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1.
Rev. inf. cient ; 99(3): 274-283, mayo.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126946

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La infección por coronavirus-2, que causa la enfermedad conocida como COVID-19, afecta la función renal en muchos de los pacientes. Objetivo: Ofrecer un referente teórico para contribuir a la preparación de estudiantes de Medicina y médicos generales respecto a la influencia de la infección por coronavirus-2 en el sistema renal. Método: En el Hospital General Docente "Dr. Agostinho Neto", entre marzo y julio de 2020, se hizo una revisión narrativa sobre este tema a través de una búsqueda en diferentes bases de datos bibliográficas: Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct y SciELO. Resultados: La información se estructuró en: aspectos generales de la COVID-19, fisiopatología, manifestaciones, bases terapéuticas, pronóstico e impacto social de la nefropatía causada por COVID-19; también, se identificaron aspectos irresueltos respecto al fallo renal causado por esta pandemia. Conclusiones: El pronóstico del paciente con COVID-19 se agrava por la presencia de fallo renal agudo, no obstante, en la fisiopatología, las manifestaciones clínicas y el pronóstico en los pacientes con esta complicación no es del todo conocida. Su aparición es más común en los pacientes con antecedente de enfermedad renal crónica, diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial sistémica, lo que legitima la necesidad de la preparación profesional para ser capaz de una evaluación precisa del sistema renal para la prevención y control de esta complicación.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The infection for coronavirus-2, which causes the infectious disease known as COVID-19, often affects the renal function in many of the patients. Objective: To offer a theoretical referent, to contribute on the preparation of medicine students and general doctors about the influence of the infection for coronavirus-2 on the renal system. Method: In the Hospital Dr. Agostinho Neto, between March and June of 2020, a narrative review about this topic was made through a search in the bibliographical databases Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct and SciELO. Results: The information was structured as: general aspects of the COVID-19, physiopathology, symptoms, therapeutic bases, prognosis, and social impact of the nephropathy caused by COVID-19. Unsettled aspects regarding the renal failure caused by this pandemic were also identified. Conclusions: The patient's prognostic with COVID-19 is worsened by the presence of acute renal failure; nevertheless, in the physiopathology, the clinical manifestations and patient prognosis on this complication are not completely known. Its appearance is more common in patients with an antecedent of chronic kidney failure, diabetes mellitus and systemic arterial hypertension which legitimates the necessity of professional preparation to be capable of a precise evaluation of the renal system for prevention and control of this complication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology
2.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 393-399, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040251

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is an uncommon cause of nephrotic syndrome and/or kidney failure. At microscopy, LPG is characterized by the presence of lipoprotein thrombi in dilated glomerular capillaries due to different ApoE mutations. ApoE gene is located on chromosome 19q13.2, and can be identified in almost all serum lipoproteins. ApoE works as a protective factor in atherosclerosis due its interaction with receptor-mediated lipoprotein clearance and cholesterol receptor. Most common polymorphisms include ApoE2/2, ApoE3/2, ApoE3/3, ApoE4/2, ApoE4/3, and ApoE4/4. All age-groups can be affected by LPG, with a discrete male predominance. Compromised patients typically reveal dyslipidemia, type III hyperlipoproteinemia, and proteinuria. LPG treatment includes fenofibrate, antilipidemic drugs, steroids, LDL aphaeresis, plasma exchange, antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, urokinase, and renal transplantation. Recurrence in kidney graft suggests a pathogenic component(s) of extraglomerular humoral complex resulting from abnormal lipoprotein metabolism and presumably associated to ApoE.


Resumo A glomerulopatia por lipoproteínas (GLP) é uma patologia rara que causa síndrome nefrótica e/ou insuficiência renal. Na microscopia, a GLP é caracterizada pela presença de trombos de lipoproteínas em capilares glomerulares dilatados devido a diferentes mutações no gene da ApoE. O gene da ApoE está localizado no cromossomo 19q13.2 e pode ser identificado em quase todas as lipoproteínas séricas. A ApoE age como fator de proteção na arterioesclerose por conta de sua interação com a depuração de lipoproteínas mediada por receptores e com o receptor de colesterol. Dentre os polimorfismos mais comuns destacam-se ApoE2/2, ApoE3/2, ApoE3/3, ApoE4/2, ApoE4/3 e ApoE4/4. A GLP pode acometer indivíduos de todas as faixas etárias, com discreta predominância do sexo masculino. Pacientes afetados tipicamente apresentam dislipidemia, hiperlipoproteinemia tipo III e proteinúria. O tratamento da GLP é conduzido com fenofibrato, antilipêmicos, corticosteroides, LDL-aferese, troca de plasma, antiplaquetários, anticoagulantes, uroquinase e transplante renal. Recidiva no enxerto renal indica a existência de componentes patogênicos do complexo humoral extraglomerular resultante de metabolismo lipoproteico anômalo, possivelmente associado a ApoE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adult , Middle Aged , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Sex Factors , Kidney Transplantation , Treatment Outcome , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Diseases/genetics , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Mutation , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use
4.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 131-141, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002426

