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Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 413-418, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935555


Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of mature T/NK cell lymphomas with aberrant CD20 or CD79α expression. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 641 cases of mature T/NK cell lymphoma diagnosed from January 2014 to December 2020 was performed, and 14 cases of CD20-positive and one case of CD79α-positive mature T/NK-cell lymphoma were identified. Histological examination, immunohistochemical characterization, in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus encoded early RNA (EBER), and PCR testing for immunoglobulin and T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements were performed. Clinicopathological characteristics of these lymphomas were analyzed. Results: There were 13 males and 2 females, with a median age of 56 years. There were 8 cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), 3 cases of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL), 2 cases of monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL) and 2 cases of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). Twelve cases were stage Ⅲ or Ⅳ lymphomas. The prognosis was overall poor. The histology, immunophenotype and TCR gene rearrangement were not significantly different from the corresponding types of lymphoma. Ki-67 proliferation index was over 70% in all cases. The expression of CD20 or CD79α was weak and heterogeneous. All 15 case of Ig gene rearrangement were polyclonal. Conclusions: Mature T/NK cell lymphoma with abnormal expression of CD20 or CD79α is rare, commonly found in advanced stage, and associated with poor prognosis. The expression of CD20 or CD79α in these cases is weaker than the corresponding mature T/NK cell lymphomas, while its proliferation index is higher. Histomorphology, extensive immunoprofiling and molecular detection are required for accurate diagnosis.

Antigens, CD20 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Female , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 108-113, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935485


Objective: To study the clinicopathological and genetic features of natural killer (NK)-cell enteropathy for better understanding of this rare disease and prevention of its misdiagnosis. Methods: Two cases of NK-cell enteropathy were diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China from October 2017 to February 2021. The clinical characteristics, morphology, immunohistochemistry, Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization and T cell receptor gene rearrangement were analyzed. The patients were followed up by a telephone interview. Results: The patients were both male, aged 40 and 28 years, respectively. Both patients were admitted to the hospital for an annual checkup without obvious gastrointestinal symptoms. The endoscopy showed that the gastric body of case 1 had a mucosal bulge, small area of congestion and erosion, while the rectum of case 2 had congestion and erosion. Microscopically, the lesions of the 2 cases were relatively limited. Many lymphoid cells infiltrated within the lamina propria of the mucosa and into the muscularis mucosa in case 2. In case 1, the glands were reduced in the lesion, and the glandular cavity was slightly compressed and deformed. There was no infiltration or destruction of the glands in either case. Lymphoid cells were atypical, with medium-to-large cell sizes. Their cytoplasm was medium-to-slightly abundant and appeared eosinophilic or translucent. In case 2, characteristic eosinophilic granules were seen in the cytoplasm of a few cells. The nuclei in both cases were round, oval and irregular, with fine chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and no mitotic figures were noted. Necrosis was seen in case 1 while both cases had no central growth or destruction of blood vessels. Immunophenotyping showed that CD56, granzyme B and TIA-1 were positive in both cases, part of the cells was CD3-positive, and some cells were weakly CD4-positive in case 2. The CD5, CD8, CD30, ALK and B-lineage markers (CD20, CD79α) were all negative. The Ki-67 proliferation index was about 60% and 30%, respectively. Both cases were EBER negative. TCR gene rearrangement was polyclonal. Follow-up showed that none of the 2 patients had any special treatments and stayed well. Conclusions: NK-cell enteropathy is rare, with biological behaviors similar to benign tumors, and occasional recurrence. Its histology and immunophenotype are easily confused with NK/T cell-derived lymphomas. Combination of its unique endoscopic features, EBER negativity, polyclonal TCR gene rearrangement and good prognosis can confirm the diagnosis and avoid misdiagnosis and overtreatment.

Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphoproliferative Disorders , Male
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 400-407, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929627


