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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 333-342, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440309

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Changes in the microcirculation of multiple tissues and organs have been implicated as a possible mechanism in physiological aging. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor is a secretory protein responsible for regulating angiogenesis via altering endothelial proliferation, survival, migration, extracellular matrix degradation and cell permeability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor in the progression of morphological alterations caused by physiological aging in the heart and kidney and to examine its relation to changes in capillary density. We used two age groups of healthy Wistar rats - 6- and 12-month- old. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was examined through immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and assessed semi-quantitatively. Changes in capillary density were evaluated statistically and correlated with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. We reported stronger immunoreactivity for vascular endothelial growth factor in the left compared to the right ventricle and also observed an increase in its expression in both ventricles in older animals. Contrasting results were reported for the renal cortex and medulla. Capillary density decreased statistically in all examined structures as aging progressed. The studied correlations were statistically significant in the two ventricles in 12-month-old animals and in the renal cortex of both age groups. Our results shed light on some changes in the microcirculation that take place as aging advances and likely contribute to impairment in the function of the examined organs.


Los cambios en la microcirculación de múltiples tejidos y órganos se han implicado como un posible mecanismo en el envejecimiento fisiológico. En particular, el factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular es una proteína secretora responsable de regular la angiogénesis mediante la alteración de la proliferación endotelial, la supervivencia, la migración, la degradación de la matriz extracelular y la permeabilidad celular. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el papel del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular en la progresión de las alteraciones morfológicas causadas por el envejecimiento fisiológico en el corazón y riñón y examinar su relación con los cambios en la densidad capilar. Utilizamos dos grupos de ratas Wistar sanas: 6 y 12 meses de edad. La expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular se examinó mediante inmunohistoquímica e inmunofluorescencia y se evaluó semicuantitativamente. Los cambios en la densidad capilar se evaluaron estadísticamente y se correlacionaron con la expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular. Informamos una inmunorreactividad más fuerte para el factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular en el ventrículo izquierdo en comparación con el derecho y también observamos un aumento en su expresión en ambos ventrículos en animales mayores. Se informaron resultados contrastantes para la corteza renal y la médula. La densidad capilar disminuyó estadísticamente en todas las estructuras examinadas a medida que avanzaba el envejecimiento. Las correlaciones estudiadas fueron estadísticamente significativas en los dos ventrículos en animales de 12 meses y en la corteza renal de ambos grupos de edad. Nuestros resultados arrojan luz sobre algunos cambios en la microcirculación que tienen lugar a medida que avanza el envejecimiento y probablemente contribuyan a un deterioro en la función de los órganos examinados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aging , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Kidney/blood supply , Capillaries/anatomy & histology , Immunohistochemistry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Vessels/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/metabolism , Heart/physiology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/physiology , Microcirculation
2.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 1-7, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970937

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of different types of heart failure on long-term renal prognosis in patients with renal insufficiency and heart failure. Methods: The patients with renal insufficiency [baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml·min-1·(1.73 m2)-1] and heart failure followed-up for more than 2 years and hospitalized in Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 1, 2018 to June 30, 2019 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The patients were divided into three groups based on the baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF): heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, LVEF < 40%) group, heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF, 40% ≤ LVEF < 50%) group, and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF, LVEF ≥ 50%) group. Clinical data were collected and endpoint events (adverse renal outcome: the composite outcome of all-cause death or worsening renal function) were recorded through the electronic medical record system. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to analyze the incidence of endpoint events of different heart failure subgroups. Cox regression model was performed to analyze the risk factors of endpoint events. Results: A total of 228 patients with renal insufficiency complicated with heart failure were included, with age of (68.14±14.21) years old and 138 males (60.5%). There were 85 patients (37.3%) in the HFrEF group, 40 patients (17.5%) in the HFmrEF group, and 103 patients (45.2%) in the HFpEF group. There were statistically significant differences in age, proportion of age > 65 years old, sex distribution, systolic blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, serum sodium, serum calcium, hemoglobin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum uric acid, troponin I, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, LVEF, ventricular septal thickness, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, B-type natriuretic peptide, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and proportions of using beta blockers, using spirolactone, myocardial infarction, hypertension, cardiomyopathy and atrial fibrillation (all P < 0.05). During the median follow-up of 36.0 (28.0, 46.0) months, 73 patients (32.0%) had adverse renal outcomes. The total incidences of adverse renal outcomes were 32.9% (28/85) in the HFrEF group, 35.0% (14/40) in the HFmrEF group, and 30.1% (31/103) in the HFpEF group. Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that there was no significant difference in the incidence of endpoint events among the three groups (log-rank test χ2=0.17, P=0.680). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that HFpEF (HFrEF as reference, HR=2.430, 95% CI 1.055-5.596, P=0.037) was an independent influencing factor of endpoint events. Conclusions: The long-term renal prognosis of patients with renal insufficiency and heart failure is poor. Compared with HFrEF, HFpEF is an independent risk factor of poor long-term renal prognosis in renal insufficiency patients with heart failure.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Retrospective Studies , Uric Acid , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Kidney/physiology , Cholesterol
3.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 141-147, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969690

