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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 877-884, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012369

ABSTRACT

The toxic effects of different doses of diclofenac sodium (DS) on the kidney on the postnatal period (0-7 days) by morphometrical and immunohistochemical methods were investigated. For this purpose, 15 female adult wistar albino rats were used and divided into 5 main groups. Group Ia served as normal control, physiologic group Ib received normal saline, group II received low dose (3.9 mg/kg), group III received medium dose (9 mg/kg) and group IV received high dose (18 mg/kg). Male offspring's from 0-7 days after birth were used in this study. On the 8th day of postnatal life, all animals were anesthetized. Then, the kidney samples were analyzed. Haematoxylin and eosin staining showed degeneration and necrosis, apparent atrophy of the glomeruli, mononuclear cell infiltration, congested vessels, increased fibrous tissue and distortion of the proximal convoluted tubules with interruption of the brush margin of the DS treated group. Increased level of Caspase-3 and upregulation of TNF-α with different doses of DS. In light of our findings, DS may lead to adverse effects that are dose-dependent in the prenatal subjected kidney to this drug.


Se investigaron los efectos tóxicos de diferentes dosis de diclofenaco sódico (DS) en el riñón de ratas, durante su período postnatal (0-7 días), por métodos morfométricos e inmunohistoquímicos. Para este propósito, se utilizaron 20 crías macho, de ratas Wistar albinas, y se dividieron en 5 grupos principales. El grupo Ia sirvió como control normal, el grupo fisiológico Ib recibió solución salina normal, el grupo II recibió una dosis baja de DS (3,9 mg/kg), el grupo III recibió una dosis media de DS (9 mg/kg) y el grupo IV recibió una dosis alta de DS (18 mg/kg). Se administraron los medicamentos de 0 a 7 días después del nacimiento de las ratas. En el octavo día de vida postnatal, todos los animales fueron sacrificados. Luego, se analizaron las muestras de riñón. Mediante hematoxilina-eosina se evidenció degeneración y necrosis, aparente atrofia de los glomérulos, infiltración de células mononucleares, vasos congestionados, aumento del tejido fibroso y distorsión de los túbulos contorneados proximales, con interrupción del margen en cepillo del grupo tratado con DS. Se detectó un aumento del nivel de caspasa-3 y regulación al alza de TNF-α con diferentes dosis de DS. A la luz de nuestros hallazgos, la DS puede provocar efectos adversos en el riñón, que dependen de la dosis de este medicamento administrada en el período posnatal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Diclofenac/toxicity , Kidney/drug effects , Staining and Labeling , Immunohistochemistry , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Kidney/growth & development , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/drug effects , Animals, Newborn
2.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 267-276, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771316

ABSTRACT

Shenkang injection (SKI) is a classic prescription composed of Radix Astragali, rhubarb, Astragalus, Safflower, and Salvia. This treatment was approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China in 1999 for treatment of chronic kidney diseases based on good efficacy and safety. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of SKI against high glucose (HG)-induced renal tubular cell senescence and its underlying mechanism. Primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells were cultured in (1) control medium (control group), medium containing 5 mmol/L glucose; (2) mannitol medium (mannitol group), medium containing 5 mmol/L glucose, and 25 mmol/L mannitol; (3) HG medium (HG group) containing 30 mmol/L glucose; (4) SKI treatment at high (200 mg/L), medium (100 mg/L), or low (50 mg/L) concentration in HG medium (HG + SKI group); or (5) 200 mg/L SKI treatment in control medium (control + SKI group) for 72 h. HG-induced senescent cells showed the emergence of senescence associated heterochromatin foci, up-regulation of P16 and cyclin D1, increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, and elevated expression of membrane decoy receptor 2. SKI treatment potently prevented these changes in a dose-independent manner. SKI treatment prevented HG-induced up-regulation of pro-senescence molecule mammalian target of rapamycin and p66Shc and down-regulation of anti-senescence molecules klotho, sirt1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g in renal tubular epithelial cells. SKI may be a novel strategy for protecting against HG-induced renal tubular cell senescence in treatment of diabetic nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cellular Senescence , Cyclin D1 , Metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 , Metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Epithelial Cells , Metabolism , Glucose , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716907