Objective: To explore the differences in the biological effects of different expansion systems on natural killer (NK) cells, as well as the safety and preliminary clinical efficacy in the treatment of patients with recurrence after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) . Methods: Peripheral blood cells from healthy donors were stimulated with either CD3 combined with CD52 or K562 feeder cells loaded with IL-21/4-1BB to induce NK cell expansion. Changes in the NK cell phenotype, cytokine secretion, and cytotoxicity before and after expansion were detected. We also evaluated the safety and clinical efficacy of two different expansion strategies for patients received NK infusion. Results: Compared with the CD3/CD52 monoclonal antibody amplification system, the feeder cell expansion group had a higher purity of NK cells and higher expression ratios of NK cell surface activation receptors such as DNAM-1 and NKp30, while inhibitory receptor CTLA-4 expression was low and NKG2D/CD25/CD69/ Trail/PD-1/TIM-3/TIGIT had no statistically significant differences between the groups. Further functional results showed that the expression level of KI67 in NK cells after expansion in the two groups increased significantly, especially in the feeder cell expansion group. Simultaneously, the perforin and granzyme B levels of NK cells in the feeder cell expansion group were significantly higher than in the CD3/CD52 expansion group. A retrospective analysis of eight patients who received monoclonal antibody-expanded NK cell reinfusion and nine patients with trophoblast cell-expanded NK cell reinfusion was done. The disease characteristics of the two groups were comparable, NK cell reinfusion was safe, and there were no obvious adverse reactions. Clinical prognostic results showed that in the CD3/CD52 monoclonal antibody amplification group, the MRD conversion rate was 50% (2/4) , and the feeder cell expansion group was 50% (3/6) . After 5 years of follow-up from allo-HSCT, three patients in the monoclonal antibody expansion group had long-term survival without leukemia, and the remaining five patients had died; two patients died in the feeder cell expansion group, and the other six patients had long-term survival. Six cases had GVHD before NK cell reinfusion, and GVHD did not aggravate or even relieved after NK cell reinfusion. Conclusions: Preliminary results show that the biological characteristics of NK cells with diverse expansion strategies are significantly different, which may affect the clinical prognosis of patients with recurrence or persistent minimal residual disease after HSCT. The two groups of patients treated with NK cells from different expansion strategies had no obvious adverse reactions after NK cell infusion, but efficacy still needs to be further confirmed.

Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Graft vs Host Disease/metabolism , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928727


OBJECTIVE@#To detect the expression level of suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and to observe the effect of over-expresson of SOCS3 in Jurkat cells on the cytotoxicity of NK cells.@*METHODS@#The expression levels of SOCS3 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 20 children with ALL and 20 healthy children (normal control group) were detected by RT-PCR. The peripheral blood NK cells from healthy subjects were selected by immunomagnetic technique, and the purity was detected by flow cytometry. SOCS3 was overexpressed in Jurkat cells infected with lentivirus vector, and SOCS3 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR after lentivirus infection. The NK cells were co-cultured with the infected Jurkat, and LDH release method was used to detect the cytotoxicity of NK cells on the infected Jurkat cells. The concentrations of TNF-α and IFN-γ were determined by ELISA. The expression of NKG2D ligands MICA and MICB on the surface of Jurkat cells were detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was used to detect the effect of SOCS3 overexpression on STAT3 phosphorylation in Jurkat cells.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of SOCS3 in the peripheral blood mononucleated cells of ALL children was significantly decreased. The purity of NK cells isolated by flow cytometry could reach more than 70%. The expression of SOCS3 mRNA in Jurkat cells increased significantly after lentivirus infection. Overexpression of SOCS3 in Jurkat cells significantly promoted the killing ability of NK cells and up-regulated the secretion of TNF-α and IFN-γ from NK cells. The results of flow cytometry showed that the expression of NKG2D ligands MICA and MICB on Jurkat cells increased significantly after SOCS3 overexpression. Western blot results showed that overexpression of SOCS3 significantly reduced the phosphorylation level of STAT3 protein in Jurkat cells.@*CONCLUSION@#SOCS3 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in ALL patients, and overexpression of SOCS3 may up-regulate the expression of MICA and MICB of NKG2D ligands on Jurkat cell surface through negative regulation of JAK/STAT signaling pathway, thereby promoting the cytotoxic function of NK cells.

Child , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/metabolism , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Ligands , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K/metabolism , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928669


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression characteristics of antigens and functional markers of natural killer (NK) cells in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#Multi-parameter flow cytometry was used to detect NK cell surface markers and their functional indicators in 56 newly diagnosed AML patients and 24 healthy controls, including activating receptors NKG2D, NKP46, DNAM-1, and killing indicators granzyme B, perforin.@*RESULTS@#Referring to the WHO hematopoiesis and lymph tissue tumor classification criteria, 56 cases were roughly divided into three types: AML M1, M2, and M4/M5. However, there was no differences about NK cells among the three types, so it was no longer subdivided. NK cells were divided into two groups: CD3-CD56hiCD16- (CD56hiNK) and CD3-CD56dimCD16+ (CD56dimNK). Compared with CD56dimNK cell population, except for NKP46, the positive expression levels of NKG2D and other receptors of CD56hiNK cells in AML patients decreased (P<0.001). Compared with healthy controls, the proportion of CD56hiNK cells in AML patients increased, while the number and proportion of NK cells and proportion of CD56dimNK cells significantly decreased (P<0.05). The proportion of perforin in CD56hiNK cells significantly increased (P<0.05). The expression of DNAM-1 in CD56hiNK cells, NKG2D, DNAM-1, and perforin in CD56dimNK cells decreased significantly (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in expression of other functional indexes in AML patients compared with corresponding indexes of healthy controls. In addition, the proportion of CD56hiNK cells was positively correlated with the expression of CD34+ in AML (r=0.303).@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with CD56dimNK, the ratio of CD56hiNK and the expression of functional markers in AML patients are lower. Compared with healthy controls, the number and expression ratio of NK cells in AML patients decrease and the expression of functional markers is abnormal, indicating that its function is impaired.