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the causative factors of renal function in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients with renal inadequacy. Methods: 181 MM patients with renal impairment from August 2007 to October 2021 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited, whose baseline chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage was 3-5. Statistical analysis was performed based on laboratory tests, treatment regimens, hematological responses, and survival among various renal function efficacy groups. A logistic regression model was employed in multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 181 patients were recruited, and 277 patients with CKD stages 1-2 were chosen as controls. The majority choose the BCD and VRD regimens. The progression-free survival (PFS) (14.0 months vs 24.8 months, P<0.001) and overall survival (OS) (49.2 months vs 79.7 months, P<0.001) of patients with renal impairment was considerably shorter. Hypercalcemia (P=0.013, OR=5.654) , 1q21 amplification (P=0.018, OR=2.876) , and hematological response over a partial response (P=0.001, OR=4.999) were independent predictive factors for renal function response. After treatment, those with improvement in renal function had a longer PFS than those without (15.6 months vs 10.2 months, P=0.074) , but there was no disparity in OS (56.5 months vs 47.3 months, P=0.665) . Conclusion: Hypercalcemia, 1q21 amplification, and hematologic response were independent predictors of the response of renal function in NDMM patients with renal impairment. MM patients with CKD 3-5 at baseline still have worse survival. Improvement in renal function after treatment is attributed to the improvement in PFS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Hypercalcemia , Prognosis , Chromosome Aberrations , Kidney/physiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
4.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 359-370, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982707

ABSTRACT

Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) is the crucial pathway in chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to the end-stage renal failure. However, the underlying mechanism of Shen Qi Wan (SQW) on RIF is not fully understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) in SQW on tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A RIF mouse model induced by adenine and a TGF-β1-stimulated HK-2 cell model were etablished to explore the involvement of AQP 1 in the protective effect of SQW on EMT in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently, the molecular mechanism of SQW on EMT was explored in HK-2 cells with AQP1 knockdown. The results indicated that SQW alleviated kidney injury and renal collagen deposition in the kidneys of mice induced by adenine, increased the protein expression of E-cadherin and AQP1 expression, and decreased the expression of vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Similarly, treatmement with SQW-containing serum significantly halted EMT process in TGF-β1 stimulated HK-2 cells. The expression of snail and slug was significantly upregulated in HK-2 cells after knockdown of AQP1. AQP1 knockdown also increased the mRNA expression of vimentin and α-SMA, and decreased the expression of E-cadherin. The protein expression of vimentin increased, while the expression of E-cadherin and CK-18 significantly decreased after AQP1 knockdown in HK-2 cells. These results revealed that AQP1 knockdown promoted EMT. Furthermore, AQP1 knockdown abolished the protective effect of SQW-containing serum on EMT in HK-2 cells. In sum, SQW attentuates EMT process in RIF through upregulation of the expression of AQP1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Male , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Cell Line , Kidney/physiology , Fibrosis/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Adenine , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Aquaporin 1/metabolism
5.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 837-845, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982354