ABSTRACT

Fanconi syndrome is a dysfunction of the proximal renal tubules that results in impaired reabsorption and increased urinary loss of phosphate and other solutes. The pathophysiology of drug-induced Fanconi syndrome is unclear. Here we report the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with pain in multiple bones and proteinuria. She had a 7-year history of taking adefovir at 10 mg/day for chronic hepatitis B. Three years previously she had received surgery for a nontraumatic right femur neck fracture, after which she continued to complain of pain in multiple bones, and proteinuria, glycosuria, and phosphaturia were noted. The findings of a light-microscope examination of a renal biopsy sample were normal, but mitochondrial damage of the proximal tubules was evident in electron microscopy. Western blot analysis revealed that the level of serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) was lower than in normal controls. After 2 months of treatment, hypophosphatemia and proximal tubular dysfunction were reversed, and serum FGF23 had normalized. This case suggests that direct mitochondrial damage in proximal tubules can cause drug-induced Fanconi syndrome associated with osteomalacia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy , Blotting, Western , Fanconi Syndrome , Female , Femoral Neck Fractures , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Glycosuria , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Hypophosphatemia , Hypophosphatemia, Familial , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Microscopy, Electron , Mitochondria , Osteomalacia , Proteinuria
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297221

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of microRNA-145 (miR-145) on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of TGF-β1-induced human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The gene sequence of miR-145 was synthesized and cloned into pCMV-myc to construct recombinant plasmid pCMV-miR-145. HK-2 cells were divided into four groups: control (untreated), TGF-β1 (treated with TGF-β1), blank+TGF-β1 (treated with TGF-β1 after HK-2 cells transfected with blank plasmid) and miR-145+TGF-β1 (treated with TGF-β1 after HK-2 cells transfected with pCMV-miR-145 recombinant plasmid). Expression of miR-145 was detected by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). TGF-β1, Smad3, Smad2/3, p-Smad2/3, α-SMA, FN and type I collagen (Col I) protein levels were detected by Western blot. Concentrations of fibronectin (FN) and Col I in cell culture supernatants were measured using ELISA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>pCMV-miR-145 recombinant plasmid was successfully transfected into HK-2 cells. Compared with the control group, the miR-145+TGF-β1 group showed a significant up-regulation in the expression level of miR-145 (P<0.01). However, the TGF-β1 and blank+TGF-β1 groups showed a significant down-regulation in the expression level of miR-145 compared with that in the control and miR-145+TGF-β1 groups (P<0.01). Compared with the TGF-β1 and blank+TGF-β1 groups, the miR-145+TGF-β1 group showed significantly reduced levels of the signal proteins TGF-β1, Smad3, Smad2/3 and p-Smad2/3 (P<0.05), as well as significantly reduced levels of the biomarkers α-SMA, FN and Col I (P<0.05). Meanwhile, concentrations of FN and Col I in cell culture supernatants also decreased (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>miR-145 modulates the EMT of HK-2 cells treated with TGF-β1, possibly by inhibition of the activation of TGF-β-dependent Smad signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Cells, Cultured , Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Pathology , MicroRNAs , Physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Pharmacology
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300822

ABSTRACT

To discover the nephroprotective substances from Huangkui capsule.The components of Huangkui capsule were isolated by preparative liquid chromatography, and the active components were screened by LC/MS and identified. The adriamycine-injured HK-2 cells were treated with various active components with different concentrations, and the malonaldehyde (MDA) content, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate were measured to verify the protective activity of the compounds.Four active components in Huangkui capsule were identified to exert nephroprotective effects. Fifteen flavanoids from these four components were tentatively identified by LC/MS, and hyperin, myricetin, quercetin, rutin and isoquercetin were confirmed. Hyperin, myricetin quercetin and rutin showed dose-dependent protective effects on injured HK-2 cells. Espacially, hyperin significantly reduced MDA content, quercetin and rutin significantly increased ATP level, and myricetin significantly increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate.Hyperin, myricetin, querctein and rutin might be the potential nephroprotective compounds in Huangkui capsule, their effects may be related to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the alleviation of mitochondrial damage.