CD56 Antigen , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(4): 361-370, out.dez.2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399785


O corpo humano tende sempre a procurar um estado de homeostase, buscando o equilíbrio entre todos os sistemas. O exercício físico está presente na rotina diária de indivíduos, mesmo com objetivos diferentes, porém a influência no sistema imunológico não é muitas vezes abordada como fator relevante. O sistema imune é responsável por proteger o organismo contra infecções e doenças, podendo ser modulado perante a resposta de exercícios físicos regulares. Tendo em vista que, atualmente, existe uma preocupação maior em tornar e manter a imunidade eficiente, a prática regular e moderada do exercício pode contribuir para uma maior eficácia desse sistema, dessa forma, podendo ser considerada uma proteção ao corpo humano. O objetivo dessa revisão foi sintetizar os dados de estudos presentes na literatura que demonstram a influência do exercício físico na resposta do sistema imunológico, tornando possível compreender as alterações moleculares, fisiológicas, metabólicas e celulares que levam a um tipo específico de resposta do organismo humano.

The human body always tends to seek a homeostasis state, trying to balance all systems. Physical exercise is present in the routine of individuals even with different goals, but the influence in the immune system isnt a relevant factor. The immune system is responsible for protecting the human body against some infections and diseases, and could be modulated in response by some regular physical exercise. At the moment there is a greater concern to keep efficient immunity, a practice of regular and moderate exercise can contribute to a better effectiveness of this system, thus, it can be considered a form of protection to the human body. The objective of this review was to synthesize some data from any studies presented in the literature that demonstrate the influence of physical exercise on the immune system response. Making it possible to understand the molecular mechanisms, physiological, metabolic and cellular changes that turn to a specific type of response in the human body.

Humans , Exercise , Immune System , Immunity , Dendritic Cells , Immunoglobulins , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocytes , Monocytes , Cytokines , Human Body , Chemokines , Protective Factors , Endurance Training , Homeostasis , Leukocytes , Macrophages , Neutrophils
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.2): 86-102, oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355762


Abstract | Introduction: Immunological markers have been described during COVID-19 and persist after recovery. These immune markers are associated with clinical features among SARS- CoV-2 infected individuals. Nevertheless, studies reporting a comprehensive analysis of the immune changes occurring during SARS-CoV-2 infection are still limited. Objective: To evaluate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, the antibody response, and the phenotype and function of NK cells and T cells in a Colombian family cluster with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Materials and methods: Proinflammatory cytokines were evaluated by RT-PCR and ELISA. The frequency, phenotype, and function of NK cells (cocultures with K562 cells) and T-cells (stimulated with spike/RdRp peptides) were assessed by flow cytometry. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were determined using indirect immunofluorescence and plaque reduction neutralization assay. Results: During COVID-19, we observed a high proinflammatory-cytokine production and a reduced CD56bright-NK cell and cytotoxic response. Compared with healthy controls, infected individuals had a higher frequency of dysfunctional CD8+ T cells CD38+HLA-DR-. During the acute phase, CD8+ T cells stimulated with viral peptides exhibited a monofunctional response characterized by high IL-10 production. However, during recovery, we observed a bifunctional response characterized by the co-expression of CD107a and granzyme B or perforin. Conclusion: Although the proinflammatory response is a hallmark of SARS-CoV-2 infection, other phenotypic and functional alterations in NK cells and CD8+ T cells could be associated with the outcome of COVID-19. However, additional studies are required to understand these alterations and to guide future immunotherapy strategies.

