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Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(4): 796-802, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286776


ABSTRACT Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the possible long-term protective effects of quercetin during renal warm ischemia. Materials and Methods: Male rats were allocated into 4 groups: sham (S), sham quercetin (SQ), ischemia (I), and ischemia quercetin (IQ). Groups SQ and IQ received quercetin (50mg/kg) before and after surgery. Groups I and IQ had their left renal vessels clamped for 60 minutes. All animals were euthanized four weeks after the procedure, and serum urea and creatinine levels were measured. Renal weight and volume, cortex-non-cortex area ratio (C-NC), cortical volume (CV), glomerular volumetric density (Vv[glom]), volume-weighted glomerular volume (VWGV) and number of glomeruli per kidney (N[glom]) were evaluated by stereological methods. Results were considered statistically significant when p <0.05. Results: Serum urea levels in group I increased by 10.4% in relation to group S, but no differences were observed among the other groups. The C-NC of group I was lower than those of all other groups, and group IQ had similar results to sham groups. The Vv[glom] and N[glom] of group I were lower than those of group S (33.7% and 28.3%, respectively) and group IQ had no significant difference compared to the S group. Conclusions: Quercetin was effective as a nephroprotective agent in preventing the glomerular loss observed when the kidney was subjected to warm ischemia. This suggests that this flavonoid may be used preventively in kidney surgery, when warm ischemia is necessary, such as partial nephrectomy.

Animals , Male , Rats , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Warm Ischemia , Rodentia , Kidney , Kidney Glomerulus , Nephrectomy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828040


Diabetic kidney disease(DKD) has become a primary cause of end-stage kidney disease, without any effective treatment available. In this study, we assessed the protective effect of Guanxin Danshen Formulation(GXDSF) on diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice. The db/m and db/db mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, model group, metformin group, and GXDSF group. After 8 weeks' treatment with GXDSF, metformin or normal saline, the mice were sacrificed, and the blood and kidney tissues were collected for the further analysis. Compared with the model group, TG, TCH and LDL levels significantly decreased in the GXDSF group. The results from HE and PAS staining showed that db/db mice exhibited abnormal kidney tissues with increased glomerular volume, basement-membrane thickening and mesangial cell proliferation, which could be significantly alleviated by GXDSF treatment. GXDSF treatment also reduced serum creatinine and BUN. Meanwhile, GXDSF treatment markedly elevated GSH-PX levels, while reduced LDH and MDA levels in the kidney tissues. Western blot assay showed that GXDSF evidently up-regulated protein levels of ERα and p-Akt, and subsequently promoted HO-1 expression mediated by Nrf2. These data collectively indicated that GXDSF protects db/db mice against DN by regulating ERα and Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression.

Animals , Creatinine , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Kidney , Kidney Glomerulus , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Salvia miltiorrhiza
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827400


In this paper, 2 cases of collagen Type Ⅲ glomerulopathy were analyzed. The clinical manifestations mainly included nephrotic syndrome, proteinuria, hypertension and renal dysfunction. One patient showed that the complement factor H-related protein 5 (CFHR5) gene was likely a disease-causing mutation. The pathological examination of renal tissues showed hyperplasia of mesangial matrix, sub-endothelial insertion, and double-track formation. Immunohistochemistry of Type III collagen was positive. Electron microscopy revealed that massive collagen fibers (40-70 nm in diameter) deposited in the mesangial matrix and basement membrane. As for the follow-up results, the normal renal function had kept steady and the proteinuria was moderate in 1 case treated with angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blocker. Due to other system disease, another case developed into acute kidney injury and then received hemodialysis. The clinical manifestations of collagen Type Ⅲ glomerulopathy was atypical, the light microscope pathological features were various, and the disease was mainly diagnosed by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry.

Collagen Type III , Genetics , Glomerular Mesangium , Humans , Kidney Diseases , Kidney Glomerulus , Proteinuria
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1049-1057, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012395


SUMMARY: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in many commercial products, nanomedicine, agriculture, personal care products, different industries and pharmaceutical preparations with potential risk in human health and the environment. The current work was conducted to investigate the renal damage that might be induced by the acute toxicity TiO2 NPs. A total of 40 healthy male adult Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were exposed to TiO2 NPs (126, 252, 378 mg/kg bw) for 24 and 48 h. Fresh portions of the kidneys from each rat were processed for histological and histochemical alterations. In comparison with respective control rats, exposure to TiO2 NPs has marked the following glomerular, tubular and interstitial alterations including the followings: glomerular congestion, Bowman's capsule swelling and dilatation, inflamed glomeruli, renal tubules cloudy swelling, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion, necrosis, hydropic degeneration, dilatation and congestion of blood vessels, hyaline droplets and hyaline casts precipitation, interstitial edema and fibrosis. From the findings of the current work one may conclude that TiO2 NPs are capable of inducing kidney damage with more insulation in the cortex and the proximal convoluted tubules than the medulla and the distal ones respectively. In addition, it might be concluded that renal damage induced by these nanomaterials is dose and duration of exposure dependent. Further hematological, biochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultra-structural studies are recommended.

