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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 461-471, abr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056463

ABSTRACT

This experiment was designed to study the administration of normal doses of one of recent antimalarial drug and coadministration of vitamin E on the kidney tissue. A total twenty-four adult male albino rats were used and divided into four groups: the first one served as a control, the second received artemether orally for three days consecutively. The rats of the third and fourth groups received the same dose of artemether concomitantly with 50 and 100 mg/kg vitamin E orally daily for 2 weeks. After the last dose, the rats were sacrificed and the kidney tissues with blood samples obtained and processed for light, electron microscopic and biochemical analysis. Histologically, artemether treated kidneys showed atrophied glomeruli with widened urinary space and kidney tubules were degenerated with disturbed contour and some vacuoles inside it. Ultrastructurally, the glomeruli of this group showed hypertrophic endothelial cells, irregularity of its basement membrane, disrupted foot processes and filtration slits. The kidney tubule cells showed loss of basal infoldings, cytoplasmic vacuolation, polymorphic damaged swollen mitochondria a loss of its microvilli towards its capillary lumen. Artemether plus vitamin E of the rat kidney groups showed improvement of morphological changes compared to the changes seen in artemether alone. These data were confirmed by biochemical findings with marked improvement of blood urea and creatinine levels and increase of anti-oxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the vitamin E treated groups. The results of this study revealed that vitamins E can improve the adverse changes of artemether of rat renal tissue.


Este proyecto fue diseñado para estudiar la administración de dosis normales de uno de los medicamentos antipalúdicos y de la administración de vitamina E en el tejido renal. Se utilizaron 24 ratas albinas machos adultas divididas en cuatro grupos: el primero sirvió como control, el segundo recibió arteméter por vía oral durante tres días consecutivos. Las ratas del tercer y cuarto grupos recibieron la misma dosis de arteméter concomitantemente con 50 y 100 mg / kg de vitamina E por vía oral diariamente durante 2 semanas. Después de la última dosis, las ratas fueron sacrificadas y se obtuvo el tejido renal de cada muestra los cuales fueron procesados para análisis con microscopías de luz y electrónica, además de exámenes bioquímicos. Histológicamente, los riñones tratados con arteméter mostraron atrofia glomerular con espacio urinario ensanchado y túbulos renales degenerados con contorno alterado y algunas vacuolas en su interior. Ultraestructuralmente, los glomérulos de este grupo mostraron células endoteliales hipertróficas, irregularidad de su membrana basal, procesos alterados del pie y hendiduras de filtración. Las células del túbulo renal mostraron pérdida de inflexiones basales, vacuolación citoplasmática, mitocondrias dañadas y pérdida de sus microvellosidades hacia la luz capilar. Arteméter más vitamina E en los grupos de riñón de rata mostraron una mejora de los cambios morfológicos, en comparación con los cambios observados en arteméter solamente. Estos datos fueron confirmados por hallazgos bioquímicos con una marcada mejoría de los niveles de urea y creatinina en sangre y un aumento de las actividades enzimáticas antioxidantes de la glutatión peroxidasa y la superóxido dismutasa en los grupos tratados con vitamina E. Los resultados de este estudio revelaron que la vitamina E puede mejorar los cambios adversos del arteméter del tejido renal de la rata.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Artemether/toxicity , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Antimalarials/toxicity
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1335-1341, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040134

ABSTRACT

Food additives and flavour enhancers used in the food industry are potential health risks. We tested the hypothesis that the food additive and flavour enhancer, monosodium glutamate (MSG), which is the sodium salt of glutamic acid can induce ultrastructural alterations to the kidney, and the antioxidant vitamin E can protect against acute kidney injuries induced by a toxic dose of MSG in a rat model of the disease. The model group of rats received a daily dose of MSG (4 gm/kg) for 7 days, whereas the protective groups were either received a 100 mg/kg vitamin E plus MSG or 300 mg/kg vitamin E plus MSG for 7 days. Rats were then sacrificed on day 8. Transmission and light microscopy images revealed substantial kidney damage induced by MSG in the model group as demonstrated by degenerated epithelial cells with Pyknotic nuclei, swollen mitochondria, damaged brush margins, dilated tubules, and widening of Bowman's space with shrinkage and deformity of some glomeruli. Treatment of the model group with vitamin E showed a substantial protection of kidney tissue and renal ultrastructure by 300 mg/kg vitamin E compared to a partial protection by 100 mg/kg vitamin E. In addition, MSG significantly (p<0.05) increased serum levels of urea and creatinine, which were significantly (p<0.05) decreased with vitamin E. However, for serum creatinine, high doses of vitamin E (300 mg/kg) were more effective than lower doses (100 mg/kg) of vitamin E. These results indicate that vitamin E at 300 mg/kg effectively protects against MSG-induced acute kidney injury in rats.