Subject(s)
Abelmoschus , Chemistry , Adenosine Triphosphate , Metabolism , Cell Line, Transformed , Chromatography, Liquid , Doxorubicin , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Epithelial Cells , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Kidney Diseases , Drug Therapy , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Lipid Peroxidation , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Mitochondria , Oxygen Consumption , Protective Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Quercetin , Pharmacology , Rutin , Pharmacology
6.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 275-283, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dapagliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, lowers blood glucose by reducing glucose reabsorption at the proximal renal tubule in an insulin-independent manner. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin and to identify the risk factors of adverse drug events in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: As an institutional pharmacovigilance review activity, we reviewed data from medical records of 455 patients with type 2 diabetes who received dapagliflozin therapy from July 2014 to August 2015 in Seoul National University Hospital. We analyzed the changes in laboratory data and examined the characteristics of dapagliflozin users who showed adverse effects. RESULTS: Mean changes in HbA1c and fasting serum glucose level from baseline to second visit were −0.42% (8.07 ± 1.51% to 7.65 ± 1.31%, P < 0.001) and −22.9 mg/dL (167.8 ± 48.5 mg/dL to 144.9 ± 37.6 mg/dL, P < 0.001), respectively. Adverse drug events observed during this study were lower urinary tract symptoms (7.7%), dehydration-related symptoms (6.1%), ketonuria (3.4%), hypoglycemia (3.4%), and urogenital infection (4.2%). Thiazide use, age, insulin use, number of anti-diabetic drugs, gender and history of urogenital infection were the risk factors for adverse drug events (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dapagliflozin significantly improved hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes without serious adverse drug events. The incidences of adverse drug events were was similar to those ofthat in the previous studies.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Fasting , Glucose , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Incidence , Insulin , Ketosis , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Medical Records , Pharmacovigilance , Risk Factors , Seoul
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59172

ABSTRACT

The electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) on the basolateral side of the renal proximal tubule plays a pivotal role in systemic acid-base homeostasis. Mutations in the gene encoding NBCe1 cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis accompanied by other extrarenal symptoms. The proximal tubule reabsorbs most of the sodium filtered in the glomerulus, contributing to the regulation of plasma volume and blood pressure. NBCe1 and other sodium transporters in the proximal tubule are regulated by hormones, such as angiotensin II and insulin. Angiotensin II is probably the most important stimulator of sodium reabsorption. Proximal tubule AT(1A) receptor is crucial for the systemic pressor effect of angiotensin II. In rodents and rabbits, the effect on proximal tubule NBCe1 is biphasic; at low concentration, angiotensin II stimulates NBCe1 via PKC/cAMP/ERK, whereas at high concentration, it inhibits NBCe1 via NO/cGMP/cGKII. In contrast, in human proximal tubule, angiotensin II has a dose-dependent monophasic stimulatory effect via NO/cGMP/ERK. Insulin stimulates the proximal tubule sodium transport, which is IRS2-dependent. We found that in insulin resistance and overt diabetic nephropathy, stimulatory effect of insulin on proximal tubule transport was preserved. Our results suggest that the preserved stimulation of the proximal tubule enhances sodium reabsorption, contributing to the pathogenesis of hypertension with metabolic syndrome. We describe recent findings regarding the role of proximal tubule transport in the regulation of blood pressure, focusing on the effects of angiotensin II and insulin.


Subject(s)
Acidosis, Renal Tubular , Angiotensin II , Blood Pressure , Diabetic Nephropathies , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypertension , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Plasma Volume , Rabbits , Rodentia , Sodium , Sodium-Bicarbonate Symporters
8.
J. bras. nefrol ; 38(4): 390-395, Oct.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829062

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a major iatrogenic cause of acute kidney injury. Experimental studies have shown that intravascular injection causes intense vacuolization of the contrast agent in the proximal renal tubules cells, preceding the increase in serum creatinine, and that the female may be at a higher risk for CIN. Objective: To study the early kidney histomorphometric changes in contrast-induced nephropathy according to the gender. Methods: Twenty previously uninephrectomized Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 5): control males; control females; contrast exposed males; and contrast exposed females. The animals were sacrificed immediately after contrast administration and kidney tissue samples were collected for histomorphometric analysis. The research project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Medicine of Universidade Federal Fluminense. Results: There was a more intense presence of microvacuoles in proximal tubules in the rats exposed to contrast than in the control groups. Such proximal tubular vacuolation was more intensive in the female rats (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Proximal tubular vacuolation is a very early change in CIN and is more intensive in female than in male rats.


