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J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 12(1): 1-9, jan.-dez. 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554635


Objetivo: analisar o perfil de micro-organismos presentes e resistência destes aos antimicrobianos em uroculturas de pacientes transplantados renais no período de 2021-2022. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo transversal com análise quantitativa dos dados de uroculturas positivas de pacientes transplantados renais, acompanhados no Hospital Geral de Fortaleza entre janeiro de 2021 a dezembro de 2022. Foi empregado um instrumento de pesquisa elaborado, contendo variáveis classificatórias, e os dados foram obtidos por meio de registros das uroculturas existentes no sistema de prontuário eletrônico utilizado pelo hospital. Resultados: das 534 uroculturas solicitadas, 36,7% apresentaram resultado positivo, sendo 60,4% de mulheres com idades entre 20 e 59 anos. A maioria dos casos foram desenvolvidos por pacientes que receberam acompanhamento ambulatorial (56,2%). Os micro-organismos isolados foram, predominantemente, enterobactérias (81,34%), com prevalência de E.coli (69,30%). Os perfis de sensibilidade antimicrobiana variaram, com a resistência da E.coli a antibióticos como ampicilina, ácido nalidíxico, norfloxacino e ciprofloxacino. Conclusões: essas descobertas fornecem informações importantes sobre métodos clínicos específicos, métodos preventivos e melhorias na qualidade de vida dos transplantados renais.

Objective: to analyze the profile of microorganisms present and their resistance to antimicrobials in urocultures of renal transplant patients in 2021-2022. Methods: it is a cross-sectional study with quantitative data analysis from positive urocultures of renal transplant patients accompanied at the General Hospital of Fortaleza between January 2021 and December 2022. An elaborate research instrument containing classification variables was employed, and the data were obtained through records of the urocultures existing in the electronic checkbook system used by the hospital. Results: of the 534 urocultures requested, 36.7% showed a positive result, of which 60.4% were women aged between 20 and 59. Most cases were developed by patients who received outpatient follow-up (56.2%). The isolated microorganisms were predominantly enterobacteria (81.34%), with the prevalence of E.coli (69.30%). Antimicrobial sensitivity profiles varied, with E.coli resistance to antibiotics such as ampicillin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: these findings provide important information about specific clinical methods, preventive methods, and improvements in the quality of life of renal transplant patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Microbiota , Transplant Recipients , Anti-Infective Agents , Patients , Kidney
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 205-215, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528814


SUMMARY: This study assessed the effects of Acacia Senegal (AS) combined with insulin on Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA expression, serum glucose, renal function, and oxidative stress in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty rats were equally divided into six groups: normal control, normal+AS, diabetic (DM), DM+insulin, DM+AS, and DM+insulin+AS groups. Diabetes mellitus (type 1) was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and insulin and AS treatments were carried until rats were culled at the end of week 12. Serum glucose and creatinine levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. Renal homogenate levels of NKA activity and gene expression, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated as well as kidney tissue histology and ultrastructure. Diabetes caused glomerular damage and modulation of blood and tissue levels of creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, malondialdehyde, NKA activity and gene expression, SOD, catalase and GSH, which were significantly (p<0.05) treated with AS, insulin, and insulin plus AS. However, AS+insulin treatments were more effective. In conclusion, combined administration of AS with insulin to rats with DN decreased NKA activity and gene expression as well as oxidative stress, and improved glycemic state and renal structure and function.

Este estudio evaluó los efectos de Acacia senegal (AS) combinada con insulina sobre la actividad Na+/K+- ATPasa (NKA) y la expresión de ARNm, la glucosa sérica, la función renal y el estrés oxidativo en un modelo de nefropatía diabética (ND) en ratas. Sesenta ratas se dividieron equitativamente en seis grupos: control normal, normal+AS, diabética (DM), DM+insulina, DM+AS y DM+insulina+AS. La diabetes mellitus (tipo 1) se indujo mediante una única inyección de estreptozotocina (65 mg/kg), y los tratamientos con insulina y AS se llevaron a cabo hasta que las ratas fueron sacrificadas al final de la semana 12. Se midieron niveles séricos de glucosa y creatinina, hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c). Se evaluaron los niveles de homogeneizado renal de actividad NKA y expresión génica, malondialdehído, superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa y glutatión reducido (GSH), así como la histología y ultraestructura del tejido renal. La diabetes causó daño glomerular y modulación de los niveles sanguíneos y tisulares de creatinina, glucosa, HbA1c, malondialdehído, actividad y expresión génica de NKA, SOD, catalasa y GSH, los cuales fueron tratados significativamente (p<0,05) con AS, insulina e insulina más AS. Sin embargo, los tratamientos con AS+insulina fueron más efectivos. En conclusión, la administración combinada de AS con insulina a ratas con DN disminuyó la actividad de NKA y la expresión genética, así como el estrés oxidativo, y mejoró el estado glucémico y la estructura y función renal.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/drug effects , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Acacia/chemistry , Superoxide Dismutase , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gene Expression , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics , Oxidative Stress , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glycemic Control , Insulin/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Malondialdehyde
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 44-49, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011100