Los aditivos alimentarios y los potenciadores del sabor utilizados en la industria alimentaria son riesgos potenciales para la salud. Probamos la hipótesis de que el aditivo alimentario y el potenciador del sabor, glutamato monosódico (MSG), la sal sódica del ácido glutámico, puede inducir alteraciones ultraestructurales del riñón, y que las propiedades antioxidantes de la vitamina E, pueden proteger contra las lesiones renales inducidas por una dosis tóxica de MSG en un modelo de rata. El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una dosis diaria de MSG (4 g / kg) durante 7 días, mientras que los grupos protectores recibieron una dosis de 100 mg / kg de vitamina E más MSG o 300 mg / kg de vitamina E más MSG durante 7 días. Las ratas se sacrificaron el día 8. Las imágenes de microscopía óptica y de transmisión revelaron un daño renal sustancial inducido por el MSG en el grupo modelo, como lo demuestran las células epiteliales degeneradas con núcleos picnóticos, mitocondrias hinchadas, bordes dañados, túbulos dilatados y ensanchamiento del espacio de Bowman, además de la deformidad de algunos glomérulos. El tratamiento del grupo modelo con vitamina E mostró una protección sustancial del tejido renal y la ultraestructura renal de 300 mg / kg de vitamina E en comparación con una protección parcial de 100 mg / kg de vitamina E. Además, el MSG aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) en el suero los niveles de urea y creatinina, disminuyeron significativamente (p <0,05) con la vitamina E. Sin embargo, para la creatinina sérica, las dosis altas de vitamina E (300 mg / kg) fueron más efectivas que las dosis más bajas (100 mg / kg) de vitamina E. Estos resultados indican que la vitamina E a 300 mg / kg protege eficazmente contra la lesión renal aguda inducida por MSG en ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sodium Glutamate/toxicity , Vitamin E/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/ultrastructure
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(3): 161-166, mar. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782061

ABSTRACT

Amorimia exotropica is an important plant associated with sudden death in cattle in Southern Brazil. In order to understand the mechanisms by which A. exotropica causes acute lesions in the heart and kidney of intoxicated animals, an experiment was conducted to determine the histopathology and ultrastructure of myocardial and renal lesions of intoxicated rabbits. After receiving 18g/kg of dried plant, six rabbits died suddenly. At necropsy, the liver was swollen and no other macroscopic lesions were observed. Histologically, centrolobular and midzonal hepatocytes were vacuolated. These vacuoles were strong PAS stained positive, suggesting that they corresponded to glycogen accumulations. In some regions of the ventricular septum and ventricles were found vacuoles of different sizes and the kidneys of two rabbits showed vacuolar degeneration on distal convoluted tubules. Ultrastructurally, the myocardium had cardiomyocytes swelling with separation of myofibrils bundles and rupture and disorganization of the sarcomeres. The mitochondria displayed swelling, disorganization, disruption of the mitochondrial cristae, and electron-dense matrix. Some mitochondria exhibited eccentric projections of their membranes with disruption of both outer and inner membranes. The sarcoplasmic reticulum had no alterations, whereas the T-tubule system was occasionally dilated and ruptured. The kidneys had mitochondrial swelling with disorganization and disruption of the mitochondrial cristae. The vacuoles result from the swelling of the endoplasmatic reticulum and usually were located between two basolateral infoldings and mitochondria, occurring preferentially around the nucleus. The myocytes and T system damages induced by A. exotropica result in acute heart failure and death. Furthermore, this mechanism of cardiotoxicity may be common to all plant containing monofluoroacetate.


Amorimia exotropica é uma importante planta associada à morte súbita em bovinos no Sul do Brasil. Visando compreender os mecanismos pelos quais a A. exotropica provoca lesões agudas no coração e rins de animais intoxicados, foi conduzido uma intoxicação experimental em coelhos para determinar a histopatologia e ultraestrutura da lesão miocárdica e renal. Depois de receber 18g/kg de planta seca, seis coelhos morreram subitamente. Na necropsia, o fígado apresentava acentuação do padrão lobular. Os demais órgãos não apresentaram alterações macroscópicas. Histologicamente, os hepatócitos centrolobulares e mediozonais estavam vacuolizados e coraram-se fortemente com PAS. Em algumas regiões foram observados vacúolos de diferentes tamanhos no septo ventricular e ventrículos e os rins de dois coelhos mostraram degeneração vacuolar nos túbulos contorcidos distais. Ultraestruturalmente, o miocárdio apresentou cardiomiócitos tumefeitos com separação das bandas de miofibrilas e ruptura e desorganização dos sarcômeros. As mitocôndrias estavam tumefeitas exibindo desorganização das cristas mitocondriais, e a matriz estava eletrodensa. Algumas mitocôndrias exibiam projecções excêntricas das suas membranas com ruptura das membranas externas e internas. O retículo sarcoplasmático não tinha alterações, e os túbulos T estavam ocasionalmente dilatados e rompidos. Os rins apresentavam tumefação mitocondrial com desorganização e ruptura das cristas mitocondriais. Os vacúolos resultam da expansão do retículo endoplasmático e foram localizados geralmente entre duas invaginações basolaterais e as mitocôndrias, ocorrendo preferencialmente ao redor do núcleo. A lesão nos miócitos e o dano no sistema T induzido pela A. exotropica resultam na insuficiência cardíaca aguda e morte. Este mecanismo de cardiotoxicidade pode ser comum a todas as plantas contendo monofluoroacetato.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Myocardium/ultrastructure , Death, Sudden/veterinary , Plants, Toxic , Kidney/ultrastructure , Toxicity/adverse effects , Plant Poisoning , Poisoning
4.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162043