Resumo Introdução: A nefropatia induzida por contraste (NIC) é uma das principais causas iatrogênicas de lesão renal aguda. Estudos experimentais têm demonstrado que a injeção intravascular do agente de contraste provoca vacuolização intensa nas células dos túbulos renais proximais, que precede o aumento da creatinina sérica, e que a fêmea podem estar em maior risco de CIN. Objetivo: Estudar as primeiras mudanças histomorfométricas renais na nefropatia induzida por contraste de acordo com o gênero. Métodos: Vinte ratos Wistar anteriormente uninefrectomizados foram divididos em 4 grupos (n = 5): machos de controle; fêmeas de controle; machos expostos ao contraste e fêmeas expostas ao contraste. Os animais foram sacrificados imediatamente após a administração de contraste e amostras de tecido de rim foram coletadas para análise histomorfométrica. O projeto de pesquisa foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal Fluminense. Resultados: Houve presença mais intensa de microvacuolização em túbulos proximais nos ratos expostos ao contraste do que nos grupos de controle. Tal vacuolização tubular proximal foi mais intensa nos ratos do sexo feminino p = 0,001). Conclusão: Vacuolização do tpubulo proximal é uma mudança precoce na CIN e é mais intensa em ratos fêmeas do que em ratos machos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/drug effects , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/pathology , Time Factors , Sex Factors , Rats, Wistar
9.
J. bras. nefrol ; 38(2): 161-172, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787876