Objective:To investigate long-term auditory changes and characteristics of Alport syndrome(AS) patients with different degrees of renal injury. Methods:Retrospectively analyzing clinical data of patients diagnosed AS from January 2007 to September 2022, including renal pathology, genetic detection and hearing examination. A long-term follow-up focusing on hearing and renal function was conducted. Results:This study included 70 AS patients, of which 33(25 males, 8 females, aged 3.4-27.8 years) were followed up, resulting in a loss rate of 52.9%.The follow-up period ranged from 1.1to 15.8 years, with 16 patients followed-up for over 10 years. During the follow-up, 10 patients presenting with hearing abnormalities at the time of diagnosis of AS had progressive hearing loss, and 3 patients with new hearing abnormalities were followed up, which appeared at 5-6 years of disease course. All of which were sensorineural deafness. While only 3 patients with hearing abnormalities among 13 patients received hearing aid intervention. Of these patients,7 developed end-stage renal disease(ESRD), predominantly males (6/7). The rate of long-term hearing loss was significantly different between ESRD group and non-ESRD group(P=0.013). There was no correlation between the progression of renal disease and long-term hearing level(P>0.05). kidney biopsies from 28 patients revealed varying degrees of podocyte lesion and uneven thickness of basement membrane. The severity of podocyte lesion was correlated with the rate of long-term hearing loss(P=0.048), and there was no correlation with the severity of hearing loss(P>0.05). Among 11 cases, theCOL4A5mutationwas most common (8 out of 11), but there was no significant correlation between the mutation type and hearing phenotype(P>0.05). Conclusion:AS patients exhibit progressive hearing loss with significant heterogeneity over the long-term.. THearing loss is more likely to occur 5-6 years into the disease course. Hearing abnormalities are closely related to renal disease status, kidney tissue pathology, and gene mutations, emphasizing the need for vigilant long-term hearing follow-up and early intervention.

Male , Child , Female , Humans , Nephritis, Hereditary/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Kidney , Deafness , Hearing Loss/genetics , Kidney Failure, Chronic/pathology , Mutation
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 92-95, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009359


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a fetus with Cardiac valvular dysplasia type 1 (CVDP1).@*METHODS@#A CVDP1 fetus identified at the Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital on July 7, 2022 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the fetus was collected. The fetus and its parents were subjected to trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES), and candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The fetus had exhibited generalized edema, complex cardiac malformation, abdominal effusion, and enhanced intestinal and renal parenchymal echoes. Trio-WES revealed that it has harbored compound heterozygous variants of the PLD1 gene, namely c.2977C>T (p.R993*) and c.1460G>A (p.W487*), which were respectively inherited from its father and mother. Neither variant was reported previously. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the c.2977C>T (p.R993*) variant was evaluated to be likely pathogenic (PVS1_Moderate+PM2_Supporting+PM3+PP4), whilst the c.1460G>A (p.W487*) variant was evaluated to be pathogenic (PVS1+PM2_Supporting+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The c.2977C>T (p.R993*) and c.1460G>A (p.W487*) compound heterozygous variants of the PLD1 gene probably underlay the CVDP1 in the fetus. Above discovery has enriched the mutational spectrum of the PLD1 gene and provided a guidance for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in this family.

Child , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Fetus , Genetic Counseling , Genomics , Kidney , Mutation , Phenotype
Cir. Urug ; 8(1): e401, 2024. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1550200


Paciente masculino de 45 años que acude por cuadro clínico de 12 horas de evolución caracterizado por dolor abdominal, en flanco y fosa ilíaca derecha, asociado a vómitos de aspecto bilioso.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pelvis , Congenital Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Calculi/diagnostic imaging , Kidney/abnormalities , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Pain
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254646, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360224


Chronic stress (CS) can contribute to dysfunction in several organs including liver and kidney. This study was performed to investigate the changes in serum biochemistry, histological structure, as well as in localization of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins (TyrPho) and Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp-70) in liver and kidney tissues of CS rats induced by two stressors (restrained and force swimming) for 60 consecutive days. Samples of blood, liver, and kidney were collected from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in each group. Our results showed that serum biochemical parameters including corticosterone, blood sugar, urea nitrogen, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase in CS group were significantly different from that in normal group in both liver and kidney tissues. Although histological structure was not changed. TyrPho expression was significantly increased in liver lysate but significantly decreased in kidney. Hsp-70 expression in liver increased whereas in kidney decreased. In conclusion, CS can induce changes in liver and kidney functions.

O estresse crônico (SC) pode contribuir para a disfunção em vários órgãos, incluindo fígado e rim. Este estudo foi realizado para investigar as alterações na bioquímica sérica, estrutura histológica, bem como na localização de proteínas tirosina fosforiladas (TyrPho) e proteína de choque térmico 70 (Hsp-70) em tecidos hepáticos e renais de ratos CS induzidas por dois estressores (restrito e natação forçada) por 60 dias consecutivos. Amostras de sangue, fígado e rim foram coletadas de ratos Sprague-Dawley machos adultos em cada grupo. Nossos resultados mostraram que os parâmetros bioquímicos séricos, incluindo corticosterona, glicemia, nitrogênio ureico, creatinina, colesterol, triglicerídeos, HDL-C, LDL-C, ALT, AST, fosfatase alcalina no grupo CS foram significativamente diferentes do grupo normal em ambos os fígados e tecidos renais. Embora a estrutura histológica não tenha sido alterada, a expressão de TyrPho aumentou significativamente no lisado hepático, mas diminuiu significativamente no rim. A expressão de Hsp-70 no fígado aumentou, enquanto que no rim diminuiu. Em conclusão, a CS pode induzir alterações nas funções hepáticas e renais.

