Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 468
Filter
1.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(3): e37315, set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1341563

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La falla intestinal crónica (FIC) o tipo III es una condición invalidante, y la nutrición parenteral crónica (NPC) domiciliaria es el tratamiento que permite a estos pacientes mantenerse con vida. Sin embargo, solamente uno de cada tres países latinoamericanos cuentan con ese recurso, y sus complicaciones no son infrecuentes. Estas complicaciones son las principales indicaciones para trasplante intestinal, un procedimiento que en la mayoría de los países de ingresos medios no se ha desarrollado y no ha presentado los resultados esperados. En los últimos años, la rehabilitación intestinal a nivel mundial ha mejorado sustancialmente con el uso de análogos semisintéticos del péptido 2 similares al glucagón, existiendo cada vez mayor evidencia que demuestra la posibilidad de rehabilitación intestinal e independencia de la NPC con este fármaco, incluso en pacientes con anatomía desfavorable. Estos resultados han permitido mejorar la supervivencia y la calidad de vida de pacientes con FIC y, en muchas ocasiones, prescindir del trasplante. El paciente del caso que presentamos es el primero en recibir esta terapéutica en nuestro país. En este artículo analizamos la respuesta precoz favorable al tratamiento y sus perspectivas a futuro.


Abstract: Long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a life-saving treatment for patients with chronic intestinal failure, an invalidating condition. However, only 1 out of 3 countries can rely on this treatment and complications associated to chronic parenteral nutrition are rather frequent. The latter constitute the main indication for intestinal transplantion, a procedure that in most middle-income countries has not yet developed and has not shown the expected outcome. In recent years, intestinal rehabilitation has significantly improved at the global level with the use of GLP2, based on the growing evidence that proves the possibility of intestinal rehabilitation and independence from parenteral nutrition with Teduglutide, even in the case of patients with unfavorable anatomy. These results have caused a positive impact on survival and the quality of life of patients with chronic renal failure, and they can often abstain from transplant. The patient of the case study is the first one who received this therapy in our country and this article analyses his favorable early response to treatment and future perspectives.


Resumo: A insuficiência intestinal crônica (CIF) ou tipo III é uma condição incapacitante e a nutrição parenteral crônica (NPC) domiciliar é o tratamento que permite a sobrevida desses pacientes. No entanto, apenas 1 em cada 3 países latino-americanos dispõe desse recurso e as complicações da NPC não são raras. Essas complicações são as principais indicações para o transplante intestinal, procedimento que na maioria dos países de renda média não foi desenvolvido ou não apresentou os resultados esperados. Nos últimos anos, a reabilitação intestinal em todo o mundo tem melhorado substancialmente com o uso de sGLP2, com um número cada vez maior de evidências que mostram a possibilidade de reabilitação intestinal e independência da NPC, mesmo em pacientes com anatomia desfavorável. Esses resultados têm possibilitado prolongar a sobrevida e melhorar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes com CIF e, em muitos casos, dispensar o transplante. O paciente do caso que apresentamos é o primeiro a receber essa terapia em nosso país. Neste artigo, analisamos a resposta favorável ao tratamento precoce e suas perspectivas futuras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Short Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Glucagon-Like Peptide 2/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Parenteral Nutrition, Home
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0633-2020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155602

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, we present two cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in patients with end-stage renal disease, who were treated solely with intramuscular pentamidine. In such cases, treatment implies a fine line between therapeutic efficacy and toxicity. This is suggestive of a knowledge gap; however, findings indicate that this is still the fastest and safest alternative to the treatment with antimonials. Also, it can help avoid the side effects that occur upon using antimonials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/complications , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Pentamidine/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e9806, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153537

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of elderly people in renal support is expected in the coming years. The objective of this study was to report the clinical and socio-demographic data of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) adult patients undergoing regular dialysis treatment comparing elderly (≥65 years old) and non-elderly subjects using data from the Brazilian Dialysis Registry database. The regional distribution of the sample was Southeast (48.8%), South (33.7), Northeast (13.1%), Midwest (5.1%), and North (0.1%). A total of 18,030 patients were included in the analysis with elderly patients accounting for 29.5% of the sample. The elderly patients were predominantly male, white, retired, and literate. Elderly ESRD patients had a slightly higher frequency of undernourishment and a lower frequency of obesity than the non-elderly adults. A higher frequency of elderly patients were from the South and Southeast regions. The dialysis treatment of patients from both groups was predominantly funded by the public system, but the percent of non-public funding was higher for the elderly group. The most used initial access in the elderly was the central venous catheter and hemodialysis was the main modality at the beginning of treatment (93.2%), as well as during maintenance therapy (91.8%). Advanced age was associated with greater use of central venous catheter in the first dialysis session. The survival of the elderly on dialysis was lower than that of the non-elderly early in the course of dialysis and this difference increased over time. This is yet the largest national epidemiological study of elderly people on chronic dialysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Renal Dialysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Demography , Kidney
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(9): 1229-1234, Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136367

