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2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 196-197, Jan.-Feb. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356285

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Inferior vena cava (IVC) invasion from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs at a rate of 4-10% (1). IVC thrombectomy (IVC-TE) can be an open procedure because of the need for handling of the IVC (2). The first reported series of robotic management of IVC-TE started in 2011 for the management of Level I - II thrombi with subsequent case reports in recent years (2-5). Materials and Methods: The following is a patient in his 50's with no significant medical history. Magnetic resonance imaging and IR venogram were performed preoperatively. The tumor was clinical stage T3b with a 4.3cm inferior vena cava thrombus. The patient underwent robotic assisted nephrectomy and IVC-TE. Rummel tourniquets were used for the contralateral kidney and the IVC. The tourniquets were created using vessel loops, a 24 French foley catheter and hem-o-lock clips. Results: The patient tolerated the surgical procedure well with no intraoperative complications. Total surgical time was 274 min with 200 minutes of console time and 22 minutes of IVC occlusion. Total blood loss in the surgery was 850cc. The patient was discharged from the hospital on post-operative day 3 without any complications. The final pathology of the specimen was pT3b clear cell renal cell carcinoma Fuhrman grade 2. The patient followed up post-operatively at both four months and six months without disease recurrence. The patient continues annual follow-up with no recurrence. Conclusions: Surgeon experience is a key factor in radical nephrectomy with thrombectomy as patients have a reported 50-65% survival rate after IVC-TE (4).


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Tourniquets , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy , Nephrectomy
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 110-119, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356276

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Nephrometric scores play an interesting role in nephron sparring surgery (NSS) planning. The aim of this study is to evaluate if R.E.N.A.L. score (RS) is capable to predict the occurrence of adverse events in laparoscopic NSS. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 150 laparoscopic NSS between 2015 and 2018 to evaluate the relationship between RS and incidence of adverse events. Clavien 3 or superior complications, warm ischemia time (WIT) over 30 minutes, tumor violation, positive surgical margins (PSM) and necessity of amplification of renal parenchyma during the resection of the masses to obtain free margins were considered as adverse events. We compared each item of the RS isolated and divided the patients between low risk and high risk. Results: Adverse results occurred in 48 cases (32%). Amplification of the margin of resection was observed in 28 cases (19%). WIT exceeded 30 minutes in 9 cases (6.1%), complications Clavien 3 or superior occurred in 13 cases (9%) and PSM were detected en 6 cases (4%). Comparing the patients with adverse outcomes and each item of the RS we did not find any statistical difference, but when divided into high risk and low risk, we found that patients in the high risk group had a higher tendency to present ad-verse results - 25.84% vs. 44.26% (p=0.03). Conclusions: RS system is a good way to predict adverse outcomes in NSS, especially in cases over 7. Further studies should focus on robotic approach and patient's characteristics other than the masses' aspects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laparoscopy , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Nephrectomy/adverse effects , Nephrons/surgery
4.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(4): 1-9, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348234

ABSTRACT

Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 2-3% of all malignant neoplasms. Metastatic disease of the spine is common and 50% of bone metastases are already present at the time of primary diagnosis. Bone metastases from renal cell carcinoma are difficult to manage, especially vertebral localization.A 48-year-old woman was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma in the context of low back pain. The patient presented two skeleton metastases at diagnosis (T11 and 5th rib). The patient received neoadjuvant treatment with cabozantinib, followed by removal of the renal tumor. Radiotherapy was administered for the lumbar lesion. In spite of the radiotherapy treatment, increased low back pain limiting mobility and ambulation. MRI showed an occupation of the spinal canal, without neurological lesion. The SINS scale revealed a score of 14 (vertebral instability). The patient's prognosis was greater than 12 months according to the Tokuhashi score. Based on clinical and mechanical criteria, surgical treatment of the vertebral lesion was decided. T11 vertebrectomy was performed, the reconstruction was made with an expandable cage, and T8 a L2 posterior spinal arthrodesis. A partial resection of the fifth rib was performed in order to remove the whole macroscopic tumor. After 3 months, she was diagnosed with a local infection, treated by irrigation, debridement and antibiotherapy, with good evolution. At 1-year follow-up, she has no low back pain or functional limitation. Follow-up chest-abdomen-pelvis computed CT scan showed absence of disease progression, furthermore, the vertebral arthrodesis shows fusion signs. At the time of this report, there are no clinical or radiological data of infection