Resumen | Introducción. Se han descrito diferentes marcadores inmunológicos durante la COVID-19, los cuales persisten incluso después de la convalecencia y se asocian con los estadios clínicos de la infección. Sin embargo, aún son pocos los estudios orientados al análisis exhaustivo de las alteraciones del sistema inmunológico en el curso de la infección. Objetivo. Evaluar la producción de citocinas proinflamatorias, la reacción de anticuerpos, y el fenotipo y la función de las células NK y los linfocitos T en una familia colombiana con infección por SARS-CoV-2. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron las citocinas proinflamatorias mediante RT-PCR y ELISA; la frecuencia, el fenotipo y la función de las células NK (en cocultivos con células K562) y linfocitos T CD8+ (estimulados con péptidos spike/RdRp) mediante citometría de flujo, y los anticuerpos anti-SARS-CoV-2, mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta y prueba de neutralización por reducción de placa. Resultados. Durante la COVID-19 hubo una producción elevada de citocinas proinflamatorias, con disminución de las células NK CD56 bright y reacción citotóxica. Comparados con los controles sanos, los individuos infectados presentaron con gran frecuencia linfocitos T CD8+ disfuncionales CD38+HLA-DR-. Además, en los linfocitos T CD8+ estimulados con péptidos virales, predominó una reacción monofuncional con gran producción de IL-10 durante la fase aguda y una reacción bifuncional caracterizada por la coexpresión de CD107a y granzima B o perforina durante la convalecencia. Conclusión. Aunque la reacción inflamatoria caracteriza la infección por SARS-CoV-2, hay otras alteraciones fenotípicas y funcionales en células NK y linfocitos T CD8+ que podrían asociarse con la progresión de la infección. Se requieren estudios adicionales para entender estas alteraciones y guiar futuras estrategias de inmunoterapia.

Coronavirus Infections , Killer Cells, Natural , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Inflammation
Int. j. high dilution res ; 20(2/3): 34-43, June 4, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396358


Natural killer (NK) cells are among the first in defense of the innate immune system by eliminating a variety of abnormal or stressed cells such as cancer cells or virus-infected cells. Individuals who exhibit low cytolytic NK cell activity are believed to be at higher risk of viral infection, tumorigenesis, and various other diseases of the immune system. Therefore, restoration of impaired NK cell function might be an essential step in immunostimulatory therapy of immunocompromised patients. Bacillus firmus is a non-pathogenic gram-positive bacterium of the environment, which possesses various immunomodulatory properties in vitro and in vivo. This retrospective study reports on the effect of B. firmus on the activity of NK cells in vitro. Basal cytolytic NK cell activity against tumor cells among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of routine patients was determined in a standardized NK cell cytotoxicity assay. The impact of cultivation of PBMCs with B. firmus preparation Bacillus firmus e volumine ex muris cellulae (Bacillus firmus (evc)) 6x on tumor cell killing by NK cells was monitored in relation to basal NK cell activity. This study showed that stimulation of PBMCs with Bacillus firmus (evc) 6x in vitro led to a significant increase in NK cell function. Substantial improvement in cytolytic NK cell activity (more than 1.3-fold of basal activity) was much more pronounced for patients with compromised NK cell function. Due to its immunostimulatory mode of action, Bacillus firmus (evc) may be of particular importance in therapy of patients with NK cell deficiency.

Killer Cells, Natural , K562 Cells , Bacillus firmus/immunology
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 103-114, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878240


Natural killer (NK) cells are the main immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface and accumulate in the uterine decidua in early pregnancy. Many studies have shown that NK cells at the maternal-fetal interface have unique phenotypes and play critical roles in various processes, including immune tolerance during pregnancy, decidualization, invasion of trophoblasts, remodeling of the uterine spiral artery, formation of the placenta and growth of embryo. However, specific functions of NK cells and their mechanism remain to be fully elucidated. This review summarizes the research progress of NK cells at the maternal-fetal interface and their roles in the pregnancy-related disorders in recent years. The aims of this review are to gain deep insight of the function of NK cells at the maternal-fetal interface and provide new ideas for intervention of pregnancy-related diseases.

Decidua , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Placenta , Pregnancy , Trophoblasts , Uterus
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942243