ABSTRACT

Objective: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of excitement and promise as a potential source of cells for cell-based therapeutic strategies. These data provide the clue of using MSCs in the current work in correcting cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, the severest adverse effect of the well-known anticancer drug; cisplatin. Methods: MSCs of bone marrow origin of femora and tibiae of adult albino rats were separated, grown, propagated in culture then identified by both morphology and CD29 surface marker detection. MSCs were injected into the rats’’ tail veins one day after a single dose (5 mg/kg body weight) of intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin. Four weeks later kidney tissue was examined histopathologically and ultra-structurally. Renal functions s(urea, creatinine) as well as serum electrolytes levels (Na, K) were estimated Results: Cisplatin group demonstrated atrophied glomeruli, thickened glomerular basement membrane, dilated urinary space, loss of proximal convoluted tubules brush borders, loss of podocyte pedicels and collagen deposition. Tubular cells showed vacuolization and nuclear membrane degeneration. Serum levels of urea, creatinine, Na and K were significantly elevated. MSCs ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity to a great extent as evidenced histologically, ultra-structurally and biochemically. Conclusion: MSCs have a potential therapeutic effect against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cisplatin/toxicity , Kidney/chemistry , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/toxicity , Kidney/ultrastructure , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Models, Animal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Apr; 52(4): 332-343
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150364

ABSTRACT

Renal structural and functional alterations following an exposure to a heterogeneous chemical mixture (HCM) of phthalic acid di butyl ester, 1, 2–dichlorobenzene, cadmium chloride and chromium trioxide, administered through oral gavage in low doses (1/100 and 1/1000 of LD50 value of individual chemical) for 60 days, followed by withdrawal till 120 days resulted in significant rise in kidney lipid peroxidation and fall in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants. However, withdrawal of HCM treatment restored most of these altered parameters. Degenerative changes in the kidney included proximal convoluted tubules devoid of brush boarder with cytoplasmic blebbing, dissolution and sloughing of nuclei. Cortical glomeruli were also affected with epithelial disintegration, pyknosis of podocyte nuclei and mesengial cell hyperplasia. The morphological alterations recovered fully in the low dose compared to the high dose treatment group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cadmium Chloride/toxicity , Chlorobenzenes/toxicity , Chromium Compounds/toxicity , Complex Mixtures/toxicity , Environmental Exposure , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/drug effects , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/physiology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/ultrastructure , Male , Phthalic Acids/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar
6.
Egyptian Journal of Histology [The]. 2014; 37 (2): 248-257
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-160204

ABSTRACT

Several studies have demonstrated that the pathophysiological and morphological changes in early diabetic nephropathy were mediated by an increase or decrease in nitric oxide [NO] production and/or activity. There are few reports suggesting a relationship between NO and the renin-angiotensin system. The present study was designed to determine the effects of early diabetic state on NO production and also to assess the possible effects of angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs] on these changes. Thirty adult male albino rats were included in this study. Twenty were injected with streptozotocin for induction of diabetes. The other 10 were injected with the vehicle and served as control. Two days after injection, the diabetic animals were randomly divided into two groups of 10 animals each. One group was given valsartan as an ARB and the other group received no further treatment. Three weeks later, all animals were sacrificed and the kidneys were processed for obtaining paraffin sections. The sections were stained with H and E, Masson's trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff. The sections were also stained with an immunohistochemical stain against endothelium-derived nitric oxide synthase [eNOS]. Diabetes induced histological changes in the form of glomerular hypertrophy, increased glomerular matrix, focal areas of tubular atrophy, medullary congestion, and slight fibrosis. Immunostaining was present in the control kidney in the glomeruli and in the collecting tubules of the medulla. Diabetes induced a positive reaction in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules and increased immunoreactivity in the collecting tubules. Treatment with valsartan resulted in an improvement in the morphology of the kidney and a reduction in the intensity of eNOS immunostaining. NO increases in early diabetic kidney and ARB in the form of valsartan could be recommended for preventing the development of diabetic nephropathy


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Kidney/ultrastructure , Immunohistochemistry/statistics & numerical data , Microscopy, Polarization/statistics & numerical data , Tetrazoles , Rats
7.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2014; 57 (October): 612-629
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-160257

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is one of the common and widely distributed metabolic diseases all over the world. This disease is characterized by hyperglycemia that results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Different medicinal plant species are used as a traditional treatment for diabetes mellitus e.g. Ambrosia maritima, L. [Damsissa] which is one of these plants that its extract was used to treat diabetic patients long times ago. This work was aimed to investigate the antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of the aqueous extract of Ambrosia maritima, L. [Damsissa] on the alloxan-induced diabetic male albino rats. This study was performed on thirty male albino rats with an average 100-110 g body weight. The animals were divided into three groups [10 /cage]; Group I [Control untreated-group], Group II [Alloxan-induced diabetic group] and Group III [diabetic group treated orally with "28.5 mg/ kg body wt. twice/ day" of the plant extract]. The biochemical results showed marked decline [p<0.01] in the levels of the serum insulin, body weight, total proteins, albumin, globulin and HDL accompanied with marked elevation [p<0.001] in the levels of fasting blood glucose, levels of HOMA_IR, AST, ALT, GGT, urea, creatinine, uric acid, serum TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and ratios of TC/HDL and LDL/HDL [risk factors] in diabetic rats in comparison with the control group. Daily management of the diabetic rates with aqueous extract of Damsissa showed significant improvement in most of these parameters. Histologically, considerable improvement in the morphological changes that was observed in diabetic groups had been detected after treatment with Damsissa in liver, kidney and pancreatic tissues in comparison to the control group. It could be concluded that Ambrosia maritima, L. [Damsissa] can be used as an antidiabetic drug that can lower blood glucose concentration and guard against the negative effects of diabetes


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Protective Agents , Ambrosia/adverse effects , Rats , Liver/ultrastructure , Kidney/ultrastructure , Pancreas/ultrastructure , Treatment Outcome
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(1): 115-121, ene.-mar. 2013. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-675139

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Ceratopteris pteridoides es un helecho semiacuático de la familia Parkeriacea, ampliamente utilizado en la medicina popular colombiana como diurético y colelitiásico, sobre el cual no existen reportes científicos que avalen su uso popular como diurético. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto diurético agudo en dosis única y dosis repetidas a corto plazo, de los extractos etanólico y acuoso de C. pteridoides en un modelo in vivo . Materiales y métodos. El extracto etanólico total fue obtenido por maceración de la planta entera de C. pteridoides con etanol y el extracto acuoso fue obtenido por decocción a 60 °C por 15 minutos. Ambos extractos se sometieron a análisis fitoquímico preliminar y estudio histológico posterior a la administración de los extractos durante ocho días consecutivos (1.000 mg/kg). El efecto diurético se evaluó en ratas Wistar, tratadas con los extractos (500 mg/kg), en forma aguda y en dosis repetidas a corto plazo, cuantificando la eliminación de agua y la excreción renal de sodio y potasio por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica y, de cloruros, por titulación mercurimétrica. Resultados. En el modelo agudo, ambos extractos mostraron un significativo efecto diurético y de excreción renal de sodio y potasio en comparación con el control, mientras que con la administración en dosis repetidas a corto plazo mostraron efecto diurético sin eliminación de electrolitos. El estudio histopatológico no sugirió efectos tóxicos hepáticos o renales. Conclusión. Los resultados demuestran la actividad diurética de C. pteridoides y sustentan el uso popular dado a esta planta como diurético en la costa norte colombiana. Se requieren estudios posteriores que permitan aislar e identificar los compuestos responsables de la actividad y los mecanismos de acción involucrados.


Introduction. Ceratopteris pteridoides is a semiaquatic fern of the Parkeriacea family, widely used in the Colombian folk medicine as a diuretic and cholelithiasic, of which there are no scientific reports that validate its popular use. Objective. To evaluate the acute and short-term repeated-dose diuretic effect of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. pteridoides in an in vivo model. Materials and methods. The total ethanolic extract was obtained by maceration of the whole plant of C. pteridoides with ethanol and the aqueous extract by decoction at 60°C for 15 minutes. Both extracts were evaluated in preliminary phytochemical analysis and histological studies after the administration of the extracts for 8 consecutive days (1000 mg/Kg). The diuretic effect was evaluated using Wistar rats treated with the extracts (500 mg/Kg), using an acute and a short-term repeated-dose model, and quantifying water elimination, sodium and potassium excretion by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and chloride excretion by mercurimetric titration. Results. In the acute model both extracts showed significant diuretic, natriuretic, and kaliuretic effect compared to the control group. Whereas, a short-term repeated-dose administration showed a diuretic effect without elimination of electrolytes. The histopathologic study did not suggest a toxic effect in liver or kidney. Conclusion. The results represent evidence of the diuretic activity of C. pteridoides and give support the popular use given to this plant in the north coast of Colombia. Further studies are required to isolate and identify the compounds responsible for the activity and the mechanism of action involved.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Diuresis/drug effects , Diuretics/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pteridaceae/chemistry , Colombia , Chlorides/urine , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Diuretics/administration & dosage , Diuretics/isolation & purification , Diuretics/toxicity , Ethanol , Furosemide/pharmacology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/ultrastructure , Liver/drug effects , Liver/ultrastructure , Medicine, Traditional , Natriuresis/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Potassium/urine , Rats, Wistar , Solvents , Water
9.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2013; 34 (11): 1114-1124
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-140885

ABSTRACT

To assess the histological and ultrastructural changes that can be induced by diethylstilbestrol [DES] on renal tissues using histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural methods. Thirty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups [10 rats each]: Group 1 - control; Group 2 - received DES at a dose of 60 micro g/kg/day, dissolved in 0.1 ml corn oil for 20 days; and Group 3 - received the same dose of DES for 50 days by oral gavage. The renal tissues were studied histologically, immunohistochemically [using an anti-BCL2-associated X protein [BAX protein] antibody], and ultrastructurally. This study was carried out at the Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between December 2011 and December 2012. The DES administration for 50 days caused noticeable degeneration, and alteration of the morphology of the renal tissues in the form of damaged renal tubules with loss of the brush border of the proximal convoluted tubules and increased cellularity of the glomeruli. In addition, there was a significant increase in BAX protein expression based on immunoreactivity, and in renal tubules, as well as glomerular cells. These changes were less obvious after 20 days of treatment. Non-steroidal, synthetic estrogens showed harmful effects on the renal tissues and altered their morphology with an increased number of apoptotic cells, and these changes were duration dependent


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Male , Kidney/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Kidney/ultrastructure , Rats, Wistar
10.
Assiut Medical Journal. 2013; 37 (1): 1-12
in English, Arabic | IMEMR | ID: emr-150529

ABSTRACT

Gentamicin [GENT] which is a commonly used antibiotic causes nephrotoxicity in man and animals. Generation of free radicals in the renal cortex plays an important role in the pathogenesis of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Curcumin, the yellow curry pigment isolated from turmeric [the ground rhizome of Curcuma longa L] and Ginkgo biloba extract have been reported to possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective role of curcumin, Ginkgo biloba extract, and their combination on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The rats were divided into six groups, 8 animals each. Group 1 rats were treated with GENT [80 mg/kg/day] IM for 6 days. Rats of groups 2, 3, and 4 "were pretreated orally for 4 days with curcumin [200 mg/kg/day], Ginkgo biloba leaf extract [300 mg/kg/day], and a combination of curcumin and Ginkgo biloba leaf extract, respectively before concomitant administration of GENT for additional 6 days. Control groups of animals were treated with pure vehicles IM or orally. Nephrotoxicity was evaluated biochemically and histopathologically. Treatment of rats with GENT produced elevation in serum creatinine, urea levels and severe tubular necrosis. Concomitantly, treatment of rats with GENT produced elevation in serum nitrite level, decrease in renal intracellular reduced glutathione [GSH] level and superoxide dismutase [SOD] activity. Pretreatment of rats with curcumin, Ginkgo biloba extract, or their combination decreased GENT-induced disturbances in kidney function and structure. In addition, pretreatment of rats with curcumin, Ginkgo biloba extract, or their combination decreased GENT-induced alterations in serum nitrite level, renal intracellular GSH level and SOD activity. The combined treatment was more effective than either agent alone. These results indicate that curcumin, Ginkgo biloba extract, or their combination has the ability to protect against GENT-induced nephrotoxicity. Inhibition of oxidative stress and nitric oxide production may play an important role in these protective effects


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Gentamicins/toxicity , Kidney/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron , Plant Extracts , Protective Agents , Antioxidants , Rats
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 30(2): 559-566, jun. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-651830

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to compare the nephrotoxic effects of liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) and amphotericin B lipid complex (Abelcet) on rat kidneys at short (14 days) and long term (28 days) treatment applications. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were included and divided into six groups (n=6). Groups 1 and 4 are composed as control groups by administrating intraperitoneal (ip) 0, 9 molar Serum physiologic for a period of 14 and 28 days respectively. Group 2 and 3 are treated with 5 mg/kg Ambisome and 5 mg/kg Abelcet for 14 days respectively, group 5 and 6 are treated with same agents for 28 days respectively. Then, the rats were transcardially perfused, samples were taken from cortex and medulla regions of kidneys. The micrographs of group 1 and 4 were seen as normal. For short term treatment, some morphological changes were seen in proximal tubule cells in group 3 whereas in group 2 the graphs were observed as normal. However, after long term drug using in group 5 and 6 there were vacuolization, increased lysosomal structures and deep basal folding's into tubular cells lumen. These experiments establish that renal damage were seen in short and long term use of Abelcet and long term use of Ambisome.


El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue comparar los efectos nefrotóxicos de la anfotericina B liposomal (AmBisome) y anfotericina B en complejo lipídico (Abelcet) sobre riñones de ratas, en el tratamiento de aplicación a corto (14 días) y largo plazo (28 días). Fueron incluidas en el estudio 36 ratas Wistar machos, divididas en seis grupos (n = 6). Los Grupos 1 y 4 fueron grupos de control mediante la administración intraperitoneal (ip) de 0, 9 molar de suero fisiológico durante un periodo de 14 y 28 días respectivamente. Los Grupos 2 y 3 fueron tratados con 5 mg/kg de ambisome y 5 mg/kg abelcet durante 14 días respectivamente, y finalmente los grupos Grupos 5 y 6 tratados con los mismos agentes durante 28 días, respectivamente. Luego, las ratas fueron perfundidas vía transcardíaca, y se tomaron muestras de la corteza y la médula renal. Las micrografías de los grupos 1 y 4 se observaron normal. En el tratamiento a corto plazo, algunos cambios morfológicos se observaron en las células del túbulo proximal en el grupo 3, mientras que en el grupo 2 los gráficos se observaron normales. Sin embargo, después de utilizar la droga a largo plazo en los grupos 5 y 6 hubo vacuolización, aumento de las estructuras lisosomales y un profundo plegamiento basal de las células del lumen tubular. Estos experimentos establecen que el daño renal se produce en el uso a corto y largo plazo de Abelcet, y largo plazo de Ambisome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Amphotericin B/toxicity , Liposomes/toxicity , Kidney/ultrastructure , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Liposomes/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Kidney , Time Factors
12.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2011. 50 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-657306

ABSTRACT

Desordens do sistema renal podem ser as causas da hipertensão arterial, a qual pode, por sua vez, causar doenças renais. A pressão sanguínea elevada é muito comum também nas doenças crônicas dos rins, e é, além disso, um conhecido fator de risco para uma mais rápida progressão da falha renal. A incidência de doenças renais crônicas está aumentando no mundo, e há uma grande necessidade de identificar as terapias capazes de deter ou reduzir a progressão da doença. Há crescente evidência de que as estatinas poderiam desempenhar um papel terapêutico. Além disso, tem sido demonstrado que a atividade física melhora a função renal em pacientes. Estudos ultra-estruturais em humanos e em ratos demonstraram a presença de junções gap dentro de todas as células do glomérulo e os podócitos demonstraram conter principalmente conexina-43 (Cx-43). O presente estudo tem como objetivo observar os efeitos da rosuvastatina e da atividade física de baixa intensidade na estrutura e ultra-estrutura renal e na expressão glomerular de Cx-43 em ratos normotensos (WKY) e em ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). Os ratos foram divididos aleatoriamente em oito grupos: WKY-C: animais normotensos que não receberam rosuvastatina; WKY-ROS: animais normotensos que receberam rosuvastatina 20mg/kg/dia por gavagem orogástrica; SHR-C: animais hipertensos que não receberam rosuvastatina; SHR-ROS: animais hipertensos que receberam rosuvastatina, como descrito no grupo WKY-ROS; SED-WKY: animais normotensos sedentários; EX-WKY: animais normotensos exercitados; SED-SHR: animais hipertensos sedentários; e, EX-SHR: animais hipertensos exercitados. Os animais dos grupos SHR-C, SHR-ROS e SED-SHR apresentaram níveis de pressão arterial maiores que os animais dos grupos WKY-C, WKY-ROS, SED-WKY, EX-WKY e EX-SHR. A massa corporal dos grupos de animais não diferiram significativamente durante o experimento. Não houve diferença nos níveis sanguíneos de uréia, creatinina, ácido úrico e creatinafosfoquinase...


Disorders of the renal system may be the cause of hypertension, which can in turn cause kidney disease. The high blood pressure is also very common in chronic kidney diseases, and is also a known risk factor for faster progression of renal failure. The incidence of chronic kidney disease is increasing woldwide, and there is a great need to identify therapies to stop or slow the progression of the disease. There is growing evidence that statins could play a therapeutic role. Moreover, it has been shown that physical activity improves renal function in patients. Ultrastructural studies in humans and rats have shown the presence of gap junctions in all cells of the glomerular podocytes and also to contain mainly connexin-43 (Cx-43). This study aims to observe the effects of rosuvastatin and low-intensity physical activity on the structure and ultrastructure of kidney and glomerular expression of Cx-43 in normotensive rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The rats were randomly divided into eight groups: WKY-C: normotensive animals not receiving rosuvastatin, WKY-ROS: normotensive animals that received rosuvastatin 20mg/kg/day by orogastric gavage, C-SHR: hypertensive animals not receiving rosuvastatin; SHR-ROS: hypertensive rats that received rosuvastatin, as described in ROS-WKY group, WKY-SED: sedentary normotensive, WKY-EX: normotensive rats exercised, SHR-SED: sedentary hypertensive rats, and EX-SHR: hypertensive rats exercised. The animals in groups C-SHR, SHR-SED and SHR-ROS had blood pressure levels higher than the animals in groups WKY-C, ROS-WKY, WKY-SED, EX-SHR and EX-WKY. The body mass of groups of animals did not differ significantly during the experiment. There was no difference in urea, creatinine, uric acid and creatine phosphokinase blood levels among animals of the studied groups. However, there was an increased excretion of 24 hours protein in SHR-C group. There was an increase in the capsule in group SHR-C...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , /ultrastructure , Exercise/physiology , Fluorobenzenes/therapeutic use , Hypertension/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney , Kidney/ultrastructure , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY
13.
Assiut Medical Journal. 2011; 35 (1): 103-128
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-117172

ABSTRACT

In the recent years, extensive research work has been focused on the use of natural antioxidants against the toxic oxidative materials to ameliorate their toxic and cell damaging effects. In people who had died after exposure to CC14, kidney failure was frequently reported as the main cause of death. Honey is one of the natural antioxidants. So, the present work aimed at the morphological and morphometric evaluation of the efficacy of honey on the carbon tetrachloride-induced kidney injury.Thirty adult male albino Sprague-Dawley mice were divided into three groups, each group consisted of 10 mice. Control group [group I] received olive oil subcutaneously [S.C.]; CCL4 group [group II] were injected S.C. with 0.3% CCL4 dissolved in olive oil in a daily dose of 5ml/kg B. W. for 4 weeks. CCL4 + Honey group [group III] recieved both CCL4 and honey simultaneously daily for 4 weeks. The honey mixed with water and was given orally by gastric tube. The kidney specimens were processed for both light and electron microscopic examinations. Morphometric studies were also carried out. At L.M. level; carbon tetrachloride - induced degenerative changes in kidney cortex involved both corpuscles and tubules as well as inflammatory mononuclear cellular infiltration. By E.M.; thick interrupted glomerular basement membrane Morphometry showed significant changes of glomerulus, corpuscles and tubules. Honey effects were at L.M.; improvement of degenerative changes and inflammatory infiltration. At E.M; improvement of corpuscular and tubular changes. Morphometry showed better significant changes of glomerulus, corpuscles and tubules. Processed honey significantly reduced degenerative changes induced by CCL4 in the renal cortex on simultaneous administration


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Kidney/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron , Honey/statistics & numerical data , Protective Agents , Treatment Outcome , Mice , Male
14.
Egyptian Journal of Histology [The]. 2010; 33 (4): 722-734
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110734

ABSTRACT

Ketoprofen is a widely used drug related to the group of the traditional non selective non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs [NSAIDs]. Meloxicam is related to the group of the cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2] selective inhibitors which is a newer version of NSAIDs. To demonstrate and compare the effects of long-term administration of meloxicam and ketoprofen on the structure of the kidney and gastric mucosa in the healthy adult rats. A total number of 36 adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were equally divided into three groups. Group I was considered as a control. Group II included the rats treated with ketoprofen in a dose of 1mg/kg orally once daily for 10 weeks by a gastric tube, Group III included the rats treated with meloxicam in a dose of 0.2 mg/kg orally once daily for 10 weeks via gastric tube. At the end of the experiment animals were sacrificed and specimens of the kidney and stomach were processed for light and scanning electron microscopic studies. Some kidney specimens were also processed to be studied by transmission electron microscopy. The diameter of renal corpuscles was measured in the three studied groups and statistically analyzed. In ketoprofen treated rats [group II] the renal corpuscles exhibited marked shrinkage of glomeruli. Many renal tubules appeared to be lined with damaged epithelium. Ultrastructural study of the lining cells of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules revealed that the degenerative changes involved both the nucleus and the cytoplasmic organelles. The interstitial tissue had focal areas of fibrosis. In the meloxicam treated rats [group III], there was little shrinkage of the glomeruli. However, the interstitial tissue showed heavy cellular infiltration. SEM study revealed an enlargement of the processes of the podocytes with loss of their pedicles. The gastric mucosa in group II showed an extensive damage to the surface epithelial cells in the form of ulcers while in group III there was patchy areas of epithelial destruction. This study demonstrated that long-term administration of COX-2 selective inhibitors exerted deleterious effects on the kidney comparable to those exerted by the nonselective NSAIDs. However, their damaging effect on the gastric mucosa appeared to be less than the nonselective NSAIDs but it was not abolished


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Ketoprofen/adverse effects , Kidney/pathology , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Histology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron , Gastric Mucosa/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Rats , Comparative Study
15.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2010; 39 (6): 229-248
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-150667

ABSTRACT

Sinai regions are characterized by the presence of large number of medicinal plants that are highly used in folk treatments but only a small number of these plants have received scientific and medical evaluation to assess their efficacy. Among these plants, Cleome droserifolia plant, which is commonly used in the Egyptian folk medicine for treatment of many diseases. The present study was planned to examine the safety of using an extract of Cleome droserifolia plant. This study focuses on the histopathological and uitrastructural changes induced by the plant extract in liver and kidney of the experimental rats. Cleome droserifolia treatment produced cellular swelling, cytoplasmic granulation with necrotic cells in addition to appearance of patches of depleted glycogen within the hepatic cytoplasm. The glomeruli were hypertrophied with thickening of Bowman's capsule and the renal tubules exhibited damaged epithelial lining cells in addition to the appearance of numerous lysosomes. Such changes in the present study may be due to the toxic effect or accumulation of one or more of the active pharmacological compounds of the plant in the liver or kidney tissues of the treated rats. It is recommended that future studies and chemical analytical techniques are required to separate and purify the main components from the plant responsible for safety and quality assurances for good practices of the plant


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Plant Extracts , Liver/pathology , Liver/ultrastructure , Kidney/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron , Rats
16.
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2010; 65 (4): 281-288
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-125782

ABSTRACT

Cadmium as a heavy metal has some detrimental effects on the health of living organisms. The aim of the present inventigation was to study the effects of cadmium induced toxicity on the kidney in a broiler chicken mode. Eighty four one day-old male Ross breed broiler chickens were obtained from a commercial poultry farm and randomly divided into four groups. While control [group 1] took no cadmium, groups 2,3 and 4 received a ration of 25,50 and 100 ppm cadmium [CdCl[2]] per day, respectively. At days 14, 28 and 42 seven birds were sacrificed and their kidneys were examined with both light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Data were statistically analyzed using 2- way ANOVA. Kidney lesions in the groups 3 and 4 were more severe than the group 2. Severity of kidney lesions showed both time and dose dependent manner increase so that all birds in groups 3 and 4 had severe kidney lesions. These groups received 50 and 100 ppm cadmium a day. Renal histopathology showed swelling, degenerative changes, necrosis and apoptosis in tubular epithelium as well as presence of hyaline casts and lack of kidney lymphoid tissue formation. It can be concluded that higher concentrations of dietary cadmium can induce kidney lesions in chickens through glomerular and tubular damages


Subject(s)
Animals , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Chickens , Kidney Glomerulus , Kidney Tubules
17.
Ain-Shams Journal of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology. 2010; 14 (Jan.): 33-40
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-126422

ABSTRACT

Despite their beneficial effects, aminoglycosides including gentamycin [GEN] and amikacin [AK] have considerable nephrotoxic side effects. This study investigaged the effects of green tea [GT] extract on biochemical and morphological kidney damage induced by GEN and AK in rats. Sixty male albino rats were used in this study and divided into 6 groups each contains ten rats. The first group was the control group injected with 0.4 ml saline. Each rat of the second group was given 12.5 ml of green tea extract [3%] twice daily to drink it orally for 25 days. The 3[rd] group received GEN [80mg/kg] once daily intraperitoneally for 10 days. The 4[th] group was administered AK [180 mg/kg] once daily intraperitoneally for 10 days. The 5[th] group received GT extract for 15 days then concomitant with GEN for 10 days. The 6[th] group received GT extract for 15 days then concomitant with AK for 10 days. GEN and AK groups showed significant increase in serum urea and creatinine [Cr] which was significantly decreased in green tea consuming rats before GEN and AK administration. GEN and AK treated rats showed significant decrease in the activity of calalase enzyme and reduced glutathione level in kidney tissues which were significantly increased in GT consuming rats prior to GEN and AK injection. Light microscopic examination of kidney tissues of GEN and AK groups revealed tabular necrosis and degenerative changes which were modulated by the consumption of green tea prior to GEN and AK administration. In conclusion green tea ameliorates and modulates GEN and AK induced-nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage by enhancing the antioxidant defense system


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Amikacin/toxicity , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron , Protective Agents , Camellia sinensis , Rats
18.
Rev. cient. (Maracaibo) ; 19(6): 576-583, nov.-dic. 2009. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-551214

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of ultrasonographic measurement of canine kidneys. A method agreement analysis comparing pairs of measurements (ultrasonographic kidney dimensions and direct kidney dimensions) was performed. Nineteen dogs aging from one to thirteen years were used. The ultrasonographic and anatomic linear parameters obtained from the kidneys were the following: width, length and height; the kidney volume was estimated from these measures using the formula of an ellipsoid. The statistical method performed (method agreement) demonstrated a satisfactory agreement. It can be concluded that ultrasound measurement is sufficiently accurate for clinical use, assuming a careful scanning technique.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la fiabilidad de las medidas ecográficas de los riñones del perro. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de concordancia entre métodos (medidas ecográficas del riñón y medidas anatómicas directas). Se utilizaron perros cuyas edades iban de uno a trece años. Las medidas ecográficas y anatómicas lineales que se obtuvieron de los riñones fueron las siguientes: anchura, longitud y altura. El volumen renal se estimó aplicando estas medidas en la fórmula de un elipsoide. A través de un análisis de concordancia estadística se observó un nivel de acuerdo satisfactorio. Se puede concluir que las medidas ecográficas son suficientemente fiables para su uso en clínica, si se lleva a cabo una cuidadosa técnica ecográfica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/statistics & numerical data , Kidney/ultrastructure , Ultrasonography , Veterinary Medicine
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 27(3): 855-859, sept. 2009. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-598948

ABSTRACT

La Plastinación es la técnica más moderna para la conservación de piezas anatómicas y especímenes. Esta técnica consta de cuatro etapas: fijación, deshidratación, impregnación forzada y curado. Este trabajo pretende mejorar la eficiencia en la producción de órganos plastinados mediante la técnica de Plastinación estándar denominada S 10. Se utilizaron riñones de equinos mestizos criollos provenientes del Frigorífico Aimar S/A, ubicado en la zona rural de Río Cuarto. Luego de realizar la fijación del órgano con formalina se procedió a deshidratarlo. La deshidratación se llevó a cabo en tres sub-etapas donde en cada una de ellas se trabajó a la misma temperatura y se utilizó como solvente una solución de acetona en diferentes concentraciones. Las mediciones se realizaron con acetómetro registrándose el tiempo insumido para lograr la deshidratación. Los datos se analizaron estadísticamente por medio de: análisis de la varianza multivariada y análisis de correlación simple utilizando el paquete estadístico InfoStat. Los resultados muestran que los tiempos de deshidratación se ven influenciados por la edad del animal pero no por la posición ni por el peso del órgano.


Plastination is the most modern technique for the preservation of anatomical pieces and specimens. This technique consists of four stages: fixation, dehydration, forced impregnation, and cured. This research aims at improving the efficiency of production plastinated organs through the standard technique known as S10. Kidneys of criole mestizo equines from Frigorifico Aimar S.A placed in the rural area of Rio IV were used. After binding the organ with formalin, it was dehydrated. The dehydration was carried out in three sub-stages working at the same temperature, and a solvent composed of solution of acetone of different concentrations was used. The measurements were analysed with acetometer, keeping register of the time consumption to reach dehydration. The resulting data was statistically analysed using Infostat program. Results showed that the time consumed to reach dehydration was influenced by the horses age but not by the kidney's weight, there were no significant differences between right and left kidneys neither.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Horses/anatomy & histology , Organ Preservation Solutions , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/innervation , Kidney/ultrastructure , Anatomy, Veterinary/education
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 27(2): 419-424, June 2009.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-563088

ABSTRACT

El cobayo (Cavia porcellus) es un roedor perteneciente al Orden Rodentia y a la Familia Caviidae, utilizado como animal de laboratorio y de consumo humano. Los parámetros cuantitativos del riñón entregan importante información de su morfofunción dada su labor en la homeostasis del organismo. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir el riñón de cobayo (Cavia porcellus), analizando las características estereológicas para futuros estudios experimentales. Se utilizaron 5 cobayos machos, obtenidos del Bioterio de la Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. El riñón de cobayo pesó 3,2 g, aproximadamente. El riñón posee 140.298 glomérulos en total, Nv de 458 mm³, Vv de 7,89% y Sv de 3,58 mm²/ mm³. El volumen glomerular del riñón fue de 1,73 x 10(4)mm³ y el diámetro glomerular de 90 jm. Factores como especie, edad, peso corporal, peso y volumen renal, son importantes a considerar, ya que diferencian los resultados en investigaciones morfofuncionales.


The guinea pig, (Cavia porcellus) is a rodent pertaining to the Rodentia group and the Caviidae family, used as a laboratory animal and for human consumption. Quantitative parameters of the kidney provides important information of its morphofunction, given its labor in the organism's homeostasis. The aim or this study was to describe the kidney of the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), analyzing the stereological characteristics for future experimental studies. Five male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) obtained from the Biotery of the Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile, were used. The kidney of the guinea pig weighed approximately 3.2g. The kidney has 140,298 total glomerulus, Nv of 458 mm³, Vv of 7.89% and Svof 3.58mm²/mm³. The glomerular volume of the kidney was of 1.73 x 10(4)mm³ and a glomerular diameter of 90 urn. Factors such as species, age, body weight and renal volume, are important to consider, as they differentiate the results in the morphofunctional investigations.


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Animals , Guinea Pigs , Guinea Pigs/anatomy & histology , Guinea Pigs/physiology , Guinea Pigs/metabolism , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/physiology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Zona Glomerulosa/anatomy & histology , Zona Glomerulosa/physiology , Zona Glomerulosa/ultrastructure , Photogrammetry/methods , Photogrammetry/veterinary , Homeostasis/physiology , Body Weights and Measures/methods , Body Weights and Measures/veterinary
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