Rats , Stress, Physiological , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Liver/anatomy & histology
Femina ; 51(12): 687-691, 20231230. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532472


Malformações müllerianas correspondem a variações anatômicas do trato repro- dutor feminino. Comumente assintomáticas, o diagnóstico e a verdadeira incidên- cia são difíceis de determinar. A síndrome de Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich, clas- sicamente descrita pela tríade útero didelfo, hemivagina cega e agenesia renal ipsilateral também pode ter variações diferentes. Em virtude da mesma origem embrionária dos tratos genital e urinário, anomalias renais devem ser investigadas nesses casos, sendo a mais comum a agenesia renal. Este artigo relata o caso de uma paciente de 18 anos, do sexo feminino, com história de piocolpo por cinco anos. Em propedêutica complementar, foi identificado útero com septação com- pleta associado a hemissepto de terço superior de vagina, formação de piocolpo e agenesia renal à direita. Apesar de não ser a definição clássica, o quadro está incluído nos casos de síndrome de Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich.

Mullerian malformations correspond to anatomical variations of the female repro- ductive tract. Commonly asymptomatic, the diagnosis and true incidence are difficult to determine. The Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome, classically described by the triad: uterus didelphus, blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis, can also have different variations. Due to the same embryonic origin of the genital and urinary tracts, renal anomalies must be investigated in these cases, the most common being renal agenesis. This article reports the case of an 18-year-old female patient with a 5-year history of pyocolpus. In complementary exams, a uterus with complete septa- tion was identified, associated with a hemiseptum in the upper third of the vagina, formation of pyocolpus and renal agenesis on the right side. Despite not being the classic definition, it is included in the cases of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Uterus/abnormalities , Vagina/abnormalities , Urogenital Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Vaginitis/diagnosis , Uterine Didelphys/diagnostic imaging , Hospitals, University , Kidney/abnormalities , Mullerian Ducts/diagnostic imaging
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(6): 397-401, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530040


El síndrome de hemivagina obstruida y anomalía renal ipsilateral (OHVIRA) es producido por una alteración en el desarrollo de los conductos de Müller y Wolff en la vida fetal. El síndrome es poco frecuente, se reporta una prevalencia de 1/2.000 a 1/28.000 casos. La endometriosis se presenta en un 19% de los casos complicando esta patología. El tratamiento del síndrome OHVIRA consiste en resecar el tabique vaginal drenando el hematocolpos. Hasta el momento no existe un consenso en recomendar la realización de una laparoscopia diagnóstica. El objetivo de este estudio es reportar la eventual importancia de la laparoscopia diagnóstica/terapéutica como parte del manejo del síndrome OHVIRA.

Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA) syndrome is caused by a defect in the development of Müllerian and Wolffian ducts at fetal life. The syndrome is uncommon, with a reported prevalence of 1/2,000 to 1/28,000 cases. Endometriosis is present in 19% of cases complicating this pathology. Treatment of OHVIRA syndrome consists in resecting the vaginal septum and draining the hematocolpos. Until now there isnt an agreement on recommending diagnostic laparoscopy as part of the treatment. The aim of this study is to report the importance of diagnostic/therapeutic laparoscopy in the management of OHVIRA syndrome.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Uterus/abnormalities , Vagina/abnormalities , Abnormalities, Multiple/surgery , Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis , Laparoscopy , Kidney/abnormalities , Syndrome , Uterus/surgery , Vagina/surgery , Endometriosis/etiology , Hematocolpos , Kidney/surgery
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(6): e202202853, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518733


Se informa de un lipoblastoma perineal en una niña de 5 años localizado en el labio mayor derecho. La lesión aumentó gradualmente en 6 meses. En la ecografía y la resonancia magnética (RM), se observó un tumor heterogéneo sólido limitado con componente graso. Tras su extirpación quirúrgica, el estudio anatomopatológico confirmó un lipoblastoma. El lipoblastoma es un tumor mesenquimatoso benigno poco frecuente de la lactancia y la primera infancia. Los síntomas varían en función de la localización; pueden observarse signos de compresión de los órganos adyacentes. Este tipo de tumores inusuales de los tejidos blandos son más frecuentes en menores de 3 años. Los lipoblastomas se localizan predominantemente en las extremidades, pero también pueden encontrarse en la cabeza y el cuello, el tronco, el mediastino, el riñón, el mesenterio, el retroperitoneo y el perineo. Se debe sospechar su presencia en función de los hallazgos de la ecografía y la RM.

We reported a perineal lipoblastoma in a 5-year-old girl located in the right labia mayor. The lesion gradually increased within 6 months. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a limited solid heterogenous tumor with fatty component. After it had been surgically removed, the anatomopathological examination confirmed that it was a lipoblastoma. Lipoblastoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of infancy and early childhood. Symptoms vary depending on localization; signs of compression of adjacent organs may be seen. This type of unusual soft tissue tumors occurred most often in under 3 years old. The localization of lipoblastomas is predominantly in the extremities but may be also found in other sites including the head and neck, trunk, mediastinum, kidney, mesentery, retropritoneum and perineum. The suspicion should be considered according to ultrasound and MRI findings.

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Soft Tissue Neoplasms , Lipoblastoma/surgery , Lipoblastoma/diagnosis , Lipoblastoma/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Kidney/pathology , Neck/pathology
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1527-1536, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521022


SUMMARY: The 12C6+ heavy ion beam irradiation can cause bystander effects. The inflammatory cytokines, endocrine hormones and apoptotic proteins may be involved in 12C6+ irradiation-induced bystander effects. This study characterized the protective effects and mechanisms of Huangqi decoction (HQD) against 12C6+ radiation induced bystander effects. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation model, and high-dose/medium-dose/low-dose HQD groups. HE staining assessed the pathological changes of brain and kidney. Peripheral blood chemical indicators as well as inflammatory factors and endocrine hormones were detected. Apoptosis was measured with TUNEL. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was determined with real-time PCR and Western blot.Irradiation induced pathological damage to the brain and kidney tissues. After irradiation, the numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and monocyte, and the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and PCNA decreased. The damage was accompanied by increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as well as increased neuronal apoptosis. These effects were indicative of radiation-induced bystander effects. Administration of HQD attenuated the pathological damage to brain and kidney tissues, and increased the numbers of WBC, neutrophils, lymphocyte and monocytes, as well as the expression of IL-2, CRH and PCNA. It also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, CORT and ACTH as well as neuronal apoptosis. HQD exhibits protective effects against 12C6+ radiation-induced bystander effects. The underlying mechanism may involve the promotion of the production of peripheral blood cells, inhibition of inflammatory factors and apoptosis, and regulation of endocrine hormones.

La irradiación con haz de iones pesados 12C6+ puede provocar efectos secundarios. Las citoquinas inflamatorias, las hormonas endocrinas y las proteínas apoptóticas pueden estar involucradas en los efectos secundarios inducidos por la irradiación 12C6+. Este estudio caracterizó los efectos y mecanismos protectores de la decocción de Huangqi (HQD) contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. Las ratas Wistar se dividieron aleatoriamente en grupos control, modelo de irradiación de iones pesados 12C6+ y grupos de dosis alta/media/baja de HQD. La tinción con HE evaluó los cambios patológicos del cerebro y el riñón. Se detectaron indicadores químicos de sangre periférica, así como factores inflamatorios y hormonas endocrinas. La apoptosis se midió con TUNEL. La expresión del antígeno nuclear de células en proliferación (PCNA) se determinó mediante PCR en tiempo real y transferencia Western blot. La irradiación indujo daños patológicos en los tejidos cerebrales y renales. Después de la irradiación, disminuyó el número de glóbulos blancos (WBC) y monocitos, y la expresión de interleucina (IL)-2, hormona liberadora de corticotropina (CRH) y PCNA. El daño estuvo acompañado por una mayor expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterona (CORT) y hormona adrenocorticotrópica (ACTH), así como un aumento de la apoptosis neuronal. Estas alteraciones fueron indicativas de efectos inducidos por la radiación. La administración de HQD atenuó el daño patológico a los tejidos cerebrales y renales, y aumentó el número de leucocitos y monocitos, así como la expresión de IL-2, CRH y PCNA. También disminuyó la expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, CORT y ACTH, así como la apoptosis neuronal. HQD exhibe mecanismos protectores contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. El mecanismo subyacente puede implicar la promoción de la producción de células sanguíneas periféricas, la inhibición de factores inflamatorios y la apoptosis y la regulación de hormonas endocrinas.

Animals , Female , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Heavy Ions/adverse effects , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Brain/drug effects , Brain/radiation effects , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Endocrine System/drug effects , Endocrine System/radiation effects , Immunologic Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/radiation effects
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1480-1484, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521043


Testut & Latarjet (1980), Bouchet & Cuilleret (1986), Latarjet & Liard (2005) y Rouvière & Delmas (2005) describen las relaciones intrínsecas del pedículo renal (PR) a partir de dos planos coronales, siendo la PER el elemento que limita entre ambos. Trivedi et al. (2011) demostró relaciones entre los elementos del PR que no coinciden con las descripciones aportadas por dichos autores.Conocer las posibles variantes en las relaciones intrínsecas del PR es de suma importancia en prácticas quirúrgicas como el trasplante renal (García de Jalón Martínez et al., 2003; Batista Hernández et al., 2010). Por lo tanto, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar las variables relaciones entre los elementos que conforman el PR en la región yuxtahiliar del riñón. Se estudiaron 23 PR, formolizados al 10 % y provistos por el Equipo de Disección de la Segunda Cátedra de Anatomía de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Se clasificaron los PR en dos grupos. En el Grupo I, las afluentes de origen de la vena renal (AOVR) se hallaban en el mismo plano coronal. En el grupo II, las AOVR se encontraban en diferentes planos coronales. Cada grupo fue subdividido en distintos patrones. Los patrones I y II, de mayor incidencia, fueron asociados al grupo I y los patrones III, IV y V al grupo II. En el patrón I, las AOVR eran anteriores a la pelvis renal (PER) y posteriores a la arteria prepiélica (APP). En el patrón II, las AOVR eran anteriores a la PER y a la APP. Los patrones I y II conforman el grupo I y presentaron mayor número de incidencia en nuestra investigación. Existen también variantes que inciden con menor frecuencia que dichos patrones, estas comprenden el grupo II de la clasificación planteada en el presente trabajo.

SUMMARY: Testut & Latarjet (1980), Bouchet & Cuilleret (1986), Latarjet & Liard (2005) y Rouvière & Delmas (2005) describe the intrinsic relationships of the renal pedicle (PR) from two coronal planes, the renal pelvis (PER) being the element that limits between both. Trivedi et al. (2011) showed relationships between the elements of the RP that do not coincide with the descriptions provided by these authors. Knowing the possible variants in the intrinsic relationships of the RP is of the utmost importance in surgical practices such as renal transplantation (García de Jalón Martínez et al., 2003). Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the variable relationships between the elements that make up the RP in the juxtahilar region of the kidney. 23 RP were studied, formalized at 10 % and provided by the Dissection Team of the Second Chair of Anatomy of the University of Buenos Aires. PRs were classified into two groups. In Group I, the tributaries of origin of the renal vein (RVOA) were in the same coronal plane. In group II, the AOVRs were in different coronal planes. Each group was subdivided into different patterns. Patterns I and II, with the highest incidence, were associated with group I and patterns III, IV and V with group II. In pattern I, the VROA were anterior to the renal pelvis (PER) and posterior to the prepelvic artery (PPA). In pattern II, AOVRs were prior to PER and APP. Patterns I and II make up group I and presented a higher number of incidence in our investigation. There are also variants that occur less frequently than these patterns, these comprise group II of the classification proposed in this work.

Humans , Renal Artery/anatomy & histology , Renal Veins/anatomy & histology , Kidney Pelvis , Cadaver , Anatomic Variation , Kidney
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1004-1008, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514328


SUMMARY: For the purposes of teaching anatomy, the use of cadaver preparations is considered the most efficient way of ensuring that students retain knowledge. Nevertheless, in Ecuador the use of animal specimens in universities must comply with the internationally accepted principles of replacement, reduction and refinement (3Rs). Plastination is an alternative technique which allows organs to be conserved in the long term and complies with the 3Rs. The object of the present work was to use cold-temperature silicone plastination with Biodur® products to obtain long-lasting, easy-to-handle canine organs for use as tools for the teaching of animal anatomy. Six canine cadavers were obtained from local animal protection charities. The hearts, brains and kidneys of the cadavers were dissected and fixed with formaldehyde 10 %. They were then dehydrated with acetone at -20 °C. The specimens were impregnated with Biodur® S10:S3 (-20 °C) and finally cured with Biodur® S6. We plastinated six hearts, twelve kidneys, four brains and one encephalic slice of canine. The application of cold-temperature plastination to canine organs followed the parameters established for the conventional protocol, enabling us to obtain organs of brilliant appearance, free of odours, in which the anatomical form was preserved. Thus the technique helped us to comply with the 3Rs, as we obtained easy-to-handle teaching models to replace fresh or formaldehyde-fixed samples for the teaching-learning of the canine anatomy.

En la enseñanza de la Anatomía, el uso de preparaciones cadavéricas se considera el método que permite a los estudiantes retener el conocimiento de una forma más eficiente. No obstante, en Ecuador, el uso de especímenes animales en las universidades se debe realizar bajo el principio internacional de reemplazo, reducción y refinamiento (3Rs). La técnica de plastinación es una técnica alternativa que permite preservar órganos a largo plazo y que se adapta al principio de las 3Rs. El objetivo del trabajo fue utilizar la técnica de plastinación en silicona al frío con productos Biodur® para obtener órganos caninos duraderos y manejables útiles como herramienta para la enseñanza de la anatomía animal. Se obtuvieron seis cadáveres de caninos de fundaciones locales para la protección animal. Se realizaron disecciones de corazones, cerebros y riñones de los cadáveres caninos. Los órganos se fijaron con formalina al 10 %. A continuación, se llevó a cabo la deshidratación con acetona a -20 °C. Los especímenes fueron impregnados con S10:S3 Biodur® (-20 °C) y al final fueron curados con Biodur® S6. Se lograron plastinar seis corazones, doce riñones, cinco encéfalos y un tallo encefálico de canino. La técnica de plastinación al frío utilizada para obtener órganos de canino conservó los parámetros empleados en el protocolo convencional y permitió obtener órganos que presentaron aspecto brillante, ausencia de olores y mantuvieron la forma anatómica. Por lo que, la técnica facilitó cumplir con el principio de las 3Rs al obtenerse modelos didácticos fáciles de manipular que pueden reemplazar muestras frescas o formolizadas en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la anatomía del canino.

Animals , Dogs , Organ Preservation/methods , Cryopreservation , Plastination , Anatomy, Veterinary/education , Silicones , Tissue Preservation/methods , Cold Temperature , Cerebrum/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Kidney/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 975-984, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514313


SUMMARY: The toxic effects of acetaminophen appear primarily in the liver and kidney. The protective effect of blue green alga Arthrospira platensis on hepato-renal toxicity caused by acetaminophen was evaluated in male rats. The obtained results showed that subcutaneous injection of acetaminophen at a dose 120 &240 սl acetaminophen/kg by weight resulted in an observed elevation in the enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum total lipids, total cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, urea, nitric oxide (NO), L- malondialdehyde (MDA) and interleukins (IL-2 &IL-6). However, there is a decrease in the serum total protein, albumin and loss in antioxidant enzyme activities in liver including; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GSH). This effect was found to be dose and time dependent. In spite of, pre- oral administration of Arthrospira platensis 1000 mg/kg .b. wt. prior acetaminophen injection succeeded to modulate the effect of the observed abnormalities caused by acetaminophen. Moreover, there were no remarkable changes in serum biomarkers of rats received Arthrospira platensis only at a dose of 1000 mg/kg by weight (group 2). The histopathological findings confirm the biochemical results that indicates the safety use of Arthrospira platensis at the selected dose in this study. Therefore, the present results clarified the protective effect of blue green alga Arthrospira platensis on oxidative stress, hepatic and nephrotoxicity induced by acetaminophen in male Wister rats.

Los efectos tóxicos del paracetamol aparecen principalmente en el hígado y el riñón. Se evaluó en ratas macho Wistar el efecto protector del alga verde azulada Arthrospira platensis sobre la toxicidad hepatorrenal causada por paracetamol. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que la inyección subcutánea de paracetamol a dosis de 120 y 240 µl de paracetamol/kg, resultó en una elevación en las actividades enzimáticas de la aspartato aminotransferasa (AST), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y fosfatasa alcalina (ALP), lípidos séricos totales, colesterol total, creatinina, bilirrubina total, urea, óxido nítrico (NO), L- malondialdehído (MDA) e interleucinas (IL-2 e IL-6). Sin embargo, hay una disminución en la proteína sérica total, albúmina y pérdida en las actividades de las enzimas antioxidantes en el hígado, incluyendo; superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa (CAT) y glutatión reductasa (GSH). Se encontró que este efecto era dependiente de la dosis y el tiempo. A pesar de la administración preoral de Arthrospira platensis 1000 mg/kg, la inyección previa de acetaminofeno logró modular el efecto de las anormalidades observadas causadas por el acetaminofeno. Además, no hubo cambios notables en los biomarcadores séricos de ratas que recibieron Arthrospira platensis solo a una dosis de 1000 mg/kg (Grupo 2). Los hallazgos histopatológicos confirman los resultados bioquímicos que indican la seguridad del uso de Arthrospira platensis a la dosis seleccionada en este estudio. Por lo tanto, los presentes resultados aclararon el efecto protector del alga verde azulada Arthrospira platensis sobre el estrés oxidativo, la toxicidad hepática y la nefrotoxicidad inducida por paracetamol en ratas Wistar macho.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Preparations/administration & dosage , Spirulina , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase , Lipid Peroxidation , Interleukins , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202752, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1437250


Una niña de 11 años de edad con antecedentes de ano imperforado, infección urinaria y episodios de constipación intermitentes se presentó a la consulta con cólicos abdominales y náuseas de una semana de evolución. Estudios radiológicos revelaron hidrometrocolpos y fusión renal pélvica con uréter único hidronefrótico. El examen vaginal evidenció un tabique transverso no permeable. Se evacuó temporalmente la colección con resolución de los síntomas. La paciente fue programada para cirugía vaginal reconstructiva definitiva. Se destaca en este caso no solo la asociación de malformaciones infrecuentes, sino una sintomatología muy común en la práctica pediátrica a causa de una patología rara vez considerada en el diagnóstico diferencial, y la importancia de una evaluación precoz y completa de este tipo de malformaciones para un tratamiento oportuno.

An 11-year-old girl with a history of imperforate anus, urinary tract infection, and intermittent episodes of constipation presented with abdominal pain and nausea for 1 week. The x-rays revealed hydrometrocolpos and fused pelvic kidney with a single hydronephrotic ureter. The vaginal examination revealed a non-permeable transverse vaginal septum. The collection was temporarily drained and symptoms resolved. The patient was scheduled for definitive vaginal reconstructive surgery. In this case, it is worth noting the association of infrequent malformations and also the signs and symptoms very common in pediatric practice due to a pathology rarely considered in the differential diagnosis, and the importance of an early and complete assessment of this type of malformations for a timely treatment.

Humans , Female , Child , Anus, Imperforate/surgery , Anus, Imperforate/diagnosis , Ureter , Urinary Tract Infections , Vagina/abnormalities , Kidney
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 186-197, March-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439585


Abstract Anemia is associated with increased risk of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), stroke and mortality in perioperative patients. We sought to understand the mechanism(s) by assessing the integrative physiological responses to anemia (kidney, brain), the degrees of anemia-induced tissue hypoxia, and associated biomarkers and physiological parameters. Experimental measurements demonstrate a linear relationship between blood Oxygen Content (CaO2) and renal microvascular PO2 (y = 0.30x + 6.9, r2= 0.75), demonstrating that renal hypoxia is proportional to the degree of anemia. This defines the kidney as a potential oxygen sensor during anemia. Further evidence of renal oxygen sensing is demonstrated by proportional increase in serum Erythropoietin (EPO) during anemia (y = 93.806*10−0.02, r2= 0.82). This data implicates systemic EPO levels as a biomarker of anemia-induced renal tissue hypoxia. By contrast, cerebral Oxygen Delivery (DO2) is defended by a profound proportional increase in Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF), minimizing tissue hypoxia in the brain, until more severe levels of anemia occur. We hypothesize that the kidney experiences profound early anemia-induced tissue hypoxia which contributes to adaptive mechanisms to preserve cerebral perfusion. At severe levels of anemia, renal hypoxia intensifies, and cerebral hypoxia occurs, possibly contributing to the mechanism(s) of AKI and stroke when adaptive mechanisms to preserve organ perfusion are overwhelmed. Clinical methods to detect renal tissue hypoxia (an early warning signal) and cerebral hypoxia (a later consequence of severe anemia) may inform clinical practice and support the assessment of clinical biomarkers (i.e., EPO) and physiological parameters (i.e., urinary PO2) of anemia-induced tissue hypoxia. This information may direct targeted treatment strategies to prevent adverse outcomes associated with anemia.

Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/complications , Stroke , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Anemia/complications , Oxygen , Biomarkers , Kidney , Hypoxia/complications
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 333-342, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440309


SUMMARY: Changes in the microcirculation of multiple tissues and organs have been implicated as a possible mechanism in physiological aging. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor is a secretory protein responsible for regulating angiogenesis via altering endothelial proliferation, survival, migration, extracellular matrix degradation and cell permeability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor in the progression of morphological alterations caused by physiological aging in the heart and kidney and to examine its relation to changes in capillary density. We used two age groups of healthy Wistar rats - 6- and 12-month- old. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was examined through immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and assessed semi-quantitatively. Changes in capillary density were evaluated statistically and correlated with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. We reported stronger immunoreactivity for vascular endothelial growth factor in the left compared to the right ventricle and also observed an increase in its expression in both ventricles in older animals. Contrasting results were reported for the renal cortex and medulla. Capillary density decreased statistically in all examined structures as aging progressed. The studied correlations were statistically significant in the two ventricles in 12-month-old animals and in the renal cortex of both age groups. Our results shed light on some changes in the microcirculation that take place as aging advances and likely contribute to impairment in the function of the examined organs.

Los cambios en la microcirculación de múltiples tejidos y órganos se han implicado como un posible mecanismo en el envejecimiento fisiológico. En particular, el factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular es una proteína secretora responsable de regular la angiogénesis mediante la alteración de la proliferación endotelial, la supervivencia, la migración, la degradación de la matriz extracelular y la permeabilidad celular. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el papel del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular en la progresión de las alteraciones morfológicas causadas por el envejecimiento fisiológico en el corazón y riñón y examinar su relación con los cambios en la densidad capilar. Utilizamos dos grupos de ratas Wistar sanas: 6 y 12 meses de edad. La expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular se examinó mediante inmunohistoquímica e inmunofluorescencia y se evaluó semicuantitativamente. Los cambios en la densidad capilar se evaluaron estadísticamente y se correlacionaron con la expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular. Informamos una inmunorreactividad más fuerte para el factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular en el ventrículo izquierdo en comparación con el derecho y también observamos un aumento en su expresión en ambos ventrículos en animales mayores. Se informaron resultados contrastantes para la corteza renal y la médula. La densidad capilar disminuyó estadísticamente en todas las estructuras examinadas a medida que avanzaba el envejecimiento. Las correlaciones estudiadas fueron estadísticamente significativas en los dos ventrículos en animales de 12 meses y en la corteza renal de ambos grupos de edad. Nuestros resultados arrojan luz sobre algunos cambios en la microcirculación que tienen lugar a medida que avanza el envejecimiento y probablemente contribuyan a un deterioro en la función de los órganos examinados.