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the significance of lymphocytes in systemic sclerosis (SSc), by detecting the levels of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, and analyzing the correlation between the lymphocytes and clinical laboratory indexes.@*METHODS@#The numbers and proportion of T, CD4+T, CD8+T, B, and NK cells were detected by flow cytometry in peripheral blood of 32 SSc patients who had taken immunosuppressive drugs and 30 healthy controls (HC). The comparison of the lymphocyte subsets in SSc with them in the HC groups, and the correlation between the lymphocytes and other clinical and laboratory indicators were analyzed by the relevant statistical analysis.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the HC group, the numbers of T, CD4+T, CD8+T, and NK cells in peripheral blood of SSc group, who had taken immunosuppressive drugs, were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). More-over, the proportion of NK cells in peripheral blood of the SSc group was also significantly lower than that in the HC group (P=0.004). In addition, all the lymphocyte subsets were decreased in peripheral blood of more than 65% of the SSc patients who had taken immunosuppressive drugs. Compared with CD4+T normal group, the positivity of Raynaud's phenomenon, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was significantly increased in CD4+T reduction group, respectively (P=0.024, P < 0.001, P=0.018). ESR was higher in CD8+T reduction group than CD8+T normal group (P=0.022). The prevalence of fingertip ulcer was significantly increased in B cell decrease group (P=0.019). Compared with NK cell normal group, the prevalence of fingertip ulcer was significantly increased in NK cell lower group (P=0.033), IgM was remarkablely decreased yet (P=0.049). The correlation analysis showed that ESR was negatively correlated with the counts of T lymphocytes (r=-0.455, P=0.009), CD4+T lymphocytes (r=-0.416, P=0.018), CD8+T lymphocytes (r=-0.430, P=0.014), B cells (r=-0.366, P=0.039).@*CONCLUSION@#The number of CD4+T, CD8+T, B, and NK cells significantly decreased in peripheral blood of SSc patients who had used immunosuppressive drugs, some lymphocyte subsets might be related with Raynaud's phenomenon and fingertip ulcer, and reflected the disease activity by negatively correlated with ESR and CRP; the numbers of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood should be detected regularly in SSc patients who had taken immunosuppressive drugs.

B-Lymphocytes , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocyte Subsets , Scleroderma, Systemic , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 79-90, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880969


Natural killer (NK) cells, a type of cytotoxic lymphocytes, can infiltrate into ischemic brain and exacerbate neuronal cell death. Astragaloside IV (ASIV) is the major bioactive ingredient of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese herbal medicine, and possesses potent immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties. This study investigated the effects of ASIV on post-ischemic brain infiltration and activation of NK cells. ASIV reduced brain infarction and alleviated functional deficits in MCAO rats, and these beneficial effects persisted for at least 7 days. Abundant NK cells infiltrated into the ischemic hemisphere on day 1 after brain ischemia, and this infiltration was suppressed by ASIV. Strikingly, ASIV reversed NK cell deficiency in the spleen and blood after brain ischemia. ASIV inhibited astrocyte-derived CCL2 upregulation and reduced CCR2

Animals , Brain , Histone Deacetylases , Killer Cells, Natural , Rats , Saponins/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880181


TIGIT is an inhibitory receptor containing T cell immunoglobulin and immune receptor protein tyrosine inhibitory motif domain. It shows high expression level on the surface of immune cells in tumor patients and plays an inhibitory role by binding to corresponding ligands, CD155 and CD112. Studying the mechanism of inhibitory effect of TIGIT and the way to block it shows a great significance in the immunotherapy of tumor. In this review, the structure of TIGIT molecule and its inhibitory effect on immune cells(including NK cells and T cells) were introduced, the expression level and the newest research advance of TIGIT molecule in lymphoma,multiple myeloma,leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome were reviewed and summarized briefly, so as to provide reference for the further study of TIGIT and the application of TIGIT inhibitors in hematological malignancies.

Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Proteins , Immunotherapy , Killer Cells, Natural , Receptors, Immunologic
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(3): 309-324, 26 de noviembre 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in English | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1130005


The outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the attendant physiological symptoms associated with the COVID-19 disease have led to an explosion of interest studying different aspects of the immune response. As of yet, the particular roles of natural killer cells are not well understood in this disease. NK cells are critical first-response cytotoxic cells of the innate immune system. NK cells are traditionally considered important for their roles in innate immunity against tumors and viral infected cells, as well as their ability to produce cytokines, particularly interferon-γ, and participate in antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here, we describe the role of NK cells in peripheral blood and in the lungs with respect to the pathology caused by SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the implications of proposed different types of therapies on NK cells. Evidence is accumulating that NK cells play an important role in initial surveillance as part of innate immunity. With the progression of the disease and rising inflammation, these cells, when in circulation, appear to become exhausted and ineffective. In the COVID lung, however, a complex interplay between inflammatory cells, chemokines, cytokines and aberrantly activated migratory NK cells occurs, potentiating local inflammation and the critical situation in the lungs.