ABSTRACT

Abstract Care for patients with chronic and rare diseases is complex, especially considering the lack of knowledge about the disease, which makes early and precise diagnosis difficult, as well as the need for specific tests, sometimes of high complexity and cost. Added to these factors are difficulties in obtaining adequate treatment when available, in raising patient and family awareness about the disease and treatment compliance. Nephropathic cystinosis is among these diseases. After more than 20 years as a care center for these patients, the authors propose a follow-up protocol, which has been used with improvement in the quality of care and consists of a multidisciplinary approach, including care provided by a physician, nurse, psychologist, nutritionist and social worker. In this paper, each field objectively exposes how to address points that involve the stages of diagnosis and its communication with the patient and their relatives or guardians, covering the particularities of the disease and the treatment, the impact on the lives of patients and families, the approach to psychological and social issues and guidelines on medications and diets. This protocol could be adapted to the follow-up of patients with other rare diseases, including those with renal involvement. This proposal is expected to reach the largest number of professionals involved in the follow-up of these patients, strengthening the bases for the creation of a national protocol, observing the particularities of each case.


Resumo A assistência a pacientes com doenças crônicas e raras é complexa, principalmente pela falta de disseminação de conhecimento sobre a doença, o que dificulta o diagnóstico preciso e precoce, além da necessidade da realização de exames específicos, por vezes de alta complexidade e custo. Somam-se a esses fatores dificuldades na obtenção de tratamento adequado quando disponível, na conscientização do paciente e da família sobre a doença e na aderência ao tratamento. A cistinose nefropática está entre essas doenças. Após mais de 20 anos como centro de atendimento a esses pacientes, os autores propõem um protocolo de seguimento, o qual vem sendo empregado com melhora na qualidade da assistência e consiste de uma abordagem multidisciplinar, incluindo, principalmente, atendimento prestado por médico, enfermeiro, psicólogo, nutricionista e assistente social. Neste artigo, cada área expõe de maneira objetiva como abordar pontos que envolvem as etapas do diagnóstico e sua comunicação ao paciente e a seus familiares ou responsáveis, abrangendo as particularidades da doença e do tratamento, o impacto na vida do paciente e de sua família, a abordagem das questões psicológicas e sociais e orientações quanto a medicamentos e dietas. Considera-se que este protocolo poderia ser adaptado ao seguimento de pacientes portadores de outras doenças raras, incluindo aquelas com envolvimento renal. Com essa proposta, espera-se alcançar o maior número de profissionais envolvidos no seguimento desses pacientes, fortalecendo as bases para a criação de um protocolo nacional, observando-se as particularidades de cada caso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Cystinosis/diagnosis , Cystinosis/therapy , Rare Diseases/diagnosis , Fanconi Syndrome/diagnosis , Fanconi Syndrome/drug therapy , Patient Care Team , Pregnancy , Clinical Protocols , Renal Dialysis , Kidney Transplantation , Treatment Outcome , Cystinosis/complications , Cystinosis/psychology , Rare Diseases/complications , Rare Diseases/psychology , Rare Diseases/drug therapy , Dialysis , Fanconi Syndrome/complications , Fanconi Syndrome/psychology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology
5.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 29-37, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002428

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for several unfavorable outcomes including cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly in the elderly, who represent the most rapidly growing segment of the end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) population. Portugal has the highest European unadjusted incidence and prevalence rates of ESKD. In 2012, we started to follow a cohort of elderly CKD patients, we describe their baseline characteristics, risk profile, and cardiovascular disease burden. Methods: All CKD patients aged 65 years and older referred to our department during 2012 were enrolled. Baseline data included: demographic, CKD stage, medication, comorbid conditions. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the CKD-EPI formula. Results: A total of 416 patients, 50% referred by primary care physicians, aged 77 ± 7 years, 52% male, with a median eGFR of 32 mL/min/1.73m2 participated in the study. Fifty percent had diabetes (DM), 85% dyslipidemia, 96% hypertension; 26% were current/former smokers, and 24% had a body mass index > 30 kg/m2. The prevalence of CVD was 62% and higher in stage 4-5 patients; in diabetics, it gradually increased with CKD progression (stage 3a < stage 3b < stage 4-5) (39, 58, 82%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: At baseline, our CKD elderly cohort had a higher burden of CVD. The prevalence of CVD was greater than in other European CKD cohorts. Lower level of eGFR was associated with a greater burden of CVD and was more pronounced in diabetics, highlighting the importance of strategically targeting cardiovascular risk reduction in these patients.


