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Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1550-1557, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521030


El carcinoma de células renales (CCR) a nivel mundial presenta una incidencia de 431.288 casos anuales, causando 179.368 muertes en 2020. Sin embargo, a pesar de su incidencia, el desarrollo de metástasis pancreática (MP) de un RCC es un hecho inusual. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue reportar el caso de una paciente con una MP metacrónica de un CCR. Se trata de una paciente de 56 años, sexo femenino, nefrectomizada derecha hace 132 meses por un CCR, en adyuvancia con inmunoterapia. En un control imagenológico de rutina, se le pesquisó una lesión de aspecto tumoral en el cuerpo y cola del páncreas. Se intervino quirúrgicamente, realizándose una pancreatectomía córporo-caudal con preservación esplénica. Evolucionó de forma satisfactoria, sin complicaciones, siendo dada de alta al 4º día de su cirugía. El informe del estudio de la pieza operatoria con estudio inmunohistoquímico concluyó que se trataba de una MP de CCR. La paciente se encuentra en buenas condiciones generales y reinició quimioterapia con anticuerpos monoclonales. El seguimiento frecuente y prolongado de pacientes con antecedentes de CCR, facilita un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno de MP facilitando el mejor pronóstico de los pacientes, con tasas más altas de supervivencia.

SUMMARY: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) worldwide has an incidence of 431,288 cases per year, causing 179,368 deaths in 2020. However, despite its incidence, the development of pancreatic metastasis (MP) from RCC is unusual. The aim of this manuscript was to report the case of a patient with a PM of a RCC. This is a 56-year-old female patient, underwent right nephrectomy 132 months earlier for RCC. While she was in adjuvant immunotherapy, in a routine imaging control, it was found a tumor lesion in the body and the tail of the pancreas. So, she underwent surgery, performing a corpora-caudal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation. Postoperative evolution was correct, without complications, and she was discharged on the 4th day after surgery. The report of the study of the surgical piece with an immunohistochemical study included, conclusive of PM of RCC. Currently, the patient is in good general condition and restarted chemotherapy with monoclonal antibodies. Frequent and prolonged follow-up of patients with a history of RCC facilitates timely diag- nosis and treatment of PM, facilitating the best prognosis for patients, with higher survival rates.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/secondary , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/secondary , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(2): 136-138, Apr.-June 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514431


Introduction: Intussusceptions in adults are rare, representing 1% to 5% of intestinal obstructions in this age group. This condition can be caused by benign and malignant lesions acting as lead points, the latter being the most frequent. Furthermore, the diagnosis is challenging due to the non-specific symptoms with variable duration. Case Presentation: A 43-year-old man, with a history of localized clear-cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) treated 9 years earlier with a right radical nephrectomy, presented with bowel obstruction symptoms. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed an ileocolonic intussusception. Hence, the patient required a right hemicolectomy with ileotransverse anastomosis. The histopathological analysis showed a metastatic ccRC to the terminal ileum causing the intussusception. Discussion: Adult intussusceptions are rare. However, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with abdominal pain and symptoms of bowel obstruction. Metastases of renal cancer to the small bowel are uncommon and even more so in the form of intussusception. Definitive treatment must be tailored to the patient's condition and underlying cause. (AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Colonic Diseases , Ileocecal Valve , Intussusception/diagnosis , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Abdominal Pain
Med. lab ; 27(1): 25-32, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412746


Las lesiones metastásicas representan hasta un 3 % de los tumores malignos de la glándula tiroides. La mayoría de los casos se originan de tumores de células renales y de pulmón. El abordaje diagnóstico implica una alta sospecha clínica en pacientes con primarios conocidos, sin embargo, puede ser la manifestación inicial de una enfermedad maligna extensa no diagnosticada hasta en un 20 % a 40 % de los pacientes. La biopsia por aguja fina ha demostrado buen rendimiento para el diagnóstico de los nódulos metastásicos. El pronóstico y la opción del tratamiento quirúrgico dependen del control local del primario y del estado de la enfermedad sistémica asociada, por lo tanto, debe ser individualizado. Por lo general, hasta un 80 % de los pacientes con compromiso de la tiroides tienen enfermedad metastásica multiorgánica, y la intención del tratamiento quirúrgico es con fines paliativos para prevenir las complicaciones derivadas de la extensión local de la enfermedad a las estructuras del tracto aerodigestivo superior en el cuello. Se presenta a continuación, una serie de seis casos de pacientes con lesiones metastásicas a glándula tiroides con primarios en riñón, mama y de melanomas