RESUMEN: Las nanopartículas de dióxido de titanio (TiO2 NP) se usan ampliamente en muchos productos comerciales, nanomedicina, agricultura, productos para el cuidado personal, diferentes industrias y preparaciones farmacéuticas con riesgo potencial para la salud humana y el medio ambiente. El trabajo actual se realizó para investigar el daño renal que podría ser inducido por la toxicidad aguda NP de TiO2. Un total de 40 ratas Wistar albinas adultas sanas (Rattus norvegicus) fueron expuestas a TiO2 NP (126, 252, 378 mg / kg de peso corporal) durante 24 y 48 h. Las muestras de los riñones de las ratas se procesaron para estudios histológicos e histoquímicos. En comparación con las ratas control, la exposición de las ratas a TiO2 NP presentaron las siguientes alteraciones glomerulares, tubulares e intersticiales: congestión glomerular, dilatación de la cápsula de Bowman, inflamación glomerular, túbulos renales aumentados, cariorrexis, cariólisis, infiltración de células inflamatorias, congestión, necrosis, degeneración hidrópica, dilatación y congestión de vasos sanguíneos, gotas y precipitaciones hialina, edema intersticial y fibrosis. A partir de los hallazgos del trabajo actual, se puede concluir que las NP de TiO 2 son capaces de inducir daño renal con más aislamiento en la corteza y en los túbulos contorneados proximales que en la médula y los túbulos contorneados distales, respectivamente. Además, se podría concluir que el daño renal inducido por estos nanomateriales depende de la dosis y la duración de la exposición. Se recomiendan estudios adicionales hematológicos, bioquímicos, inmunohistoquímicos y ultraestructurales.

Animals , Rats , Titanium/toxicity , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Kidney/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Glomerulus/drug effects , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Kidney Tubules/drug effects , Kidney Tubules/pathology , Necrosis/chemically induced
Rev. medica electron ; 41(3): 681-697, mayo.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094076


RESUMEN Las glomerulopatías agrupan varias nefropatías con lesiones fundamentalmente del corpúsculo renal y que se expresan principalmente por proteinuria, hematuria, edemas e hipertensión arterial. La presentación clínica varía en dependencia del tipo de enfermedad de que se trate. Constituye la causa más frecuente de enfermedad renal crónica en adultos jóvenes, por lo que su estudio resulta imprescindible sobre todo para el nivel primario de salud. El propósito fue actualizar consideraciones pertinentes sobre la conducta diagnóstica y terapéutica integral ante una glomerulopatía y valorar emisión de recomendaciones al respecto. Se realizó una búsqueda, análisis y síntesis de información a través de Bases de datos ScieLO Cuba, ScieLO regional, Pubmed, Cumed, Clinical Key en el período 2012-2017 con las palabras clave: síndrome nefrótico, glomerulonefritis, diagnóstico, terapéutica, atención integral. El abordaje en las glomerulopatías es integral, multidisciplinario e individualizado. En Cuba constituyen la cuarta causa de enfermedad renal crónica y predomina el síndrome nefrítico agudo postinfeccioso. El método clínico juega en ello un papel trascendental a la hora de reconocer y registrar sus aspectos clínicos, su etiología, su fisiopatología, y los exámenes complementarios que confirman su presencia o sus complicaciones, así como un tratamiento oportuno que garanticen el perfeccionamiento asistencial. El arma más poderosa ante el reto de los trastornos glomerulares es la visión integradora y con enfoque individual y social protagonizado por el médico ante este grupo de nefropatías en adultos.

ABSTRACT Glomerulopathies encompass a group of several renal disorders with lesions, mainly in the renal corpuscle, expressed in proteinuria, hematuria, edemas and arterial hypertension. Their clinical manifestations change in dependence of the kind of disease. They are the most frequent cause of chronic renal disease in young adults; therefore their study is very important above all in the health care primary level. The aim was updating pertinent considerations on the diagnostic behavior and comprehensive therapy in the case of glomerulopathy, and evaluating the emission of recommendations regarding to them. A search, analysis and synthesis of information was carried out in the databases ScieLO Cuba, ScieLO regional, Pubmed, Cumed, and Clinical Key in the period 2012-2017, using the key words nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, diagnosis, therapeutics, comprehensive care. The approach to glomerulopathies is comprehensive, multidisciplinary and individualized. They are the fourth cause of chronic renal disease; the acute post-infectious nephritic syndrome predominates. The clinical method plays a transcendental role at the moment of recognizing and registering their clinical characteristics, etiology and physiopathology, while complementary tests confirm their presence or complications, and therefore an opportune treatment guarantying the healthcare improvement. The most powerful weapon against the challenge of the glomerular disorders is the integrated vision with an individual and social approach led by the physician in the case of these nephropathies in adults.

Humans , Young Adult , Urination Disorders , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Glomerulonephritis/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis/etiology , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Glomerulonephritis/blood , Glomerulonephritis/therapy , Glomerulonephritis/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Kidney/physiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Glomerulus/physiopathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/diagnosis , Nephrotic Syndrome/etiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/pathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/blood , Nephrotic Syndrome/therapy , Nephrotic Syndrome/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Nephrosis, Lipoid
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 477-480, June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002246


The renal glomerulus is coated by fenestrated endothelial cells and externally covered by specialized epithelial cells, known as podocytes. Scanning electron microscopy becomes an important and effective tool for its studies. Normally, samples destined for scanning microscopy are covered with a thin metallic layer. However, this step can be dispensed for some analyzes. We aimed to compare coated and uncoated samples for evaluation of the glomerular morphology of the Wistar rat kidney. Cortical region of the kidney of the 5month-old male Wistar rats were used. The fragments followed the routine procedure for scanning electron microscopy processing. Half of 10 fragments were coated with palladium gold and the remaining were not coated. Auriga Compact FIB - SEM scanning electron microscope was used to observe the samples. Different increases and voltages was evaluated. For the uncoated samples, when using voltages of 2 KV (or higher) a great charging was observed, impairing the use of such voltage. Thus, these samples were always observed under voltage of 0.5 KV. On the other hand, in the coated samples, the use of 2 KV was adequate. Almost as a consequence, in the coated samples, the podocyte structures were better characterized, generating better images. Inversely, in the uncoated samples, it was possible to visualize the desired structures and to detect the morphological characteristics of these. The results showed that it is possible to use kidney samples without previous coating to evaluate the glomerular morphology at the ultrastructural level, serving as a tool in the study of pathologies.

El glomérulo renal está recubierto por células endoteliales fenestradas y cubierto externamente por células epiteliales especializadas, conocidas como podocitos. La microscopía electrónica de barrido se convierte en una herramienta importante y efectiva para sus estudios. Normalmente, las muestras destinadas a microscopía de barrido se cubren con una capa metálica delgada. Sin embargo, este paso se puede dispensar para algunos análisis. El objetivo fue comparar muestras recubiertas y no recubiertas para evaluar la morfología glomerular del riñón de rata Wistar. Se utilizó la región cortical del riñón de ratas Wistar macho de 5 meses de edad. Se realizó el procedimiento de rutina para el procesamiento de microscopía electrónica de barrido. La mitad de 10 fragmentos se recubrieron con oro paladio y los restantes no se recubrieron. Se utilizó un microscopio electrónico de barrido SEM Auriga Compact FIB para observar las muestras. Se evaluaron diferentes aumentos y voltajes. Para las muestras no recubiertas, al usar voltajes de 2 KV (o más) se observó una gran carga, impidiendo el uso de dicho voltaje. Por lo tanto, estas muestras siempre se observaron a bajo voltaje de 0,5 KV. Por otro lado, en las muestras recubiertas, el uso de 2 KV fue adecuado. Como consecuencia, en las muestras recubiertas, las estructuras de los podocitos se caracterizaron mejor, generando mejores imágenes. Inversamente, en las muestras no recubiertas, fue posible visualizar las estructuras deseadas y detectar las características morfológicas de éstas. Los resultados mostraron que es posible utilizar muestras de riñón sin recubrimiento previo para evaluar la morfología glomerular a nivel ultraestructural, que sirve como una herramienta en el estudio de patologías.

Animals , Male , Rats , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Glomerular Filtration Barrier/ultrastructure , Rats, Wistar , Kidney Glomerulus/ultrastructure
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(3): 390-394, mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004362


Goodpasture Syndrome is described as a single episode disease entity. It is diagnosed with the demonstration of antiglomerular basement (anti-GBM) antibodies in plasma or renal tissue. Although the recurrence of anti-GBM disease is rare, it has been reported in up to 3% of cases. Recurrence with negative anti-GBM antibodies in plasma is even less frequent We report a 63 years old male in whom anti-GBM disease recurred without detectable anti-GBM antibodies in plasma, despite having positive antibodies at the onset.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Autoantibodies/analysis , Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease/pathology , Recurrence , Biopsy , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease/drug therapy , Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease/diagnostic imaging , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 441-445, Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003045


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: We analyzed the distribution and frequency of glomerular diseases in patients biopsied between 1992 and 2016 in centers that make up the AMICEN (Minas Gerais Association of Nephrology Centers). METHODS: We analyzed the biopsy reports of patients from 9 AMICEN nephrology centers. We took note of their age, gender, ultrasound use, post-biopsy resting time, whether the kidney was native or a graft, number of glomeruli and indication for the biopsy. The kidney biopsy findings were broken down into four categories: glomerular and non-glomerular diseases, normal kidneys and insufficient material for analysis. Those patients diagnosed with glomerular diseases were further divided into having primary or secondary glomerular diseases. RESULTS: We obtained 582 biopsy reports. The median age was 38 years (1 to 85). The number of glomeruli varied between 0 and 70 (median = 13.0). In total, 97.8% of the biopsies were ultrasound guided. The main indication was nephrotic syndrome (36.9%), followed by hematuria-proteinuria association (16.2%). Primary glomerular diseases proved to be the most frequent (75.3%), followed by secondary diseases (24.7%). Among the primary glomerular diseases, FSGS was found at a higher frequency (28.8%), while among the secondary diseases, SLE was the most prevalent (42.4%). Regarding prevalence findings, those for both primary and secondary diseases were similar to those found in the large Brazilian registries published thus far. CONCLUSION: Glomerular disease registries are an important tool to identify the prevalence of such disease in regions of interest and can serve as an instrument to guide public policy decisions concerning the prevention of terminal kidney diseases.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: Analisamos a distribuição e frequência de doenças glomerulares de pacientes biopsiados entre 1992 e 2016 em centros que compõem a Amicen (Associação de Minas Gerais de Nefrologia). MÉTODOS: Analisamos os relatórios de biópsia de pacientes de nove centros de nefrologia da Amicen. Observamos idade, gênero, uso de ultrassom, tempo de descanso pós-biópsia, se o rim era nativo ou um enxerto, número de glomérulos e indicação para a biópsia. Os achados da biópsia do rim foram divididos em quatro categorias: doenças glomerulares e não glomerulares, rins normais e material insuficiente para análise. Os pacientes diagnosticados com doenças glomerulares foram ainda divididos em doenças glomerulares primárias ou secundárias. RESULTADOS: Obtivemos 582 relatórios de biópsia. A idade mediana foi de 38 anos (1 a 85). O número de glomérulos variou entre zero e 70 (mediana = 13,0). No total, 97,8% das biópsias foram guiadas por ultrassom. A principal indicação foi síndrome nefrótica (36,9%), seguida de associação hematúria-proteinúria (16,2%). As doenças glomerulares primárias revelaram-se as mais frequentes (75,3%), seguidas de doenças secundárias (24,7%). Entre as doenças glomerulares primárias, o FSGS foi encontrado em maior frequência (28,8%), enquanto nas doenças secundárias, o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico foi o mais prevalente (42,4%). Quanto aos achados de prevalência, aqueles para doenças primárias e secundárias foram semelhantes aos encontrados nos grandes registros brasileiros publicados até o momento. CONCLUSÃO: Os registros de doenças glomerulares são uma ferramenta importante para identificar a prevalência dessas doenças em regiões de interesse e pode servir como um instrumento para orientar decisões de políticas públicas relativas à prevenção de doenças renais terminais.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Glomerulonephritis/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Middle Aged , Nephrology/statistics & numerical data
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(7): e6201, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889119


This study aimed to investigate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) in the expression of tight junction proteins and permeability alterations in rat glomerular endothelial cells (rGENCs) under hypoxia conditions. The expression level of HIF-2α and tight junction proteins (occludin and ZO-1) in rGENCs were examined following 5% oxygen density exposure at different treatment times. HIF-2α lentivirus transfection was used to knockdown HIF-2α expression. Cells were divided into four groups: 1) control group (rGENCs were cultured under normal oxygen conditions), 2) hypoxia group (rGENCs were cultured under hypoxic conditions), 3) negative control group (rGENCs were infected with HIF-2α lentivirus negative control vectors and cultured under hypoxic conditions), and 4) Len group (rGENCs were transfected with HIF-2α lentivirus and cultured under hypoxic conditions). The hypoxia, negative control, and Len groups were kept in a hypoxic chamber (5% O2, 5% CO2, and 90% N2) for 24 h and the total content of occludin and ZO-1, and the permeability of rGENCs were assessed. With increasing hypoxia time, the expression of HIF-2α gradually increased, while the expression of occludin decreased, with a significant difference between groups. ZO-1 expression gradually decreased under hypoxia conditions, but the difference between the 24 and 48 h groups was not significant. The permeability of cells increased following 24-h exposure to hypoxia compared to the control group (P<0.01). The knockdown of HIF-2α expression significantly increased occludin and ZO-1 content compared with hypoxia and negative control groups (P<0.01), while permeability was reduced (P<0.01). Hypoxia increased HIF-2α content, inducing permeability of rGENCs through the reduced expression of occludin and ZO-1.

Animals , Rats , Endothelial Cells/chemistry , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism , Occludin/metabolism , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/metabolism , Kidney Glomerulus/cytology , Permeability , Time Factors , Cell Hypoxia/physiology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Cell Proliferation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691388


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the renal protective effect of Tangshenkang Granule () in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, DN, Tangshenkang and benazepril groups. DN model was established in the rats of DN, Tangshenkang and benazepril groups. Tangshenkang Granule solution and benazepril hydrochloride solution were intragastrically administered daily to the rats in the Tangshenkang and benazepril groups for 8 weeks, respectively. Urinary albumin and creatinine were detected. The albumin/creatinine (ACR) was calculated in addition to 24 h urinary protein (24-h UPr), serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and creatinine clearance rate (Ccr). Right kidneys were harvested for pathological observation using periodic acid-silver methenamine-Masson staining. The average glomerular diameter (DG), average glomerular (AG) and mesangial areas (AM) were measured. The thickness of glomerular basement membrane (TGBM) was detected using transmission electron microscope.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with rats in the control group, rats in the DN group showed significantly decreased body weight, increased hypertrophy index, 24-h urinary volume, 24-h UPr, ACR, Scr, BUN, Ccr, blood lipids as well as renal pathological indices including DG, AG, AM, AM/AG and TGBM (P <0.05). Compared with the DN group, the weights of rats in the Tangshenkang and benazepril groups were significantly increased, and the renal hypertrophy indices were significantly decreased (P <0.05). The 24-h urinary volumes, ACR, 24-h UPr, Scr, BUN, Ccr, LDL, DG, AG, AM and TGBM were obviously decreased (P <0.05). Compared with the benazepril group, the Tangshenkang group showed significantly decreased levels of ACR, 24-h UPr, AG and AM (P <0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Tangshenkang Granule decreased the urinary protein, attenuated the high glomerular filtration rate and improved lipid metabolism in DN rats, and prevented further injury induced by diabetic nephropathy.</p>

Albuminuria , Animals , Basement Membrane , Metabolism , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Body Weight , Creatinine , Blood , Urine , Diabetic Nephropathies , Blood , Drug Therapy , Urine , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Hypertrophy , Kidney Function Tests , Kidney Glomerulus , Pathology , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Blood , Male , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2713-2725, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775031


Background@#The nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome composed of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), and caspase-1 is engaged in the inflammatory response of many kidney diseases and can be activated by purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R). This study was conducted to explore whether P2X7R plays a pathogenic role in the podocyte damage of obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) and whether this role is mediated by the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.@*Methods@#A mouse model of ORG was established by high-fat diet feeding. The conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes were cultured with leptin or with leptin and P2X7R antagonist (KN-62 or A438079). The mRNA and protein expression of the P2X7R and NLRP3 inflammasome components including NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1, as well as the podocyte-associated molecules including nephrin, podocin, and desmin in mouse renal cortex or cultured mouse podocytes were tested by real-time-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively.@*Results@#The significantly upregulated expression of P2X7R and NLRP3 inflammasome components and the NLRP3 inflammasome activation were observed in the renal cortex (in fact their location in podocytes was proved by confocal microscopy) of ORG mice in vivo, which were accompanied with the morphological changes of podocyte damage and the expression changes of podocyte-associated molecules. Similar changes in the expression of P2X7R and NLRP3 inflammasome components as well as in the expression of podocyte-associated molecules were also observed in the cultured podocyte studies treated by leptin in vitro, and all of the above changes were significantly attenuated by the P2X7R antagonist KN-62 or A438079.@*Conclusions@#P2X7R could trigger the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, and the activated P2X7R/NLRP3 inflammasome in podocytes might be involved in the podocyte damage of ORG.

Animals , Blotting, Western , Body Weight , Physiology , Inflammasomes , Metabolism , Kidney Glomerulus , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Genetics , Metabolism , Obesity , Podocytes , Metabolism , Pathology , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7 , Genetics , Metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1409-1415, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893150


SUMMARY: Morphine produces free radicals and cause apoptosis in some cell. Resveratrol (RSV) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury. 48 male mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups. In this study, various doses of RSV (2, 8 and 20 mg/kg) and RSV plus Morphine (2, 8 and 20 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to male mice for 20 consequent days and weight of kidneys, biochemical characteristics, morphometric markers and blood serum nitric oxide level were studied. The results indicated that morphine administration significantly increased the mean diameter of glomerulus and distal and proximal convoluted tubule, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and nitric oxide levels compared to the saline group (P<0.05). However, RSV and RSV plus morphine in all doses significantly decreased glomeruli number and LDH, BUN, creatinine and nitric oxide levels compared to morphine groups (p<0.05). Thus, it seems that resveratrol improved kidney damages induced by morphine in mice.

RESUMEN: La morfina produce radicales libres y causa apoptosis en algunas células. El resveratrol (RSV) es un tipo de fenol natural y una fitoalexina producida por varias plantas en respuesta a una lesión. Se asignaron al azar 48 ratones machos a 8 grupos. En este estudio se administraron varias dosis de RSV (2, 8 y 20 mg/kg) y RSV más morfina (2, 8 y 20 mg/kg) intraperitoneal en ratones machos durante 20 días consecutivos y se estudió el peso de los riñones, las características bioquímicas, los marcadores morfométricos y el nivel de óxido nítrico en suero sanguíneo. Los resultados indicaron que la administración de morfina aumentó significativamente el diámetro medio del glomérulo y de los túbulos distal y proximal, los niveles de lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH), nitrógeno ureico en sangre (BUN), la creatinina y el óxido nítrico en comparación con el grupo salino (p <0,05). Sin embargo, el RSV y el RSV más morfina en todas las dosis redujeron significativamente el número de glomérulos y LDH, BUN, la creatinina y el óxido nítrico en comparación con los grupos de morfina (p <0,05). Por lo tanto, los resultados podrían indicar que el resveratrol mejoró el daño renal inducido por la morfina en ratones.

Animals , Male , Mice , Stilbenes/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Morphine/toxicity , Creatinine/blood , Kidney Glomerulus/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitric Oxide/blood
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(4): 376-383, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893801


Abstract Introduction: A report on the prevalence of glomerular disease diagnosed via renal biopsy in Salvador, BA, Brazil was published in 1973 and showed a predominance of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, which was frequently associated with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Objective: In this study, we investigate the potential changes in the distribution of glomerular diseases after a period of important epidemiological transition in Brazil. Methods: Pathology reports of all patients subjected to kidney biopsy from 2003 to 2015 in a referral nephrology service were reviewed. Clinical, laboratorial and pathological diagnoses were collected for analysis. Histological slides of the biopsies performed between 2003 and 2006 were reviewed to examine the accuracy of the estimates based on the pathology reports. Results: Among the biopsies performed during the time period, 1,312 met the inclusion criteria for the study. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis was the most prevalent diagnosis, followed by lupus nephritis. However, a trend toward a decrease in the prevalence of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis was detected (p < 0.05), and an increase in lupus (p < 0.0001) and membranous glomerulonephritis (p < 0.005) was observed. Conclusion: The data presented herein suggest the occurrence of changes in the distribution of nephrological diseases in Salvador, Brazil. The disease that was most prevalent shifted from membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis from 1975 to 2006 and from focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis to lupus nephritis from 2006 to 2015.

Resumo Introdução: um relatório sobre a prevalência de glomerulopatia diagnosticada por biópsia renal em Salvador foi publicado em 1973, demonstrando o predomínio de glomerulonefrite membranoproliferativa, frequentemente associada a esquistossomose hepatoesplênica. Objetivo: no presente estudo, investigamos as possíveis mudanças na distribuição das glomerulopatias após um período de importantes transições epidemiológicas no Brasil. Métodos: foram revisados todos os relatos de pacientes submetidos a biópsia renal de 2003 a 2015 em um serviço de referência em nefrologia. Diagnósticos clínicos, laboratoriais e patológicos foram colhidos para análise. Lâminas histológicas das biópsias executadas entre 2003 e 2006 foram revisadas para avaliar a precisão das estimativas baseadas nos laudos anatomopatológicos. Resultados: entre as biópsias realizadas durante o período em questão, 1.312 satisfizeram os critérios de inclusão do estudo. Glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal foi o diagnóstico mais prevalente, seguido de nefrite lúpica. Entretanto, foi detectada tendência de queda na prevalência da glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal (p < 0,05) e de elevação nos casos de lúpus (p < 0,0001) e glomerulonefrite membranosa (p < 0,005). Conclusão: os dados apresentados neste estudo sugerem a ocorrência de mudanças na distribuição das doenças nefrológicas em Salvador. A doença mais prevalente passou de glomerulonefrite membranoproliferativa para glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal de 1975 a 2006 e de glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal para nefrite lúpica de 2006 a 2015.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Glomerulus , Time Factors , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence
Acta cir. bras ; 32(5): 334-341, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837710


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the glomerular number after different warm ischemia times. Methods: Thirty two pigs were assigned into four groups. Three groups (G10, G20, and G30) were treated with 10, 20, and 30 minutes of left renal warm ischemia. The sham group underwent the same surgery without renal ischemia. The animals were euthanized after 3 weeks, and the kidneys were collected. Right kidneys were used as controls. The kidney weight, volume, cortical-medullar ratio, glomerular volumetric density, volume-weighted mean glomerular volume, and the total number of glomeruli per kidney were obtained. Serum creatinine levels were assessed pre and postoperatively. Results: Serum creatinine levels did not differ among the groups. All parameters were similar for the sham, G10, and G20 groups upon comparison of the right and left organs. The G30 group pigs' left kidneys had lower weight, volume, and cortical-medullar ratio and 24.6% less glomeruli compared to the right kidney. A negative correlation was found between warm ischemia time and glomerular number. Conclusions: About one quarter of glomeruli was lost after 30 minutes of renal warm ischemia. No glomeruli loss was detected before 20 minutes of warm ischemia. However, progressive glomerular loss was associated with increasing warm ischemia time.

Animals , Male , Warm Ischemia/adverse effects , Kidney/blood supply , Kidney Cortex/blood supply , Kidney Glomerulus/blood supply , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Creatinine/blood , Models, Animal , Sus scrofa , Kidney/surgery , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney Cortex/physiopathology , Kidney Glomerulus/surgery , Kidney Glomerulus/physiopathology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287106


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of Huaiqihuang Granules (, HQH), a mixture of Chinese herbs including Trametes robiniophila Murr, Fructus Lycii and Polygonatum sibiricum, on adriamycininduced nephropathy (ADRN) in rats and its underlying mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Rats with ADRN were divided into four groups: the sham group, the model group (distilled water), the low-dose HQH-treated (2 g/kg) group, and the high-dose HQH-treated (4 g/kg) group. Body weight and 24-h urinary protein (Upro) were checked every week. After 5-week intervention, at the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for examination of biochemical parameters, including glomerular morphological makers, podocyte shape, cellular apoptosis, expressions of nephrin, inflammatory and apoptosis markers.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>HQH ameliorated the rat's general status, proteinuria, renal morphological appearance and glomerulosclerosis. The decreased expression of nephrin in ADRN rats was increased by HQH, as well as the impaired podocyte foot process fusion. Cytosolic levels of p65 and inhibitor of nuclear factor κBα (IκBα) were decreased in ADRN rats, and recovered by the treatment of HQH. Consistently, the induced expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), phosphorylated nuclear factor κB p65 (p-NFκB p65) and IκBα in ADRN were markedly suppressed by HQH. In addition, induction of Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and cytochrome C in ADRN rats were suppressed by HQH, indicating the amelioration of apoptosis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>HQH could ameliorate renal impairments in ADRN rats by increasing nephrin expression, inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway via the down-regulation of p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα, and suppression of glomerular and tubular apoptosis.</p>

Animals , Apoptosis , Body Weight , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cytochromes c , Metabolism , Doxorubicin , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Kidney , Pathology , Kidney Diseases , Blood , Drug Therapy , Kidney Glomerulus , Pathology , Kidney Tubules , Pathology , Male , Membrane Proteins , Metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha , Metabolism , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Organ Size , Proteinuria , Blood , Drug Therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factor RelA , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Metabolism
Acta cir. bras ; 31(11): 753-758, Nov. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827658


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the glomerular loss after arteriovenous or arterial warm ischemia in a swine model. METHODS: Twenty four pigs were divided into Group Sham (submitted to all surgical steps except the renal ischemia), Group AV (submitted to 30 minutes of warm ischemia by arteriovenous clamping of left kidney vessels), and Group A (submitted to 30 minutes of ischemia by arterial clamping). Right kidneys were used as controls. Weigh, volume, cortical volume, glomerular volumetric density (Vv[Glom]), volume-weighted glomerular volume (VWGV), and the total number of glomeruli were measured for each organ. RESULTS: Group AV showed a 24.5% reduction in its left kidney Vv[Glom] and a 25.4% reduction in the VWGV, when compared to the right kidney. Reductions were also observed when compared to kidneys of sham group. There was a reduction of 19.2% in the total number of glomeruli in AV kidneys. No difference was observed in any parameters analyzed on the left kidneys from group A. CONCLUSIONS: Renal warm ischemia of 30 minutes by arterial clamping did not caused significant glomerular damage, but arteriovenous clamping caused significant glomerular loss in a swine model. Clamping only the renal artery should be considered to minimize renal injury after partial nephrectomies.

Animals , Male , Renal Artery/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Warm Ischemia/methods , Kidney Glomerulus/blood supply , Nephrectomy/methods , Organ Size , Swine , Disease Models, Animal , Kidney Glomerulus/anatomy & histology , Kidney Glomerulus/physiopathology
Acta cir. bras ; 31(5): 346-352, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783799


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the renal function and the renal histological alterations through the stereology and morphometrics in rats submitted to the natural process of aging. METHODS: Seventy two Wistar rats, divided in six groups. Each group was sacrificed in a different age: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was performed right nephrectomy, stereological and morphometric analysis of the renal tissue (renal volume and weight, density of volume (Vv[glom]) and numerical density (Nv[glom]) of the renal glomeruli and average glomerular volume (Vol[glom])) and also it was evaluated the renal function for the dosage of serum creatinine and urea. RESULTS: There was significant decrease of the renal function in the oldest rats. The renal volume presented gradual increase during the development of the rats with the biggest values registered in the group of animals at 12 months of age and significant progressive decrease in older animals. Vv[glom] presented statistically significant gradual reduction between the groups and the Nv[glom] also decreased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The renal function proved to be inferior in senile rats when compared to the young rats. The morphometric and stereological analysis evidenced renal atrophy, gradual reduction of the volume density and numerical density of the renal glomeruli associated to the aging process.

Animals , Male , Aging/physiology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/physiology , Organ Size/physiology , Urea/blood , Rats, Wistar , Creatinine/blood , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Kidney Glomerulus/physiopathology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(4): 329-338, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787565


A saúde renal tem ao longo dos últimos anos chamado atenção dos médicos veterinários, pois o comprometimento deste órgão na insuficiência renal crônica se apresenta como a maior causa de morbidade e mortalidade em felinos. O presente estudo propõe a caracterização biométrica dos rins de gatos, Felis catus, sob os aspectos macroscópicos (comprimento, altura, largura, peso e volume), mesoscópico (altura do córtex e da medula, e a sua inter-relação) e microscópica (volume glomerular), a fim de se estabelecer possíveis diferenças decorrentes de idade, sexo e simetria bilateral. Foram utilizados, rins de 30 animais da espécie Felis catus (gato deméstico), sendo 15 machos e 15 fêmeas com idade variando entre 3 meses a 15 anos, divididos em três grupos: grupo 1 (3-9 meses), grupo 2 (3-5 anos) e grupo 3 (acima de 10 anos)...

Renal health has over the last few years called attention of veterinarians, because the chronic failure of the kidneyu is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cats. This paper proposes biometric characterization of the kidneys from cats, Felis catus, on the macroscopic aspects (length, height, width, weight and volume), mesoscopic (height of the cortex and medulla, and their inter-relationship) and microscopic (glomerular volume) in order to establish possible differences arising from age, gender and bilateral symmetry. It where used 30 kidneys of animals from specie Felis catus (cat), 15 males and 15 females with ages between 3 months to 15 years, divided into three groups: group 1 (3-9 months), group 2 (3 - 5 years) and group 3 (above 10 years)...

Animals , Cats , Kidney Glomerulus/anatomy & histology , Body Weights and Measures/veterinary , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Biometric Identification , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type III/analysis , Histological Techniques/veterinary
J. bras. nefrol ; 38(1): 107-122, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-777505


Resumo A presente revisão traz os conceitos mais atuais acerca dos fatores de risco genéticos, eventos etiológicos, respostas nefritogênicas e tratamento dos principais tipos de glomerulonefrite (GN) imunomediada. Tais patologias incluem GN pós-infecciosa, nefropatia por IgA, doença por anticorpo antimembrana basal glomerular (anti-MBG), vasculite associada a ANCA (VAA) e nefrite lúpica. Apesar da(s) etiologia(s) da maioria dos casos de GN permanecer indefinida, acredita-se que seu início se deva, em grande parte, a insultos ambientais, particularmente na forma de processos infecciosos que deflagram respostas de hospedeiro em indivíduos geneticamente suscetíveis, levando assim a quadros de GN. A concepção mecanicista em torno dessas patologias evoluiu a partir da visão mais antiga de que a maioria seria consequência do aprisionamento glomerular de complexos imunes pré-formados para a percepção atual de que as mesmas, em sua maioria, são doenças autoimunes por natureza mediadas por anticorpos e linfócitos T reativos a auto-antígenos. O tratamento da GN não tem acompanhado os progressos na compreensão de sua patogênese. Os papéis recentemente atribuídos a mediadores mais antigos como complemento e proteínas reguladoras do complemento lançam luz sobre novos alvos terapêuticos.

Abstract This review updates current concepts of the genetic risk factors, etiologic events, nephtitogenic responses and treatment of the major immunologically mediated types of glomerulonephritis (GN). These include post-infectious GN, IgA nephropathy, anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody disease, ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and lupus nephritis. Although the etiology(s) of most GNs remain undefined, many are now believed to be initiated by environmental insults, particularly infectious processes, that trigger host responses in genetically susceptible individuals which lead to GN. Mechanistic concepts of these diseases have evolved from earlier views that most were consequent to glomerular trapping of preformed immune complexes to the current view that most of these diseases are auto-immune in nature mediated by both antibodies and T cells reactive with self-antigens. Therapy of GN has lagged behind advances in understanding pathogenesis. Newly appreciated roles for older mediators like complement and complement regulatory proteins offer new therapeutic targets.

Humans , Glomerulonephritis/physiopathology , Glomerulonephritis/therapy , Lupus Nephritis/physiopathology , Lupus Nephritis/therapy , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/physiopathology , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/therapy , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/physiopathology , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/therapy , Kidney Glomerulus/physiopathology