RESUMO Introdução: Doença renal crônica (DRC) é fator de risco independente para vários desfechos desfavoráveis, incluindo doença cardiovascular (DCV), particularmente em idosos, o segmento de crescimento mais rápido da população com doença renal terminal (DRT). Portugal tem a maior incidência europeia não-ajustada e a maior prevalência de DRT. Neste artigo caracterizamos uma coorte de idosos com DRC, referenciados para a nefrologia, com particular ênfase para o risco e carga de doença cardiovascular. Métodos: Foram incluídos todos os pacientes com DRC com 65 anos ou mais encaminhados ao nosso departamento em 2012. Os dados basais incluíram: demografia, estágio da DRC, medicação e comorbidades. A taxa de filtração glomerular (TFGe) foi calculada pela fórmula CKD-EPI. Resultados: Metade dos 416 pacientes incluídos foram encaminhados por médicos da atenção primária; sua idade era 77 ± 7 anos; 52% eram homens; a TFGe mediana era de 32 mL /min/1,73 m2. Metade tinha diabetes (DM), 85% dislipidemia, 96% hipertensão; 26% eram fumantes atuais/ antigos; 24% tinham índice de massa corporal > 30 kg/m2. A prevalência de DCV foi de 62%, sendo maior entre pacientes nos estágios 4-5; em diabéticos, aumentou gradualmente com a progressão da DRC (estágio 3a < estágio 3b < estágio 4-5) (39%, 58%, 82%; p < 0,001). Conclusões: A coorte de idosos com DRC apresentava inicialmente maior carga de DCV. A prevalência de DCV foi maior que em outras coortes europeias com DRC. Níveis menores de TFGe foram associados a carga maior de DCV e foram mais pronunciados entre diabéticos, destacando a importância de objetivar estrategicamente a redução do risco cardiovascular nesses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Incidence , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hypertension/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology
6.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(3): 193-201, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974216

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background In people living with HIV, much is known about chronic kidney disease, defined as a glomerular filtration rate under 60 mL/min. However, there is scarce data about prevalence and risk factors for milder impairment (60-89 mL/min). Objective The present study aims to assess the influence of sex, antiretroviral therapy, and classical risk factors on the occurrence of mild decreased renal function in a large Spanish cohort of HIV-infected patients. Methods Cross-sectional, single center study, including all adult HIV-1-infected patients under antiretroviral treatment with at least two serum creatinine measures during 2014, describing the occurrence of and the risk factors for mildly decreased renal function (eGFR by CKD-EPI creatinine equation of 60-89 mL/min). Results Among the 4337 patients included, the prevalence rate of mildly reduced renal function was 25%. Independent risk factors for this outcome were age older than 50 years (OR 3.03, 95% CI 2.58-3.55), female sex (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48), baseline hypertension (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.25-1.97) or dyslipidemia (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.17-1.87), virologic suppression (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.39-2.53), and exposure to tenofovir disoproxil-fumarate (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.33-2.08) or ritonavir-boosted protease-inhibitors (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.39). Conclusions Females and patients over 50 seem to be more vulnerable to renal impairment. Potentially modifiable risk factors and exposure to tenofovir disoproxil-fumarate or ritonavir-boosted protease-inhibitors are present even in earlier stages of chronic kidney dysfunction. It remains to be determined whether early interventions including antiretroviral therapy changes (tenofovir alafenamide, cobicistat) or improving comorbidities management will improve the course of chronic kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Glomerular Filtration Rate
7.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(2): 130-135, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954539

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Knowledge of validated primary causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is extremely relevant in the realm of public health. The literature lacks validated studies on the primary causes of ESRD. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the causes of ESRD in a State Capital in Northeastern Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on the analysis of medical records of patients on hemodialysis at five specialized centers in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. Deaths and patients referred to other centers outside Fortaleza were excluded from the study. The data of 830 patients were initially collected, but 818 remained enrolled after the exclusion criteria were applied, the equivalent to 48% of the patents on dialysis in the city. Results: 61.1% of the patients were males. Twenty-two percent of all enrolled individuals were aged 60-69 years. Patient mean age was 55.7 ± 16 years. The most common validated cause of ESRD was unknown (35.3%), followed by diabetes mellitus (26.4%), adult polycystic kidney disease (6.2%), graft failure (6.2%), obstructive uropathy (5.7%), and primary glomerulonephritis (5.3%). Before validation, primary hypertension was the most frequent cause of chronic kidney disease (22.9%), decreased to 3.8% after validation. Conclusion: The data contradicted national studies reporting primary hypertension as the main cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A high rate of unknown causes and categorization bias were observed mainly in relation to primary hypertension as a cause of CKD, which affects the overall prevalence of causes of ESRD in patients on dialysis.