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and renal transplantation on the quality of life of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and analyze the influencing factors. METHODS: A total of 162 ESRD patients who received maintenance hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, and renal transplantation from February 2017 to March 2018 in our hospital were divided into a hemodialysis group, a peritoneal dialysis group, and a renal transplantation group. The baseline clinical data, serum indices, as well as environmental factors such as education level, marital status, work, residential pattern, household income, and expenditure were recorded. The quality of life was assessed using the short-form 36-item (SF-36) scale reflecting the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and the Mental Component Summary (MCS). One-way analysis of variance and logistic stepwise multiple regression analysis were performed to analyze the factors influencing the quality of life. RESULTS: The renal transplantation group had the highest average scores for all dimensions of the SF-36 scale. The PCS and MCS scores of this group were higher than those of the hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis groups. The peritoneal dialysis group had higher scores for physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, general health, mental health, PCS, and MCS than those of the hemodialysis group. Age, HGB, GLU, and ALP were the main factors influencing PCS. Age, education level, residential pattern, medication expenditure, and monthly per capita income mainly affected MCS. CONCLUSION: In terms of quality of life, renal transplantation is superior to peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da hemodiálise, diálise peritoneal e transplante renal na qualidade de vida de pacientes na última fase da doença renal terminal (ESRD), bem como analisar os fatores influentes. MÉTODOS: Um total de 162 pacientes de ESRD receberam hemodiálise de manutenção, diálise peritoneal ambulatorial contínua e transplante renal de fevereiro de 2017 a março de 2018 em nosso hospital. Eles foram divididos em grupo de hemodiálise, grupo de diálise peritoneal e grupo de transplante renal. Foram analisados os dados clínicos de base, índices-chave e os fatores ambientais, como nível educacional, estado civil, emprego, padrão residencial, renda e gasto familiar. A qualidade de vida foi avaliada pelo uso da escala de forma reduzida de 36 itens (SF-36), que reflete o Resumo da Escala Física (PCS) e o Resumo dos Componentes Mentais (PCS). Análise unidirecional de variações e análise de regressão logística múltipla foram realizadas para analisar os fatores que influenciam a qualidade de vida. RESULTADOS: O grupo de transplante renal teve os maiores pontos médios em todas as dimensões da escala SF-36. Os pontos PCS e MCS desse grupo foram mais altos que os dos grupos de hemodiálise e diálise peritoneal. Além disso, o grupo de diálise peritoneal teve pontos mais altos em funcionamento físico, função física, dor corporal, saúde geral, saúde mental, PCS e MCS do que os do grupo de hemodiálise. Idade, HGB, GLU e ALP foram os principais fatores que influenciaram a PCS. Idade, nível educacional, padrão residencial, gastos em medicamentos e renda mensal per capita afetaram principalmente o MCS. CONCLUSÃO: Quanto à qualidade de vida, o transplante renal é melhor que a diálise peritoneal e a hemodiálise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Peritoneal Dialysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Quality of Life , Renal Dialysis
6.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(2): 265-274, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098902

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La enfermedad renal crónica terminal (ERCT) tiene una incidencia de 5,5 a 9 ppm, y una prevalencia de 23 a 65 ppm en menores de 15 años. La diálisis peritoneal (DP) crónica representa en pediatría la terapia de reemplazo renal más usada, previo al trasplante renal. Existen 2 tipos de DP crónicas, manual (DPCA) y automatizada (DPA), cuya elección se basa en las características del peritoneo eva luado mediante el test de equilibrio peritoneal (PET), que divide a los pacientes en transportadores altos (intercambio rápido), promedio alto, promedio bajo, y bajos (intercambio lento). Este test eva lúa básicamente el transporte de solutos, al cual se ha sumado el MiniPET, que evalúa el transporte peritoneal de agua libre. Se debe igualmente determinar la cuantía de diálisis (Kt/V), que representa la dosis de diálisis aplicada, con un valor mínimo sugerido de 1,7, relacionado a la morbimortalidad. Estos parámetros deben ser evaluados periódicamente para ajustar la DP, y cada vez que se sospeche una depuración o ultrafiltración inadecuadas. El objetivo de esta revisión es entregar conceptos bási cos sobre fisiología del transporte peritoneal, modalidades de DP, evaluación del transporte de agua y solutos peritoneal, y el cálculo de la dosis de diálisis para una diálisis ajustada a las necesidades de cada paciente, como también revisar los mecanismos de corrección y ajuste del procedimiento cada vez que se requiera.