El brote del nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 y los síntomas fisiológicos concomitantes asociados con la enfermedad COVID-19 han provocado una explosión de interés en la investigación de diferentes aspectos de la respuesta inmune. Hasta el momento, no se comprenden bien las funciones particulares de las células asesinas naturales (NK, por sus siglas en inglés: natural killer) en esta enfermedad. Las células NK son importantes células citotóxicas de primera línea que forman parte del sistema inmune innato. Las células NK se consideran tradicionalmente importantes por su papel en la inmunidad innata contra tumores y contra células infectadas por virus, así como por su capacidad para producir citoquinas y participar en la citotoxicidad celular dependiente de anticuerpos (ADCC, por sus siglas en inglés: antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity). Aquí, se describe el papel de las células NK en sangre periférica y en pulmones con respecto a la nueva patología causada por SARS-CoV-2 y discute las implicaciones de los diferentes tipos de terapias propuestos con respecto a células NK. Al momento, diversos tipos de evidencia comienzan a revelar que las células NK podrían desempeñar un papel crucial en la vigilancia inicial contra el SARS-CoV-2. Con la progresión de la enfermedad y el aumento de la inflamación, estas células cuando están en circulación, parecen agotarse ("exhausted") y volverse ineficaces. En los pulmones de pacientes con COVID-19, sin embargo, se produce una interacción compleja entre células inflamatorias, quimioquinas, citoquinas y células NK migratorias activadas de manera aberrante, lo que potencia la inflamación local, contribuyendo a una situación más crítica a la función pulmonar.

Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Coronavirus Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Cytokines , Betacoronavirus
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(3): 188-194, may.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249893


Resumen Introducción: Después de un trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (TCPH), la reconstitución de las células natural killer (NK) es la principal barrera contra las infecciones virales. Objetivo: Determinar que el conocimiento sobre la cinética de la reconstitución de las células NK posterior al TCPH contribuye a un eficiente monitoreo del trasplante, lo que incrementa la posibilidad de éxito de este. Método: Se incluyeron 21 pacientes sometidos a TCPH, así como un grupo control de individuos clínicamente sanos. En diferentes momentos después del trasplante (intervalo de 21 a 670 días), mediante citometría de flujo se cuantificaron las células NK CD3− CD16+ CD56+ en muestras de sangre periférica. Resultados: La recuperación de las células NK ocurre entre los tres y seis meses y entre los 10 y 12 meses postrasplante; su número fue significativamente menor (en comparación con el grupo control) en el tiempo restante del monitoreo. Conclusiones: El primer periodo de recuperación de las células NK ocurre entre los tres y seis meses posteriores al trasplante. La reconstitución es transitoria y el número de células NK varía en los primeros años.

Abstract Introduction: After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), natural killer (NK) cells reconstitution is the main barrier against viral infections. Objective: To determine that the knowledge on the kinetics of NK cell reconstitution after HSCT contributes to transplant efficient monitoring, which increases the possibility of its success. Method: Twenty-one patients undergoing HSCT were included, as well as a control group of clinically healthy individuals. At different time points after transplantation (range of 21 to 670 days), CD3- CD16+ CD56+ NK cells were quantified by flow cytometry in peripheral blood samples. Results: NK cell recovery occurs at three to six months and 10 to 12 months post-transplantation; their number was significantly lower (in comparison with the control group) in the rest of the monitoring time. Conclusions: The first period of NK cell recovery occurs between three and six months after transplantation. Reconstitution is transient and the number of NK cells varies in the first years.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Receptors, IgG , CD3 Complex , CD56 Antigen , GPI-Linked Proteins , Flow Cytometry
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(2): 153-158, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137159


Abstract Objective This study aimed to investigate the impact of post-thoracotomy analgesia with dexmedetomidine and morphine on immunocytes. Methods A total of 118 patients with post-thoracotomy Patient-Controlled Intravenous Analgesia (PCIA) in our hospital from March 2016 to July 2018 were randomly selected and divided into the Composite (COM) Group (57 patients administered with dexmedetomidine [1.0 µ body weight] and morphine [0.48 body weight]) and the Morphine (MOR) group (61 patients administered with morphine [0.48]). The values of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) and Natural Killer cells in the peripheral blood of these two groups were detected by FACSCalibur flow cytometry at different time points (before anesthesia induction [T0], immediately after tracheal extubation [T1], 12 hours after surgery [T2], 24 hours after surgery [T3], 48 hours after surgery [T4], 72 hours after surgery [T5], and 7 days after surgery [T6]). The doses of morphine at T3 to T5 and the adverse reactions between the two groups were also recorded and compared. Results The CD3+ level and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio at T2 to T5 and the CD4+ level and NK cells at T3 to T5 were significantly higher in the COM Group than in the MOR Group (p< 0.05). The postoperative morphine dose and the incidence of postoperative itching, nausea, and vomiting were significantly lower in the COM Group than in the MOR Group (p< 0.05). Conclusions Dexmedetomidine combined with morphine for post-thoracotomy PCIA can improve the function of immunocytes, reduce morphine consumption, and reduce the adverse reactions during analgesia induction.

Resumo Objetivo Estudar o impacto em linfócitos causado pelo uso da dexmedetomidina associada à morfina para analgesia pós-toracotomia. Método Um total de 118 pacientes utilizando Analgesia Intravenosa Controlada pelo Paciente (AICP) pós-toracotomia em nosso hospital, de março de 2016 a julho de 2018, foram selecionados aleatoriamente e divididos em dois grupos: o Grupo Combinado [COM, 57 pacientes que receberam dexmedetomidina (1,0 µ de peso corpóreo) associada à morfina (0,48 de peso corpóreo)] e o Grupo Morfina [MOR, 61 pacientes, que receberam somente morfina (0,48]. Os valores dos subconjuntos de linfócitos (CD3+, CD4+ e CD8+) e das células NK no sangue periférico desses dois grupos foram medidos por citometria de fluxo FACSCalibur em diferentes momentos do estudo [antes da indução anestésica (T0), imediatamente após extubação traqueal (T1), 12 horas após a cirurgia (T2), 24 horas após a cirurgia (T3), 48 horas após a cirurgia (T4), 72 horas após a cirurgia (T5) e 7 dias após a cirurgia (T6)]. As doses de morfina do momento T3 ao T5 e as reações adversas entre os dois grupos também foram registradas e comparadas. Resultados O nível de CD3+ e a razão CD4+/CD8+ de T2 a T5, e o nível de CD4+ e as células NK de T3 a T5 do Grupo COM foram significantemente maiores (p< 0,05) quando comparados ao Grupo MOR. A dose de morfina no pós-operatório e a incidência de prurido, náusea e vômito no pós-operatório foram significantemente menores no grupo MOR (p< 0,05). Conclusões Dexmedetomidina combinada com morfina para AICP no período pós-toracotomia pode melhorar a função dos linfócitos, reduzir o consumo de morfina e diminuir reações adversas durante a analgesia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Thoracotomy , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Lymphocyte Subsets/drug effects , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Morphine/pharmacology , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Morphine/therapeutic use
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(2): 244-252, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090589


ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate the usefulness of natural killer cell activity (NKA) in diagnosing prostate cancer (PC). Materials and Methods The medical records of patients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy (TRBx) at Korea University Ansan Hospital between May 2017 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. NKA levels were measured using NK Vue® Tubes (ATgen, Sungnam, Korea). All blood samples were obtained at 8 AM on the day of biopsy. Patients with other malignancies, chronic inflammatory conditions, high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (>20ng/mL), or history of taking 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor or testosterone replacement therapy were excluded. Results A total of 102 patients who underwent TRBx for PC diagnosis were enrolled. Among them, 50 were diagnosed with PC. Significant differences in age and NKA level were observed between the PC and no-PC groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off of NKA level for the prediction of PC was 500pg/dL, with a sensitivity of 68.0% and a specificity of 73.1%. In addition, NKA level (0.630) had the greatest area under the ROC curve compared to those for the ratio of total PSA to free PSA (0.597) and PSA density (0.578). Conclusions The results of this pilot study revealed that low NKA and high PSA levels were likely to be associated with a positive TRBx outcome. NKA detection was easy and improved the diagnostic accuracy of PC.

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/physiology , Biomarkers/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Image-Guided Biopsy , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 177-190, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088927


Estudou-se o efeito do hipotireoidismo materno na expressão espaço-temporal de mediadores imunológicos e na população de células natural killers (NK) na decídua e na glândula metrial de ratas durante a gestação. Avaliou-se a detecção imunoistoquímica de interferon γ (IFNγ), do fator inibidor de migração (MIF), da interleucina 15 (IL15), do óxido nítrico sintase induzível (iNOS), a marcação com lectina DBA para evidenciação das células NK uterinas DBA+ e a expressão gênica de Ifnγ e Nos2. O hipotireoidismo aumentou o iNOS aos sete dias, a IL15 e o MIF aos 10 e 12 dias, o IFNγ e o MIF aos 14 DG e a expressão dos transcritos gênicos para iNos aos 12 e 19 dias e para Ifnγ aos 14 DG. O hipotireoidismo reduziu a imunomarcação de MIF e lectina DBA aos sete dias, lectina DBA aos 10 e 14 DG, IFNγ aos 12 dias, e a expressão de Ifnγ aos 10 e 19 DG e de iNOS aos 12, 14 e 19 DG, bem como reduziu seus transcritos gênicos aos 10 e 14 DG. Conclui-se que o hipotireoidismo compromete o perfil imunológico na interface materno-fetal ao longo da gestação, particularmente por reduzir o fator anti-inflamatório iNOS e a população de células uNK DBA+.(AU)