Metastatic lesions represent up to 3% of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland. Most cases originate from lung and renal cell tumors. The diagnostic approach implies a high clinical suspicion in patients with known primaries, however, it can be the initial manifestation of an extensive undiagnosed malignant disease in up to 20% to 40% of patients. Fine-needle biopsy has shown good performance for the diagnosis of metastatic nodules. The prognosis and the option of surgical treatment depend on the local control of the primary condition and the state of the associated systemic disease, therefore it must be individualized. In general, up to 80% of patients with thyroid involvement have multi-organ metastatic disease and surgical treatment is intended to be palliative to prevent complications resulting from local extension of the disease to structures of the upper aerodigestive tract in the neck. A case series of six patients with metastatic lesions to the thyroid gland with primaries in the kidney, breast and melanomas is presented below

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/secondary , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Facial Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology , Upper Extremity/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/pathology
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 363-368, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985934


In recent years, the incidence of renal cancer has been increasing continuously. Surgical resection is the "gold standard" for the treatment of small renal cancer. However, local ablation therapy of renal cancer is undoubtedly the best choice for patients with short life expectancy, other complications, and impaired renal function who are not suitable for surgery. In recent years, with the development of ablation techniques and long-term follow-up, local ablation has shown good therapeutic effects. As many domestic hospitals are performing or planning to perform renal tumor cryoablation to improve the clinical cure rate and surgical safety of renal tumor cryoablation, it is necessary to standardize the surgical indications, contraindications, perioperative management, efficacy evaluation, and other common problems. Currently, there is no expert consensus regarding perioperative renal tumor cryoablation in China. To standardize the perioperative management of renal tumor cryoablation and related technical operations in clinical practice, and improve the effectiveness and safety of cryoablation, the expert committee of Tumor Interventional and Minimally Invasive Diagnosis and Treatment Continuing Education Base of the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association convened experts in related fields to discuss and formulate this consensus, which is hereby published, for clinical reference and application.

Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Consensus , Cryosurgery/methods , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Treatment Outcome , China
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 358-363, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985680


Objective: To investigate the expression of glycoprotein non metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) in renal eosinophilic tumors and to compare the value of GPNMB with CK20, CK7 and CD117 in the differential diagnosis of renal eosinophilic tumors. Methods: Traditional renal tumor eosinophil subtypes, including 22 cases of renal clear cell carcinoma eosinophil subtype (e-ccRCC), 19 cases of renal papillary cell carcinoma eosinophil subtype (e-papRCC), 17 cases of renal chromophobe cell carcinoma eosinophil subtype (e-chRCC), 12 cases of renal oncocytoma (RO) and emerging renal tumor types with eosinophil characteristics [3 cases of eosinophilic solid cystic renal cell carcinoma (ESC RCC), 3 cases of renal low-grade eosinophil tumor (LOT), 4 cases of fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cell carcinoma (FH-dRCC) and 5 cases of renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma (E-AML)], were collected at the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from January 2017 to March 2022. The expression of GPNMB, CK20, CK7 and CD117 was detected by immunohistochemistry and statistically analyzed. Results: GPNMB was expressed in all emerging renal tumor types with eosinophil characteristics (ESC RCC, LOT, FH-dRCC) and E-AML, while the expression rates in traditional renal eosinophil subtypes e-papRCC, e-chRCC, e-ccRCC and RO were very low or zero (1/19, 1/17, 0/22 and 0/12, respectively); the expression rate of CK7 in LOT (3/3), e-chRCC (15/17), e-ccRCC (4/22), e-papRCC (2/19), ESC RCC (0/3), RO (4/12), E-AML(1/5), and FH-dRCC (2/4) variedly; the expression of CK20 was different in ESC RCC (3/3), LOT(3/3), e-chRCC(1/17), RO(9/12), e-papRCC(4/19), FH-dRCC(1/4), e-ccRCC(0/22) and E-AML(0/5), and so did that of CD117 in e-ccRCC(2/22), e-papRCC(1/19), e-chRCC(16/17), RO(10/12), ESC RCC(0/3), LOT(1/3), E-AML(2/5) and FH-dRCC(1/4). GPNMB had 100% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity in distinguishing E-AML and emerging renal tumor types (such as ESC RCC, LOT, FH-dRCC) from traditional renal tumor types (such as e-ccRCC, e-papRCC, e-chRCC, RO),respectively. Compared with CK7, CK20 and CD117 antibodies, GPNMB was more effective in the differential diagnosis (P<0.05). Conclusion: As a new renal tumor marker, GPNMB can effectively distinguish E-AML and emerging renal tumor types with eosinophil characteristics such as ESC RCC, LOT, FH-dRCC from traditional renal tumor eosinophil subtypes such as e-ccRCC, e-papRCC, e-chRCC and RO, which is helpful for the differential diagnosis of renal eosinophilic tumors.

Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Angiomyolipoma/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Membrane Glycoproteins
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 149-155, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971288


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the implications of the prognostic nutrition index (PNI) in non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients treated with surgery and to compare it with other hematological biomarkers, including neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic immune inflammation index (SII).@*METHODS@#A cohort of 328 non-metastatic RCC patients who received surgical treatment between 2010 and 2012 at Peking University First Hospital was analyzed retrospectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cutoff values of the hematological biomarkers. The Youden index was maximum for PNI was value of 47.3. So we divided the patients into two groups (PNI≤ 47. 3 and >47. 3) for further analysis. Categorical variables [age, gender, body mass index (BMI), surgery type, histological subtype, necrosis, pathological T stage and tumor grade] were compared using the Chi-square test and Student' s t test. The association of the biomarkers with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods with log-rank test, followed by multivariate Cox proportional hazards model.@*RESULTS@#According to the maximum Youden index of ROC curve, the best cut-off value of PNI is 47. 3. Low level of PNI was significantly associated with older age, lower BMI and higher tumor pathological T stage (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier univariate analysis showed that lower PNI was significantly correlated with poor OS and DFS (P < 0.05). In addition, older age, lower BMI, tumor necrosis, higher tumor pathological T stage and Fuhrman grade were significantly correlated with poor OS (P < 0.05). Cox multivariate analysis showed that among the four hematological indexes, only PNI was an independent factor significantly associated with OS, whether as a continuous variable (HR=0.9, 95%CI=0.828-0.978, P=0.013) or a classified variable (HR=2.397, 95%CI=1.061-5.418, P=0.036).@*CONCLUSION@#Low PNI was a significant predictor for advanced pathological T stage, decreased OS, or DFS in non-metastatic RCC patients treated with surgery. In addition, PNI was superior to the other hematological biomar-kers as a useful tool for predicting prognosis of RCC in our study. It should be externally validated in future research before the PNI can be used widely as a predictor of RCC patients undergoing nephrectomy.

Humans , Prognosis , Nutrition Assessment , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Biomarkers , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
Odontoestomatol ; 24(39): 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, BNUY-Odon, BNUY | ID: biblio-1370334


Los tumores metastásicos en cavidad oral son pocos frecuentes, representan el 1% de las neoplasias malignas orales, son relativamente más frecuentes en los maxilares, respecto a aquellos localizados en los tejidos blandos orales. Se describe el caso de una paciente de 75 años de edad, con antecedentes de carcinoma renal de células claras, que consulta por la aparición repentina de una lesión tumoral en reborde alveolar superior izquierdo. Se realizó la biopsia exéresis con diagnóstico presuntivo de tumor metastásico o posible lesión reactiva. El informe anátomo - patológico confirma el diagnóstico de metástasis de un carcinoma renal. Las metástasis orales tienen un pronóstico generalmente malo, compromete la sobrevida, por lo que es importante realizar un exhaustivo estudio del paciente y considerar sus antecedentes, ya que en ocasiones son diagnosticadas tardíamentete.

Metastatic tumors to the oral cavity are rare, representing only 1% of malignant oral neoplasms. These metastatic tumors occur more frequently in the jaws than in soft oral tissues. This article describes the case of a 75-year-old patient with a history of clear cell renal carcinoma who seeks care because of the sudden appearance of a tumor lesion in the upper left alveolar ridge. An excision biopsy was performed with a presumptive diagnosis of a metastatic tumor or potential reactive lesion. The pathology report confirmed the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma metastasis. Oral metastatic tumors usually present a bad prognosis with a low survival rate. It is important to examine patients thoroughly and consider their medical records, as they are sometimes diagnosed late.