Abstract: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) has an incidence of 5.5 to 9 pmp, and a prevalence of 23 to 65 pmp in children under 15 years of age. Chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) represents the most widely used renal replacement therapy in children before kidney transplantation. There are two PD modalities, the manual one (CAPD) and the automated one (APD). The choice is based on the peritoneum characteristics, evaluated through the peritoneal equilibrium test (PET), which divides patients into high transporters (rapid exchange membrane), high average, low average, and low transporters (slow exchange membrane). This test basically evaluates the solutes transport rate, and the MiniPET has been added which evaluates peritoneal free water transport. The amount of dialysis (Kt/V), which represents the dose of dialysis administered also must be evaluated to assure a minimal value of 1.7 related to morbidity and mortality. These parameters should be evaluated periodically to ad just the PD and whenever suspected an inadequate clearance or ultrafiltration. The objective of this review is to provide basic concepts on peritoneal transport physiology, PD modalities, free water transport and peritoneal solute transport evaluation, and the dialysis dose to be applied according to the patient's needs, as well as reviewing the correction mechanisms and procedure adjustment whenever required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pediatrics , Treatment Outcome , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880805

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of the first episode of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PDAP) in patients receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of patients with the first episode of PDAP in 4 general hospitals in Jilin Province from 2013 to 2019 were collected retrospectively. According to the duration of dialysis, the patients were divided into long-term (≥36 months) and short-term (< 36 months) dialysis groups for comparison of the clinical data, treatment outcomes and long-term prognostic events.@*RESULTS@#A total of 625 patients with PDAP were enrolled, including 93 on long-term and 532 on short-term dialysis. Compared with those on short-term dialysis, the patients on long-term dialysis had significantly higher hemoglobin levels and lower glomerular filtration rates when the first episode of PDAP occurred (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with those on short-term dialysis, patients on long-term dialysis are prone to gram-negative bacterial infection when the first episode of PDAP occurs with worse treatment outcomes but similar long-term outcomes. Long-term dialysis is an independent risk factor of extubation and treatment failure for the first episode of PDAP, and fungal and mixed bacterial infections are independent risk factors for treatment failure of the first PDAP in patients with long-term dialysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Peritonitis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 80, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1127234

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of adherence to a multidisciplinary renal health program in reducing mortality and progression to hemodialysis. METHODS We used a database that included patient monitoring (2013-2017), dialysis admissions and all cause of mortality in Peru. Adherence to the program was established by meeting minimum visits during the first year of monitoring. The outcome of interest was hemodialysis admissions or all cause-mortality. Kaplan-Meier curves, Log-Rank test and competing survival analysis methods were used to estimate the differential risk between adherent and non-adherent patients. RESULTS A total of 20,354 participants was evaluated; 54.1% were male, 72.1 years old in average, 2.2 years average follow-up, and 15,279 (75.1%) belonged to the early stages (1 to 3a) of Chronic Kidney Disease. Adherence decreased the risk of renal replacement therapy in 41.0% (HR = 0.59, 95%CI 0.41-0.85) in the low-risk group and mortality in the high-risk group was 31.0% (HR = 0.69, 95%CI 0.57-0.83). CONCLUSIONS The multidisciplinary care strategy with standardized assessments by stage is effective in reducing admission to .0when the patient is identified in early stages and in reducing mortality in advanced stages.


RESUMEN OBJETIVO Evaluar la efectividad de la adherencia a un programa de salud renal en la reducción de mortalidad y progresión a hemodiálisis. MÉTODOS Utilizamos una base de datos que condensaba el seguimiento de los pacientes (2013-2017), los ingresos a diálisis de los mismos y la mortalidad por todas las causas en Perú. La adherencia al programa se estableció con el cumplimiento de visitas mínimas durante su primer año de seguimiento. La efectividad de la adherencia al programa se midió en términos de debut a hemodiálisis o muerte por todas las causas. Se utilizaron curvas de Kaplan-Meier, test de diferencias en la distribución (Log-Rank test) y métodos de análisis de supervivencia. Los análisis se realizaron utilizando R estudio 3.5.0 RESULTADOS Fueron evaluados 20.354 participantes, 54,1% varones, edad media de 72,1 años, con un seguimiento medio de 2,2 años; 15.279 (75.1%) tuvieron ERC en estadios tempranos (estadio 1 al 3a). La adherencia disminuyó en un 41,0% el riesgo de terapia de reemplazo renal (HR = 0,59; IC95% 0,41-0,85) en el grupo de bajo riesgo y en un 31,0% (HR = 0,69; IC95% 0,57-0,83) la mortalidad en el grupo de alto riesgo. CONCLUSIONES La estrategia de cuidado multidisciplinario con evaluaciones estandarizadas según estadio es efectiva en reducir el ingreso a terapia de reemplazo renal cuando se identifica al paciente en estadios tempranos y en reducir la mortalidad en estadios avanzados.