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Long-term elevated blood pressure may lead to kidney damage, yet the pathogenesis of hypertensive kidney damage is still unclear. This study aims to explore the role and significance of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 (LRG-1) in hypertensive renal damage through detecting the levels of LRG-1 in the serum and kidney of mice with hypertensive renal damage and its relationship with related indexes.@*METHODS@#C57BL/6 mice were used in this study and randomly divided into a control group, an angiotensin II (Ang II) group, and an Ang II+irbesartan group. The control group was gavaged with physiological saline. The Ang II group was pumped subcutaneously at a rate of 1.5 mg/(kg·d) for 28 days to establish the hypertensive renal damage model in mice, and then gavaged with equivalent physiological saline. The Ang II+irbesartan group used the same method to establish the hypertensive renal damage model, and then was gavaged with irbesartan. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of LRG-1 and fibrosis-related indicators (collagen I and fibronectin) in renal tissues. ELISA was used to evaluate the level of serum LRG-1 and inflammatory cytokines in mice. The urinary protein-creatinine ratio and renal function were determined, and correlation analysis was conducted.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the levels of serum LRG-1, the expression of LRG-1 protein, collagen I, and fibronectin in kidney in the Ang II group were increased (all P<0.01). After treating with irbesartan, renal damage of hypertensive mice was alleviated, while the levels of LRG-1 in serum and kidney were decreased, and the expression of collagen I and fibronectin was down-regulated (all P<0.01). Correlation analysis showed that the level of serum LRG-1 was positively correlated with urinary protein-creatinine ratio, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine level in hypertensive kidney damage mice. Serum level of LRG-1 was also positively correlated with serum inflammatory factors including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Hypertensive renal damage mice display elevated expression of LRG-1 in serum and kidney, and irbesartan can reduce the expression of LRG-1 while alleviating renal damage. The level of serum LRG-1 is positively correlated with the degree of hypertensive renal damage, suggesting that it may participate in the occurrence and development of hypertensive renal damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Fibronectins , Irbesartan , Creatinine , Kidney/physiology , Hypertension/complications , Angiotensin II , Collagen Type I
6.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 725-732, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Diabetic kidney disease is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), and it is a main cause for chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease (ESRD). It is important to find out the factors that cause the progression of renal function. The study aims to explore the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) trajectory and the progression of renal function in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).@*METHODS@#A total of 846 patients with T2DM, who were admitted to the Department of Nephrology and Endocrinology, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, from January 2009 to December 2021 and met the criteria of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)≥60 mL/(min·1.73 m2), were selected as the research subjects. The SUA data of multiple measurements were collected and identified as different SUA trajectories by group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM). According to the SUA trajectories, the patients were divided into a low trajectory group (105 cases), a middle trajectory group (396 cases), a middle high trajectory group (278 cases), and a high trajectory group (67 cases). Cox regression analysis was used to examine the effect of SUA trajectory on the progression of renal function in patients with T2DM. Subgroup analysis was performed by sex, age, course of disease, body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c).@*RESULTS@#The median follow-up was 4.8 years. At the end of follow-up, 158 patients had different degrees of decline in renal function. After adjusting for multiple confounding factors by Cox regression analysis, the risks of eGFR<60 mL/(min·1.73 m2), eGFR reduction rate≥50%, serum creatinine (Scr) doubling and composite endpoint (eGFR reduction rate≥50%, Scr doubling or ESRD) in the high trajectory group were significantly higher than those in the low trajectory group, with HR of 3.84 (95% CI 1.83 to 8.05), 6.90 (95% CI 2.27 to 20.96), 6.29 (95% CI 2.03 to 19.52), and 8.04 (95% CI 2.68 to 24.18), respectively. There was no significant difference in the risk of ESRD among the above 4 groups (all P>0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that: compared with the low trajectory group, the risks of eGFR<60 mL/(min·1.73 m2) in patients with high trajectory in the subgroup of male, female, age<65 years, course of disease<10 years, BMI≥24 kg/m2 and HbA1c≥7% were increased (all P<0.05). The SUA trajectory had no interaction with sex, age, course of disease, BMI and HbA1c (all interactive P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The high SUA trajectory increases the risk for progression of renal function in patients with T2DM. Long-term longitudinal changes of SUA should be paid attention to.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Cohort Studies , Uric Acid , Glycated Hemoglobin , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney/physiology , Risk Factors
7.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 225-231, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971519

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the association between depressive symptoms and the risks of rapid decline in renal function and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and elderly with normal kidney function.@*METHODS@#The residents aged 40- 75 years with eGFR≥60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 without proteinuria in Lanzhou region, who participated in the "REACTION" study carried out in 2011, were selected and followed up in 2014. A total of 4961 individuals with complete and qualified data from the two surveys were included in the subsequent analysis. Based on PHQ-9 questionnaire scores, the baseline population was divided into two groups with and without depressive symptoms. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to compare the incidences of rapid renal function decline and CKD between the two groups and study the association of depressive symptoms with the risk of these renal conditions.@*RESULTS@#PHQ-9 questionnaire scores were not found to correlate with baseline SCr, ALB, UACR or eGFR levels among the participarts (P>0.05). After a mean follow-up time of 3.4±0.6 years, 33.9% of the participants with depressive symptoms at baseline experienced a rapid decline in renal function and 3.6% progressed to CKD. During the follow-up, the incidence of rapid decline in renal function and the risk of developing CKD were not found to correlate with depressive symptoms in these participants (P>0.05) regardless of the type of the depressive syndromes.@*CONCLUSION@#Depressive symptoms are not associated with the risks of rapid renal function decline or progression to CKD in middle-aged and elderly with normal kidney function.


Subject(s)
Aged , Middle Aged , Humans , Cohort Studies , Depression , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Disease Progression , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney/physiology , Risk Factors
8.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(6): 711-719, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420614

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The influence of different crystalloid solutions infused during deceased-donor kidney transplant on the incidence of delayed graft function remains unclear. We investigated the influence of Plasma-Lyte® vs. 0.9% saline on the incidence of delayed graft function in deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients. Methods We conducted a single-blind randomized controlled trial of 104 patients aged 18 to 65 years who underwent deceased-donor kidney transplant under general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either Plasma-Lyte® (n = 52) or 0.9% saline (n = 52), at the same infusion volume, for intraoperative fluid replacement. The primary outcome was the occurrence of delayed graft function. Secondary outcomes included metabolic and electrolytic changes at the end of surgery. Results Two patients in the Plasma-Lyte® group and one in the 0.9% saline group died postoperatively and were not included for analysis. The incidence of delayed graft function in Plasma-Lyte® and 0.9% saline groups were 60.0% (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI 46.2-72.4]) and 74.5% (95% CI 61.1-84.4), respectively (p= 0.140). Mean (standard deviation) values of immediate postoperative pH and serum chloride levels in Plasma-Lyte® and 0.9% saline groups were 7.306 (0.071) and 7.273 (0.061) (p= 0.013), and 99.6 (4.2) mEq.L-1 and 103.3 (5.6) mEq.L-1, respectively (p< 0.001). All other postoperative metabolic and electrolyte variables were not statistically different at the immediate postoperative period (p> 0.05). Conclusion In deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients, the incidence of delayed graft function is not influenced by Plasma-Lyte® or 0.9% saline used for intraoperative fluid replacement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Saline Solution , Single-Blind Method , Electrolytes , Delayed Graft Function/prevention & control , Delayed Graft Function/epidemiology , Kidney/physiology
9.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(6): 720-728, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420615

