control of kidney diseases caused by metal exposure.

Humans , Cadmium/toxicity , Arsenic/toxicity , Kidney , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 797-810, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970550


This study used bioinformatics analysis to screen out key genes involved in the transformation of idiopathic membranous nephropathy to end-stage renal disease and to predict targeted Chinese herbs and medicines and active ingredients with preventive and curative effects. The GSE108113 microarray of idiopathic membranous nephropathy and GSE37171 microarray of were downloaded from the comprehensive gene expression database, and 8 homozygous differentially expressed genes for the transformation of idiopathic membranous nephropathy into end-stage renal disease of were screened out by R software. GraphPad Prism was used to verify the expression of homozygous differentially expressed genes in GSE115857 microarray of idiopathic membranous nephropathy and GSE66494 microarray of chronic kidney disease, and 7 key genes(FOS, OGT, CLK1, TIA1, TTC14, CHORDC1, and ANKRD36B) were finally obtained. The Gene Ontology(GO) analysis was performed. There were 209 functions of encoded proteins, mainly involved in regulation of RNA splicing, cytoplasmic stress granule, poly(A) binding, etc. Thirteen traditional Chinese medicines with the effect of preventing the transformation of idiopathic membranous nephropathy to end-stage renal disease were screened out from Coremine Medical database, including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycopi Herba, and Gardeniae Fructus, which were included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). The active ingredient quercetin mined from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP) had ability to dock with the key gene FOS-encoded protein molecule, which provided targets and research ideas for the development of new traditional Chinese medicines.

Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Computational Biology
Rev. enferm. Cent.-Oeste Min ; 12: 4354, nov. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1402112


Objetivo:avaliar o conhecimento dos pacientes com doença renal crônica terminal quantoaos fatores de risco e complicações associadas antes e após uma intervenção educativa. Método: estudo de intervenção, randomizado com 101 participantes subdivididos em dois gruposde um setor de hemodiálise entre 2019 a julho de 2020. Para as análises fizeram-se testes McNemar, t-Student pareado, Qui-Quadrado de Pearson e Exato de Fisher, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: após intervenção, houve diminuição significativa (p<0,05) das complicações como hipotensão, hipoglicemia, câimbra, náuseas ,tremores, calafrio e febre. As equipes de enfermagem e médica verificaram posicionamento ativo dos participantes quanto aos cuidados com a fístula arteriovenosa e com o cateter venoso central. O aumento do conhecimento sobre o processo de hemodiálise propiciou entender a causa das complicações associadas ao tratamento. Conclusão: a ação educativa foi efetiva e gerou indicadores de avaliação positivos, permitindo que os participantes se tornassem protagonistas do autocuidado (AU)

Objective:to assess the knowledge of patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease regarding the risk factors and associated complications before and after an educational intervention. Method:an intervention and randomized study conducted with 101 participants divided into two groups of a hemodialysis sector from 2019 to July 2020. The analyses were performed using the McNemar, paired Student'st, Pearson's Chi-Square and Fisher's Exact tests, with a 5% significance level. Results:after the intervention, there was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in the number of complications such as hypotension, hypoglycemia, cramps, nausea, tremors, chills and fever. The nursing and medical team verified the participants' active stance regarding the care measures for the arteriovenous fistula and the central venous catheter. The increase in knowledge about the hemodialysis process made it possible to understand the cause of the complications associated with the treatment. Conclusion:the educational action was effective and generated positive evaluation indicators, allowing the participants to become protagonists of self-care(AU)

Objetivo:evaluar el conocimiento de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica terminal sobre los factores de riesgo y las complicaciones asociadas antes y después de una intervención educativa. Método:estudio de intervención, aleatorizado con 101 participantes divididos en dos grupos de un sector de hemodiálisis entre 2019 a julio de 2020. Los análisis se realizaron mediante las pruebas de McNemar, t-Student pareada, Chi-Cuadrado de Pearson y Exacta de Fisher, con nivel de significancia del 5%. Resultados:tras la intervención hubo una disminución significativa (p<0,05) de complicaciones como hipotensión, hipoglucemia, calambres, náuseas, temblores, escalofríos y fiebre. El personal médico y de enfermería verificó la posición activa de los participantes con respecto al cuidado de la fístula arteriovenosa y del catéter venoso central. El aumento del conocimiento sobre el proceso de hemodiálisis permitió comprender la causa de las complicaciones asociadas al tratamiento. Conclusión:la acción educativa fue efectiva y generó indicadores de evaluación positivos, permitiendo a los participantes convertirse en protagonistas del autocuidado (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Education as Topic , Renal Dialysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Nursing Care/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
Invest. educ. enferm ; 40(3): 79-92, 15 octubre de 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1401412


Methods. This is a randomized controlled trial study on 52 caregivers of hemodialysis patients referred an universitary hospital at Jahrom. The caregivers were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, Benson's relaxation was performed twice a day for 15 minutes each time, and continued for one month. Data collection tools included demographic information questionnaire and standard Zarit Burden Interview questionnaire which was completed by all participants before the intervention and one month after it. Results. After the intervention, the mean caregiver burden of hemodialysis patients in the intervention group decreased significantly compared to the control group (p<0.001). The results of paired t-test showed that in the intervention group, the mean scores of caregiver burden after the intervention (14.46± 10.91) was significantly lower than before the intervention (38.33±16.94) (p=0.001). Conclusion. Benson's relaxation method can reduce caregiver burden in caregivers of hemodialysis patients.

Objetivo. Investigar el efecto de la técnica de relajación de Benson sobre la carga de los cuidadores de pacientes en hemodiálisis. Métodos. Estudio de intervención realizado con la participación de 52 cuidadores de pacientes en hemodiálisis remitidos a un hospital universitario de Jahrom (Iran). Los cuidadores fueron divididos aleatoriamente en los grupos de intervención y de control. En el grupo de intervención, se realizó la técnica de relajación de Benson dos veces al día durante 15 minutos cada vez, y se continuó durante un mes. Las herramientas de recogida de datos incluían un cuestionario de información demográfica y la entrevista de percepción de carga del cuidador "Zarit Burden Interview" que fue completado por todas participantes antes de la intervención y un mes después de terminada la misma. Resultados. Después de la intervención, la carga media de los cuidadores de pacientes en hemodiálisis en el grupo de intervención disminuyó significativamente en comparación con el grupo de control (p<0.001). Los resultados de la prueba t pareada mostraron que en el grupo de intervención, las puntuaciones medias de la carga del cuidador después de la intervención (14.46±10.91) fueron significativamente menores que antes de la intervención (38.33±16.94) (p=0.001). Conclusión. El método de relajación de Benson puede reducir la carga de los cuidadores de pacientes en hemodiálisis.

Objetivo. Investigar o efeito do relaxamento de Benson na sobrecarga do cuidador em cuidadores de pacientes em hemodiálise na cidade de Jahrom. Métodos. Este é um estudo controlado randomizado envolvendo 52 cuidadores de pacientes em hemodiálise encaminhados a um hospital afiliado à Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. Os cuidadores foram divididos aleatoriamente em grupos intervenção (n=24) e controle (n=24). No grupo intervenção, os cuidadores realizaram o relaxamento de Benson duas vezes ao dia por 15 minutos cada, e foi continuado por um mês. A coleta de informações incluiu um questionário de informações demográficas e o questionário padrão Zarit que foi preenchido por todos os participantes antes da intervenção e um mês após o seu preenchimento. Resultado S. A maioria dos cuidadores nos grupos intervenção (79.2%) e controle (64.3%) eram mulheres. Após a intervenção, a sobrecarga média dos cuidadores de pacientes em hemodiálise no grupo intervenção diminuiu significativamente em relação ao grupo controle (p<0.001). Os resultados do teste t pareado mostraram que, apenas no grupo intervenção, os escores médios de sobrecarga do cuidador após a intervenção (14.46 ±10.1) foram significativamente menores do que antes da intervenção (38.33) ±16.94) com p <0.001. Conclusão. O método de relaxamento de Benson demonstrou ser eficaz na redução da sobrecarga dos cuidadores de pacientes em hemodiálise.

Control Groups , Relaxation Therapy , Renal Dialysis , Caregiver Burden , Kidney Failure, Chronic
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(3): 135-138, sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396307


Árnica es una planta medicinal de la especie Arnica montana, endémica en Europa Central y Meridional, perteneciente a la familia Asteracae; rica en flavonoides y compuestos fenólicos, lactonas, helenalina y ácido hexurónico que le dan propiedades cicatrizantes, antiinflamatorias, analgésicas, antimicrobianas y anticoagulantes. Se utiliza en casos de contusiones, dolores musculares, reumáticos y hematomas profundos. El artículo describe ocho casos, que presentaron hematoma profundo por punción infructuosa, en pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica terminal con esquema de hemodiálisis, donde se aplicó árnica en gel. Por medio de fotografías se registró cómo los hematomas revirtieron a partir del tercer día, mientras que el dolor disminuyó en un 50% al tercer día. (AU)