RESUMO Introdução: O conhecimento das causas primárias, validadas, de doença renal crônica terminal (DRCT) é primordial no contexto epidemiológico da doença. Existe uma lacuna na literatura em termos de estudos validados sobre tais causas. Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência das causas de DRCT em uma capital do Nordeste brasileiro. Métodos: Estudo transversal baseado na análise dos prontuários de pacientes em hemodiálise de cinco centros especializados em Fortaleza, CE. Foram excluídos casos de óbito no período da coleta e de transferências para outras unidades fora do município em questão. Coletou-se dados de 830 pacientes, restando 818 após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, o correspondente a 48% dos pacientes que dialisam na cidade. Resultados: Observou-se que 61,1% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. A faixa etária mais prevalente foi 60 a 69 anos, 22%. A idade média foi 55,7 ± 16 anos. A causa mais comum de DRCT pós-validação foi indeterminada, 35,3%; seguida por diabetes mellitus, 26,4%; doença renal policística do adulto, 6,2%; falência do enxerto, 6,2%; uropatia obstrutiva, 5,7%; e glomerulonefrite primária, 5,3%. Antes da validação, a hipertensão primária foi a causa mais frequente de DRCT, com 22,9%, e, após validação, caiu para 3,8%. Conclusão: Os dados contrariam estudos nacionais que afirmam que a primeira causa de DRCT seria hipertensão primária. Evidenciou-se alta taxa de causas desconhecidas e viés de classificação, principalmente com relação à HAS primária como causa de DRCT, o que afeta a prevalência geral das causas de DRCT dos pacientes em diálise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Urban Health , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Rev. nefrol. diál. traspl ; 37(4): 215-219, dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006590

ABSTRACT

Toda vez que a lo largo de 3 meses hay una caída del 50% del filtrado glomerular estamos en presencia de lo que se define como deterioro rápidamente evolutivo de la función renal. Si además es acompañado de un sedimento urinario activo, inferimos estar frente a una glomerulopatía rápidamente evolutiva, una microangiopatía trombótica, una enfermedad renal ateroembólica o una nefritis intersticial. La mayoría de las veces la celeridad con que se inicia el tratamiento impacta en el resultado del mismo, lo que con frecuencia obliga a realizarlo en forma empírica. No obstante, como la terapéutica a emplear no es inocua, debemos extremar las medidas diagnósticas para definir la etiología, este caso es un ejemplo de ello


Whenever there is a 50% drop in glomerular filtration over 3 months we are in the presence of what is defined as rapidly progressive deterioration of renal function. If it is also accompanied by an active urinary sediment, it is inferred that one of these may be taking place: a rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, a thrombotic microangiopathy, an atheroembolic renal disease or an interstitial nephritis. In most cases the speed with which the treatment is initiated impacts on its result, which often requires that it is done empirically. However, as the therapy used is not innocuous, we must maximize diagnostic measures to define the etiology; this case is an example of this


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology
9.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(2): 209-215, abr. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844601

ABSTRACT

La insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA) es una complicación asociada a la cirugía cardíaca con circulación extracorpórea (CEC) con impacto en la morbimortalidad. OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a IRA posquirúrgica de acuerdo a la escala pRIFLE (pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease) en niños intervenidos de cirugía cardiaca con CEC. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles anidados en una cohorte. Se incluyó a pacientes menores a 16 años de edad que ingresaron en una unidad de terapia intensiva pediátrica posterior a cirugía cardiaca con CEC en un período de 18 meses. Los casos fueron quienes desarrollaron IRA de acuerdo a la clasificación pRIFLE durante su estancia en la unidad de terapia intensiva. Los controles fueron aquellos que no desarrollaron esta complicación. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística y se calcularon odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%). RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron 91 pacientes (31 casos y 60 controles) con una mediana de edad de 20 meses y predominio del sexo masculino (53,8%). Los factores de riesgo independientes para IRA fueron la hiperlactatemia transoperatoria > 6 mmol/l (OR = 4,91; IC 95%:1,26-19,05; p = 0,02) y las cardiopatías cianógenas (OR = 3,62; IC 95%:1,11-11,63; p = 0,03). CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio permitió identificar que los pacientes pediátricos con niveles de lactato > 6 mmol/l durante la CEC y aquellos con cardiopatías congénitas cianógenas son un subgrupo de alto riesgo para desarrollar IRA tras cirugía cardiaca y deben vigilarse estrechamente para prevenir, detectar y/o tratar de forma oportuna dicha complicación.


Acute renal failure (ARF) is a complication associated with cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with an impact on morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with postoperative IRA according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease scale in children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A nested case-control study was conducted. We included children under 16 years of age attended postoperative for CBP in a pediatric intensive care unit over a period of 18 months. The cases were those who developed ARF according to the classification pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease scale during their stay in the pediatric intensive care unit. Controls were those who did not develop this complication. Logistic regression analysis was performed and adjusted odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals at 95% (95% CI) were calculated. RESULTS: 91 patients (31 cases and 60 controls) with a median age of 20 months and predominance of males (53.8%) were analyzed. Independent risk factors for ARF were the intraoperative lactate level > 6 mmol/l (OR = 4.91; 95% CI 1.26-19.05; p = .02) and cyanotic heart disease (OR = 3.62; 95% CI 1.11-11.63; p = .03). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified that pediatric patients with lactate levels >6 mmol/l during CPB and those with cyanotic congenital heart disease are a subgroup of high risk to develop ARF after heart surgery and should be closely monitored to prevent, detect and/or treat this complication timely manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Case-Control Studies , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology
10.
Ann. hepatol ; 16(2): 230-235, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887227