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Hydroxyethyl starches are colloids used in fluid therapy that may reduce volume infusion compared with crystalloids, but they can affect renal function in critical care patients. This study aims to assess renal effects of starches using renal biomarkers in the perioperative setting. Methods This prospective, controlled, randomized study compared Hydroxyethyl starch 6% (HES) with Ringer's lactate (RL) in hysterectomy. Each episode of mean arterial pressure (MAP) below 60 mmHg guided the fluid replacement protocol. The RL group received 300 mL bolus of RL solution while the HES group received 150 mL of HES solution. All patients received RL (2 mL.kg−1.h−1) intraoperatively to replace insensible losses. Blood and urine samples were collected at three time points (preoperatively, 24 hours, and 40 days postoperatively) to assess urinary NGAL and KIM-1, as primary outcome, and other markers of renal function. Results Seventy patients were randomized and 60 completed the study. The RL group received a higher crystalloid volume (1,277 ± 812.7 mL vs. 630.4 ± 310.2 mL; p= 0.0002) with a higher fluid balance (780 ± 720 mL vs. 430 ± 440 mL; p= 0.03) and fluid overload (11.7% ± 10.4% vs. 7.0% ± 6.3%; p= 0.04) compared to the HES group. NGAL and KIM-1 did not differ between groups at each time point, however both biomarkers increased 24 hours postoperatively and returned to preoperative levels after 40 days in both groups. Conclusion HES did not increase renal biomarkers following open hysterectomy compared to RL. Moreover, HES provided better hemodynamic parameters using less volume, and reduced postoperative fluid balance and fluid overload.


Subject(s)
Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives , Fluid Therapy/methods , Biomarkers , Prospective Studies , Plasma Substitutes , Colloids , Lipocalin-2 , Crystalloid Solutions , Ringer's Lactate , Hysterectomy , Isotonic Solutions , Kidney/physiology
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 284-293, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364965

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A major challenge in the management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is the selection of patients who would benefit from surgical treatment. Tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) indicate renal cell stress and are associated with cell cycle arrest. The [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] ratio (Nephrocheck®) has been recently applied in patients in intensive care units patients to predict the development of acute kidney injury. In this study, we evaluated the performance of these biomarkers performance to distinguishing obstructive hydronephrosis (HN) from non-obstructive HN. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with UPJO were enrolled in this study. Urinary [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] and clinical characteristics (hydronephrosis grade, differential renal function, and drainage half-time) were measured in the following groups: 26 children with obstructive HN at initial diagnosis (group 1A) and after six months of dismembered pyeloplasty (group 1B); 22 children with non-obstructive HN (group 2), and 26 children without any urinary tract condition, as the control group (group 3). Results: Comparing the initial samples, [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] had higher levels in the HN groups and lower levels in the control group; however, no difference was observed between the HN groups (obstructive vs. non-obstructive). After six months of follow-up, patients who underwent dismembered pyeloplasty showed stability in the urinary concentration of [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7]. All patients with [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] higher than 1.0 (ng/mL)2/1000 had diffuse cortical atrophy on ultrasonography. Conclusions: We showed that urinary levels of urinary [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] are higher in children with HN than controls. Nephrocheck® is not reliable in predicting the need for surgical intervention for pediatric patients with UPJO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Biomarkers/urine , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins/urine , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/urine , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Kidney/physiology
11.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362545

ABSTRACT

Objective: The goal of this study is to evaluate the benefits of an increase in water intake guided by a mathematical formula (per kg of body weight) on kidney function in older adults. Methods: Older adults (≥ 65 years old) cared for at the Internal Medicine Unit of a tertiary hospital will be randomized to receive or not guidance on water intake (30 mL/kg per day) after initial assessment of kidney function. After 14 days, participants will be reevaluated through clinical and laboratory examinations. Patients with uncompensated disease will be excluded. The main outcomes will be glomerular filtration rate and laboratory measures such as serum and urinary osmolality, sodium, urea, 24-h urine volume and serum creatinine, uric acid, and copeptin. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) questionnaire will be applied to participants at each visit. Categorical variables will be described as numbers of cases (%) and compared using the χ2 test whereas continuous variables will be analyzed with Student's t-test in relation to baseline measures. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) method will be performed to assess differences over time and between groups. This study was approved by the Institution's Research Ethics Committee (grant number 16-0153) and is in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Expected Results:By increasing water intake (ml/Kg) we expect to provide an improvement in kidney function in older population assessed by serum creatinine and cystatin-c applied to eGFR formulas. Relevance:Many conditions, both organic and behavioral, can contribute to chronic dehydration states in older adults. To mention, decreased ability to concentrate urine, reduced kidney mass, blood flow, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) along with changes in sensitivity to hormones such as renin, vasopressin and natriuretic peptide can generate water imbalance, leading to dehydration. For being simple and inexpensive, this strategy may be broadly used and bring several health benefits to older adults.


Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar os benefícios de um aumento da ingestão de água guiado por uma fórmula matemática (por kg de massa corporal) na função renal de idosos. Metodologia:Idosos (≥ 65 anos) atendidos pelo Serviço de Clínica Médica de um hospital terciário foram randomizados para receber ou não orientação sobre o consumo de água (30 mL/kg por dia) após uma avaliação inicial da função renal. Após 14 dias, os participantes serão reavaliados através de exames clínicos e laboratoriais. Pacientes com doença descompensada serão excluídos. Os desfechos principais são a taxa de filtração glomerular e medidas laboratoriais como osmolaridade, sódio e ureia séricos e urinários, volume de urina de 24 horas e creatinina, ácido úrico e copeptina séricos. A Mini Avaliação Nutricional (MNA) será aplicada aos participantes a cada consulta. Variáveis categóricas serão descritas como números de casos (%) e comparadas usando o teste χ2 , enquanto variáveis contínuas serão analisadas com o teste t de Student em relação às medidas iniciais. O método de Equações de Estimativas Generalizadas (GEE) será usado para avaliar diferenças ao longo do tempo e entre grupos. Este estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da nossa Instituição (processo número 16-0153) e está de acordo com a Declaração de Helsinki. Resultados esperados:Ao aumentar a ingestão de água (ml/Kg) esperamos proporcionar uma melhora na função renal na população idosa avaliada pela creatinina sérica e cistatina-c aplicada às fórmulas de eGFR. Relevância:Muitas condições, tanto orgânicas quanto comportamentais, podem contribuir para estados de desidratação crônica em idosos. Vale mencionar que a diminuição da capacidade de concentração da urina, redução da massa renal, fluxo sanguíneo e taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) juntamente com alterações na sensibilidade a hormônios como renina, vasopressina e peptídeo natriurético podem gerar desequilíbrio hídrico, levando à desidratação. Por ser simples e de baixo custo, essa estratégia pode ser amplamente utilizada e trazer diversos benefícios à saúde dos idosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Water/administration & dosage , Creatinine/blood , Drinking/physiology , Cystatin C/blood , Kidney/physiology , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney Function Tests , Models, Theoretical
12.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(5): 508-513, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340165

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Serum levels of creatinine in neonates are quite variable and suffer interference from the immature kidney and maternal creatinine concentration. The aim of this study was to measure novel biomarkers of glomerular and tubular function in healthy preterm neonates at 72 h and 3 weeks of life. Methods: Urine samples were collected in 40 preterm neonates with 28-34 incomplete weeks of gestational age. None of the participants had comorbidities, malformations and infections. The samples were collected at 72 h of life and at 3 weeks after birth. Measurements of Calbindin, Collagen IV, FABP1, αGST, IP-10, KIM-1, Osteoactivin, Renin, TFF-3, TIMP-1, α-1-Microglobulin, Albumin, Clusterin, Cystatin C, EGF, Lipocalin-2/NGAL and Osteopontin were performed using panels 1 and 2 of multiplex kits of kidney injury. Data were analyzed using the software GraphPad Prism version 6.0. Results: The preterm neonates included 55% of males with gestational age of 30 ± 1 weeks. The most frequent maternal condition associated with preterm birth was preeclampsia (80%). Molecules related to glomerular function showed a significant increase in the concentrations obtained at 3 weeks of life compared to 72 h of life. Markers related to tubular injury (KIM-1 and NGAL) also showed an increase. On the other hand, cystatin C did not change. Conclusion: The elevation of molecules related to glomerular function indicates an increase of glomerular filtration rate from 72 h up until 3 weeks of life, which was not clearly detected with the measurement of cystatin C.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Premature Birth , Biomarkers , Creatinine , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney/physiology
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(3): 375-382, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340131

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The number of kidney transplants (KTx) is increasing in Brazil and, consequently, the costs of this procedure increase the country's health budget. We retrospectively evaluated the data of kidney transplant procedures until hospital discharge, according to kidney function recovery after the procedure. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the non-sensitized, 1st KTx from deceased donors performed between Jan/2010 to Dec/2017. Results: Out of the 1300 KTx from deceased donors performed in this period, 730 patients were studied and divided into 3 groups: Immediate Renal Function (IRF) - decrease in serum creatinine ≥ 10% on two consecutive days; Delayed Graft Function (DGF) - decrease in serum creatinine <10% on two consecutive days, without the need for dialysis, and Dialysis (D) - need for dialysis during the first week. Patients in group D stayed longer in the hospital compared to DGF and IRF (21, 11 and 8 days respectively, p < 0.001). More D patients (21%) were admitted to the ICU and performed a greater number of laboratory tests (p < 0.001) and renal biopsies (p < 0.001), in addition to receiving a higher amount of immunosuppressants. Total hospital costs were higher in group D and DGF compared to IRF (U$ 7.021,48; U$ 3.603,42 and U$ 2.642,37 respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The costs of the transplant procedure is impacted by the recovery of kidney function after the transplant. The reimbursement for each of these different kidney function outcomes should be individualized in order to cover their real costs.


Resumo Introdução: O número de transplantes renais (KTx, do inglês kidney transplant) está aumentando no Brasil e, consequentemente, os custos deste procedimento aumentam o orçamento de saúde do país. Avaliamos retrospectivamente dados dos procedimentos de transplantes renais até a alta hospitalar, de acordo com a recuperação da função renal após o procedimento. Métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos 1º KTx de doadores falecidos, não sensibilizados, realizados entre Jan/2010 a Dez/2017. Resultados: Dos 1300 KTx de doadores falecidos realizados neste período, 730 pacientes foram estudados e divididos em 3 grupos: Função Renal Imediata (FRI) - diminuição na creatinina sérica ≥ 10% em dois dias consecutivos; Função Retardada do Enxerto (FRE) - diminuição na creatinina sérica <10% em dois dias consecutivos, sem necessidade de diálise, e Diálise (D) - necessidade de diálise durante a primeira semana. Pacientes no grupo D permaneceram mais tempo no hospital em comparação com FRE e FRI (21, 11 e 8 dias dias respectivamente, p < 0,001). Mais pacientes do grupo D (21%) foram admitidos na UTI e realizaram um maior número de testes laboratoriais (p < 0,001) e biópsias renais (p < 0,001), além de receberem uma quantidade maior de imunossupressores. Os custos hospitalares totais foram mais elevados nos grupos D e FRE em comparação com FRI (U$ 7.021,48; U$ 3.603,42 e U$ 2.642,37 respectivamente, p < 0,001). Conclusão: Os custos do procedimento de transplante são impactados pela recuperação da função renal após o transplante. O reembolso para cada um desses diferentes desfechos da função renal deve ser individualizado a fim de cobrir seus custos reais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Tissue Donors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Renal Dialysis , Delayed Graft Function , Graft Survival , Kidney/physiology
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 385-391, ago. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339147

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A síndrome cardiorrenal tipo 1 associa-se a maior mortalidade em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC). No entanto, há escassez de publicações comparando critérios diagnósticos de lesão renal aguda (LRA). Objetivos: Analisar o perfil clinicofuncional de pacientes com IC e fatores associados a ocorrência de lesão renal aguda (LRA). Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo, em hospital terciário de região com baixo desenvolvimento econômico que incluiu pacientes com IC descompensada ou infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) recente, sendo avaliadas características clínicas, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficas comparativamente em pacientes com e sem LRA classificada pelos critérios Acute Kidney Network (AKIN) e Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Nível de significância estatística com valor de p < 0,05. Resultados: Entre 81 pacientes, 61,73% evoluíram com LRA. A média de creatinina foi 1,79±1,0 mg/dL e de ureia 81,5±46,0 mg/dL, sendo maior no grupo com LRA (p < 0,05). Não foi evidenciada relação entre alterações cardíacas e redução da função renal. A doença renal crônica se associou a maior ocorrência de LRA (38% x 3,23% sem LRA, p = 0,001). Não houve diferença do KDIGO com relação ao critério AKIN. Os pacientes que desenvolveram LRA apresentaram maior mortalidade (32% x 9,8% no grupo sem LRA, p = 0,04, com odds ratio (OR) de 8,187 e intervalo de confiança 1,402-17,190, p = 0,020). Conclusão: Nessa casuística de pacientes com IC, a ocorrência de LRA foi elevada e foi fator de risco independente de mortalidade. As alterações cardíacas não se associaram à ocorrência de LRA, e os critérios diagnósticos KDIGO e AKIN apresentaram performance similar.


Abstract Background: Type 1 cardiorenal syndrome is associated with higher mortality in heart failure patients. However, few studies have compared the diagnostic criteria of acute kidney injury (AKI) in this population. Objective: To assess clinical and functional features and factors associated AKI in patients with heart failure. Method: Retrospective, cohort study on patients with decompensated heart failure or recent acute myocardial infarction, conducted in a tertiary hospital in a low-income region of Brazil. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic features were compared between patients with and without AKI according to the Acute Kidney Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Of 81 patients, 61.73% had AKI. Mean creatinine and urea levels were 1.79±1.0 mg/dL and 81.5±46.0 mg/dL, respectively, and higher in the group with AKI (p < 0.05). No evidence of a relationship between cardiac changes and reduced renal function. Chronic renal disease was associated with higher prevalence of AKI. Higher mortality was observed in patients with AKI than in patients without AKI (32.0% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.04, OR 8.187 ad 95% confidence interval 1.402-17.190, p = 0.020). Conclusion: In this population of patients with heart failure, AKI was highly prevalent and considered an independent risk factor for mortality. Cardiac changes were not associated with AKI, and the KDIGO and AKIN criteria showed similar performance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Cardio-Renal Syndrome/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Renal Dialysis , Hospital Mortality , Kidney/physiology
16.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 301-307, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288232

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The treatment of infrarenal aortic aneurysms has changed in the last three decades. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has become the primary treatment option in anatomically suitable patients with infrarenal aortic aneurysms. However, there is no serum biomarker to be used in EVAR follow-up. Methods: This is a prospective single-centre study of 30 consecutive patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) who underwent EVAR. Serum dosages of micro ribonucleic acid 1281 (miRNA-1281), creatinine, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated and angiotomographic evaluations were performed preoperatively and six months after the intervention. Results: There was a hyperexpression of miRNA-1281 in patients with AAA and a significant reduction of it after EVAR, from 1.66-fold before EVAR to 0.27 after the procedure (P<0.0001). MiRNA-1281 expression was not influenced by renal function (creatinine: 1.14±0.29, P=0.68), total cholesterol (179.9±59.9, P=0.22), or CRP (1.17±3.5; P=0.48). There is correlation between AAA size and CRP serum levels, however there was no statically significant reduction of CRP after EVAR. Discussion: MiRNA-1281 expression may be influenced by cholesterol, triglycerides levels, and renal function. We found no difference in these markers before and six months after EVAR. However, miRNA-1281 presents a significant reduction in patients with no follow-up complications. We hypothesize that miRNA-1281 expression may be related to aortic wall stress or flow changes. Conclusion: MiRNA-1281 may contribute as a possible marker of EVAR follow-up.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/genetics , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , MicroRNAs , Endovascular Procedures , Postoperative Complications , C-Reactive Protein , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Kidney/physiology
17.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(2): 156-164, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286929

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension are common risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD arises due to many pathological insults, including inflammation and oxidative stress, which affect renal function and destroy nephrons. Rice bran (RB) is rich in vitamins and minerals, and contains significant amount of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of RB on renal disease risk factors. Methods: Male Wistar rats (±325 g) were divided into two experimental groups to received a high sugar-fat diet (HSF, n = 8) or high sugar-fat diet with rice bran (HSF + RB, n = 8) for 20 weeks. At the end, renal function, body composition, metabolic parameters, renal inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. Results: RB prevented obesity [AI (HSF= 9.92 ± 1.19 vs HSF + RB= 6.62 ± 0.78)], insulin resistance [HOMA (HSF= 83 ± 8 vs. HSF + RB= 42 ± 11)], dyslipidemia [TG (HSF= 167 ± 41 vs. HSF + RB=92 ± 40)], inflammation [TNF-α (HSF= 80 ± 12 vs. HSF + RB=57 ± 14), IL-6 (903 ± 274 vs. HSF + RB=535 ± 277)], oxidative stress [protein carbonylation (HSF= 3.38 ± 0.18 vs. HSF + RB=2.68 ± 0.29), RAGE (HSF=702 ± 36 vs. RSF + RB=570 ± 190)], and renal disease [protein/creatinine ratio (HSF=1.10 ± 0.38 vs. HSF + RB=0.49 ± 0.16)]. Conclusion: In conclusion, rice bran prevented renal disease by modulating risk factors.


Resumo Introdução: Obesidade, diabetes e hipertensão arterial são fatores de risco comuns para doenças renais crônicas (DRC). A DRC surge devido a muitos insultos patológicos, incluindo inflamação e estresse oxidativo, que afetam a função renal e destroem os néfrons. O farelo de arroz (FA) é rico em vitaminas e minerais, e contém uma quantidade significativa de antioxidantes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito preventivo do FA nos fatores de risco de doenças renais. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos (±325 g) foram divididos em dois grupos experimentais para receber uma dieta rica em gordura e açúcar (DRGA, n = 8) ou uma dieta rica em gordura e açúcar com farelo de arroz (DRGA + FA, n = 8) por 20 semanas. Ao final, foram analisados a função renal, composição corporal, parâmetros metabólicos, marcadores renais inflamatórios e de estresse oxidativo. Resultados: FA preveniu a obesidade [IA (DRGA= 9,92 ± 1,19 vs. DRGA + FA= 6,62 ± 0. 78)], resistência à insulina [HOMA (DRGA= 83 ± 8 vs DRGA + FA= 42 ± 11)], dislipidemia [TG (DRGA= 167 ± 41 vs. DRGA + FA=92 ± 40)], inflamação [FNT-α (DRGA= 80 ± 12 vs. DRGA + FA=57 ± 14), IL-6 (903 ± 274 vs. DRGA + FA= 535 ± 277)], estresse oxidativo [carbonilação de proteína (DRGA= 3. 38 ± 0,18 vs. DRGA + FA=2,68 ± 0,29), RAGE (DRGA=702 ± 36 vs. DRGA + FA=570 ± 190)], e doença renal [relação proteína/creatinina (DRGA=1,10 ± 0,38 vs. DRGA + FA=0,49 ± 0,16)]. Conclusão: Em conclusão, o farelo de arroz preveniu doenças renais através da modulação dos fatores de risco.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Oryza , Risk Factors , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Sugars , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Kidney/physiology
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 181-186, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Delayed graft function (DGF) is the main cause of renal function failure after kidney transplantation. This study aims at investigating the value of hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) parameters combined with perfusate biomarkers on predicting DGF and the time of renal function recovery after deceased donor (DD) kidney transplantation.@*METHODS@#HMP parameters, perfusate biomarkers and baseline characteristics of 113 DD kidney transplantations from January 1, 2019 to August 31, 2019 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University were retrospectively analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.@*RESULTS@#In this study, the DGF incidence was 17.7% (20/113); The multivariate logistic regression results showed that terminal resistance (OR: 1.879, 95% CI 1.145-3.56) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)(OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.23-2.46) were risk factors for DGF; The Cox model analysis indicated that terminal resistance was an independent hazard factor for renal function recovery time (HR = 0.823, 95% CI 0.735-0.981). The model combining terminal resistance and GST (AUC = 0.888, 95% CI: 0.842-0.933) significantly improved the DGF predictability compared with the use of terminal resistance (AUC = 0.756, 95% CI 0.693-0.818) or GST alone (AUC = 0.729, 95% CI 0.591-0.806).@*CONCLUSION@#According to the factors analyzed in this study, the combination of HMP parameters and perfusate biomarkers displays a potent DGF predictive value.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Delayed Graft Function , Graft Survival , Kidney/physiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Organ Preservation , Perfusion , Retrospective Studies , Tissue Donors
19.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1216-1220, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921035