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução: Priming é um mecanismo de proteção induzida pela exposição anterior de uma célula ou órgão a baixas ou mesmas concentrações de uma substância tóxica. Objetivo: analisar o mecanismo de priming induzido pela exposição a gentamicina em células tubulares proximais humanas e na insuficiência renal aguda (IRA). Métodos: Células tubulares foram expostos a 2 mM de gentamicina durante 24 horas, enquanto ratos Wistar foram expostas a 40 mg/kg durante 3 dias. Depois de uma semana, as células foram expostas à mesma concentração durante 24h e os ratos durante dez dias. Os animais condicionados foram comparados com ratos controle e tratados com gentamicina durante 10 dias. Foram analisados parâmetros bioquímicos, o estresse oxidativo foi analisado por hidroperóxidos e proteínas carboniladas urinárias, enquanto a defesa antioxidante foi estudada pela atividade antioxidante do plasma e imunomarcação e atividade da catalase, superóxido dismutase, heme oxigenase-1 (HO-1) nos rins. Necrose, apoptose, proliferação e expressão da endotelina-1 (ET-1) e HO-1 foram estudadas em células. Resultados: o condicionamento dos animais inibiu o aumento da creatinina, ureia, excreção urinária de sódio e de proteína induzida por gentamicina. Bosentana, antagonista do receptor ET-1, e hemin, indutor de HO-1, potencializaram a inibição. O mecanismo de proteção foi mediado pela indução de enzimas antioxidantes HO-1, catalase e SOD atividade e redução do estresse oxidativo. O condicionamento inibiu a morte celular e induziu a proliferação via produção de ET-1. Conclusão: o mecanismo de condicionamento é persistente e multifactorial, o estímulo da defesa antioxidante poderia mimetizar o processo de condicionamento e impedir a IRA.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Priming is the mechanism of protection induced by a previous exposition of a cell or organ to low or equal concentrations of a toxic substance. Objective: To analyze the mechanism of priming induced by the previous exposition to gentamicin in human proximal tubular cells and nephrotoxic acute renal failure (ARF). Methods: Wistar rats and tubular cells were exposed to gentamicin 2mM during 24h or 40 mg/kg during 3 days and after one rest week were exposed to the same concentration during 24h in cells and additional ten days in rats. The primed animals were compared to control rats receiving vehicle and GENTA animals treated with the gentamicin during the same period. Biochemical parameters were analyzed. The oxidative stress was analyzed by urinary hydroperoxides and carbonylated protein while antioxidant defense was studied by antioxidant activity of the plasma (FRAP), catalase, superoxide dismutase, heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) immunostaining and enzymatic activity in kidney. Necrosis, apoptosis, proliferation, endothelin 1 (ET-1) and HO-1 expression were studied in cells. Results: Priming of the animals inhibited the increase in creatinine, urea, sodium excretion and urinary protein induced by gentamicin. Bosentan, ET-1 receptor antagonist, and hemin, HO-1 inducer, potentiate the inhibition. The mechanism of protection was mediated by induction of the antioxidant enzymes HO-1, catalase and SOD activity and oxidative stress reduction. Priming inhibited cell death and induced proliferation through ET-1 production. Conclusion: Priming is a persistent and multifactorial mechanism, the stimulation of the antioxidant defense could mimics partially the priming process and prevent the ARF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/cytology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/physiology , Antioxidants/physiology , Gentamicins/administration & dosage , Cells, Cultured , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated whether angiotensin III (Ang III) is involved in monocyte recruitment through regulation of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). METHODS: We measured MCP-1 levels in HK-2 cells that had been treated with various concentrations of Ang III and Ang II type-1 (AT1) receptor antagonists at various time points. The phosphorylation states of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases were measured in Ang III-treated cells to explore the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. MCP-1 levels in HK-2 cell-conditioned media were measured after pre-treatment with the transcription factor inhibitors curcumin or pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. RESULTS: Ang III increased MCP-1 protein production in dose- and time-dependent manners in HK-2 cells, which was inhibited by the AT1 receptor blocker losartan. p38 MAPK activity increased significantly in HK-2 cells exposed to Ang III for 30 minutes, and was sustained at higher levels after 60 minutes (p < 0.05). Total phosphorylated JNK protein levels tended to increase 20 minutes after stimulation with Ang III. Pre-treatment with a p38 inhibitor, a JNK inhibitor, or curcumin significantly inhibited Ang III-induced MCP-1 production. CONCLUSIONS: Ang III increases MCP-1 synthesis via stimulation of intracellular p38 and JNK MAPK signaling activity and subsequent activated protein-1 transcriptional activity in HK-2 cells.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin III/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Humans , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/drug effects , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Time Factors , Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism , Up-Regulation , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors
11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 174-178, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101520

ABSTRACT

Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) are nucleotide analogues used to treat chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. Nephrotoxicity associated with the use of these medications causes Fanconi syndrome, a rare condition involving generalized dysfunction of the proximal renal tubule causing impaired reabsorption of glucose, uric acid, and phosphate. Fanconi syndrome has been previously reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or HIV-CHB coinfection treated with other antiretroviral therapies. However, it is rarely reported in patients with CHB monoinfection. We observed a case of Fanconi syndrome in a 61-year-old woman with CHB monoinfection and a history of long-term ADV therapy (42 months), followed by TDF treatment for 9 months. She presented with ankle pain and a tingling sensation in both lower extremities. Laboratory tests revealed hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hypouricemia, proteinuria, and glycosuria. This case illustrates the importance of recognizing Fanconi syndrome associated with nucleotide analogue treatment and the need to carefully observe symptoms and monitor renal function in these patients.