Subject(s)
Guideline Adherence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Peru/epidemiology , Program Evaluation , Survival Analysis , Risk Factors , Renal Dialysis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology
10.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s37-s44, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057099

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a renal replacement therapy based on infusing a sterile solution into the peritoneal cavity through a catheter and provides for the removal of solutes and water using the peritoneal membrane as the exchange surface. This solution, which is in close contact with the capillaries in the peritoneum, allows diffusion solute transport and osmotic ultrafiltration water loss since it is hyperosmolar to plasma due to the addition of osmotic agents (most commonly glucose). Infusion and drainage of the solution into the peritoneal cavity can be performed in two ways: manually (continuous ambulatory PD), in which the patient usually goes through four solution changes throughout the day, or machine-assisted PD (automated PD), in which dialysis is performed with the aid of a cycling machine that allows changes to be made overnight while the patient is sleeping. Prescription and follow-up of PD involve characterizing the type of peritoneal transport and assessing the offered dialysis dose (solute clearance) as well as diagnosing and treating possible method-related complications (infectious and non-infectious).


RESUMO A diálise peritoneal (DP) é uma terapia renal substitutiva baseada na infusão de uma solução estéril na cavidade peritoneal através de um cateter, proporcionando a remoção de solutos e água usando a membrana peritoneal como superfície de troca. Essa solução, em contato com os capilares do peritônio, permite o transporte difuso de solutos e a perda de água por ultrafiltração osmótica, uma vez que é hiperosmolar ao plasma devido à adição de agentes osmóticos (normalmente, a glicose). A infusão e drenagem da solução dentro da cavidade peritoneal pode ser realizada de duas maneiras: manualmente (DP ambulatorial contínua), em que o paciente, geralmente, passa por quatro trocas de solução durante o dia, ou por DP mecânica (automatizada), em que a diálise é realizada com o auxílio de uma máquina de diálise que permite que as trocas sejam feitas durante a noite, enquanto o paciente está dormindo. A prescrição e o acompanhamento da DP envolvem a caracterização do tipo de transporte peritoneal e a avaliação da dose de diálise oferecida (depuração do soluto), bem como o diagnóstico e tratamento de possíveis complicações relacionadas ao método (infecciosas e não infecciosas).


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Dialysis Solutions/therapeutic use , Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s03-s09, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057109

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Chronic kidney disease is highly prevalent (10-13% of the population), irreversible, progressive, and associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Patients with this pathology remain asymptomatic most of the time, presenting the complications typical of renal dysfunction only in more advanced stages. Its treatment can be conservative (patients without indication for dialysis, usually those with glomerular filtration rate above 15 ml/minute) or replacement therapy (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation). The objectives of the conservative treatment for chronic kidney disease are to slow down the progression of kidney dysfunction, treat complications (anemia, bone diseases, cardiovascular diseases), vaccination for hepatitis B, and preparation for kidney replacement therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/classification , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology
12.
Clinics ; 75: e1811, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133403

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Fabry disease (FD) is a rare disease associated with sphingolipid accumulation. Sphingolipids are components of plasma membranes that are important in podocyte function and accumulate in various glomerular diseases such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Both FD and FSGS can cause podocyte damage and are classified as podocytopathies. In this respect, FD and FSGS share the same pathophysiologic pathways. Previous screening studies have shown that a significant proportion of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) have unsuspected FD, and the prevalence of low alpha-galactosidase A (αGLA) enzyme activity in these patients is higher than that in the normal population. We aimed to compare αGLA enzyme activity in patients with biopsy-proven FSGS and ESRD receiving HD. METHODS: The records of 232 patients [62 FSGS (F/M: 33/29); 170 HD (M/F: 93/79)] were evaluated retrospectively. The screening was performed based on the αGLA enzyme activity on a dried blood spot, with the confirmation of plasma LysoGb3 levels, and the known GLA mutations were tested in patients with low enzyme activities. The two groups were compared using these parameters. RESULTS: The mean level of αGLA enzyme activity was found to be lower in FSGS patients than in the HD group (2.88±1.2 μmol/L/h versus 3.79±1.9 μmol/L/h, p<0.001). There was no significant relationship between the two groups with regard to the plasma LysoGb3 levels (2.2±1.22 ng/ml versus 1.7±0.66 ng/ml, p: 0.4). In the analysis of GLA mutations, a D313Y mutation [C(937G>T) in exon p] was found in one patient from the FSGS group. CONCLUSIONS: We found that αGAL activity in patients with FSGS is lower than that in patients undergoing HD. The low enzyme activity in patients with FSGS may be explained by considering the similar pathogenesis of FSGS and FD, which may also lead to sphingolipid deposition and podocyte injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , alpha-Galactosidase/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/blood , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology
13.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2018221, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057199