Os tumores metastásicos na cavidade oral são raros, representam 1% das neoplasias malignas orais, sendo relativamente mais frequentes nos ossos maxilares enquanto aos localizados nos tecidos moles orais. Descreve-se o caso de uma mulher de 75 anos com história de carcinoma renal de células claras, que consultou com queixa de lesão tumoral localizada na crista alveolar superior esquerda. Uma biópsia foi feita com diagnóstico clínico presuntivo de tumor metastático ou possível lesão reativa. O laudo anátomopatológico confirmou o diagnóstico de metástase de carcinoma renal. As metástases orais geralmente têm um prognóstico ruim, com baixa sobrevivência, portanto é importante fazer um estudo exaustivo do paciente e tomar em conta sua história, já que às vezes o diagnóstico é tardio.

Humans , Female , Aged , Mouth Neoplasms/secondary , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Mouth Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnosis
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 437-443, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935559


Objective: To study the clinicopathological features, immunophenotype, molecular changes, differential diagnosis and prognosis of eosinophilic vacuolated tumor (EVT) of the kidney. Methods: Four cases were collected retrospectively from 2014 to 2020 at Ningbo Diagnostic Pathology Center. The clinicopathologic features and immunophenotypic profile were studied by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel was used to detect cancer-associated mutation. Follow-up and literature review were also performed. Results: Among the 4 patients studied,2 were males and 2 were females. The age of the patients ranged from 44 to 63 years (the mean age: 51 years).Tumor size ranged from 1.5 to 4.2 cm (mean: 2.3 cm). Microscopically, tumors were well-circumscribed, unencapsulated. Thick-walled vessels and entrapped renal tubules were found within or at the periphery of the tumors. The tumors were predominantly composed of nest pattern, and focal tubular pattern. The tumor cells exhibited abundant, eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm and conspicuous, large nucleoli. Prominent intracytoplasmic vacuoles were seen. These cytoplasmic vacuoles varied in size and frequently coalesced into a large space. Loose fibromatous or hyaline stroma was focally noted. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells in all cases exhibited a CD117+/CK7-phenotype. All cases were positive for CD10 and p504s. MTOR, S6 and cathepsin K were positive in 4 cases. TFE3, CA9, Melan A and HMB45 were negative in all cases. SDHB retained expression. NGS demonstrated MTOR mutations in all cases, and TSC2 mutation in 2 cases. Conclusions: EVT is a rarely oncocytic renal tumor with unique morphology, immunohistochemical phenotype, molecular profile and an indolent behavior. Recognition of the characteristics of this novel but rare entity will allow for better classification of renal tumors.

Female , Humans , Male , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(4): 1-9, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348234


Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 2-3% of all malignant neoplasms. Metastatic disease of the spine is common and 50% of bone metastases are already present at the time of primary diagnosis. Bone metastases from renal cell carcinoma are difficult to manage, especially vertebral localization.A 48-year-old woman was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma in the context of low back pain. The patient presented two skeleton metastases at diagnosis (T11 and 5th rib). The patient received neoadjuvant treatment with cabozantinib, followed by removal of the renal tumor. Radiotherapy was administered for the lumbar lesion. In spite of the radiotherapy treatment, increased low back pain limiting mobility and ambulation. MRI showed an occupation of the spinal canal, without neurological lesion. The SINS scale revealed a score of 14 (vertebral instability). The patient's prognosis was greater than 12 months according to the Tokuhashi score. Based on clinical and mechanical criteria, surgical treatment of the vertebral lesion was decided. T11 vertebrectomy was performed, the reconstruction was made with an expandable cage, and T8 a L2 posterior spinal arthrodesis. A partial resection of the fifth rib was performed in order to remove the whole macroscopic tumor. After 3 months, she was diagnosed with a local infection, treated by irrigation, debridement and antibiotherapy, with good evolution. At 1-year follow-up, she has no low back pain or functional limitation. Follow-up chest-abdomen-pelvis computed CT scan showed absence of disease progression, furthermore, the vertebral arthrodesis shows fusion signs. At the time of this report, there are no clinical or radiological data of infection

El carcinoma de células renales representa el 2-3% de todas las neoplasias malignas. La enfermedad metastásica de la columna vertebral es frecuente y el 50% de las metástasis óseas ya están presentes en el momento del diagnóstico. Las metástasis óseas del carcinoma de células renales son difíciles de manejar, especialmente en localización vertebral.Una mujer de 48 años fue diagnosticada de carcinoma de células renales en el contexto de un dolor lumbar. La paciente presentaba dos metástasis óseas en el momento del diagnóstico (T11 y 5ª costilla). Inicialmente recibió tratamiento neoadyuvante con cabozantinib, seguido de la extirpación quirúrgica del tumor renal. Se administró radioterapia para la lesión lumbar. A pesar del tratamiento radioterápico, aumentó el dolor lumbar con limitación para la movilidad y la deambulación. La RM mostró una ocupación del canal espinal, sin lesión neurológica. La escala SINS reveló una puntuación de 14 (inestabilidad vertebral). El pronóstico de la paciente era superior a 12 meses según la puntuación de Tokuhashi. Basándose en criterios clínicos y mecánicos, se decidió el tratamiento quirúrgico de la lesión vertebral. Se realizó una vertebrectomía de T11, para la reconstrucción se usó una caja extensible, junto con una artrodesis vertebral T8-L2. Se realizó una resección parcial de la quinta costilla para eliminar todo el tumor macroscópico. A los 3 meses de la cirugía la paciente fue diagnosticada de infección local, tratada mediante irrigación, desbridamiento y antibioterapia, con buena evolución. Al año de seguimiento, no presenta dolor lumbar ni limitación funcional. La tomografía computarizada de tórax-abdomen-pelvis de seguimiento mostró ausencia de progresión de la enfermedad, además, la artrodesis vertebral muestra signos de fusión. En el momento de este informe, no hay datos clínicos ni radiológicos de infección.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Spinal Neoplasms/secondary , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Spinal Neoplasms/surgery , Spinal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(4): 777-783, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286766


ABSTRACT Hypothesis: Partial Nephrectomy is oncological safe in patients with pT3a RCC. Purpose: To compare the oncological and functional outcomes of patients with pT3a RCC scheduled for PN and RN. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with pT3a N0 M0 RCC who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy from 2005 to 2016. Perioperative characteristics, including estimated glomerular filtration rate, tumor size, pathological histology, and RENAL nephrometry score, were compared between patients scheduled for partial or radical nephrectomy. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to compare overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and recurrence-free survival between planned procedure type. Results: Of the 589 patients, 369 (63%) and 220 (37%) were scheduled for radical and partial nephrectomy, respectively; 26 (12%) of the scheduled partial nephrectomy cases were intraoperatively converted to radical nephrectomy. After adjusting for tumor size and histology, there were no statistically significant differences in overall survival (hazard ratio 0.66; 95% CI, 0.38-1.13), cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 0.53; 95% CI, 0.16-1.75), or recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 0.66; 95% CI, 0.34-1.28) between patients scheduled for partial or radical nephrectomy. Fewer patients scheduled for partial nephrectomy had estimated glomerular filtration rate reductions 3 to 9 months after surgery than patients scheduled for radical nephrectomy. Conclusion: We found no evidence that patients scheduled to undergo partial nephrectomy had poorer oncologic outcomes than patients scheduled to undergo radical nephrectomy. In select patients with pT3a renal cell carcinoma in whom partial nephrectomy is deemed feasible by the surgeon, partial nephrectomy should not be discouraged.

Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neoplasm Staging , Nephrectomy
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021257, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153184


Metastasis to the kidney from other primary sites is extremely rare. Previous studies reported the lung as the most common primary site. Distant metastasis from the tongue to the kidney is exceedingly rare. Herein, we describe a case of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the kidney in a 71-year-old male with a detailed discussion of differentiating it from potential mimickers. The patient underwent a total glossectomy and bilateral cervical lymph node dissection. A diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue was rendered and the tumor was staged pT3 pN3b. Within two years of initial presentation, the patient developed widely metastatic disease, including pulmonary nodules, renal masses, left adrenal mass, and pancreatic mass. Accurate diagnosis of a secondary involvement of the kidney by a metastatic tumor requires the appropriate correlation of clinical and imaging findings as well as morphologic and immunohistochemical clues.

Humans , Male , Aged , Tongue Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Oropharynx , Diagnosis, Differential
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020207, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142399


Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant disease that is often diagnosed at a metastatic stage. The head and neck represent up to 3% of the metastatic RCC, and the paranasal sinus area is one of the least involved sites. Here, we introduce the case of a 74-year-old female patient who presented with a history of traumatic nasal bleed. A cranial computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed a fronto-ethmoidal mass with pachymeningeal involvement. A nasal biopsy from the paranasal sinuses was taken. On histopathological examination, metastatic clear cell carcinoma was the main hypothesis, which later was confirmed to be RCC on immunohistochemistry. On further radiological examination, an exophytic mass was depicted in the kidney's upper and middle pole. The patient had no renal complaints and was asymptomatic. Fronto-ethmoidal sinus is a rare site for metastatic RCC, especially in cases where the patient is asymptomatic. Early detection by keeping RCC metastasis as the differential diagnosis in such cases can lead to early treatment and improve the overall survival of the patient.

Humans , Female , Aged , Paranasal Sinuses , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/complications , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Epistaxis/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020230, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142409


The modern era has brought an appreciation that renal cell carcinoma (RCC) includes diverse subtypes derived from the various parts of the nephron, each with its distinctive genetic basis and tumor biology. Carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini (CDC) is a rare subtype of RCC, with a predictably poor prognosis. This rare subtype represents less than 1% of all kidney carcinomas. It derives from presumably numerous chromosomal losses. It is of chief importance to differentiate CDC from other types of renal cell cancer. Typically, it is characterized by a firm, centrally located tumor with infiltrative borders. Regarding the histopathologic characteristics, we can find complex, highly infiltrative cords with inflamed (desmoplastic) stroma, with high-grade nuclei and mitoses. Most reported cases of CDC had been high grade, advanced stage, and unresponsive to conventional therapies. This rare form of disease highlights the importance of multidisciplinary teams in the management of cancer patients.

Humans , Female , Adult , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Kidney Tubules, Collecting
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(5): 871-872, Sept.-Oct. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134225


ABSTRACT Purpose: The conservative management of localized renal masses has been recently widened to cT2 tumors showing encouraging functional and oncological outcomes (1). This video aims to report the conservative management of a highly complex renal tumor treated with robotic pure enucleation in our center, specifically focusing on preoperative work-up, video-reported surgical steps and perioperative outcomes. Materials and Methods: A 63 year-old lady underwent CT scan revealing a single 75 x 68mm, mainly endophytic, right renal mass dislocating the vascular pedicle (cT3a). Two renal arteries and two veins were identified. PADUA, RENAL and simplified SPARE scores were 14a, 12a and 12 respectively. Since the contralateral kidney was hypotrophic, the indication for nephron-sparing approach was considered absolute. Preoperative surgical planning included the employment of 3D-virtual models (2). Results: Operative time was 150 minutes and warm ischemia time was 25 minutes. No major complication occurred. Histopathological analysis revealed a cromophobe renal cell carcinoma with extension to perirenal fat tissue (pT3a). Resection technique was classified as pure enucleation since Surface-Intermediate-Base (SIB) score was 0-0-0 (3, 4). At seven-months follow-up no signs of local or systemic recurrence were recorded. Postoperative CT-scan revealed optimal parenchymal volume preservation with last creatinine blood level of 1.16mg/dL. Conclusion: This video highlights how, in experienced hands, robotic partial nephrectomy represents a feasible, effective treatment option for surgical management of highly complex renal tumors. The employment of intraoperative ultrasonography and 3D-virtual models allowed to accurately tailor surgical approach, improving the perception of tumor anatomy and its vascularization and maximizing perioperative outcomes.

Humans , Female , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Nephrectomy/methods , Robotics , Treatment Outcome , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Middle Aged
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 92-100, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056355


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differentiating bland thrombus from tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava (IVC) in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively investigated 30 consecutive patients who underwent robot-assisted radical nephrectomy with IVC thrombectomy and had pathologically confirmed RCC. All patients underwent US and CEUS examination. Two off-line readers observed and recorded thrombus imaging information and enhancement patterns. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for bland thrombus were assessed. Results: Of the 30 patients, no adverse events occurred during administration of the contrast agent. Early enhancement of the mass within the IVC lumen on CEUS was an indicator of tumor thrombus. Bland thrombus showed no intraluminal flow on CEUS. There were eight (26.7%) patients with bland thrombus, including three level II, two level III, and three level IV. There were three cases with cephalic bland thrombus and five cases with caudal bland thrombus. Three caudal bland thrombi extended to the iliac vein and underwent surgical IVC interruption. Based on no intraluminal flow, for bland thrombus, CEUS had 87.5% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 96.7% accuracy, 100% positive predictive value and 95.6% negative predictive value. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the potential of CEUS in the differentiation of bland and tumor thrombus of the IVC in patients with RCC. Since CEUS is an effective, inexpensive, and non-invasive method, it could be a reliable tool in the evaluation of IVC thrombus in patients with RCC.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Venous Thrombosis , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Vena Cava, Inferior/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/methods , Contrast Media , Venous Thrombosis/surgery , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Tumor Burden , Neoplasm Grading , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Middle Aged
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 26-33, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056358


ABSTRACT Purpose: Clear cell papillary (CCP) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a new subtype of RCC that was formally recognized by the International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia in 2013. Subsequently, CCP RCC was added to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs. In this study, we retrospectively investigated the computed tomography (CT) findings of pathologically diagnosed CCP RCC. Materials and Methods: This study included 12 patients pathologically diagnosed with CCP RCC at our institution between 2015 and 2017. We reviewed the patient's CT data and analyzed the characteristics. Results: Nine solid masses and 3 cystic masses with a mean tumor size of 22.7±9.2mm were included. Solid masses exhibited slight hyper-density on unenhanced CT with a mean value of 34±6 Hounsfield units (HU), good enhancement in the corticomedullary phase with a mean of 195±34HU, and washout in the nephrogenic phase with a mean of 133±29HU. The walls of cystic masses enhanced gradually during the corticomedullary and nephrogenic phases. Solid and cystic masses were preoperatively diagnosed as clear cell RCC and cystic RCC, respectively. Conclusions: The CT imaging characteristics of CCP RCCs could be categorized into either the solid or cystic type. These masses were diagnosed radiologically as clear cell RCC and cystic RCC, respectively.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden , Neoplasm Grading , Kidney Neoplasms , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 61(3): 108-111, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177822


El carcinoma de células renales es el 7mo cáncer en frecuencia a nivel mundial con más de 300.000 casos nuevos al año y es la 3era malignidad genitourinaria más frecuente. El sitio más común de metástasis es el pulmón mientras que el esqueleto ocupa el segundo lugar con una frecuencia que varía entre un 20% a un 35%. Se ha reportado una sobrevida de 12 meses en promedio luego de la aparición de metástasis óseas. Reporte del caso de un paciente con diagnóstico de cáncer renal de células claras y metástasis óseas (en columna, pelvis y ambos húmeros), que evoluciona con fractura de ambos brazos. El paciente es aceptado en un ensayo clínico de tratamiento con inmunoterapia y además se somete a una reducción y osteosíntesis bilateral de húmero con clavo endomedular, logrando la consolidación de ambas fracturas y, por ende, la regresión de la enfermedad.

Renal cell carcinoma is ranked 7th in frequent cancer worldwide with more than 3000.000 new cases per year, as well as it's ranked 3rd in frequent genitourinary malignancy. The most common area of metastases is lung followed by skeleton in second place. The frequency of skeleton metastases varies from 20% to 35%. A survival average time of 12 months is generally observed after the appearance of bone metastases. This case report is about a patient diagnosed with clear cell renal cancer and bone metastases (in the spine, pelvis and both humerus) that evolves with fracture of both arms. The patient undergoes a clinical trial with immunotherapy and also a reduction and osteosynthesis of both arms with intramedullary nail, achieving consolidation of both fractures and regression of the disease.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/secondary , Humeral Fractures/etiology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/complications , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/complications , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/therapy , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humeral Fractures/surgery , Humeral Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Immunotherapy , Kidney Neoplasms/therapy
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(3): e2020148, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131827


Metanephric adenoma (MA) is a rare benign neoplasm of the kidney that is usually asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed. MA usually present as a solid mass; however, a cystic presentation has been reported. The main differential diagnosis of MA is the epithelial predominant Wilms tumor (e-WT) and the solid variant of papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC). The presence of the BRAF gene mutation has recently been reported in 85% of MA, and less than 10% of cases of MA do not express this specific gene mutation. Herein we report a 22-year-old man who presented with back pain and abdominal discomfort with a renal mass on the computed tomographic scan. The diagnosis of metanephric adenoma was confirmed histopathologically. In our case, the tumor presented as a solid and cystic mass hence mimicking a papillary renal cell carcinoma. The VE1 protein, which correlates with BRAF gene mutation, did not show any significant expression. We want to highlight that MA can present as a cystic lesion that should be taken into account to avoid unnecessary radical nephrectomy. Also, we demonstrated that a subset of MA might not harbor the BRAF gene and, they are classified as the BRAF wild type MA.

Humans , Male , Adult , Adenoma/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Wilms Tumor , Diagnosis, Differential , Nephrectomy
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(4): e2020190, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131850


Epithelioid angiomyolipoma is an uncommon subtype of renal angiomyolipoma associated with potentially malignant behavior and is considered a distinct entity by the World Health Organization classification of renal tumors. We present a case of an epithelioid variant of angiomyolipoma with extension into the renal vein, inferior vena cava reaching up to the right atrium. Pre-operatively, a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma was considered based on imaging findings. Intra-operatively due to extensive adhesions, surgical resection was not performed and only tissue sampling was performed for histopathology. Microscopic examination revealed short fascicles of spindle cells and perivascular epithelioid cells. A differential diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation was considered. The immunohistochemical profile showed tumor cells that express Melan-A and smooth muscle actin, while they were negative for pan-cytokeratin, PAX8, CK7, CD117 and CD34. Therefore a diagnosis of epithelioid angiomyolipoma was rendered. The presence of intravascular thrombi on radiological investigation and carcinoma-like growth pattern on light microscopy may compound an erroneous diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Hence, it is prudent for the urologist to consider differential diagnosis other than renal cell carcinoma when confronted with a renal neoplasm presenting with intravascular thrombi. In these cases, a core biopsy should be planned pre-operatively and diagnosis should be made with aid of appropriate immunohistochemical markers.

Humans , Female , Adult , Epithelioid Cells/pathology , Angiomyolipoma/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Diagnosis, Differential
Biol. Res ; 53: 46, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131889


BACKGROUND: Kidney cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is necessary to clarify its underlying mechanism and find its prognostic biomarkers. Current studies showed that SHMT2 may be participated in several kinds of cancer. METHODS: Our studies investigated the expression of SHMT2 in kidney cancer by Oncomine, Human Protein Atlas database and ULCAN database. Meanwhile, we found its co-expression gene by cBioPortal online tool and validated their relationship in A498 and ACHN cells by cell transfection, western blot and qRT-PCR. Besides these, we also explored their prognostic values via the Kaplan-Meier plotter database in different types of kidney cancer patients. RESULTS: SHMT2 was found to be increased in 7 kidney cancer datasets, compared to normal renal tissues. For the cancer stages, ages and races, there existed significant difference in the expression of SHMT2 among different groups by mining of the UALCAN database. High SHMT2 expression is associated with poor overall survival in patients with kidney cancer. Among all co-expressed genes, NDUFA4L2 and SHMT2 had a high co-expression efficient. SHMT2 overexpression led to the increased expression of NDUFA4L2 at both mRNA and protein levels. Like SHMT2, overexpressed NDUFA4L2 also was associated with worse overall survival in patients with kidney cancer. CONCLUSION: Based on above results, overexpressed SHMT2 and its co-expressed gene NDUFA4L2 were all correlated with the prognosis in kidney cancer. The present study might be benefit for better understanding the clinical significance of SHMT2 and provided a potential therapeutic target for kidney cancer in future.

Humans , Glycine Hydroxymethyltransferase/genetics , Electron Transport Complex I/genetics , Kidney Neoplasms/genetics , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Messenger , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Neoplasm Staging