Subject(s)
Ankle , Coinfection , Fanconi Syndrome , Female , Glucose , Glycosuria , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , HIV , Humans , Hypocalcemia , Hypokalemia , Hypophosphatemia , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Lower Extremity , Middle Aged , Proteinuria , Sensation , Uric Acid
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138559

ABSTRACT

In Fanconi syndrome, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia is caused by proximal renal tubule dysfunction which leads to impaired reabsorption of amino acids, glucose, urate, and phosphate. We present a rare case of a 43-year-old Korean male who was found to have insufficiency stress fracture of the femoral neck secondary to osteomalacia due to Fanconi syndrome. He had been receiving low-dose adefovir dipivoxil (ADV, 10 mg/day) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection for 7 years and he subsequently developed severe hypophosphatemia and proximal renal tubule dysfunction. The incomplete femoral neck fracture was fixed with multiple cannulated screws to prevent further displacement of the initial fracture. After cessation of ADV and correction of hypophosphatemia with oral phosphorus supplementation, the patient's clinical symptoms, such as bone pain, muscle weakness, and laboratory findings improved.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amino Acids , Fanconi Syndrome , Femoral Neck Fractures , Femur Neck , Fractures, Spontaneous , Fractures, Stress , Glucose , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis , Humans , Hypophosphatemia , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Male , Myalgia , Osteomalacia , Phosphorus , Uric Acid
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138558

ABSTRACT

In Fanconi syndrome, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia is caused by proximal renal tubule dysfunction which leads to impaired reabsorption of amino acids, glucose, urate, and phosphate. We present a rare case of a 43-year-old Korean male who was found to have insufficiency stress fracture of the femoral neck secondary to osteomalacia due to Fanconi syndrome. He had been receiving low-dose adefovir dipivoxil (ADV, 10 mg/day) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection for 7 years and he subsequently developed severe hypophosphatemia and proximal renal tubule dysfunction. The incomplete femoral neck fracture was fixed with multiple cannulated screws to prevent further displacement of the initial fracture. After cessation of ADV and correction of hypophosphatemia with oral phosphorus supplementation, the patient's clinical symptoms, such as bone pain, muscle weakness, and laboratory findings improved.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amino Acids , Fanconi Syndrome , Femoral Neck Fractures , Femur Neck , Fractures, Spontaneous , Fractures, Stress , Glucose , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis , Humans , Hypophosphatemia , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Male , Myalgia , Osteomalacia , Phosphorus , Uric Acid
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(4): 410-416, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759270

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Men who have sex with men are at risk of tenofovir nephrotoxicity due to its wide use in both treatment and prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus infection, but little is known about the urinary biomarkers of early renal dysfunction in this population. This study aims to identify useful biomarkers of early renal dysfunction among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men who have sex with men exposed to tenofovir.Methods: In a cross-sectional study urinary alpha1-microglobulin, beta2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-B-n-glucosaminidase and albumin were measured and expressed as the ratio-to-creatinine in 239 human immunodeficiency virus-infected men who have sex with men who were treatment naïve or receiving antiretroviral therapy with tenofovir-containing or non-tenofovir-containing regimens. Additionally, 56 patients in the non-antiretroviral therapy group started a tenofovir-containing regimen and were assessed after 3 and 6 months on antiretroviral therapy.Results: Both the frequency of alpha1-microglobulin proteinuria (alpha1-microglobulin-creatinine ratio >25.8 mg/g) and the median urinary alpha1-microglobulin-creatinine ratio were higher in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group than the other two groups (all p< 0.05). A higher frequency of beta2-microglobulin proteinuria (beta2-microglobulin-creatinine ratio >0.68 mg/g) was also observed in the tenofovir group (28.9%) compared to the non-tenofovir group (13.6%, p= 0.024). There were no significant differences between groups for N-acetyl-β-n-glucosaminidase and albumin. In the longitudinal study, the median urinary alphat-microglobulin-creatinine ratio after 3 and 6 months on tenofovir-containing therapy (16.8 and 17.3 mg/g) was higher than baseline (12.3 mg/g, p= 0.023 and 0.011, respectively), while no statistically important changes were observed in urinary beta2-microglobulin-creatinine ratio or in the other biomarkers after 3 and 6 months on antiretroviral therapy (all p> 0.05).Conclusion: Urinary alphat-microglobulin seems to be a more sensitive and stable indicator of tubular dysfunction than urinary beta2-microglobulin for assessing tenofovir-related nephrotoxicity and can be significantly altered after tenofovir exposure.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/chemically induced , Alpha-Globulins/urine , Homosexuality, Male , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Tenofovir/adverse effects , /urine , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/diagnosis , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/urine , Acetylglucosaminidase/urine , Albuminuria/chemically induced , Biomarkers/urine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Tenofovir/therapeutic use
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331107

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CC-RCC) are serious disorders and usually fatal, and always accompanied with pathological changes in the kidney. Signal-induced proliferation-associated protein 1 (SIPA-1) is a Rap1GTPase activating protein (Rap1GAP) expressed in the normal distal and collecting tubules of the murine kidney. Lupus-like autoimmune disease and leukemia have been observed in SIPA-1 deficient mice, suggesting a pathological relevance of SIPA-1 to SLE and carcinoma in human being. The expression pattern of SIPA-1 is as yet undefined and the pathogenesis of these diseases in humans remains elusive. In this study, we used both immunohistochemistry and quantum dot (QD)-based immunofluorescence staining to investigate the expression of SIPA-1 in renal specimens from SLE and CC-RCC patients. MTT assay and Western blotting were employed to evaluate the effects of SIPA-1 overexpression on the proliferation and apoptosis of renal cell lines. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) was applied to examine the changes of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) mRNA level. Results showed that SIPA-1 was highly expressed in the proximal and collecting tubules of nephrons in SLE patients compared to normal ones, and similar results were obtained in the specimens of CC-RCC patients. Although SIPA-1 overexpression did not affect cellular proliferation and apoptosis of both human 786-O renal cell carcinoma cells and rat NRK-52E renal epithelial cell lines, RT-PCR results showed that HIF-1α mRNA level was down-regulated by SIPA-1 overexpression in 786-O cells. These findings suggest that SIPA-1 may play critical roles in the pathological changes in kidney, and might provide a new biomarker to aid in the diagnosis of SLE and CC-RCC.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Base Sequence , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , DNA Primers , GTPase-Activating Proteins , Metabolism , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Metabolism , Pathology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Metabolism , Pathology , Nuclear Proteins , Metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264594

ABSTRACT

We investigated the protective effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) on the survival of the human renal proximal tubular cell line, HK-2, using an in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model. The survival rate of cells cultured under H/R condition declined significantly, while the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels markedly increased. The 10 Hz/1 mT EMF exposure reversed the H/R induced reduction in cell survival and induction of intracellular ROS. Our results suggest that 10 Hz/1 mT EMF exposure could inhibit H/R-induced cell death of HK-2 via suppression of intracellular ROS production and that this treatment might be clinically useful for the amelioration of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.


Subject(s)
Cell Hypoxia , Cell Line , Electromagnetic Fields , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Radiation Effects , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Reperfusion Injury
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Apr; 52(4): 332-343
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150364

ABSTRACT

Renal structural and functional alterations following an exposure to a heterogeneous chemical mixture (HCM) of phthalic acid di butyl ester, 1, 2–dichlorobenzene, cadmium chloride and chromium trioxide, administered through oral gavage in low doses (1/100 and 1/1000 of LD50 value of individual chemical) for 60 days, followed by withdrawal till 120 days resulted in significant rise in kidney lipid peroxidation and fall in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants. However, withdrawal of HCM treatment restored most of these altered parameters. Degenerative changes in the kidney included proximal convoluted tubules devoid of brush boarder with cytoplasmic blebbing, dissolution and sloughing of nuclei. Cortical glomeruli were also affected with epithelial disintegration, pyknosis of podocyte nuclei and mesengial cell hyperplasia. The morphological alterations recovered fully in the low dose compared to the high dose treatment group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cadmium Chloride/toxicity , Chlorobenzenes/toxicity , Chromium Compounds/toxicity , Complex Mixtures/toxicity , Environmental Exposure , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/drug effects , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/physiology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/ultrastructure , Male , Phthalic Acids/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar
18.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 27 (1): 51-55
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142979