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background. Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in post-liver transplantation (LT) recipients. The risk factors associated with the development of renal dysfunction are not clearly elucidated. Objectives. To examine the risk factors in the development of CRF in these patients. Material and methods. Retrospective case-cohort of liver transplant patients without baseline kidney dysfunction who developed chronic renal failure during their follow-up. Results. Of 370 patients, 254 met the inclusion criteria. 30% (76) of these patients had CRF of which 57% (43) were male. Age, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at discharge, and HCV infection were found to be risk factors for CRF post-LT. The odds ratio of developing CRF was 1.4 (0.6-3.3) in males with HCV, 1.6 (0.7-3.9) in females without HCV and 4.4 (1.5-13.2) among females with HCV when compared to men without HCV. Conclusions. In this cohort of LT receipients of a major Canadian city, age, eGFR, and HCV infection were risk factors for CRF. Female gender and HCV increased this odds by a factor of more than 4.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Hepatitis C/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Time Factors , British Columbia , Chi-Square Distribution , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology
11.
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(1): 59-64, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841198

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aging is a nearly universal phenomenon in biology only partially controlled by genetic endowment. Individuals and their organs age at varying rates. The kidneys manifest the aging process by steady loss of nephrons and a corresponding decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) beginning about age 30 years. The mechanisms responsible for this observation is are elusive. However, defining chronic kidney disease based on arbitrary, fixed thresholds of GFR in the later phases of life can be problematical as it may over-diagnosis CKD in the elderly. A modest, persisting reduction of GFR (around 45-59 ml/min/1.73m2) without abnormal proteinuria does not seem to confer much of an adverse effect on mortality and remaining life expectancy in older adults and the development of end-stage renal disease in such subjects is very uncommon. Old kidneys should not be equated with "diseased" kidneys.


Resumo O envelhecimento é um fenômeno quase universal na biologia, apenas parcialmente controlado pela dotação genética. Os indivíduos e seus órgãos envelhecem em taxas variáveis. Os rins manifestam o processo de envelhecimento por perda constante de néfrons e uma diminuição correspondente na taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) a partir dos 30 anos. Os mecanismos responsáveis por essa observação são elusivos. No entanto, a definição de doença renal crônica com base em limiares arbitrários e fixos de TFG nas últimas fases da vida pode ser problemática, pois pode levar a um excessivo diagnóstico de DRC em idosos. Uma modesta e persistente redução da TFG (cerca de 45-59 ml/min/1,73 m2) sem proteinúria anormal não parece conferir grande parte do efeito adverso sobre a mortalidade e expectativa de vida remanescente em adultos mais velhos; e o desenvolvimento de doença renal em fase terminal em tais indivíduos é muito incomum. Rins mais velhos não devem ser equiparados a rins "doentes".


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aging , Kidney/physiopathology , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(8): 742-747, Nov. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829527

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: Anemia, a common complication of chronic kidney diseases (CKD), is involved in significant cardiovascular morbidity. Therefore, the objective of our study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of anemia in pre-dialysis patients, as well as to determine the predictors of anti-anemic therapy. Method: A retrospective, observational study was conducted on adult pre-dialysis patients receiving treatment at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2009 to December 2013. Results: A total of 615 eligible cases were included. The mean age of patients was 64.1±12.0 years. The prevalence of anemia was 75.8%, and the severity of anemia was mild in 47.7% of the patients, moderate in 32.2%, and severe in 20%. Based on morphological classification of anemia, 76.9% of our patients had normochromic-normocytic anemia whereas 21.8 and 1.3% had hypochromic-microcytic anemia and macrocytic anemia, respectively. Oral iron supplements were prescribed to 38.0% of the patients and none of the patients was given erythropoietin stabilizing agents (ESA) or intravenous iron preparations. In logistic regression, significant predictors of anti-anemic preparation use were decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and advanced stages of CKD. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that the prevalence of anemia in pre-dialysis patients is higher than currently accepted and it is found to be correlated with renal function; prevalence increases with declined renal function. An earlier identification as well as appropriate management of anemia will not only have a positive impact on quality of life but also reduce hospitalizations of CKD patients due to cardiovascular events.


Resumo Objetivo: anemia é uma complicação comum de doenças renais crônicas (DRC) e está significativamente envolvida na morbidade cardiovascular. O objetivo de nosso estudo foi investigar a prevalência e a gravidade da anemia em pacientes adultos pré-diálise, bem como determinar fatores preditores da terapia antianêmica. Método: estudo retrospectivo observacional foi realizado em pacientes pré-diálise adultos que recebiam tratamento no Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia de janeiro de 2009 a dezembro de 2013. Resultados: ao todo, 615 casos elegíveis foram incluídos. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 64,1±12,0 anos. A prevalência de anemia foi de 75,8%, e a gravidade da anemia foi considerada leve em 47,7%, moderada em 32,2% e grave em 20% dos pacientes. Com base nas características morfológicas da anemia, os pacientes foram classificados em anemia normocrômica normocítica (76,9%), anemia hipocrômica microcítica (21,8%) e anemia macrocítica (1,3%). Suplementos de ferro oral foram prescritos para 38% dos pacientes e a nenhum dos pacientes foram dados eritropoietina, agentes estabilizadores (ESA) e preparações de ferro por via intravenosa. Na regressão logística, os preditores significativos de utilização da preparação antianêmica foram diminuição da hemoglobina e do hematócrito e estágios avançados da DRC. Conclusão: os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que a prevalência de anemia em pacientes pré-diálise é maior do que o atualmente aceito e está associado com a função renal; a prevalência aumenta com a diminuição da função renal. A identificação precoce e o manejo adequado da anemia não só terão um impacto positivo na qualidade de vida, mas também reduzirão internações de pacientes com DRC decorrentes de eventos cardiovasculares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Renal Dialysis , Anemia/epidemiology , Kidney/physiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Quality of Life , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Diabetes Complications , Anemia/complications , Anemia/therapy , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Malaysia/epidemiology , Middle Aged
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58429

ABSTRACT

Few studies have reported on the long-term prognosis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-negative renal vasculitis. Between April 2003 and December 2013, 48 patients were diagnosed with renal vasculitis. Their ANCA status was tested using indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. During a median (interquartile range) follow-up duration of 933.5 (257.5-2,079.0) days, 41.7% of patients progressed to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and 43.8% died from any cause. Of 48 patients, 6 and 42 were ANCA-negative and positive, respectively. The rate of ESRD within 3 months was higher in ANCA-negative patients than in ANCA-positive patients (P = 0.038). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, ANCA-negative patients showed shorter renal survival than did ANCA-positive patients (log-rank P = 0.033). In univariate Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis, ANCA-negative patients showed increased risk of ESRD, with a hazard ratio 3.190 (95% confidence interval, 1.028-9.895, P = 0.045). However, the effect of ANCA status on renal survival was not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Finally, ANCA status did not significantly affect patient survival. In conclusion, long-term patient and renal survival of ANCA-negative renal vasculitis patients did not differ from those of ANCA-positive renal vasculitis patients. Therefore, different treatment strategy depending on ANCA status might be unnecessary.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/analysis , Cohort Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Male , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Vasculitis/complications
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 35(3): 191-199, jul.-set. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687820

ABSTRACT

INTRODUTION: Steroid resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (SRINS) in children is one of the leading causes of progression to chronic kidney disease stage V (CKD V)/end stage renal disease (ESRD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs (IS) and to identify risk factors for progression to ESRD in this population. METHODS: Clinical and biochemical variables at presentation, early or late steroid resistance, histological pattern and response to cyclosporine A (CsA) and cyclophosfamide (CP) were reviewed in 136 children with SRINS. The analyzed outcome was the progression to ESRD. Univariate as well as multivariate Cox-regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: Median age at onset was 5.54 years (0.67-17.22) and median follow up time was 6.1 years (0.25-30.83). Early steroid-resistance was observed in 114 patients and late resistance in 22. Resistance to CP and CsA was 62.9% and 35% respectively. At last follow-up 57 patients reached ESRD. The renal survival rate was 71.5%, 58.4%, 55.3%, 35.6% and 28.5% at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 years respectively. Univariate analysis demonstrated that older age at onset, early steroid-resistance, hematuria, hypertension, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and resistance to IS were risk factors for ESRD. The Cox proportional-hazards regression identified CsAresistance and FSGS as the only predictors for ESRD. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that CsA-resistance and FSGS were risk factors for ESRD.


INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome nefrótica idiopática córtico-resistente (SNICR) é uma das principais causas de falência renal crônica (FRC)/doença renal crônica estadio V (DRC V) em crianças. Objetivo: Avaliar a resposta aos imunossupressores e identificar fatores de risco para a FRC. MÉTODOS: Variáveis clínicas e bioquímicas na apresentação, resistência inicial ou tardia aos esteroides, lesão histológica e resposta à ciclosporina A (CsA) e à ciclofosfamida (CF) foram analisados retrospectivamente em 136 crianças com SNICR. O desfecho analisado foi a progressão para FRC e os métodos utilizados foram a análise univariada e a regressão multivariada de Cox. RESULTADOS: A idade mediana do início da doença foi de 5,54 anos (0,67-17,22) e o tempo mediano de seguimento foi de 6,1 anos (0,25-30,83). Resistência inicial aos esteroides ocorreu em 114 pacientes e tardia em 22. Resistência à CF e à CsA ocorreu em 62,9% e 35% dos pacientes, respectivamente. FRC ocorreu em 57 pacientes. A sobrevida renal foi de 71,5%, 58,4%, 55,3%, 35,6% e 28,5% aos 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25 anos, respectivamente. A análise univariada demonstrou que a idade maior ao início da doença, resistência inicial aos esteroides, hematúria, hipertensão, glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal (GESF) e resistência aos imunossupressores foram fatores de risco para FRC. A regressão de Cox identificou a resistência à CsA e a GESF como os únicos fatores preditores para FRC. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados mostraram que a resistência à ciclosporina e a presença de GESF foram fatores de risco para a progressão para DRCV.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/congenital , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Follow-Up Studies , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(8): 1003-1009, ago. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-698698