El carcinoma de células renales representa el 2-3% de todas las neoplasias malignas. La enfermedad metastásica de la columna vertebral es frecuente y el 50% de las metástasis óseas ya están presentes en el momento del diagnóstico. Las metástasis óseas del carcinoma de células renales son difíciles de manejar, especialmente en localización vertebral.Una mujer de 48 años fue diagnosticada de carcinoma de células renales en el contexto de un dolor lumbar. La paciente presentaba dos metástasis óseas en el momento del diagnóstico (T11 y 5ª costilla). Inicialmente recibió tratamiento neoadyuvante con cabozantinib, seguido de la extirpación quirúrgica del tumor renal. Se administró radioterapia para la lesión lumbar. A pesar del tratamiento radioterápico, aumentó el dolor lumbar con limitación para la movilidad y la deambulación. La RM mostró una ocupación del canal espinal, sin lesión neurológica. La escala SINS reveló una puntuación de 14 (inestabilidad vertebral). El pronóstico de la paciente era superior a 12 meses según la puntuación de Tokuhashi. Basándose en criterios clínicos y mecánicos, se decidió el tratamiento quirúrgico de la lesión vertebral. Se realizó una vertebrectomía de T11, para la reconstrucción se usó una caja extensible, junto con una artrodesis vertebral T8-L2. Se realizó una resección parcial de la quinta costilla para eliminar todo el tumor macroscópico. A los 3 meses de la cirugía la paciente fue diagnosticada de infección local, tratada mediante irrigación, desbridamiento y antibioterapia, con buena evolución. Al año de seguimiento, no presenta dolor lumbar ni limitación funcional. La tomografía computarizada de tórax-abdomen-pelvis de seguimiento mostró ausencia de progresión de la enfermedad, además, la artrodesis vertebral muestra signos de fusión. En el momento de este informe, no hay datos clínicos ni radiológicos de infección.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Spinal Neoplasms/secondary , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Spinal Neoplasms/surgery , Spinal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1272-1273, Nov.-Dec. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340035

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) virtual models have recently gained consideration in the partial nephrectomy (PN) field as useful tools since they may potentially improve preoperative surgical planning and thus contributing to maximizing postoperative outcomes (1-5). The aim of the present study was to describe our first experience with 3D virtual models as preoperative guidance for robot-assisted PN. Materials and methods: Data of patients with renal mass amenable to robotic PN were prospectively collected at our Institution from January to April 2020. Using a dedicated web-based platform, abdominal CT-scan images were processed by M3DICS (Turin, Italy) and used to obtain 3D virtual models. 2D CT images and 3D models were separately assessed by two different highly experienced urologists to assess the PADUA score and risk category and to forecast the surgical strategy of the single cases, accordingly. Results: Overall, 30 patients were included in the study. Median tumor size was 4.3cm (range 1.3-11). Interestingly, 8 (26.4%) cases had their PADUA score downgraded when switching from 2D CT-scan to 3D virtual model assessment and 4 (13.4%) cases had also lowered their PADUA risk category. Moreover, preoperative off-clamp, selective clamping strategy and enucleation resection strategy increased from CT-scan to 3D evaluation. Conclusion: 3D virtual models are promising tools as they showed to offer a reliable assessment of surgical planning. However, the advantages offered by the 3D reconstruction appeared to be more evident as the complexity of the mass raises. These tools may ultimately increase tumor's selection for PN, particularly in highly complex renal masses. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest: The authors declare they do not have conflict of interests. Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. All the procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research Committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


Subject(s)
Humans , Robotics , Laparoscopy , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Nephrectomy
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 786-790, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351052

ABSTRACT

Resumen El cáncer renal representa el 3 al 4% de todas las lesiones malignas y su detección incidental es cada vez más frecuente. Para los tumores renales cT1a la cirugía es el tratamiento de elección. No todos los pacientes son candidatos a este tipo de tratamiento por elevado riesgo quirúrgico debido a comorbi lidades asociadas o antecedentes de cirugía en dicho órgano. Las guías de la Asociación Americana de Urología recomiendan la termoablación como alternativa a la cirugía en tumores menores a 3 cm. La experiencia con crioablación percutánea en tumores renales es escasa en Latinoamérica y hay pocas publicaciones al respecto en esta región. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la efectividad y seguridad de la crioablación percutánea en una cohorte de pacientes adultos con cáncer renal cT1 (menores a 5 cm) como alternativa al tratamiento quirúrgico. Los procedimientos fueron realizados con guía de tomografía computarizada o con un angiógrafo, en condiciones estériles y bajo anestesia general. Los pacientes fueron tratados en condiciones ambulatorias. El seguimiento se realizó con estudios por imágenes, análisis de laboratorio y consulta clínica. Todos tuvieron una respuesta completa constatada por imágenes en los controles evolutivos. El 61% no tuvo complicaciones y en el resto se observaron complicaciones grado 1 como hematuria, retención urinaria y hematoma perirrenal. Se concluyó que la crioablación percutánea es segura y efectiva como alternativa a la cirugía en pacientes con tumores renales.