ABSTRACT

We previously reported that tranilast can halt the pathogenesis of chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in rats via the transforming growth factor-beta [TGF-beta] /Smad pathway, an important signaling system involved in epithelialmesenchymal transition [EMT], but the exact underlying cellular mechanisms are not yet clear. Thus, by selecting [0]TGF-beta1-induced normal rat kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells [NRK-52E] as a model, we demonstrated potential modifying effect of tranilast on EMT-induced by TGF-beta1 in vitro. NRK-52E cells were incubated with the blank vehicle [Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and F-12 [DMEM/F12] added with 10% fetal bovine serum [FBS]], 10 ng/ml TGF-beta1 alone or together with 100, 200 or 400microM tranilast for 48 h after incubation in medium containing 1% FBS for 24 h. Cell morphological changes were observed to confirm occurrence of EMT. Protein expressions of two typical markers of EMT, E-cadherin and alpha-smooth muscle actin [alpha-SMA], were assessed by western blotting and flow cytometry, respectively. Our results showed that TGF-beta1 induced spindle-like morphological transition, the loss of Ecadherin protein and upregulation of expression of alpha-SMA. However, the TGF-beta1-produced changes in cellular morphology, E-cadherin and alpha-SMA were inversed by tranlilast in concentration-dependent manner. Our findings indicate that tranilast can directly inhibit EMT. Thus, it may be implied that regulation of EMT be the target to prevent renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/drug effects , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/drug effects , ortho-Aminobenzoates/pharmacology , Rats , Cadherins/analysis , Cell Line , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Actins/analysis
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 398-414, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297477

ABSTRACT

HCO3(-) reabsorption in the renal tubules plays a critically important role in maintaining the global acid-base balance. Loss of HCO3(-) causes metabolic acidosis. Proximal renal tubule is the major site for HCO3(-) reabsorption, accounting for more than 80% of total HCO3(-) reabsorption along the nephron. Over the past more than half centuries, tremendous progresses have been made on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the HCO3(-) reabsorption in proximal tubules. The transepithelial movement of HCO3(-) involves the coordinated operation of machineries on both the apical and the basolateral membranes of the epithelial cells. On the apical domain, Na(+)-H(+) exchanger NHE3 and the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase are two major pathways mediating the apical uptake of HCO3(-)-related species. Taken together, NHE3 and H(+)-ATPase are responsible for about 80% of HCO3(-) reabsorption in the proximal tubule. The remaining 20% is likely mediated by pathways yet to be characterized. On the basolateral membrane, NBCe1 represents the only major known pathway mediating the extrusion of HCO3(-) coupled with Na(+) into the interstitial space. In the present article, we provide a historical view about the studies on the mechanisms of HCO3(-) reabsorption since 1940s. Moreover, we summarize the latest progresses emerging over the past decade in the physiological as well as pathological roles of acid-base transporters underlying the HCO3(-) reabsorption in proximal tubules.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Animals , Bicarbonates , Metabolism , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers , Physiology , Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases , Physiology
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 343-347, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-317990

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Surfactant protein A (SP-A) contributes to the regulation of sepsis-induced acute lung injury. In a previous study, we demonstrated the expression and localization of SP-A in the kidneys. The present study evaluated the effect of SP-A on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) expression and its underlying mechanisms in the human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to detect SP-A distribution and expression in HK-2 cells. HK-2 cells were treated with various concentrations of LPS (0, 0.1, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mg/L) for 8 hours and with 5 mg/L LPS for different times (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours) to determine the effects of LPS on SP-A and TNF-α expression. Then, HK-2 cells were transfected with SP-A siRNA to analyze nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) P65 and TNF-α expression of HK-2 cells after LPS-treatment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Indirect immunofluorescence assay revealed that SP-A is localized to the membrane and cytoplasm of HK-2 cells. Interestingly, SP-A1/SP-A2 and TNF-a expression were found to be significantly increased in HK-2 cells upon LPS treatment. Transfection of LPS-treated HK-2 cells with SP-A siRNA resulted in significant increases in the levels of NF-κB P65 protein and TNF-α mRNA and protein compared to those in non-transfected LPS-treated HK-2 cells.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SP-A plays an important role in protecting cells against sepsis-induced acute kidney injury by inhibiting NF-κB activity to modulate LPS-induced increase in TNF-α expression.</p>


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Epithelial Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Cell Biology , Lipopolysaccharides , Pharmacology , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
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