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the emotional repercussions and quality of life (QOL) associated with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in children and adolescents undergoing hemodialysis or a kidney transplant (TX). Methods: We conducted a quantitative-qualitative study. 48 children and adolescents with ESKD were interviewed; half of them underwent hemodialysis treatment, and the other half had a kidney transplantation. Their respective 48 caregivers also participated in the study. The questionnaire involved both the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and a thematic story-drawing tool. An analysis of the QOL questionnaire's results was done by comparing the sum of points between groups and the theme-based story-drawing consisted of interpreting the data contained in the material using Freudian and Lacanian theories. Results: In the QOL questionnaires, the total score was higher in the transplanted patients and in their caregivers, suggesting a perception of better QOL after kidney transplantation. In the specific aspects of the questionnaire, physical capacity was considered superior by children who underwent transplants and their caregivers. There were no differences between the groups in the emotional, social and school aspects. However, the caregivers of the patients who had a transplant perceived a significant difference in QOL in the school aspect. In the thematic story-drawings, emotional suffering in the two analyzed groups was evidenced regardless of the treatment. Conclusions: Despite the questionnaire results suggesting that transplantation does improve some aspects of QOL, there were no differences observed between kidney replacement therapies regarding the emotional repercussion of chronic kidney disease.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar as repercussões emocionais e a qualidade de vida (QV) associadas à doença renal crônica em crianças e adolescentes submetidos à hemodiálise ou ao transplante renal. Métodos: Foram entrevistadas 48 crianças e adolescentes com doença renal crônica, metade dos quais submetidos ao tratamento hemodialítico, e a outra metade, ao transplante renal. Os 48 respectivos cuidadores também participaram da pesquisa. Utilizou-se o questionário de QV Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory e o instrumento de desenho-estória com tema. A análise dos resultados do questionário de QV foi feita pela somatória dos pontos e a dos desenhos-estórias com tema consistiu na interpretação dos dados do material, utilizando as teorias freudiana e lacaniana. Resultados: Nos questionários de QV, a pontuação total foi superior na opinião dos pacientes transplantados e seus cuidadores, indicando percepção de melhor QV após o transplante renal. Nos aspectos específicos, a capacidade física também foi considerada superior por esse grupo. Não houve diferenças entre os grupos de pacientes nos aspectos emocional, social e escolar, porém os cuidadores dos pacientes transplantados notaram diferença na QV no aspecto escolar. Nos desenhos-estórias com tema, observou-se que o sofrimento emocional foi evidenciado nos dois grupos estudados. Conclusões: Não foram percebidas diferenças entre as terapêuticas renais substitutivas quanto às repercussões emocionais da doença renal crônica. Por outro lado, verificou-se que o transplante melhora a QV no aspecto geral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Physical Endurance , Quality of Life/psychology , Renal Dialysis/psychology , Kidney Transplantation/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/psychology , Physical Endurance/physiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Affective Symptoms/psychology , Affective Symptoms/epidemiology , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 550-559, Out.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056604

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fluid volume and hemodynamic management in hemodialysis patients is an essential component of dialysis adequacy. Restoring salt and water homeostasis in hemodialysis patients has been a permanent quest by nephrologists summarized by the 'dry weight' probing approach. Although this clinical approach has been associated with benefits on cardiovascular outcome, it is now challenged by recent studies showing that intensity or aggressiveness to remove fluid during intermittent dialysis is associated with cardiovascular stress and potential organ damage. A more precise approach is required to improve cardiovascular outcome in this high-risk population. Fluid status assessment and monitoring rely on four components: clinical assessment, non-invasive instrumental tools (e.g., US, bioimpedance, blood volume monitoring), cardiac biomarkers (e.g. natriuretic peptides), and algorithm and sodium modeling to estimate mass transfer. Optimal management of fluid and sodium imbalance in dialysis patients consist in adjusting salt and fluid removal by dialysis (ultrafiltration, dialysate sodium) and by restricting salt intake and fluid gain between dialysis sessions. Modern technology using biosensors and feedback control tools embarked on dialysis machine, with sophisticated analytics will provide direct handling of sodium and water in a more precise and personalized way. It is envisaged in the near future that these tools will support physician decision making with high potential of improving cardiovascular outcome.