Arnica is a medicinal plant of the species Arnica Montana, endemic in Central and Southern Europe, it belongs to the Asteracae family, rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds, lactones, helenalin and hexuronic acid that give it healing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and anticoagulant properties. It is used in cases of bruises, muscle pain, rheumatic pain and deep bruises. The article describes eight patients with terminal chronic renal failure under hemodialysis, who presented deep hematoma due to unsuccessful puncture of their dialysis fistula. All patients were treated with local gel arnica. Verbal analogue scale (VAS) and qualitative visual image analysis (photography) on how the hematomas reverted on the third day was analyzed. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Arnica , Pain Management/methods , Hematoma/therapy , Homeopathy , Pain Measurement , Punctures/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 13(3): 1-12, 20220831.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1402492


Introdução: o objetivo foi avaliar a prevalência do distúrbio mineral e ósseo em pacientes com doença renal crônica e a associação entre Taxa de Filtração Glomerular estimada (TFGe) e os indicadores do distúrbio mineral e ósseo (DMO) (cálcio, fósforo e PTH) em pacientes renais crônicos não dialíticos. Materiais e Métodos: estudo seccional da linha de base de uma coorte de dois anos, com adultos e idosos renais crônicos em tratamento conservador. Para identificação do DMO utilizamos os seguintes valores séricos: PTH (> 150 pg/mL) e/ou hipocalcemia (Ca < 8,8mg/dl) e/ou hiperfosfatemia (P > 4,6 mg/dl). Na análise estatística utilizou-se: regressão de Poisson; T de Student, Mann Whitney e correlações de Pearson e Spearman. Nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: prevalência de DMO de 54,6% (n=41) (IC 95%: 43,45 - 65,43). A maior prevalência de DMO foi em pessoas do sexo feminino, alfabetizadas, idosas, não etilistas, não tabagistas, sedentárias e de cor de pele branca, porém, sem diferença estatística entre os grupos com e sem DMO. As correlações entre P e PTH com TFGe foram significativas, inversas, de força moderada (p= <0,005 e p = 0,003; coeficientes de correlação = - 0,312 e - 0,379 respectivamente). Discussão:os achados desse estudo mostraram que existe uma lacuna no acompanhamento do DMO-DRC pela atenção primária e a prática clínica deve ser revista. Conclusão:identificou-se prevalência robusta de DMO nos estágios precoces da DRC, além de correlações significativas entre o aumento dos níveis de fósforo e PTH e piora das funções renais.

Introduction: mineral and bone disorder (BMD) is a serious complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that increases risks for death from cardiovascular causes and impairs quality of life of affected patients. Objetive: to evaluate the prevalence of BMD in patients with CKD and the association between estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) and BMD indicators (calcium, phosphorus and PTH) in non-dialysis patients. Materials and Methods:sectional study of a two-year cohort of chronic renal adults and elderly patients on conservative treatment. BMD was identified by serum values of: PTH (> 150 pg/mL) and/or hypocalcemia (Ca < 8.8mg/dl) and/or hyperphosphatemia (P > 4.6 mg/dl). The statistical analysis used: Poisson regression; Student's T, Mann Whitney and Pearson and Spearman correlations with 5% significance level. Results:BMD prevalence was 54.6% (n=41) (95% CI: 43.45 - 65.43), more frequent in women, literate, elderly, non-drinkers, non-smokers, sedentary and white skin color. Correlations between P and PTH with GFRe were significant, inverse, moderate strength (p= <0.005 and p = 0.003; correlation coefficients = - 0.312 and - 0.379 respectively). Discussion: the findings of this study highlighted gaps in the monitoring of BMD-DRC by primary care, requiring a review of clinical practices. Conclusion: robust prevalence of BMD in the early stages of CKD was identified, in addition to correlations between increased phosphorus and PTH levels and worsening kidney function.

Introducciòn: el trastorno mineral y óseo (TMO) es una complicación grave de la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) que aumenta el riesgo de muerte por causas cardiovasculares y deteriora la calidad de vida de los pacientes afectados. Objetivo: evaluar la prevalencia de la DMO en pacientes con RDC y la asociación entre la tasa de filtración glomerular estimada (TFGe) y los indicadores de DMO (calcio, fósforo y PTH) en pacientes no dialíticos. Materiales y Métodos: estudio seccional de una cohorte de dos años de pacientes renales crónicos adultos y ancianos en tratamiento conservador. La DMO se identificó por los valores séricos de: PTH (> 150 pg/mL) y/o hipocalcemia (Ca < 8,8mg/dl) y/o hiperfosfatemia (P > 4,6 mg/dl). El análisis estadístico utilizado: regresión de Poisson; T de Student, Mann Whitney y correlaciones de Pearson y Spearman con un nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: la prevalencia de DMO fue del 54,6% (n=41) (IC 95%: 43,45 - 65,43), más frecuente en mujeres, alfabetizadas, de edad avanzada, no bebedoras, no fumadoras, sedentarias y de color de piel blanca. Las correlaciones entre el P y la PTH con el GFRe fueron significativas, inversas, de fuerza moderada (p= <0,005 y p = 0,003; coeficientes de correlación = - 0,312 y - 0,379 respectivamente). Discusión: los resultados de este estudio evidencian lagunas en el seguimiento de la DMO-DRC por parte de la atención primaria, lo que requiere una revisión de las prácticas clínicas. Conclusión: se identificó una fuerte prevalencia de la DMO en las primeras fases de la ERC, además de correlaciones entre el aumento de los niveles de fósforo y PTH y el empeoramiento de la función renal.

Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary , Kidney Failure, Chronic
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 38(2): e1533, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408452


Introducción: El trasplante es la opción terapéutica más favorable para las personas con insuficiencia renal crónica. El donante puede ser cadavérico o donante vivo, emparentado o no. Los resultados del trasplante están en relación con varios factores inmunológicos y no inmunológicos. Objetivo: Caracterizar inmunogenéticamente a los donantes cadavéricos cubanos para trasplante renal. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal y descriptivo de los donantes cadavéricos durante el año 2019. Se analizó la región de procedencia, sexo, color de la piel y rangos de edades de los donantes, así como, grupo sanguíneos ABO y Rhesus Rh; serología para VIH, Virus de hepatitis B(VHB) y Virus de hepatitis C (VHC); y hábitos tóxicos. Resultados: Se estudió un total de 95 donantes cadavéricos, 62 provenientes del occidente y 33 del centro del país. El 63,2 por ciento fueron masculinos y 36,8 por ciento femenino. El grupo de edad de mayor frecuencia fue 40 - 60 años y la edad media de 49,45 años. El 58,95 por ciento de los pacientes fueron de grupo sanguíneo O; 30,53 por ciento grupo A y los grupos B y AB tuvieron 5,26 por ciento de prevalencia; y solo 8 fueron Rh negativos. Todos tuvieron serología para VIH, VHB y VHC negativas. Las enfermedades asociadas más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus. Conclusiones: Los donantes cadavéricos durante el año 2019 mostraron características similares a las reportadas por otros estudios. El aumento de las edades de los donantes incide en la aparición de enfermedades asociadas y esto pudiera repercutir en el resultado del trasplante(AU)

Introduction: Transplantation is the most favorable therapeutic option for people with chronic renal failure. The donor can be a cadaveric or living donor, related or not. Transplant outcomes are related to various immunological and non-immunological factors. Objective: To characterize Cuban cadaveric donors for renal transplantation Materials and methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study of cadaveric donors was carried out during the year 2019. The region of origin, sex, skin color and age ranges of the donors were analyzed, as well as ABO and Rhesus Rh blood groups; serology for HIV, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), and toxic habits. Results: A total of 95 cadaveric donors were studied, 62 from the West and 33 from the Center of the country. 63.2 percent were male and 36.8 percent female due to the most frequent age group being 40-60 years and the mean age of 49.45 years. 58.95 percent of the patients were of blood group O, 30.53 percent group A and groups B and AB had 5.26 percent prevalence; and only 8 were Rh negative. All had negative serology for HIV, HBV and HCV. The most frequent associated diseases were arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: The cadaveric donors during the year 2019 showed characteristics similar to those reported by other studies. The increase in the age of the donors affects the appearance of associated diseases and this could affect the result of the transplant(AU)

Humans , Tissue Donors , Blood Group Antigens , Skin Pigmentation , Survivors , Living Donors , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Immunologic Factors , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cuba
São Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 398-405, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377382


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The high number of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis makes it necessary to conduct studies aimed at improving their quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate brain compliance, using the Brain4care method for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, among patients with ESRD before and at the end of the hemodialysis session, and to correlate ICP with the dialysis quality index (Kt/V). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at a renal replacement therapy center in Brazil. METHODS: Sixty volunteers who were undergoing hemodialysis three times a week were included in this study. Brain compliance was assessed before and after hemodialysis using the noninvasive Brain4care method and intracranial pressure wave morphology was analyzed. RESULTS: Among these 60 ESRD volunteers, 17 (28%) presented altered brain compliance before hemodialysis. After hemodialysis, 12 (20%) exhibited normalization of brain compliance. Moreover, 10 (83%) of the 12 patients whose post-dialysis brain compliance became normalized were seen to present good-quality dialysis, as confirmed by Kt/V > 1.2. CONCLUSIONS: It can be suggested that changes to cerebral compliance in individuals with ESRD occur frequently and that a good-quality hemodialysis session (Kt/V > 1.2) may be effective for normalizing the patient's cerebral compliance.

Renal Dialysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Quality of Life , Brain , Cross-Sectional Studies