Abstract Renal cancer represents 3-4% of all malignancies. Its incidental detection is becoming more frequent. Surgery is the gold standard treatment for T1 renal cancer. Still, surgery is not suitable for every patient due to comorbidities or previous kidney surgery. Guidelines provided by The American Urological Association recommend thermoablation therapies as an alternative to surgery in tumors under 3 cm. Experience regarding percutaneous cryoablation in renal tumors is scarce in Latin America and there are only a handful of publications in this region regarding this subject. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and security of percutaneous cryoablation in a cohort of adult patients with cT1 renal cancer (smaller than 5 cm) as an alternative to surgery. The procedures were performed with CT or Cone Beam CT guidance and under general anesthesia in sterile conditions. Cryoablation was carried out on an outpatient basis. Follow up was done with imaging studies, blood test and clinical consultation. All patients had complete response in imaging studies. There were no complications in 61% of all of them, the remaining patients suffered grade-1 complications such as hematuria, urinary reten tion and perirenal hematoma. In conclusion, percutaneous cryoablation for renal tumors is a safe and effective alternative to surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Cryosurgery , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(5): 935-942, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286796

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To review the current literature regarding variant (non-clear) histology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the clinical management of these renal tumors. Material and Methods: A PubMed database search was performed in May 2020 focusing on variant RCC, its diagnosis and associated syndromes, tumor characteristics, and options for management. Results: A broad range of pathological, clinical and diagnostic characteristics amongst non-ccRCC variants were found to have an impact on the overall management of these tumors. The imaging modalities, frequency of surveillance, and timing for intervention were found to be dependent on the type of genetic alterations, type of histology, and tumor growth rates. The timing and type of surgery as well as the systemic therapy are tailored to the specific tumor type and patient. Conclusion: The findings of this review suggest that clinical management should be considered and adjusted for patients with non-ccRCC histological variants based on tumor subtype and genetic alterations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(4): 777-783, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286766

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Hypothesis: Partial Nephrectomy is oncological safe in patients with pT3a RCC. Purpose: To compare the oncological and functional outcomes of patients with pT3a RCC scheduled for PN and RN. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with pT3a N0 M0 RCC who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy from 2005 to 2016. Perioperative characteristics, including estimated glomerular filtration rate, tumor size, pathological histology, and RENAL nephrometry score, were compared between patients scheduled for partial or radical nephrectomy. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to compare overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and recurrence-free survival between planned procedure type. Results: Of the 589 patients, 369 (63%) and 220 (37%) were scheduled for radical and partial nephrectomy, respectively; 26 (12%) of the scheduled partial nephrectomy cases were intraoperatively converted to radical nephrectomy. After adjusting for tumor size and histology, there were no statistically significant differences in overall survival (hazard ratio 0.66; 95% CI, 0.38-1.13), cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 0.53; 95% CI, 0.16-1.75), or recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 0.66; 95% CI, 0.34-1.28) between patients scheduled for partial or radical nephrectomy. Fewer patients scheduled for partial nephrectomy had estimated glomerular filtration rate reductions 3 to 9 months after surgery than patients scheduled for radical nephrectomy. Conclusion: We found no evidence that patients scheduled to undergo partial nephrectomy had poorer oncologic outcomes than patients scheduled to undergo radical nephrectomy. In select patients with pT3a renal cell carcinoma in whom partial nephrectomy is deemed feasible by the surgeon, partial nephrectomy should not be discouraged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neoplasm Staging , Nephrectomy
11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 46-60, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134331