Resumo O volume de fluidos e o controle hemodinâmico em pacientes em hemodiálise é um componente essencial da adequação da diálise. A restauração da homeostase do sal e da água em pacientes em hemodiálise tem sido uma busca constante por parte dos nefrologistas, no que condiz à abordagem do "peso seco. Embora essa abordagem clínica tenha sido associada a benefícios no desfecho cardiovascular, recentemente tem sido questionada por estudos que mostram que a intensidade ou agressividade para remover fluidos durante a diálise intermitente está associada a estresse cardiovascular e dano potencial a órgãos.para remover fluidos durante a diálise intermitente está associada a estresse cardiovascular e dano potencial a órgãos. Uma abordagem mais precisa é necessária para melhorar o desfecho cardiovascular nessa população de alto risco. A avaliação e monitorização do estado hídrico baseiam-se em quatro componentes: avaliação clínica, ferramentas instrumentais não invasivas (por exemplo, US, bioimpedância, monitorização do volume sanguíneo), biomarcadores cardíacos (e.g. peptídeos natriuréticos), algoritmos e modelagem de sódio para estimar a transferência de massa. O manejo otimizado do desequilíbrio hídrico e de sódio em pacientes dialíticos consiste em ajustar a remoção de sal e líquido por diálise (ultrafiltração, dialisato de sódio), e restringir a ingestão de sal e o ganho de líquido entre as sessões de diálise. Tecnologia moderna que utiliza biosensores e ferramentas de controle de feedback, hoje parte da máquina de diálise, com análises sofisticadas, proporcionam o manejo direto sobre o sódio e a água de uma maneira mais precisa e personalizada. Prevê-se no futuro próximo que essas ferramentas poderão auxiliar na tomada de decisão do médico, com alto potencial para melhorar o resultado cardiovascular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sodium/metabolism , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Hemodynamics/physiology , Homeostasis/physiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Water-Electrolyte Balance/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Algorithms , Biomarkers/metabolism , Dialysis Solutions/chemistry , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Renal Dialysis/standards , Treatment Outcome , Cardiovascular Deconditioning , Nephrologists/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 330-335, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040248

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) are the best hemodialysis vascular accesses, but their failure rate remains high. Few studies have addressed the role of the vascular surgeon's skills and the facility's practices. We aimed to study these factors, with the hypothesis that the surgeon's skills and facility practices would have an important role in primary failure and patency rates at 12 months, respectively. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective cohort study carried out from March 2005 to March 2017. Only incident patients were included. A single surgeon made all AVFs, either in the forearm (lower) or the elbow (upper). Vascular access definitions were in accordance with the North American Vascular Access Consortium. Results: We studied 113 AVFs (65% lower) from 106 patients (39% diabetics, 58% started with catheter). Time to first connection was 21.5 days (IR: 14 - 31). Only 14 AVFs (12.4%) underwent primary failure and 18 failed during the first year. Functional primary patency rate was 80.9% (SE 4.1) whereas primary unassisted patency rate, which included PF, was 70.6% (4.4). Logistic regression showed that diabetes (OR = 3.3, 95%CI 1.38 - 7.88, p = .007) and forearm location (OR = 3.03, 95CI% 1.05 - 8.76, p = 0.04) were predictors of AVF failure. Patency of lower and upper AVFs was similar in non-diabetics, while patency in diabetics with lower AVFs was under 50%. (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Results suggest that a long-lasting, suitable AVF is feasible in almost all patients. The surgeon's skills and facility practices can have an important role in the long term outcome of AVF.


Resumo Introdução: Fístulas arteriovenosas (FAV) são os melhores acessos vasculares para hemodiálise, mas sua taxa de falhas permanece alta. Poucos estudos abordaram o papel das habilidades do cirurgião vascular e das práticas hospitalares. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar esses fatores, com a hipótese de que as habilidades do cirurgião e as práticas hospitalares teriam um papel importante nas taxas de falhas primárias e perviedade em 12 meses, respectivamente. Métodos: Este foi um estudo de coorte prospectivo de um único centro, realizado de março de 2005 a março de 2017. Apenas os pacientes incidentes foram incluídos. Um único cirurgião fez todas as FAVs, seja no antebraço (inferior) ou no cotovelo (superior). As definições de acesso vascular estavam de acordo com o Consórcio Norte-Americano de Acesso Vascular. Resultados: Estudamos 113 FAVs (65% inferiores) de 106 pacientes (39% diabéticos, 58% começaram com cateter). O tempo até a primeira conexão foi de 21,5 dias (RI: 14 - 31). Apenas 14 FAV (12,4%) tiveram falha primária e 18 falharam durante o primeiro ano. A taxa de patência funcional primária foi de 80,9% (SE 4,1), enquanto a taxa de permeabilidade primária não assistida, que incluiu FP, foi de 70,6% (4,4). A regressão logística mostrou que o diabetes (OR = 3,3, 95% IC 1,38 - 7,88, p = 0,007) e localização no antebraço (OR = 3,03, 95% IC 1,05 - 8,76, p = 0,04) foram preditores de falha da FAV. A patência das FAVs inferior e superior foi semelhante em não-diabéticos, enquanto a perviedade em diabéticos com FAV inferior foi menor que 50%. (p = 0,003). Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que uma FAV duradoura e adequada é viável em quase todos os pacientes. As habilidades do cirurgião e das práticas hospitalares podem ter um papel importante no resultado a longo prazo da FAV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Vascular Patency , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical , Clinical Competence , Surgeons , Health Facilities , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Renal Dialysis/methods , Treatment Failure , Diabetes Mellitus , Elbow/surgery , Forearm/surgery , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy
17.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 336-344, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040249