ABSTRACT

Background: The frequency of pregnancies during dialysis is increasing. This condition requires changes in the dialysis schedule and nutritional approach. Aim: To report the experience in six patients with terminal kidney disease who became pregnant. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of women with terminal kidney disease in dialysis who became pregnant in a period of 27 years. Results: We recorded six successful pregnancies among women in hemodialysis treatment aged 32 ± 4 years. The mean dialysis-time per week was 19.5 ± 2.7 hours and Kt/V was 1.55 ± 0.17. The mean systolic blood pressure was 130 ± 13.3 mmHg. The mean packed cell volume of the group increased from 22.7% during pre-gestational stage to 30.2% during third trimester of pregnancy. All patients received an intensive treatment for anemia. The most common symptom of pregnancy was hyperemesis. The mean gestational age (GA) at diagnosis was 13.4 ± 4.7 weeks. All patients had preterm deliveries at a GA of 33 ± 1.7 weeks, and 66% of offspring were appropriate for gestational age. Conclusions: A multidisciplinary approach allows high rate of successful pregnancies during hemodialysis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Outcome , Renal Dialysis , Arterial Pressure , Anemia/therapy , Cesarean Section , Hematocrit , Hyperemesis Gravidarum/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Premature Birth , Pregnancy Complications/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 140(10): 1342-1346, oct. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-668710

ABSTRACT

Background: Collapsing glomerulopathy is a cause of nephrotic syndrome with massive proteinuria secondary to podocyte proliferation and glomerular collapse. It is characterized by an almost inevitable progression to end stage renal failure, poor response to treatment and high post-transplant recurrence. Its frequency has increased in recent years due to its common association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and the growing recognition of new etiologic agents such as drugs and parvovirus B19. Therefore, it is a disease of growing interest for clinicians. The aim of this review is to update the clinical presentation, diagnosis, pathogenesis and therapeutic alternatives of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental , HIV Infections/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Biopsy , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/etiology , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/pathology , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/pathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/etiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/pathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/therapy
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145707

ABSTRACT

Summary: The present study was designed to evaluate the risk factors and their degree of reversibility in cases of acute-on-chronic renal failure admitted to a tertiary care hospital over a period of one year, i.e., from November, 2006 to October, 2007. Material: In this study 100 patients of acute-on-chronic renal failure (rise in serum creatinine of 0.5 mg/dl, if baseline serum creatinine was < 3 mg/dl or rise of 1 mg/dl, if baseline was > 3 mg/dl within a one-week period) were included and various reversible risk factor(s) and the degree of reversibility of renal failure was determined. Methods: A thorough clinical evaluation and investigations of all patients was done and they were put on conservative management along with specific management of reversible factor(s) and haemodialysis, whereever needed. The observations of various parameters were recorded at presentation (baseline) and subsequently at 1 week and 2 week periods which included 24-hour urine volume, blood urea, serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance. Reversibility of these parameters was then statistically analysed. To compare the degree of reversibility, the patients were divided into 4 groups at the time of admission depending upon their GFR; group 3 with GFR 30 - 59 ml/min, group 4 with GFR 15 - 29 ml/min, group 5a with GFR 5 - 15 ml/min, and group 5b with GFR < 5 ml/min, respectively. Results: Majority of patients were found to have more than one reversible risk factor. These were hyperuricaemia (89), electrolyte imbalance (51), infection/sepsis (47), accelerated hypertension (21), volume depletion (18), urinary tract obstruction (16), and hypotension (7). A considerable degree of reversibility was detected, maximum being in volume depletion and urinary tract obstruction. Conclusions: Therefore it was concluded that patients presenting in a severe uraemic state may not be suffering from ESRD and each patient should be investigated for the presence of reversible risk factor(s) so that renal function can be restored and hence the need of renal replacement therapy can be delayed.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Aged , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 110(3): 221-226, mayo-jun. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-639612

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La duración del período oligoanúrico es el principal marcador pronóstico de secuela renal en pacientes con síndrome urémico-hemolítico asociado a diarrea (SUH D+). Realizamos este estudio con el objetivo de determinar la capacidad del período oligoanúrico para predecir secuela renal en niños con SUH D+. Pacientes y métodos. Revisamos los datos de todos los pacientes internados en el Hospital Elizalde con SUH D+ entre 1998-2008 e incluimos sólo a aquellos seguidos más de 1 año. Consideramos secuela renal a la presencia de albuminuria y/o proteinuria patológicas y/o hipertensión arterial y/o caída de fltrado glomerular. Ingresaron al estudio 80 pacientes, que se dividieron en 2 grupos (con secuela y sin ella). Se determinó si tenían diferencias en la duración del período oligoanúrico y se calculó la capacidad de dicha variable para predecir secuela mediante curva ROC. Resultados. 32 pacientes presentaron secuela renal (prevalencia 40%), quienes tuvieron un período oligoanúrico signifcativamente más prolongado [mediana 7 días (intervalo 0-14) contra mediana 0 días (intervalo 0-30); p= 0,0003] que aquellos sin secuela. Mediante curva ROC (área bajo la curva de 0,73) se estableció en ≥ 4 días como mejor punto de corte del período oligoanúrico para predecir secuela renal (sensibilidad 68,75%, especifcidad 70,83%). Conclusión. La curva ROC no permitió identifcar un punto de corte de la duración del período oligoanúrico que permita predecir secuela renal con sensibilidad y especifcidad adecuadas. Esta observación refuerza la importancia del seguimiento periódico y a largo plazo de todos los niños afectados por SUH D+.


Introduction. Length of the oligoanuric period is the main predictor of renal sequelae in children with postdiarrehal hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS). We aimed to determine the capacity of the oligoanuric period in the prediction of renal sequelae in children with D+ HUS. Patients and methods. We reviewed data from all patients with D+ HUS admitted at Hospital Elizalde between 1998-2008, including only those with at least 1 year of follow-up. Renal sequelae were defned by the presence of pathologic albuminuria and/or proteinuria and/or arterial hypertension and/or chronic renal failure; 80 patients were included, belonging to one of two groups (with or without sequelae). Difference in the duration of the oligoanuric period between groups was determined, and the diagnostic capacity of the oligoanuric period to identifed renal sequelae was assessed by ROC curve. Results. 32 patients presented sequelae, representing a prevalence of 40%. Oligoanuric period was signifcantly longer in patients with sequelae [median 7 days (range 0-14) vs median 0 days (range 0-30); p= 0,0003]. Using ROC curve (aucROC= 0.73) we identifed an oligoanuric period ≥ 4 days as the best threshold to predict renal sequelae (sensitivity 68.75%, and specifcity 70.83%). Conclusions. By ROC curve analysis we were unable to identify a cut-off point on the length of the oligoanuric period which predicts renal sequelae with optimum sensitivity and specifcity. This observation emphasizes the need of periodic and long-term surveillance of all children who suffered from D+ HUS.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Diarrhea/complications , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Oliguria/etiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
19.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 54(1): 57-60, Jan.-Feb. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614898

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is a current public health problem, remaining the most common worldwide cause of mortality from infectious disease. Recent studies indicate that genitourinary TB is the third most common form of extra-pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of renal TB can be hypothesized in a non-specific bacterial cystitis associated with a therapeutic failure or a urinalysis with a persistent leukocyturia in the absence of bacteriuria. We report on the case of a 33-year-old man who presented on admission end stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to renal TB and a past history of pulmonary TB with important radiologic findings. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings despite all cultures being negative. Empiric treatment with tuberculostatic drugs was started and the patient became stable. He was discharged with no symptom, but without renal function recovery. He is on maintenance hemodialysis three times a week. TB is an important cause of kidney disease and can lead to irreversible renal function loss.


A tuberculose (TB) é um problema atual de saúde pública, persistindo como a causa mais comum de óbito por doenças infecciosas. Estudos recentes indicam que a TB genitourinária é a terceira forma mais comum de doença extra-pulmonar. O diagnóstico da TB renal pode ser suspeito na presença de cistite bacteriana não-específica associada a falha terapêutica ou com exame de urina apresentando leucocitúria persistente na ausência de bacteriúria. Relatamos o caso de um paciente de 33 anos, sexo masculino, que apresentou na admissão insuficiência renal crônica terminal secundária à TB renal, que tinha história prévia de TB pulmonar, com importantes achados radiológicos. O diagnóstico foi baseado nos achados clínicos apesar de todas as culturas terem sido negativas. Tratamento empírico com drogas tuberculostáticas foi iniciado e o paciente evoluiu estável. Foi de alta assintomático, mas sem recuperação da função renal. Ele encontra-se em hemodiálise três vezes por semana. A TB é uma causa importante de doença renal e pode levar à perda irreversível da função renal.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/complications , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/drug therapy
20.
Medical Journal of Islamic World Academy of Sciences. 2012; 20 (2): 67-69
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-124909

ABSTRACT

Emphysematous pyelonephritis [EPN] is a severe necrotizing infection of the kidney characterized by the presence of gas in renal parenchyma, collecting system or perinephric tissue. It can be life threatening if not recognized and treated promptly. We have reported the case of a 56-year-old woman with a previous history of diabetes mellitus, who was suffering from left-sided flank pain and fever. Diagnosis workup revealed an extensive destruction of the left kidney secondary to an EPN. We opted for a left nephrectomy and intravenous antibiotics. The immediate postoperative course was uncomplicated but the patient developed a chronic renal failure within 1 year


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pyelonephritis/diagnosis , Emphysema/complications , Pyelonephritis/complications , Flank Pain , Stress, Psychological , Diabetes Mellitus , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology
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