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the effect of moxibustion combined with basic treatment and simple basic treatment on the clinical symptoms, renal function and hypercoagulable state in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) of low to medium risk with spleen-kidney deficiency and blood stasis.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients with IMN of low to medium risk with spleen-kidney deficiency and blood stasis were randomized into an observation group (30 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (30 cases, 1 case dropped off). In the control group, the conventional basic treatment of anti-hypertension, regulating blood lipid and anti-coagulation was adopted. On the basis of the control group, moxibustion was applied at Shenshu (BL 23), Pishu (BL 20), Guanyuan (CV 4), Zusanli (ST 36) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) in the observation group, once a day, 5 days a week continuously with 2 day interval. The treatment of 6 months was required in the both groups. Before treatment and 3 and 6 months into treatment, the total TCM syndrome score, the renal function indexes (24-hour urinary protein quantity [UTP], albumin [ALB], urea nitrogen [BUN] and creatinine [Scr]), the blood coagulation indexes (fibrinogen [FIB], D-Dimer [D-D], p-selection and von Willebrand factor [vWF]), total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerol (TG) levels were observed, and the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated on 3 and 6 months into treatment in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The effective rates of 3 and 6 months into treatment were 78.6% (22/28) and 89.3% (25/28) in the observation group, which were higher than 62.1% (18/29) and 75.9% (22/29) in the control group respectively (@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion combined with basic treatment can effectively improve the clinical symptoms, renal function and renal microcirculation in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy of low to medium risk with spleen-kidney deficiency and blood stasis, the therapeutic effect is superior to the simple basic treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous , Kidney/physiology , Moxibustion , Spleen
20.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 680-685, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942236

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate factors influencing renal functional compensation(RFC) of the preserved kidney after radical nephrectomy (RN).@*METHODS@#A total of 286 patients treated with RN in Peking University People's Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), history of smoking, history of chronic diseases and other basic information, as well as preoperative blood biochemistry, urine routine, imaging examination results were recorded. All the patients underwent 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) renal scans before operation. The surgical method, pathology and blood creatinine values from 1 month to 60 months after RN were recorded. Preoperative and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula. Renal functional compensation was defined as percent change in eGFR of the preserved kidney after RN compared with the preoperative eGFR. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify predictive factors of RFC.@*RESULTS@#Median age was 61 years and 65.4% of the patients were male. Early stage (T1 or T2) tumors were found in 83.6% of the cases. 18.5% of the patients had preoperative diabetes mellitus, 39.5% had hypertension, 19.2% had a history of smoking, and 27.6% were found to have renal cyst on the contralateral side. In the study, 226 cases underwent laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and 60 cases underwent open radical nephrectomy. Renal clear cell carcinoma was the most common pathological type, accounting for 88.5%. The median tumor maximum diameter was 4.5 cm (0.7-13.5 cm). Median renal function compensation was 27% one month after radical nephrectomy. Functional stability was then observed to 5 years. The results of univariate analysis showed that age, gender, preoperative blood uric acid, preoperative urine protein, contralateral renal cyst, and percentage of split renal function of contralateral kidney were correlated with RFC (P < 0.05). Among them, UA level and split renal function of contralateral kidney were strongly negatively correlated with RFC. The results of multivariate linear regression analysis showed age (P < 0.001), blood uric acid (P < 0.001), urine protein (P=0.002), preoperative eGFR (P < 0.001) and the split renal function of contralateral kidney (P < 0.001) were independent predictors of RFC.@*CONCLUSION@#The basic examinations, such as blood biochemistry, urine routine and renal scan before RN are of great significance in predicting the compen-satory ability of the preserved kidney after RN, which is supposed to be taken into consideration when making clinical decision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney/physiology , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Nephrectomy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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