Animals , Rats , Aging , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Kidney/blood supply , Capillaries/anatomy & histology , Immunohistochemistry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Vessels/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/metabolism , Heart/physiology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/physiology , Microcirculation
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 368-373, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440329


SUMMARY: To investigate if the administration of boric acid (BA) would exert any protective effect against possible nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by the exposure to acrylamide (ACR) in rats. In our study, we used a total of 28 rats that were divided into four equal groups. Group 1: the control group which was not treated with any procedure. Group 2: the ACR group that was administered ACR 50 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal (i.p) route for 14 days. Group 3: the BA group that was administered BA 200 mg/kg/ day via gavage via peroral (p.o) route for 14 days. Group 4: the ACR+BA group that was administered BA simultaneously with ACR. Total antioxidant and oxidant (TAS/TOS) capacities were measured in all groups at the end of the experiment. In addition, the specimens obtained were evaluated with histopathological examination. Studies showed that the ACR and ACr+BA groups were not significantly different in terms of hepatic TAS level while the TOS level was higher in the ACR group than the ACR+BA group. The groups did not show any significant difference regarding renal TAS and TOS levels. In the histopathological examination of the hepatic tissue, the histopathological injury score of the ACR group was significantly higher than those of the other groups whereas it was significantly lower in the ACR+BA group than the ACR group. Our study concluded that Boric acid had a protective effect against acrylamide- induced hepatotoxicity, but not against nephrotoxicity.

El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar si la administración de ácido bórico (BA) ejercería algún efecto protector frente a la posible nefrotoxicidad y hepatotoxicidad inducida por la exposición a acrilamida (ACR) en ratas. En nuestro estudio, utilizamos un total de 28 ratas que se dividieron en cuatro grupos iguales. Grupo 1: grupo control que no fue tratado. Grupo 2: grupo ACR al que se le administró ACR 50 mg/kg/día por vía intraperitoneal (i.p) durante 14 días. Grupo 3: grupo BA al que se le administró BA 200 mg/kg/día por sonda por vía peroral (p.o) durante 14 días. Grupo 4: grupo ACR+BA al que se administró BA simultáneamente con ACR. Las capacidades antioxidantes y oxidantes totales (TAS/TOS) se midieron en todos los grupos al final del experimento. Además, los especímenes obtenidos fueron evaluados con examen histopatológico. Los estudios demostraron que los grupos ACR y ACr+BA no fueron significativamente diferentes en términos del nivel hepático de TAS, mientras que el nivel de TOS fue mayor en el grupo ACR que en el grupo ACR+BA. Los grupos no mostraron ninguna diferencia significativa con respecto a los niveles renales de TAS y TOS. En el examen histopatológico del tejido hepático, la puntuación de lesión histopatológica del grupo ACR fue significativamente mayor que la de los otros grupos, mientras que fue significativamente menor en el grupo ACR+BA que en el grupo ACR. Nuestro estudio concluyó que el ácido bórico tiene un efecto protector contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por acrilamida, pero no contra la nefrotoxicidad.

Animals , Rats , Boric Acids/administration & dosage , Acrylamide/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Biochemistry , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/physiopathology
ABCS health sci ; 48: e023229, 14 fev. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518544


INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have reported that buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. f.) is a typical fruit from the Brazilian cerrado ecosystem and an important food source for low-income populations. Its composition is rich in carotenoid polyphenols, monounsaturated fatty acids, and ascorbic acid. However, studies on the biological effects resulting from the consumption of this fruit are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a diet supplemented with buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. f.) on kidney and liver functions in growing rats. METHODS: Determination of centesimal composition, carotenoids, and fatty acids content for buriti pulp, standard chow, and butiti-supplemented chow were performed. Then, Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a standard diet or supplemented with buriti pulp. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment to determine biochemical parameters. The unpaired t-test was applied, and differences were considered significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: A diet enriched with buriti pulp did not interfere with kidney function and most markers of liver function in animals. Alkaline phosphatase showed significantly higher plasma concentration in female rats, and albumin and uric acid showed lower concentrations in male rats in both experimental groups. CONCLUSION: The changes observed in biochemical markers did not provide evidence of adverse effects of buriti pulp supplementation on liver function. Thus, the intake of buriti pulp can be encouraged as it is a low-cost food source for the general population.

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Rodentia , Diet , Fruit/metabolism , Kidney , Liver , Brazil
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(1): 52-60, feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515421


BACKGROUND: The frequency of glomerular diseases is dynamic and varies according to geographic area. AIM: To evaluate the frequency of primary and secondary glomerulopathies, their demographic profile and main clinical characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Renal biopsies from native kidneys performed between 1999 and 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, most relevant laboratory tests, frequency of primary and secondary glomerulopathies were analyzed. RESULTS: We analyzed 550 kidney biopsies from patients with a median age of 48 years (64% females). Nephrotic syndrome was the main indication for renal biopsy. Primary and secondary glomerulopathies occurred with similar frequency. Within the primary glomerulopathies, membranous nephropathy (34.1%) was the most common, followed by IgA nephropathy (31.1%) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (14.1%). Among the secondary glomerulopathies, lupus nephropathy was the most common (41.7%), followed by pauciimmune glomerulonephritis (27.1%) and diabetic nephropathy (6.4%). When comparing the results with other regions, significant differences were observed with reported frequencies in United States, Europe, Asia and the rest of Latin America. CONCLUSIONS: The most common primary glomerulopathies were membranous nephropathy and IgA nephropathy. Among the secondary glomerulopathies lupus nephropathy and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis were the most common. Compared to international registries, we observed a high proportion of membranous nephropathy and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous/pathology , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous/epidemiology , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/pathology , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/epidemiology , Biopsy , Retrospective Studies , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology