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1.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 80-88, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009479

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is well characterized as a heterogeneous disease. Its late-stage diagnosis and chemotherapy resistance make it one of the refractory tumors in China. Natural killer (NK) cells play a significant role in immune surveillance. However, NK cells become dysfunctional in the progression of HCC, leading to tumor immune escape. This article reviews the recent progress on different strategies of NK cell-based immunotherapy in treating HCC, including direct adoptive NK cell transfer, gene engineering in NK cell, NK cell receptor targeting, immunosuppressive microenvironment modification, and tumor toxicity enhancement by cytokines or traditional Chinese medicine. These NK cell-based strategies have shown promising therapeutic potential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Immunotherapy , Killer Cells, Natural , Receptors, Natural Killer Cell , Tumor Microenvironment
2.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 975-981, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010156

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the regulatory effect of interferon-α (IFN-α) on the apoptosis and killing function of CD56dimCD57+ natural killer (NK) cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, and to explore the specific mechanism.@*METHODS@#A total of sixty-four newly treated SLE patients and sixteen healthy controls (HC) enrolled in the Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University were selected as the research subjects. And the gene expression levels of molecules related to NK cell-killing function were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. CD56dimCD57+ NK cells were co-cultured with the K562 cells, and the apoptotic K562 cells were labeled with Annexin-Ⅴ and 7-amino-actinomycin D. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 20, 40, and 80 μmol/L hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and treated without H2O2 as control, the expression level of perforin (PRF) was detected by flow cytometry. The concentration of IFN-α in serum was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The expression levels of IFN-α receptors (IFNAR) on the surface of CD56dimCD57+ NK cells were detected by flow cytometry, and were represented by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). CD56dimCD57+ NK cells were treated with 1 000 U/mL IFN-α for 24, 48 and 72 h, and no IFN-α treatment was used as the control, the apoptosis and the expression levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) were measured by flow cytometry and represented by MFI.@*RESULTS@#Compared with HC(n=3), the expression levels of PRF1 gene in peripheral blood NK cells of the SLE patients (n=3) were decreased (1.24±0.41 vs. 0.57±0.12, P=0.05). Compared with HC(n=5), the ability of peripheral blood CD56dimCD57+ NK cells in the SLE patients (n=5) to kill K562 cells was significantly decreased (58.61%±10.60% vs. 36.74%±6.27%, P < 0.01). Compared with the control (n=5, 97.51%±1.67%), different concentrations of H2O2 treatment significantly down-regulated the PRF expression levels of CD56dimCD57+ NK cells in a dose-dependent manner, the 20 μmol/L H2O2 PRF was 83.23%±8.48% (n=5, P < 0.05), the 40 μmol/L H2O2 PRF was 79.53%±8.56% (n=5, P < 0.01), the 80 μmol/L H2O2 PRF was 76.67%±7.16% (n=5, P < 0.01). Compared to HC (n=16), the serum IFN-α levels were significantly increased in the SLE patients (n=45) with moderate to high systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI≥10) [(55.07±50.36) ng/L vs. (328.2±276.3) ng/L, P < 0.001]. Meanwhile, compared with HC (n=6), IFNAR1 expression in peripheral blood CD56dimCD57+ NK cells of the SLE patients (n=6) were increased (MFI: 292.7±91.9 vs. 483.2±160.3, P < 0.05), and compared with HC (n=6), IFNAR2 expression in peripheral blood CD56dimCD57+ NK cells of the SLE patients (n=7) were increased (MFI: 643.5±113.7 vs. 919.0±246.9, P < 0.05). Compared with control (n=6), the stimulation of IFN-α (n=6) significantly promoted the apoptosis of CD56dimCD57+ NK cells (20.48%±7.01% vs. 37.82%±5.84%, P < 0.05). In addition, compared with the control (n=4, MFI: 1 049±174.5), stimulation of CD56dimCD57+ NK cells with IFN-α at different times significantly promoted the production of mtROS in a time-dependent manner, 48 h MFI was 3 437±1 472 (n=4, P < 0.05), 72 h MFI was 6 495±1 089 (n=4, P < 0.000 1), but there was no significant difference at 24 h of stimulation.@*CONCLUSION@#High serum IFN-α level in SLE patients may induce apoptosis by promoting mtROS production and inhibit perforin expression, which can down-regulate CD56dimCD57+ NK killing function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Perforin/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , CD56 Antigen/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
3.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 922-929, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012299

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the cytotoxic effects of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells of anti-mesothelin (MSLN)-chimeric antigen receptor natural killer (CAR-NK) cells (anti-MSLN-iCAR-NK cells) on ovarian epithelial cancer cells. Methods: Twenty cases of ovarian cancer patients who underwent surgical treatment at Henan Provincial People's Hospital from September 2020 to September 2021 were collected, and 20 cases of normal ovarian tissues resected during the same period due to other benign diseases were also collected. (1) Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to verify the expression of MSLN protein in ovarian cancer tissues. (2) Fresh ovarian cancer tissues were extracted and cultured to obtain primary ovarian cancer cells. Recombinant lentiviral vectors targeting anti-MSLN-CAR-CD244 were constructed and co-cultured with iPS cells to obtain anti-MSLN-iCAR cells. These cells were differentiated into anti-MSLN-iCAR-NK cells using cytokine-induced differentiation method. The cell experiments were divided into three groups: anti-MSLN-iCAR-NK cell group, natural killer (NK) cell group, and control group. (3) Flow cytometry and live cell staining experiment were used to detect the apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells in the three groups. (4) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the expression levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), granzyme B (GZMB), perforin 1 (PRF1), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 in the three groups of ovarian cancer cells. Results: (1) Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that a positive expression rate of MSLN protein in ovarian cancer tissues of 65% (13/20), while normal ovarian tissues had a positive rate of 30% (6/20). The comparison between the two groups was statistically significant (χ2=4.912, P=0.027). Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the positive expression rate of MSLN protein in ovarian cancer tissues was 70% (14/20), while normal ovarian tissues had a positive rate of 30% (6/20). The comparison between the two groups was statistically significant (χ2=6.400, P=0.011). (2) Flow cytometry analysis showed that the apoptotic rate of ovarian cancer cells in the anti-MSLN-iCAR-NK cell group was (29.27±0.85)%, while in the NK cell group and control group were (8.44±0.34)% and (6.83±0.26)% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the comparisons between the three groups (all P<0.01). Live cell staining experiment showed that the ratio of dead cells to live cells in the anti-MSLN-iCAR-NK cell group was (36.3±8.3)%, while in the NK cell group and control group were (5.4±1.4)% and (2.0±1.3)% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the comparisons between the three groups (all P<0.001). (3) ELISA analysis revealed that the expression levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, GZMB, PRF1, IL-6, and IL-10 in ovarian cancer cells of the anti-MSLN-iCAR-NK cell group were significantly higher than those in the NK cell group and the control group (all P<0.05). Conclusion: The anti-MSLN-iCAR-NK cells exhibit a strong killing ability against ovarian cancer cells, indicating their potential as a novel immunotherapy approach for ovarian cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial/metabolism , Ovarian Neoplasms/metabolism , Interleukin-10/pharmacology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Iron-Dextran Complex/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Killer Cells, Natural , Interleukin-6
4.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 575-583, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Aconite is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been found to inhibit the development of liver cancer; however, its exact molecular mechanisms in this process remain unclear. This study explores how aconite aqueous extract (AAE) inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).@*METHODS@#An in vivo mouse model of subcutaneous liver cancer was established. After AAE treatment, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to determine the effect of AAE on natural killer (NK) cells. Subsequently, C57BL/6 mice were used to establish the subcutaneous tumor model, and a group of these mice were treated with anti-PK163 antibody to remove NK cells, which was verified by flow cytometry and IHC. The effect of AAE on the proliferation of HCC cells in vitro was determined using cell counting kit-8. The effect of AAE on chemokine production in HCC cells was measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of AAE on the migration of NK cells was determined using a transwell assay. Finally, the molecular mechanism was investigated using the Western blotting method.@*RESULTS@#We demonstrated that the ability of AAE to induce overexpression of the cytokine C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in HCC cells is fundamental to the infiltration of NK cells into the tumor bed. Mechanistically, we found that the upregulation of CCL2 was achieved by the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase but not extracellular regulated protein kinase or p38.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggest that AAE can be used as an effective immune adjuvant to enhance antitumor immunity by increasing NK cell infiltration into tumors, which could help to improve the efficacy of HCC treatments. Please cite this article as: Yang KD, Zhang X, Shao MC, Wang LN. Aconite aqueous extract inhibits the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma through CCL2-dependent enhancement of natural killer cell infiltration. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(6): 575-583.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Aconitum , Ligands , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Chemokines/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor
5.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 289-294, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971075

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical features of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Delta variant infection in different ages groups.@*METHODS@#A total of 45 children with COVID-19 caused by Delta variant infection who were hospitalized in the designated hospital in Henan Province, China, from November 17 to December 17, 2021, were included. They were divided into three groups: <6 years group (n=16), 6-13 years group (n=16), and >13 years group (n=13). The three groups were compared in clinical features and laboratory examination data.@*RESULTS@#COVID-19 in all age groups was mainly mild. Main manifestations included cough and expectoration in the three groups, and fever was only observed in the 6-13 years group. The <6 years group had significantly higher serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase isoenzymes than the other two groups (P<0.05). The 6-13 years group had the highest proportion of children with elevated serum creatinine levels (50%). Among the three groups, only 4 children in the >13 years group had an increase in serum C-reactive protein levels. The 6-13 years group had the lowest counts of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes, CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes, and natural killer cells in the peripheral blood among the three groups. The >13 years group had a significantly higher positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 IgG on admission than the other two groups (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the imaging findings on chest CT among the three groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The clinical features of COVID-19 caused by Delta variant infection in children of different age groups may be different: children aged <6 years tend to develop myocardial injury, and those aged 6-13 years have fever except cough and expectoration and tend to develop renal and immune dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cough/etiology , Killer Cells, Natural , China/epidemiology , Fever , Retrospective Studies
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2948-2959, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine can induce a potent cellular and humoral immune response to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it was unknown whether SARS-CoV-2 vaccination can induce effective natural killer (NK) cell response in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) and healthy individuals.@*METHODS@#Forty-seven PLWH and thirty healthy controls (HCs) inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine were enrolled from Beijing Youan Hospital in this study. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine on NK cell frequency, phenotype, and function in PLWH and HCs was evaluated by flow cytometry, and the response of NK cells to SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Spike (SARS-2-OS) protein stimulation was also evaluated.@*RESULTS@#SARS-CoV-2 vaccine inoculation elicited activation and degranulation of NK cells in PLWH, which peaked at 2 weeks and then decreased to a minimum at 12 weeks after the third dose of vaccine. However, in vitro stimulation of the corresponding peripheral blood monocular cells from PLWH with SARS-2-OS protein did not upregulate the expression of the aforementioned markers. Additionally, the frequencies of NK cells expressing the activation markers CD25 and CD69 in PLWH were significantly lower than those in HCs at 0, 4 and 12 weeks, but the percentage of CD16 + NK cells in PLWH was significantly higher than that in HCs at 2, 4 and 12 weeks after the third dose of vaccine. Interestingly, the frequency of CD16 + NK cells was significantly negatively correlated with the proportion of CD107a + NK cells in PLWH at each time point after the third dose. Similarly, this phenomenon was also observed in HCs at 0, 2, and 4 weeks after the third dose. Finally, regardless of whether NK cells were stimulated with SARS-2-OS or not, we did not observe any differences in the expression of NK cell degranulation markers between PLWH and HCs.@*CONCLUSION@#s:SARS-CoV-2 vaccine elicited activation and degranulation of NK cells, indicating that the inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine enhances NK cell immune response.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Killer Cells, Natural , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 127-137, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970062

ABSTRACT

Adoptive therapeutic immune cells, such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells and natural killer cells, have established a new generation of precision medicine based on which dramatic breakthroughs have been achieved in intractable lymphoma treatments. Currently, well-explored approaches focus on autologous cells due to their low immunogenicity, but they are highly restricted by the high costs, time consumption of processing, and the insufficiency of primary cells in some patients. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are cell sources that can theoretically produce indefinite well-differentiated immune cells. Based on the above facts, it may be reasonable to combine the iPSC technology and the CAR design to produce a series of highly controllable and economical "live" drugs. Manufacturing hypoimmunogenic iPSCs by inactivation or over-expression at the genetic level and then arming the derived cells with CAR have emerged as a form of "off-the-shelf" strategy to eliminate tumor cells efficiently and safely in a broader range of patients. This review describes the reasonability, feasibility, superiority, and drawbacks of such approaches, summarizes the current practices and relevant research progress, and provides insights into the possible new paths for personalized cell-based therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Killer Cells, Natural , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , T-Lymphocytes , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Neoplasms/genetics
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 553-561, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982094

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the similarities and variations of biological phenotype and cytotoxicity of human umbilical cord blood natural killer cells (hUC- NK) after human umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells (hUC-MNC) activated and expanded by two in vitro high-efficient strategies.@*METHODS@#Umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (MNC) from healthy donor were enriched by Ficoll-based density gradient centrifugation. Then, the phenotype, subpopulations, cell viability and cytotoxicity of NK cells derived from Miltenyi medium (denoted as M-NK) and X-VIVO 15 (denoted as X-NK) were compared using a "3IL" strategy.@*RESULTS@#After a 14-day's culture, the contents of CD3-CD56+ NK cells were elevated from 4.25%±0.04% (d 0) to 71%±0.18% (M-NK) and 75.2%±1.1% (X-NK) respectively. Compared with X-NK group, the proportion of CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD3+CD56+ NKT cells in M-NK group decreased significantly. The percentages of CD16+, NKG2D+, NKp44+, CD25+ NK cells in X-NK group was higher than those in the M-NK group, while the total number of expanded NK cells in X-NK group was half of that in M-NK group. There were no significant differences between X-NK and M-NK groups in cell proliferation and cell cycle, except for the lower percentage of Annexin V+ apoptotic cells in M-NK group. Compared with X-NK group, the proportion of CD107a+ NK cells in M-NK group were higher under the same effector-target ratio (E∶T) (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The two strategies were adequate for high-efficient generation of NK cells with high level of activation in vitro, however, there are differences in biological phenotypes and tumor cytotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fetal Blood , Killer Cells, Natural , T-Lymphocytes , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , CD56 Antigen/metabolism
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 469-475, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the distribution of bone marrow lymphocyte subsets in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome(MDS),the proportion of activated T cells with immunophenotype CD3+HLA-DR+ in the lymphocytes and its clinical significance, and to understand the effects of different types of MDS, different immunophenotypes, and different expression levels of WT1 on the proportion of lymphocyte subsets and activated T cells.@*METHODS@#The immunophenotypes of 96 MDS patients, the subsets of bone marrow lymphocytes and activated T cells were detected by flow cytometry. The relative expression of WT1 was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, and the first induced remission rate (CR1) was calculated, the differences of lymphocyte subsets and activated T cells in MDS patients with different immunophenotype, different WT1 expression, and different course of disease were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The percentage of CD4+T lymphocyte in MDS-EB-2, IPSS high-risk, CD34+ cells >10%, and patients with CD34+CD7+ cell population and WT1 gene overexpression at intial diagnosis decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the percentage of NK cells and activated T cells increased significantly (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the ratio of B lymphocytes. Compared with the normal control group, the percentage of NK cells and activated T cells in IPSS-intermediate-2 group was significantly higher(P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the percentage of CD3+T, CD4+T lymphocytes. The percentage of CD4+T cells in patients with complete remission after the first chemotherapy was significantly higher than in patients with incomplete remission(P<0.05), and the percentage of NK cells and activated T cells was significantly lower than that in patients with incomplete remission (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In MDS patients, the proportion of CD3+T and CD4+T lymphocytes decreased, and the proportion of activated T cells increased, indicating that the differentiation type of MDS is more primitive and the prognosis is worse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/diagnosis , Bone Marrow , B-Lymphocytes , Killer Cells, Natural , Flow Cytometry , T-Lymphocyte Subsets
10.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 267-278, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982044

ABSTRACT

NK cell immunotherapy is a promising antitumor therapeutic modality after the development of T cell immunotherapy. Structural modification of NK cells with biomaterials may provide a precise, efficient, and low-cost strategy to enhance NK cell immunotherapy. The biomaterial modification of NK cells can be divided into two strategies: surface engineering with biomaterials and intracellular modification. The surface engineering strategies include hydrophobic interaction of lipids, receptor-ligand interaction between membrane proteins, covalent binding to amino acid residues, click reaction and electrostatic interaction. The intracellular modification strategies are based on manipulation by nanotechnology using membranous materials from various sources of NK cells (such as exosome, vesicle and cytomembranes). Finally, the biomaterials-based strategies regulate the recruitment, recognition and cytotoxicity of NK cells in the solid tumor site in situ to boost the activity of NK cells in the tumor. This article reviews the recent research progress in enhancing NK cell therapy based on biomaterial modification, to provide a reference for further researches on engineering NK cell therapy with biomaterials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biocompatible Materials/metabolism , Immunotherapy , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Neoplasms/therapy
11.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 295-302, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981868

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of natural killer (NK)-cell-derived miR-30e-3p-containing exosomes (Exo) on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion. Methods NK cells were isolated and amplified from the peripheral blood of healthy donors, and NK cell-derived Exo was isolated and identified, which were further co-cultured with NEC cells and were randomly grouped into Exo1 and Exo2 groups. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the morphology and size of exosomes. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression levels of exosome markers apoptosis related gene 2- interacting protein X(ALIX), tumor susceptibility gene 101(TSG101), CD81 and calnexin. The NC plasmids, mimics and inhibitors of miR030e-3p were respectively delivered into the NK cells, and the corresponding NK cells-derived Exo were co-cultured with NEC cells, which were divided into NC, Exo, mimic and inhibitor groups. CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate cell proliferation, flow cytometry was conducted to determine cell cycle, annexin V-FITC/PI double staining was employed to detect cell apoptosis, and TranswellTM assay was performed to detect cell invasion abilities. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-23b, miR-422a, miR-133b, miR-124, miR-30e-3p and miR-99a in NCE cells and exosomes. Results The percentages of CD56+CD3+ cells and CD56+CD16+ cells in NK cells were (0.071±0.008)% and (90.6±10.6)%, respectively. Exosome isolated from NK cells ranged from 30 nm to 150 nm, and was positive for ALIX, TSG101 and CD81, while negative for calnexin. NK cell-derived Exos inhibited the proliferation, reduced the proportion of S-phase cells and the number of invaded cells of NEC cells, and promoted the apoptosis and the proportion of G1 phase cells. Overexpression of miR-30E-3p in NK cell-derived exosome inhibited the proliferation and invasion of NEC cells, and blocked cell cycle and promoted apoptosis, while knockdown miR-30e-3p in NK cell-derived exosomes did the opposite. Conclusion miR-30e-3p in NK cell-derived exosomes can inhibit the proliferation and invasion of ESCC cells, block their cell cycle and induce their apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/genetics , Esophageal Neoplasms/genetics , Exosomes/metabolism , Calnexin/metabolism , Cell Movement/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Killer Cells, Natural , Cell Line, Tumor , Apoptosis/genetics
12.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 290-297, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981266

ABSTRACT

Although the development of novel drugs has significantly improved the survival of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) over the past decades,the lack of effective therapeutic options for relapsed and refractory MM results in poor prognosis.The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has achieved considerable progress in relapsed and refractory MM.Nevertheless,this therapy still has limitations such as cytokine release syndrome,neurotoxicity,and off-target effects.Natural killer (NK) cells,as a critical component of the innate immune system,play an essential role in tumor immunosurveillance.Therefore,CAR-modified NK (CAR-NK) cells are put forward as a therapeutic option for MM.The available studies have suggested that multiple targets can be used as specific therapeutic targets for CAR-NK cell therapy and confirmed their antitumor effects in MM cell lines and animal models.This review summarizes the anti-tumor mechanisms,biological characteristics,and dysfunction of NK cells in the MM tumor microenvironment,as well as the basic and clinical research progress of CAR-NK cells in treating MM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/metabolism , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Tumor Microenvironment
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1897-1909, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980976

ABSTRACT

Endometriosis, a heterogeneous, inflammatory, and estrogen-dependent gynecological disease defined by the presence and growth of endometrial tissues outside the lining of the uterus, affects approximately 5-10% of reproductive-age women, causing chronic pelvic pain and reduced fertility. Although the etiology of endometriosis is still elusive, emerging evidence supports the idea that immune dysregulation can promote the survival and growth of retrograde endometrial debris. Peritoneal macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells exhibit deficient cytotoxicity in the endometriotic microenvironment, leading to inefficient eradication of refluxed endometrial fragments. In addition, the imbalance of T-cell subtypes results in aberrant cytokine production and chronic inflammation, which contribute to endometriosis development. Although it remains uncertain whether immune dysregulation represents an initial cause or merely a secondary enhancer of endometriosis, therapies targeting altered immune pathways exhibit satisfactory effects in preventing disease onset and progression. Here, we summarize the phenotypic and functional alterations of immune cells in the endometriotic microenvironment, focusing on their interactions with microbiota and endocrine and nervous systems, and how these interactions contribute to the etiology and symptomology of endometriosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Endometriosis/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Estrogens , Endometrium/metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 710-714, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985762

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features of primary adrenal NK/T cell lymphoma (PANKL). Methods: Six cases of PANKL were collected at Henan Provincial People's Hospital from January 2000 to December 2021. The clinicopathologic features including morphology, immunophenotype, treatment and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed, and relevant literature was reviewed. Results: There were two males and four females. The median age was 63 years (ranged from 57 to 68 years). The tumors involved bilateral adrenal glands in 4 cases and unilateral adrenal gland in 2 cases. The main clinical symptom was low back pain without obvious cause. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is elevated in five cases. The imaging feature was rapidly enlarging mass initially confined to unilateral/bilateral adrenal glands. Morphologically, the lymphoid cells were mainly medium-sized with a diffuse growth pattern. Coagulative necrosis and nuclear fragmentation were common. Angioinvasion was seen. Immunophenotypically, the neoplastic cells were positive for CD3, CD56 and TIA-1 while CD5 was negative in 5 cases. All cases were positive for EBER by in situ hybridization with more than 80% proliferative activity by Ki-67. Four cases received chemotherapy, one case underwent surgery, and one case underwent surgery with chemotherapy. Follow-up was done in 5 cases; one case was lost to follow-up. Three patients died with a median survival of 11.6 months (3-42 months). Conclusions: PANKL is rare with highly aggressive clinical presentation and poor prognosis. Accurate diagnosis entails correlation of histomorphology, immunohistochemistry, EBER in situ hybridization and clinical history.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Retrospective Studies , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Prognosis , Immunophenotyping
15.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 702-706, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the characteristics of changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in patients with sepsis in intensive care unit (ICU) and analyze their predictive value for prognosis.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of sepsis patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2020 to December 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients met the diagnostic criteria of Sepsis-3 and were ≥ 18 years old. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from all patients on the next morning after admission to SICU for routine blood test and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets. According to the 28-day survival, the patients were divided into two groups, and the differences in immune indexes between the two groups were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of immune indexes that affect prognosis.@*RESULTS@#(1) A total of 279 patients with sepsis were enrolled in the experiment, of which 198 patients survived at 28 days (28-day survival rate 71.0%), and 81 patients died (28-day mortality 29.0%). There were no significant differences in age (years old: 57.81±1.71 vs. 54.99±1.05) and gender (male: 60.5% vs. 63.6%) between the death group and the survival group (both P > 0.05), and the baseline data was comparable.(2) Acute physiology and chronic health evalution II (APACHE II: 22.06±0.08 vs. 14.08±0.52, P < 0.001), neutrophil percentage [NEU%: (88.90±1.09)% vs. (84.12±0.77)%, P = 0.001], procalcitonin [PCT (μg/L): 11.97±2.73 vs. 5.76±1.08, P = 0.011], platelet distribution width (fL: 16.81±0.10 vs. 16.57±0.06, P = 0.029) were higher than those in the survival group, while lymphocyte percentage [LYM%: (6.98±0.78)% vs. (10.59±0.86)%, P = 0.012], lymphocyte count [LYM (×109/L): 0.70±0.06 vs. 0.98±0.49, P = 0.002], and platelet count [PLT (×109/L): 151.38±13.96 vs. 205.80±9.38, P = 0.002], and thrombocytocrit [(0.15±0.01)% vs. (0.19±0.07)%, P = 0.012] were lower than those in the survival group. (3) There was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of lymphocyte subsets between the death group and the survival group, but the absolute value of LYM (pieces/μL: 650.24±84.67 vs. 876.64±38.02, P = 0.005), CD3+ absolute value (pieces/μL: 445.30±57.33 vs. 606.84±29.25, P = 0.006), CD3+CD4+ absolute value (pieces/μL: 239.97±26.96 vs. 353.49±18.59, P = 0.001), CD19+ absolute value (pieces/μL: 111.10±18.66 vs. 150.30±10.15, P = 0.049) in the death group was lower than those in the survival group. Other lymphocyte subsets in the death group, such as CD3+CD8+ absolute value (pieces/μL: 172.40±24.34 vs. 211.22±11.95, P = 0.112), absolute value of natural killer cell [NK (pieces/μL): 101.26±18.15 vs. 114.72±7.64, P = 0.420], absolute value of natural killer T cell [NKT (pieces/μL): 33.22±5.13 vs. 39.43±2.85, P = 0.262], CD4-CD8- absolute value (pieces/μL: 41.07±11.07 vs. 48.84±3.31, P = 0.510), CD4+CD8+ absolute value (pieces/μL: 3.39±1.45 vs. 3.47±0.36, P = 0.943) were not significantly different from those in the survival group. (4)Logistic regression analysis showed that lymphocyte subsets were not selected as immune markers with statistical significance for the prognosis of sepsis.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The changes of immune indexes in sepsis patients are closely related to their prognosis. Early monitoring of the above indexes can accurately evaluate the condition and prognosis of sepsis patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sepsis/diagnosis , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets , Prognosis , Killer Cells, Natural
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1905-1909, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010058

ABSTRACT

Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) is a research hotspot in the field of cellular immunotherapy in recent years, and CAR-T cells therapy are developing rapidly in hematological malignant tumors, but their clinical application is still limited by related risks. It is particularly important to find more optimized immunoreactive cells. Natural killer (NK) cells, as key effector cells of innate immunity, can kill tumor or infected cells quickly without prior sensitization. Autologous or allogeneic NK cell infusion has become an effective cell therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CAR-NK cells combine the advantages of CAR targeting tumor specific antigens and enhancing immune cells activity with the innate antitumor function of NK cells to enhance the targeting and lytic activity of NK cells to AML primordial cells. At present, most of the CAR-NK treatments for AML are still in the stage of specific target screening and verification. This article reviews the latest research progress of CAR-NK cell therapy in the field of AML therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Killer Cells, Natural , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Immunotherapy
17.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 952-958, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009453

ABSTRACT

Natural killer (NK) cells are an important part of the body's innate immune system. As the first line of defense against pathogens, they need to be transformed into a mature state under the control of various cell signaling molecules and transcription factors to play cytotoxic and immune regulatory roles. Under the interaction of activated receptors and inhibitory receptors, NK cells are activated to perform a direct cell killing effect by secreting perforin and granzyme, or indirectly eliminate pathogenic microorganisms in the body by secreting various cytokines, such as type I and type II interferons. These functions of NK cells play a very important role in antiviral and anti-autoimmune diseases, especially in anti-tumor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Interferon-gamma , Apoptosis , Autoimmune Diseases , Cytokines
18.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 852-856, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009440

ABSTRACT

CD226 is an activated receptor on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells. It competes with TIGIT and CD96 to bind to ligands such as CD155 on the surface of tumor cells and mediates the killing function of NK cells. Although TIGIT and CD96 have other binding ligands in the tumor microenvironment, they compete to bind CD115 ligands with higher affinity and inhibit the activity of NK cells, which allows tumor cells to evade killing. Therefore, studying the expression patterns of these three NK cell surface receptors in different tumors and monitoring their binding ability with ligands will help us to explore new tumor treatment strategies. This article reviews the role and mechanism of CD226, TIGIT, CD96 and other NK cell receptor molecules in regulating NK cell function in anti-tumor immune response.


Subject(s)
Ligands , Receptors, Immunologic , Receptors, Natural Killer Cell , Killer Cells, Natural , Antigens, CD
19.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 828-833, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009437

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify the sets of lymphocytes that could systematically evaluate immune function of colorectal cancer patients, based on the expression of colorectal cancer T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and NKT cell surface protein receptors. Methods Peripheral blood samples from 144 patients with colorectal cancer and 87 healthy controls were collected, and the differences in surface receptors of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of patients and healthy controls were analyzed by means of flow cytometry and cell culture. Results Compared with healthy control group, the percentage of peripheral blood total lymphocytes, CD16brightCD56dimNK cells and NKT cells decreased in patients with colorectal cancer. The percentage of T cells, CD16brightCD56dimNK cells and NKT cell surface inhibitory receptors T-cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitor motif domains (TIGIT) increased; T cells, NK cells, NKT cell surface chemokine receptor C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) slightly decreased. Conclusion There are differences in the proportion of NK cell subsets and the expression profile of surface receptors in peripheral blood of patients with colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocyte Count , Receptors, Chemokine , Colorectal Neoplasms
20.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 81 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437408

ABSTRACT

Com base nas perturbações fosfoproteômicas de moléculas associadas ao ciclo celular em células infectadas pelo coronavírus causador da síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARSCoV)-2, a hipótese de inibidores do ciclo celular como uma terapia potencial para a doença de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) foi proposta. No entanto, o cenário das alterações do ciclo celular em COVID-19 permanece inexplorado. Aqui, realizamos uma análise integrativa de sistemas imunológicos de proteoma publicamente disponível (espectrometria de massa) e dados de transcriptoma (sequenciamento de RNA em massa e de célula única [scRNAseq]), com o objetivo de caracterizar mudanças globais na assinatura do ciclo celular de pacientes com COVID-19. Além de módulos de co-expressão de genes significativos enriquecidos associados ao ciclo celular, encontramos uma rede interconectada de proteínas diferencialmente expressas associadas ao ciclo celular (DEPs) e genes (DEGs) integrando dados moleculares de 1.480 indivíduos (974 pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2 e 506 controles [controles saudáveis ou indivíduos com outras doenças respiratórias]). Entre esses DEPs e DEGs estão várias ciclinas (CCNs), ciclo de divisão celular (CDCs), quinases dependentes de ciclinas (CDKs) e proteínas de manutenção de minicromossomos (MCMs). Embora os pacientes com COVID-19 compartilhem parcialmente o padrão de expressão de algumas moléculas associadas ao ciclo celular com outras doenças respiratórias, eles exibiram uma expressão significativamente maior de moléculas associadas ao ciclo celular relacionadas à gravidade da doença. Notavelmente, a assinatura do ciclo celular predominou nos leucócitos do sangue dos pacientes, mas não nas vias aéreas superiores. Os dados de scRNAseq de 229 indivíduos (159 pacientes com COVID- 19 e 70 controles) revelaram que as alterações das assinaturas do ciclo celular predominam nas células B, T e NK. Esses resultados fornecem uma compreensão global única das alterações nas moléculas associadas ao ciclo celular em pacientes com COVID-19, sugerindo novas vias putativas para intervenção terapêutica


Based on phosphoproteomics perturbations of cell cycle-associated molecules in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2-infected cells, the hypothesis of cell cycle inhibitors as a potential therapy for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been proposed. However, the landscape of cell cycle alterations in COVID-19 remains mostly unexplored. Here, we performed an integrative systems immunology analysis of publicly available proteome (mass spectrometry) and transcriptome data (bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing [scRNAseq]), aiming to characterize global changes in the cell cycle signature of COVID-19 patients. Beyond significant enriched cell cycle-associated gene co-expression modules, we found an interconnected network of cell cycle-associated differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) and genes (DEGs) by integrating molecular data of 1,480 individuals (974 SARS-CoV- 2 infected patients and 506 controls [either healthy controls or individuals with other respiratory illness]). Among these DEPs and DEGs are several cyclins (CCNs), cell division cycle (CDCs), cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs). Although COVID-19 patients partially shared the expression pattern of some cell cycleassociated molecules with other respiratory illnesses, they exhibited a significantly higher expression of cell cycle-associated molecules associated with disease severity. Notably, the cell cycle signature predominated in the patients blood leukocytes but not in the upper airways. The scRNAseq data from 229 individuals (159 COVID-19 patients and 70 controls) revealed that the alterations of cell cycle signatures predominate in B, T, and NK cells. These results provide a unique global comprehension of the alterations in cell cycle-associated molecules in COVID-19 patients, suggesting new putative pathways for therapeutic intervention


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients/classification , Cell Cycle/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Killer Cells, Natural/classification , Chromosomes/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA/instrumentation , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Proteome/analysis , Transcriptome/immunology
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