The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal hypothyroidism on the spatiotemporal expression of immunological mediators and population of Natural Killers cells in decidua and metrial gland of rats. Interferon gamma (IFNγ), migration inhibitory factor (MIF), interleukin 15 (IL15), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and DBA-Lectin labeling for evidence of uNK DBA+ cells in decidua and genetic expression of Ifnγ and iNos by real-time RT-PCR were evaluated. Hypothyroidism increased protein expression of iNOS at 7 days, IL15 and MIF at 10 and 12 days, IFNγ and MIF at 14 DG in the decidua and/or metrial gland and the gene transcripts for iNOS at 12 and 19 days and for Inf at 14 DG. In addition, hypothyroidism reduced the protein expression of MIF and DBA-Lectin at 7 days, DBA-Lectin at 10 and 14 DG, IFNγ at 12 days, and the gene transcript to Ifnγ at 10 and 19 DGs. Hypothyroidism also reduced the protein expression of iNOS at 12, 14 and 19 DG and reduced its gene transcripts at 10 and 14 DGs. It is concluded that hypothyroidism compromises the immunology profile at the maternal-fetal interface throughout pregnancy, particularly by reducing the anti-inflammatory factor iNOS and population of uNK DBA+ cells.(AU)

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Embryo Implantation , Killer Cells, Natural , Hypothyroidism/veterinary , Metrial Gland
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200124, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134800


Abstract Objectives To evaluate apoptotic levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and apoptotic regulatory proteins (Bax and Bcl-2) in lymphocyte subsets of oral cancer (OC) patients and healthy controls (HC). Methodology The percentage of apoptotic cells and lymphocyte counts were measured in the first cohort using PBMCs obtained from 23 OC patients and 6 HC. In the second cohort, (OC, 33; HC, 13), the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of Bax and Bcl-2 in CD19+ B, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and CD16+56+ natural killer (NK) cells was determined via flow cytometry. Results The percentage of apoptotic cells was higher in the PBMCs of OC patients than in HC patients, particularly in patients with stage IV cancer (p<0.05). However, lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in stage IV patients (p<0.05). NK CD19+ B and CD16+56+ cell counts were significantly lower in OC patients compared with HC patients (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively), but CD4+ T cells were interestingly significantly higher in OC patients (p<0.001). While Bax MFI was slightly higher, Bcl-2 MFI was significantly lower for all four lymphocyte subsets in OC samples, particularly in stage IV patients, when compared with HC. Consequently, Bax/Bcl-2 ratios showed an upward trend from HC to OC patients, particularly those in stage IV. We found similar trends in Bax and Bcl-2 MFI for tumor stage, tumor size, and lymph node involvement. Conclusions The increased lymphocyte apoptosis in stage IV OC patients may be related to higher Bax levels and lower Bcl-2 levels. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in lymphocytes may be useful to determine the prognosis of OC patients, and could be considered a mean for supportive treatment in the future.

Humans , Mouth Neoplasms , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocyte Subsets , Apoptosis , Flow Cytometry
Immune Network ; : 6-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811176


IL-17 is produced by RAR-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt)-expressing cells including Th17 cells, subsets of γδT cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). The biological significance of IL-17-producing cells is well-studied in contexts of inflammation, autoimmunity and host defense against infection. While most of available studies in tumor immunity mainly focused on the role of T-bet-expressing cells, including cytotoxic CD8⁺ T cells and NK cells, and their exhaustion status, the role of IL-17-producing cells remains poorly understood. While IL-17-producing T-cells were shown to be anti-tumorigenic in adoptive T-cell therapy settings, mice deficient in type 17 genes suggest a protumorigenic potential of IL-17-producing cells. This review discusses the features of IL-17-producing cells, of both lymphocytic and myeloid origins, as well as their suggested pro- and/or anti-tumorigenic functions in an organ-dependent context. Potential therapeutic approaches targeting these cells in the tumor microenvironment will also be discussed.

Animals , Autoimmunity , Child , Child, Orphaned , Friends , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-17 , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocytes , Mice , T-Lymphocytes , Th17 Cells , Tumor Microenvironment