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Radical nephrectomy (RN) is the standard surgical type for pathological stage T3a (pT3a) renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Recently, some studies have suggested equivalence between partial nephrectomy (PN) and RN for oncologic control and have shown the benefits of PN for better renal function. We conducted this meta-analysis to assess oncologic outcomes, perioperative outcomes and renal function between two groups among patients with pT3a RCC. Materials and methods: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Ovid MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, Embase and Google Scholar were searched for eligible articles. The endpoints of the final analysis included overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), surgical complications, operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results: Twelve studies of moderate to high quality, including 14.152 patients, were examined. PN showed superiority for renal functional preservation, providing higher eGFR (WMD=12.48mL/min; 95%CI: 10.28 to 14.67; P <0.00001) and lower serum creatinine (WMD=-0.31mg/dL; 95%CI: −0.40 to −0.21; P <0.00001). There were no significant differences between PN and RN regarding operative time, EBL, surgical complications, OS, RFS and CSS. Despite inherent selection bias, most pooled estimates were consistent in sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis. More positive margins were found in the PN group (RR=2.42; 95%CI: 1.25-4.68; P=0.009). Conclusions: PN may be more suitable for treating pT3a RCC than RN because it provides a similar survival time (OS or RFS) and superior renal function. Nevertheless, this result is still disputed, and more high-quality studies are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Margins of Excision , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Nephrectomy
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 103-111, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134316

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study aims to compare renal functional outcomes of access techniques in patients who underwent off-clamp (Off-C) laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). Materials and Methods: Thirty-four Off-C LPNs in patients with functioning contralateral kidney from March 2011 to June 2018 were included in the study. Twenty-two patients underwent transperitoneal, 12 patients underwent retroperitoneal Off-C LPN. The primary outcome was glomerular filtration rate changes over time, postoperatively. The secondary outcome was the evaluation of trifecta and pentafecta rate. Results: Preoperative demographics, tumor size (26.59 vs. 22.83mm, p=0.790), RENAL score (5.45 vs. 5.33, p=0.990), operation time (79.95 vs. 81.33 min, p=0.157), blood loss (170.23 vs. 150.83mL, p=0.790) were similar in both groups. Although preservation of renal function was better in group 2 in the early period, similar results were found in both groups at the end of the first year, postoperatively. No positive surgical margin and postoperative major complications were detected in any patient. While trifecta goals were achieved in all the patients in the cohort, pentafecta rates were 90.9% and 91.7% in the transperitoneal and retroperitoneal groups, respectively. Conclusions: Transperitoneal and retroperitoneal access were found to have similar outcomes in terms of preservation of renal function at the end of the first year postoperatively. Off-C LPN may be considered as a safe and effective treatment option in patients having non-complex renal tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laparoscopy , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Retroperitoneal Space , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Nephrectomy
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 149-158, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134310

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Renal artery pseudoaneurysms (RAPs) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare but potentially life-threatening complications after partial nephrectomy (PN). Selective arterial embolization (SAE) is an effective method for controlling RAPs/AVFs. We assessed the clinical factors affecting the occurrence of RAPs/AVFs after PN and the effects of SAE on postsurgical renal function. Materials and Methods: Four hundred ninety-three patients who underwent PN were retrospectively reviewed. They were placed in either the SAE or the non-SAE group. The effects of clinical factors, including R.E.N.A.L. scores, on the occurrence of RAPs/AVFs were analyzed. The influence of SAE on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during the first postoperative year was evaluated. Results: Thirty-three (6.7%) patients experienced RAPs/AVFs within 8 days of the median interval between PN and SAE. The SAE group had significantly higher R.E.N.A.L. scores, higher N component scores, and higher L component scores (all, p <0.05). In the multivariate analysis, higher N component scores were associated with the occurrence of RAPs/AVFs (Odds ratio: 1.96, p=0.039). In the SAE group, the mean 3-day postembolization eGFR was significantly lower than the mean 3-day postoperative eGFR (p <0.01). This difference in the eGFRs was still present 1 year later. Conclusions: Renal tumors located near the renal sinus and collecting system were associated with a higher risk for RAPs/AVFs after PN. Although SAE was an effective method for controlling symptomatic RAPs/AVFs after PN, a procedure-related impairment of renal function after SAE could occur and still be present at the end of the first postoperative year.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arteriovenous Fistula/etiology , Aneurysm, False/etiology , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Nephrectomy/adverse effects
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878727

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinicopathological features and prognosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma(ChRCC). Methods The clinical and pathological data of 126 patients with ChRCC treated in Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were retrospectively analyzed. Results The patients included 64 males and 62 females,with the age of 22-80 years(median of 52 years).The tumor was located on the right side in 70 cases and on the left side in 56 cases.Ultrasound,CT or magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)were performed.Of the 110 cases receiving ultrasound examination,63,23,13,10,and 1 cases showed hypoecho,hyperecho,isoecho,uneven or mixed echo,and dark hypoecho,respectively.Color Doppler flow imaging showed no blood flow signal in 42 cases and low blood flow signal in 60 cases out of 68 cases with blood flow signal.Among the 54 cases receiving CT,50 cases showed equal density or low density and 4 cases showed high density with clear boundary.The enhanced scanning showed mild to moderate uniform or non-uniform reinforcement,mostly below the renal parenchyma,and still showed reinforcement in the delayed period.Among the 97 cases receiving MRI,96 cases showed hypo-or isointense signals and 1 case showed hyperintense signal in T1 weighted images;71 cases showed hyper-or isointense signals and 26 cases showed hypo-or isointense signals in T2 weighted images;93 cases showed hyperintense signals with obvious limited diffusion and 4 cases showed unobvious limited diffusion in diffusion weighted images.Mild to moderate uniform or non-uniform reinforcement was observed in most of the enhanced scans.All the 126 patients underwent surgical treatment,including 64 cases of nephron sparing surgery and 62 cases of radical surgery.Pathological examinations confirmed ChRCC for all the patients,including 91 cases of T1N0M0,15 cases of T2N0M0,and 20 cases of T3N0M0.The immunohistochemical assay demonstrated the positive expression rate of 48.2%(54/112)for CD10,92.3%(96/104)for CD117,8.0%(9/112)for vimentin,85.6%(95/111)for CK7,and 97.6%(83/85)for colloidal iron.Conclusions ChRCC is less common,with low level of malignancy and good prognosis.Since the clinical symptoms of ChRCC are not typical,MRI is an important means of imaging differential diagnosis,and the disease can be confirmed depending on pathological diagnosis.Surgery is the preferred treatment method,and currently there is no standard treatment regimen for metastatic patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(6): 943-949, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134249

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective There is limited data regarding surgeon volume and partial nephrectomy outcomes. The aim of this study is to report trifecta outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) performed by the low volume surgeon. Materials and Methods Thirty-nine patients with clinical T1-2 renal tumors who underwent RAPN between 2012 and 2018 were included in this study. Trifecta was defined as negative surgical margins, warm ischemia time ≤20 minutes, and no operative complications. Patient demographics, R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score, operation time, estimated blood loss, warm ischemia time, length of hospital stay, renal functions, and oncological outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Complications were graded based on the modified Clavien-Dindo classification system. Results The median R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score was 6 (4-10). RAPN was successfully performed in all but one patient. The median operation time was 180 (90-240) minutes. Warm ischemia was performed only by segmental renal artery control in 35 and, by main renal artery control in three patients. The off-clamp technique was used in two patients. The median warm ischemia time was 16 (0-31) minutes. Seven patients had a warm ischemia time of longer than 20 minutes. Three patients had postoperative complications. The surgical margin was positive in one patient. As a result, the trifecta was achieved in 30 of the 39 patients (77%). Conclusion RAPN is a safe and effective minimally invasive alternative in the treatment of renal masses. The present study suggests that reasonable trifecta rates can be achieved even by low volume surgeons.


Subject(s)
Humans , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Blood Transfusion , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Surgeons , Nephrectomy
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(5): 814-821, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134235

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Recent data suggest that robotic platform has become the most accessible minimal invasive surgery even for surgeons without previous training in laparoscopy. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is a well-stablished procedure, however, with high level of complexity and long learning curve that limit its use. Objective: To describe safety, efficiency and learning curve of a single surgeon without previous experience in LPN to reach "TRIFECTA" at robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study, with prospective data collection of 101 patients submitted to RAPN by a single surgeon. In order to analyze the learning curve, sample was chronologically divided in two phases: first phase: P1: 50 first patients, second phase: P2: 51 subsequent patients. TRIFECTA was defined as: ischemia time lower than 25 minutes, negative surgical margin and absence of severe complications (Clavien >2). Results: Mean age of patients was 54 years (SD=11.85), median tumor size was 32mm (SD=17) and surgery was performed with zero ischemia time in 33.6% of patients (29.8% at P1 and 40.9% at P2). Demographic data of patients were similar between both groups, except tumor size (P1=27.5mm vs. P2=35.3mm; p=0.02) and body mass index (BMI) (P1=26.6kg/m2 vs. P2=29kg/m2; p=0.03). Rate of bleeding, surgical time, presence of positive margin and peri-operatory surgical complications were similar in both phases. TRIFECTA was higher in P2 in relation to P1 (P1: 58% vs. P2: 87.8%; p=0.002) and median time of hot ischemia was significantly lower at P2 (P1: 17.3 vs. P2: 11.7; p=0.02). At multivariate analysis independent factors related to TRIFECTA included: chronological phase (OR 10.74; 95% IC: 1.63-70.53; p=0.013) and tumor size (OR 0.95; 95% IC: 0.91-0.99; p=0.024). Conclusion: RAPN seems to be safe and efficient with good functional and oncological results (TRIFECTA) since the beginning. Experience improvement was related to treatment of larger tumors, higher proportion of patients with zero ischemia and higher rate of TRIFECTA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laparoscopy , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged , Nephrectomy
18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(5): 871-872, Sept.-Oct. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134225

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The conservative management of localized renal masses has been recently widened to cT2 tumors showing encouraging functional and oncological outcomes (1). This video aims to report the conservative management of a highly complex renal tumor treated with robotic pure enucleation in our center, specifically focusing on preoperative work-up, video-reported surgical steps and perioperative outcomes. Materials and Methods: A 63 year-old lady underwent CT scan revealing a single 75 x 68mm, mainly endophytic, right renal mass dislocating the vascular pedicle (cT3a). Two renal arteries and two veins were identified. PADUA, RENAL and simplified SPARE scores were 14a, 12a and 12 respectively. Since the contralateral kidney was hypotrophic, the indication for nephron-sparing approach was considered absolute. Preoperative surgical planning included the employment of 3D-virtual models (2). Results: Operative time was 150 minutes and warm ischemia time was 25 minutes. No major complication occurred. Histopathological analysis revealed a cromophobe renal cell carcinoma with extension to perirenal fat tissue (pT3a). Resection technique was classified as pure enucleation since Surface-Intermediate-Base (SIB) score was 0-0-0 (3, 4). At seven-months follow-up no signs of local or systemic recurrence were recorded. Postoperative CT-scan revealed optimal parenchymal volume preservation with last creatinine blood level of 1.16mg/dL. Conclusion: This video highlights how, in experienced hands, robotic partial nephrectomy represents a feasible, effective treatment option for surgical management of highly complex renal tumors. The employment of intraoperative ultrasonography and 3D-virtual models allowed to accurately tailor surgical approach, improving the perception of tumor anatomy and its vascularization and maximizing perioperative outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Nephrectomy/methods , Robotics , Treatment Outcome , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Middle Aged
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(2): 234-241, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090590

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose Preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are commonly used for radiological evaluation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) before radical nephrectomy or nephron sparing surgery(NSS). This study aimed to assess the role of MRI for predicting postoperative renal function by preoperative estimation of renal parenchymal volume and correlation with glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Materials and Methods A prospective observational study was conducted from February 2015 to October 2016 at a tertiary care hospital in northern India. MR imaging was done on 3 Tesla MR scanner (Signa Hdxt General Electrics, Milwaukee, USA). MR volumetry was used to estimate the renal parenchymal volume. GFR was measured in all patients using Tc99m Diethyl-triamine-penta-acetic acid using Russell's algorithm. Such measurement was done preoperatively, and postoperatively 3 months after surgery. Results 30 patients with suspected RCC underwent NSS (n=10) and radical nephrectomy (n=20). Median tumour volume was 175.7cc (range: 4.8 to 631.8cc). The median volume of the residual parenchyma on the affected side was 84.25±41.97cc while that on the unaffected side was 112.25±26.35cc. There was good correlation among the unaffected kidney volume and postoperative GFR for the radical nephrectomy group (r=0.83) as well as unaffected kidney volume, total residual kidney volume and residual volume of affected kidney with postoperative GFR for the NSS group (r=0.71, r=0.73, r=0.79 respectively; P <0.05). Conclusion Preoperative residual parenchymal volume on MR renal volumetry correlates well with postoperative GFR in patients with RCC undergoing radical nephrectomy or NSS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Nephrectomy/methods , Nephrons/surgery , Postoperative Period , Prognosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prospective Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Middle Aged
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