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Treating secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a common condition associated with death in patients with chronic kidney disease, is a challenge for nephrologists. Calcimimetics have allowed the introduction of drug therapies no longer based on phosphate binders and active vitamin D. This study aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of cinacalcet in managing chronic dialysis patients with severe SHPT. Methods: This retrospective study included 26 patients [age: 52 ± 12 years; 55% females; time on dialysis: 54 (4-236) months] on hemodialysis (N = 18) or peritoneal dialysis (N = 8) with severe SHPT (intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level > 600 pg/mL) and hyperphosphatemia and/or persistent hypercalcemia treated with cinacalcet. The patients were followed for 12 months. Their serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and iPTH levels were measured at baseline and on days 30, 60, 90, 180, and 365. Results: Patients with hyperphosphatemia (57.7%), hypercalcemia (23%), or both (19.3%) with iPTH > 600 pg/mL were prescribed cinacalcet. At the end of the study, decreases were observed in iPTH (1348 ± 422 vs. 440 ± 210 pg/mL; p < 0.001), Ca (9.5 ± 1.0 vs. 9.1 ± 0.6 mg/dl; p = 0.004), P (6.0 ± 1.3 vs. 4.9 ± 1.1 mg/dl; p < 0.001), and ALP (202 ± 135 vs. 155 ± 109 IU/L; p = 0.006) levels. Adverse events included hypocalcemia (26%) and digestive problems (23%). At the end of the study, 73% of the patients were on active vitamin D and cinacalcet. Three (11.5%) patients on peritoneal dialysis did not respond to therapy with cinacalcet, and their iPTH levels were never below 800 pg/mL. Conclusion: Cinacalcet combined with traditional therapy proved safe and effective and helped manage the mineral metabolism of patients with severe SHPT.


Resumo Introdução: O tratamento do hiperparatireoidismo secundário (HPTs), patologia comum e associada à mortalidade na doença renal crônica, é um desafio para o nefrologista. Advento dos calcimiméticos propiciou terapêutica medicamentosa diferente da usual, baseada em quelantes de fósforo e vitamina D ativa. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar segurança e efetividade de cinacalcete no controle do HPTs grave de pacientes em diálise crônica. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo 26 pacientes [idade: 52 ± 12 anos; 55% mulheres; tempo em diálise: 54 (4-236) meses], em hemodiálise (N = 18) ou diálise peritoneal (N = 8), com HPTs grave (nível de paratormônio intacto (PTHi) > 600 pg/mL), com hiperfosfatemia e/ou hipercalcemia persistentes, em tratamento com cinacalcete. Período de seguimento de 12 meses. Avaliados níveis séricos de cálcio (Ca), fósforo (P), fosfatase alcalina (FA) e PTHi no início do seguimento, 30, 60, 90, 180 e 365 dias. Resultados: Indicações para início do cinacalcete: hiperfosfatemia (57,7%), hipercalcemia (23%), ou ambos (19,3%) com PTH > 600 pg/mL. Ao final do seguimento, observada redução dos níveis PTHi (1348 ± 422 vs. 440 ± 210 pg/mL; p < 0,001), Ca (9,5 ± 1,0 vs. 9,1 ± 0,6 mg/dl; p = 0,004), P (6,0 ± 1,3 vs. 4,9 ± 1,1 mg/dl; p < 0,001) e FA (202 ± 135 vs. 155 ± 109 UI/L; p = 0,006). Eventos adversos: hipocalcemia (26%) e queixas digestivas (23%). No fim do estudo, 73% pacientes utilizavam vitamina D ativada associada ao cinacalcete. Três (11,5%) pacientes, todos em DP, não responderam ao cinacalcete, mantendo níveis PTHi > 800 pg/mL. Conclusão: Utilização de cinacalcete, associado à terapia tradicional, em pacientes com HPTs grave foi segura, eficiente e associada a melhor controle do metabolismo mineral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Renal Dialysis , Calcimimetic Agents/therapeutic use , Cinacalcet/therapeutic use , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/drug therapy , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/blood , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Phosphorus/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Calcium/blood , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Hyperphosphatemia/drug therapy , Calcimimetic Agents/adverse effects , Cinacalcet/adverse effects , Hypercalcemia/drug therapy , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy
18.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 427-432, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040255

ABSTRACT

Abstract Methotrexate is an effective medication to control several diseases; however, it can be very toxic, being myelosuppression one of its main adverse effects, which increases in severity and frequency in patients with renal failure. We present the case of a 68-year-old man with chronic, end-stage renal disease associated with ANCA vasculitis, under treatment with peritoneal dialysis, who received the medication at a low dose, indicated by disease activity, which presented as a complication with severe pancytopenia with mucositis that improved with support measures and multiple-exchange peritoneal dialysis. We reviewed 20 cases published to date of pancytopenia associated with methotrexate in patients on dialysis and found high morbidity and mortality, which is why its use in this type of patient is not recommended. However, when this complication occurs, a therapeutic option could be the use of multiple-exchange peritoneal dialysis in addition to supportive therapy for drug-related toxicity, although it is recognized that studies are required to show the role of multiple-exchange peritoneal dialysis in the removal of this medication.


Resumo Apesar de sua toxicidade, o metotrexato é um medicamento eficaz no controle de várias doenças. A mielossupressão, um de seus principais efeitos adversos, aumenta em gravidade e frequência nos pacientes com insuficiência renal. Apresentamos o caso de um homem de 68 anos de idade com doença renal terminal relacionada à vasculite associada ao ANCA em diálise peritoneal, que recebeu a medicação em dose baixa em função da atividade da doença e que teve como complicação pancitopenia grave com mucosite, tratada com medidas de suporte e diálise peritoneal com múltiplas trocas. Revisamos 20 casos publicados até o presente momento sobre pancitopenia associada a metotrexato em pacientes em diálise. Foi identificada alta morbidade e mortalidade, razão pela qual seu uso nesse tipo de paciente não é recomendado. No entanto, quando esta complicação ocorre, uma opção terapêutica pode ser o uso de diálise peritoneal com múltiplas trocas, além da terapia de suporte para toxicidade medicamentosa. Maiores estudos são necessários para demonstrar o papel da diálise peritoneal com múltiplas trocas na remoção desse medicamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Vasculitis/drug therapy , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Folic Acid Antagonists/adverse effects , Folic Acid Antagonists/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pancytopenia/etiology , Pancytopenia/therapy , Shock, Septic/etiology , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Methotrexate/blood , Treatment Outcome , Mucositis/etiology , Mucositis/drug therapy , Folic Acid Antagonists/blood , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(3): 229-235, may.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286496

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La bioimpedancia eléctrica multifrecuencia (BIE) evalúa con precisión la composición corporal. Objetivo: Investigar el estado nutricional y su relación con el índice de masa corporal (IMC) o el ángulo fase obtenido por BIE en pacientes con enfermedad renal terminal (ERT) en hemodiálisis. Método: En 99 pacientes en hemodiálisis (43.6 ± 17.2 años, 58.8 % varones) se evaluó IMC, BIE y puntuación de desnutrición (DMS, Dialysis Malnutrition Score). La independencia de las asociaciones del IMC y el ángulo fase con el DMS se determinó con regresión lineal múltiple. Resultados: El riesgo de desnutrición (DMS > 13) se incrementó gradualmente entre los sujetos con IMC y ángulo fase normales (44.4 %), IMC bajo (45.8 %), ángulo fase bajo (64.0 %) y en aquellos con ambos parámetros anormales (68.0 %). El ángulo fase fue la única variable asociada independientemente con el estado nutricional de los pacientes (coeficiente beta estandarizado −0.372, p < 0.001), lo que explicó 13.8 % de la variación en el DMS. Conclusiones: El ángulo fase se asocia inversa e independientemente con el riesgo de desnutrición en pacientes con ERT, lo que sugiere que la composición corporal evaluada por BIE pudiera ser mejor que el IMC en la valoración clínica de pacientes con esta enfermedad.


Abstract Introduction: Multi-frequency bio-impedance analysis (BIA) accurately evaluates body composition. Objective: To assess nutritional status and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) or with BIA-obtained phase angle in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. Method: BMI, BIA and dialysis malnutrition score (DMS) were assessed in 99 patients on hemodialysis (43.6 ± 17.2 years of age, 58.8% males). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine BMI and phase angle independent associations with DMS. Results: Malnutrition risk (DMS > 13) showed a gradual increase among patients with normal BMI and phase angle (44.4%), low BMI (45.8%), low phase angle (64.0%), and in those with both parameters at abnormal ranges (68.0%). The phase angle was the only variable that was independently associated with patient nutritional status (standardized coefficient beta −0.372, p < 0.001), accounting for 13.8% of DMS variation. Conclusion: Phase angle is inversely and independently associated with malnutrition risk in patients with ESRD, which suggests that BIA-assessed body composition might be better than BMI in the clinical assessment of patients with ESRD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Renal Dialysis/methods , Electric Impedance , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/etiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL