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J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(5): 546-553, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975984


Abstract Objective: There is evidence of an important role of immune system changes in the triggering and maintenance of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of cytokines in lymphocyte populations of patients with INS in comparison to healthy individuals, according to proteinuria. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 44 patients with INS and eight healthy children, matched for age and sex (controls). Patients were subdivided according to proteinuria: persistent proteinuria or partial remission (PP ≥ 300 mg/24 h, n = 17) and low proteinuria or complete remission (LP < 300 mg/24 h, n = 27). Ex vivo analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes by flow cytometry was performed using surface markers for T-lymphocytes, TCD4, TCD8, natural killer (NK) cells, NKT, and B-lymphocytes. Frequencies of intracellular cytokines were analyzed in these cells. Results: The frequencies of B-lymphocytes, NK cells, and NKT cells were lower in INS than in controls, whereas INS patients had a higher frequency of CD4+tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α+ cells than controls. Cytotoxic-T-lymphocytes expressing IFN-γ were lower in INS than in controls. Patients with PP showed higher frequencies of CD4-T-lymphocytes expressing IFN-γ and TNF-α than controls. CD8-lymphocytes expressing TNF-α were increased in PP group when compared with LP and controls, while CD8+interferon (IFN)-γ+ cells were lower than in LP and in controls. Conclusion: Regardless the level of proteinuria, INS patients had increased expression of TNF-α in CD4-lymphocytes and reduced expression of IFN-γ in CD8-lymphocytes. Persistence of proteinuria was associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers.

Resumo Objetivo Há comprovação do importante papel das alterações no sistema imunológico no desencadeamento e manutenção da síndrome nefrótica idiopática (SNI). O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a expressão das citocinas em populações de linfócitos de pacientes com SNI em comparação a indivíduos saudáveis e de acordo com a proteinúria. Métodos Este estudo transversal incluiu 44 pacientes com SNI e oito crianças saudáveis, pareados por idade e sexo (controles). Os pacientes foram subdivididos de acordo com a proteinúria: proteinúria persistente ou remissão parcial (PP ≥ 300 mg/24 h, n = 17) e proteinúria baixa ou remissão completa (PB < 300 mg/24 h, n = 27). A análise ex vivo de leucócitos no sangue periférico por citometria de fluxo foi feita utilizando marcadores de superfície para linfócitos T, TCD4, TCD8, células natural killer (NK), linfócitos NKT e B. As frequências das citocinas intracelulares foram analisadas nessas células. Resultados A frequência dos linfócitos B, células NK e células NKT foi menor em pacientes com SNI do que nos controles, ao passo que os pacientes com SNI apresentaram maior frequência de células CD4+fator de necrose tumoral (TNF)-α+ do que nos controles. Os linfócitos T citotóxicos que expressam interferon (IFN)-γ foram menores nos pacientes com SNI do que nos controles. Os pacientes com PP mostraram maiores frequências de linfócitos T CD4 que expressam IFN-γ e TNF-α que os controles. Os linfócitos CD8 que expressam TNF-α apresentaram aumento no grupo com PP, em comparação aos com PB e os controles, apesar de as células CD8+IFN-γ+ serem mais baixas nos pacientes com PB e nos controles. Conclusão Com relação ao nível de proteinúria, os pacientes com SNI apresentaram aumento na expressão de TNF-α nos linfócitos CD4 e expressão reduzida de IFN-γ nos linfócitos CD8. A persistência da proteinúria foi associada a maiores níveis de marcadores inflamatórios.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Proteinuria/etiology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Nephrotic Syndrome/immunology , Proteinuria/immunology , Proteinuria/blood , Biomarkers , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Flow Cytometry , Leukocyte Count , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/blood
Cell Journal [Yakhteh]. 2017; 19 (1): 137-145
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185800


Objective: Adipose derived stem cells [ASCs], as one of the important stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment, are determined with immunomodulatory effects. The principle aim of this study was to evaluate the immunosuppressive effects of ASCs on natural killer [NK] cells

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we assessed the expressions of indolamine 2, 3-dioxygenase [IDO1], IDO2 and human leukocyte antigen-G5 [HLA-G5] in ASCs isolated from breast cancer patients with different stages as well as normal individuals, using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction [qRT-PCR]. Immunomodulatory effects of ASCs on the expression of CD16, CD56, CD69, NKG2D, NKp30, NKG2A and NKp44 was also assessed in peripheral blood lymphocytes [PBLs] by flow-cytometry

Results: Our result showed that IDO1, IDO2 and HLA-G5 had higher mRNA expressions in ASCs isolated from breast cancer patients than those from normal individuals [P>0.05]. mRNA expression of these molecules were higher in ASCs isolated from breast cancer patients with stage III tumors than those with stage II. The indirect culture of ASCs isolated from breast cancer patients and normal individuals with activated PBLs significantly reduced NKG2D+ and CD69+ NK cells [P<0.05]

Conclusion: Results of the present study suggest more evidences for the immunosuppression of ASCs on NK cells, providing conditions in favor of tumor immune evasion

Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Immunomodulation , Immunosuppression , Iran
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(supl.1): 23-24, Oct. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829560


SUMMARY The allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure intermediate and high-risk acute myeloid leukemia. Even with the development of strategies to reduce HSCT toxicity, this is still a complex treatment with high morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of the graft versus leukemia effect of HSCT has prepared the way for the development of Adoptive Immunotherapy or in vitro expansion of activated lymphocytes without alloreactivity, with subsequent intravenous infusion. The infusion of genetically modified T lymphocytes and haploidentical natural killer cells has been tested as an alternative to HSCT with very interesting results worldwide and in Brazil, as we not only have the technology of in vitro expansion of clinical grade lymphocytes available, but also do it according to the Good Manufacturing Practices that have been determined internationally.

RESUMO O transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas (TCTH) alogênico é curativo para leucemia mielóide aguda de risco intermediário e alto. Mesmo com o desenvolvimento de estratégias para minorar a toxicidade do TCTH, este ainda é um tratamento complexo com elevada morbi-mortalidade. O conhecimento sobre o efeito enxerto contra leukemia do TCTH pavimentou o caminho para o desenvolvimento da Imunoterapia Adotiva ou expansão in vitro de linfócitos ativados, sem alo-reatividade, com posterior infusão endovenosa. A infusão de Linfócitos T geneticamente modificados e de células Natural Killer haploidenticas tem sido testada como alternativa ao TCTH com resultados bastante interessantes no mundo e no Brazil já que não apenas dominamos a tecnologia de expansão in vitro de linfócitos em grau clínico, como o fazemos segundo as Boas Práticas de Manufatura determinadas internacionalmente.

Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Brazil , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/trends , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Graft vs Leukemia Effect
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2016; 17 (2): 149-154
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-180232


Immune system [IS] is comprised of molecules, cells, tissues and organs involved in host defense mechanism from infectious agents or tumor cells. On crossing the cell barriers by these infectious agents, the defense mechanism is alerted by the immune system to respond against these invading microbes. Innate immune response [IIR] and acquired immune response [AIR] are working in parallel to control these invading microbes. IIR is composed of various types of phagocytes and lymphocytes, while AIR is comprised of T and B lymphocytes. All the cells of the immune system cooperatively work against infectious agents and cancerous cells but Natural killer [NK] cells are playing an important role to respond to tumor by enhancing the expression of complementary domain [CD86] on dendritic cells [DCs] and production of IL-12. NK cells demolished tumor through perforin and granzyme, which are important for immune surveillance and death of tumor cells induced by cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor [TNF], Fas ligand [CD178], interferon-c [IFN-[gamma]] and IL-10. These cytokines have inhibited proliferation of tumor by inducing antiangiogenic factors and maintaining cross talk with other immune cells. Natural products like transfer factor plus, immune modulator mix, ascorbic acid, Ganoderma lucidum, Agaricus blazei teas, nitrogenated soy extract, Andrographis paniculata and several phytochemicals enhanced the efficiency of NK cells in controlling cancers. Further studies will unravel the impact of NK cells in cancer control and how NK efficiency can be further enhanced

Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(4): 417-425, July-Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759277


Natural killer cells are a unique type of lymphocytes with cytotoxic capacity, and play important roles against tumors and infections. Recently, natural killer cells have been increasingly valued in their effects in hepatitis B virus infection. Since hepatitis B virus is not cytopathic, the subsequent antiviral immune responses of the host are responsible for sustaining the liver injury, which may result in cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Many studies have confirmed that natural killer cells participate in anti-hepatitis B virus responses both in the early phase after infection and in the chronic phase viacytolysis, degranulation, and cytokine secretion. However, natural killer cells play dichotomic roles: they exert antiviral and immunoregulatory functions whilst contribute to the pathogenesis of liver injury. Here, we review the roles of natural killer cells in hepatitis B virus infection, introducing novel therapeutic strategies for controlling hepatitis B virus infection viathe modulation of natural killer cells.

Humans , Hepatitis B/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Medical Illustration
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61562


Epstein-Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, can induce both lytic and latent infections that result in a variety of human diseases, including lymphoproliferative disorders. The oncogenic potential of Epstein-Barr virus is related to its ability to infect and transform B lymphocytes into continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cells. However, Epstein-Barr virus has also been implicated in the development of T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Epstein-Barr virus encodes a series of products that mimic several growth, transcription and anti-apoptotic factors, thus usurping control of pathways that regulate diverse homeostatic cellular functions and the microenvironment. However, the exact mechanism by which Epstein-Barr virus promotes oncogenesis and inflammatory lesion development remains unclear. Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases often have overlapping clinical symptoms as well as histologic and immunophenotypic features because both lymphoid cell types derive from a common precursor. Accurate classification of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is a prerequisite for appropriate clinical management. Currently, the treatment of most T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is less than satisfactory. Novel and targeted therapies are strongly required to satisfy clinical demands. This review describes our current knowledge of the genetics, oncogenesis, biology, diagnosis and treatment of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases.

Cell Transformation, Viral , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/diagnosis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Oct; 52(10): 935-942
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153780


Development and study of dog mammary tumour xenograft in immunosuppressed Swiss Albino Mice adds a new dimension in cancer research as dog tumors have many similarities with human tumors regarding progression, histopathology, molecular mechanism, immune response and therapy. Failure of the immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells leads to cancer progression and the fight between immune cells and cancer cells has a great role in understanding the mechanism of cancer progression and elimination. Rejection and acceptance of tumour xenograft depends on efficiency of CD4+, CD8+ and NK cell populations. In the present investigation, dog mammary tumor xenograft in cyclosporine-A and γ-irradiated, immunosuppressed Swiss Albino mice was developed and the immune cell status of graft accepted and rejected mice was assessed. It was observed that all the major immune cells (CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells) play an equal role in tumour rejection.

Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Dogs , Female , Graft Rejection/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/immunology , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology , Mice , Neoplasm Transplantation/methods , Transplantation, Heterologous/methods
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 775-781, 09/09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723982


Understanding the social conditions and immunological characteristics that allow some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed patients to remain uninfected represents an on-going challenge. In this study, the socio-demographic and sexual behaviour characteristics and immune activation profiles of uninfected individuals exposed to HIV-infected partners were investigated. A confidential and detailed questionnaire was administered and venous blood was tested using HIV-1/enzyme immunoassays, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels/bDNA and immunophenotyping/flow cytometry to determine the frequencies of CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing activation markers. The data analysis showed significant differences (p < 0.05) for immune parameters in individuals who were uninfected, albeit exposed to HIV-infected partners, compared with unexposed individuals. In particular, the exposed, uninfected individuals had a higher frequency (median, minimum-maximum) of CD4+HLA-DR+ (4.2, 1.8-6.1), CD8+HLA-DR+ (4.6, 0.9-13.7), CD4+CD45RO+ (27.5, 14.2-46.6), CD4+CD45RO+CD62L+ (46.7, 33.9-67.1), CD8+CD45RA+HLA-DR+ (12.1, 3.4-35.8) and CD8+CD45RO+HLA-DR+ (9.0, 3.2-14.8) cells, a decreased percentage of CD8+CD28+ cells (11.7, 4.5-24.0) and a lower cell-surface expression of Fcγ-R/CD16 on monocytes (56.5, 22.0-130.0). The plasma HIV-1 RNA levels demonstrated detectable RNA virus loads in 57% of the HIV-1+ female partners. These findings demonstrate an activation profile in both CD4 and CD8 peripheral T cells from HIV-1 exposed seronegative individuals of serodiscordant couples from a referral centre in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais.

Female , Humans , Male , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Serosorting , HIV Seronegativity/immunology , HIV-1 , Heterosexuality/psychology , Sexual Partners , Brazil , Coitus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , HIV-1 , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , RNA, Viral/blood , Socioeconomic Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sexual Behavior/classification
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 48(spe): 102-108, 08/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-731295


Exploratory and descriptive study based on quantitative and qualitative methods that analyze the phenomenon of violence against adolescents based on gender and generational categories. The data source was reports of violence from the Curitiba Protection Network from 2010 to 2012 and semi-structured interviews with 16 sheltered adolescents. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and the qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The adolescents were victims of violence in the household and outside of the family environment, as victims or viewers of violence. The violence was experienced at home, mostly toward girls, with marked overtones of gender violence. More than indicating the magnitude of the issue, this study can give information to help qualify the assistance given to victimized people and address how to face this issue.

Objetivo Analizar la violencia contra los adolescentes a la luz de las categorías de género y generación. Método Estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, de abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo que. Las fuentes de datos fueron las denuncias de violencia mantenidos por la Red de Protección en Curitiba entre los años 2010-2012 y entrevistas semi-estructuradas con 16 adolescentes alojados. Las variables cuantitativas se analizaron mediante el programa SPSS y los cualitativos por la análisis de contenido. Resultados Los adolescentes fueron sometidos a la violencia en el hogar y en el exterior, como víctimas o espectadores. La violencia fue más frecuente en el hogar, centrándose principalmente en las chicas con matices marcados de violencia de género. Conclusión Más que encontrar la magnitud del problema, el estudio puede servir de base para calificar la asistencia a las personas víctimas de este fenómeno.


Objetivo Analisar a violência contra o adolescente à luz das categorias gênero e geração. Método Estudo exploratório, descritivo, de abordagem quantitativa e qualitativa. As fontes de dados foram as notificações de violência da Rede de Proteção do município de Curitiba, de 2010 a 2012, e entrevistas semiestruturadas com 16 adolescentes abrigados. As variáveis quantitativas foram analisadas pelo software SPSS e os dados qualitativos através da análise de conteúdo. Resultados Os adolescentes foram submetidos à violência no ambiente doméstico e fora dele, como vítimas ou como espectadores. Prevaleceu no domicílio, incidindo principalmente sobre as meninas, com marcada conotação de violência de gênero. Conclusão Mais que constatar a magnitude do problema, o estudo pode fornecer subsídios para qualificar a assistência prestada aos sujeitos vitimizados e subsidiar o enfrentamento do fenômeno. .

Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/immunology , Telomerase/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins , Gene Expression , Immunity, Cellular , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Precancerous Conditions/enzymology , Precancerous Conditions/genetics , Precancerous Conditions/immunology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/enzymology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(4): 632-637, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715521


The graft-versus-host disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Aiming at contributing to the understanding of the role of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and natural killer cells in chronic graft-versus-host disease, we examined biopsies of jugal mucosa of 26 patients with acute myeloid leukemia who had undergone allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Half of these patients developed oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. Microscopic sections were immunohistochemically stained for anti-CD1a, anti-CD123 and anti-CD56. We calculated the number of immunostained cells in the corium per square millimeter and applied the Mann-Whitney test. Results showed a statistically significant increase of myeloid dendritic cells (CD1a+; p=0,02) and natural killer cells (CD56; p=0,04) in patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. CD123 immunostaining showed no statistical difference between groups. It was concluded that myeloid dendritic cells and natural killer cells participate in the development of oral chronic graft-versus-host disease.

Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Graft vs Host Disease/pathology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Apoptosis , Antigens, CD/immunology , Biopsy , Cell Count , Chronic Disease , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology , Immunohistochemistry , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/immunology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/immunology , Statistics, Nonparametric
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-10, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950711


BACKGROUND: Declining immune function poses an important clinical challenge worldwide and supplementation with natural products that possessing immune enhancing properties is a promising approach for preventing or delaying immune function decline. Cocoons from yellow silkworms are a significant source of lutein, and this unexplored silk extract could be a viable alternative source for dietary lutein. This study assessed immunomodulatory activities of the silk lutein extract. Female BALB/c mice orally received lutein, either as silk or marigold extracts (10 or 20 mg/kg daily), or vehicle only (1% tween 80 in PBS pH 7.4) for 4 weeks. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, specific antibody production, lymphocyte subpopulations, mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, and cytokine production were examined. RESULTS: Silk lutein extract increased NK cell activity, and the effect was dose-related whereas marigold lutein extract was ineffective. Silk lutein extract dose-dependently enhanced antibody production in pre-immunized mice but marigold lutein extract had no effect. Feeding with silk lutein extract increased the populations of CD3+ and CD4 + CD3 + cells. Silk lutein extract also stimulated concanavalin A- and lipopolysaccharide-induced proliferations of T and B lymphocytes, respectively. Moreover, silk lutein extract increased IL-2 and IFN-γ production while the effect of marigold lutein extract was undetectable. CONCLUSIONS: Together, silk lutein extract enhanced both innate and adaptive immune functions. This preparation may prove to be an effective supplement for strengthened immunity.

Animals , Female , Mice , Bombyx/immunology , Tissue Extracts/immunology , Lutein/immunology , Silk/immunology , Animal Shells/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/analysis , Pupa/immunology , Pupa/metabolism , Bombyx/metabolism , Tissue Extracts/pharmacology , Lutein/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Heterophile/blood , Plant Extracts/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Interleukin-4/analysis , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interleukin-2/analysis , Interleukin-10/analysis , Tagetes/immunology , Flowers/immunology , Silk/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Feb; 50(1): 14-18
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147281


Platelet aggregation around migrating cancer cells protects them against the activity of natural killer cells (NKCs). The inability of immune system to response results in the progression of malignant diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of resveratrol (3, 4', 5-trihydroxystilbene) on platelet aggregation and NKCs activity. Experiments were designed to evaluate the platelet aggregation, production of thromboxane B2 (TXB2), estimation of expression of the platelet receptor GpIIb/IIIa (major biological markers for platelet aggregation) and functional activity of the NKCs against the K562 cancer cell line after incubation with various concentrations of reveratrol. Resveratrol at a concentration of 3 × 10-3Μ completely inhibited platelet aggregation (p<0.05), decreased TXB2 levels (p<0.05) and inhibited the expression of receptor GpIIb/IIIa in non-stimulated platelets (p<0.05). At the same concentration, it increased the NKCs cytotoxic activity at an average rate of 319 ± 34, 450 ± 34 and 62 ± 2.4% (p<0.05) in the NKC/targets cells ratios of 12.5:1, 25:1 and 50:1, respectively. Thus, resveratrol not only completely inhibited platelet aggregation and reduced TXB2 levels and expression of receptor GpIIb/IIIa, but also increased the cytotoxic activity of NKCs in vitro and thus increased the susceptibility of tumor cells to NKCs. Thus, resveratrol can be used as an additional supplement to modulate the immune system and to inhibit platelet aggregation in thromboembolic episodes. Further clinical investigation in vivo could lead to specific concentrations that may maximize the beneficial effect of resveratrol.

Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/immunology , Cell Communication/drug effects , Cell Communication/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , K562 Cells , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Neoplasms, Experimental/immunology , Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation/immunology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Stilbenes/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 53(1): 70-74, jan.-fev. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-670985


INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos têm relatado um aumento da expressão das células natural killer (NK) no sangue periférico de pacientes com esclerose sistêmica (ES). Essas células fazem parte da imunidade inata, reconhecendo células infectadas por meio dos receptores killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR), que apresentam acentuado polimorfismo. Um novo modelo foi proposto prevendo a atividade das células NK, avaliando o excesso de ativação (EA), excesso de inibição (EI) ou se a célula está funcionalmente em equilíbrio (balance, B) (neutra). OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade das células NK em pacientes com ES e comparar com grupo-controle. MÉTODO: Cento e dez pacientes com ES e 115 controles foram estudados. Foi aplicado um novo modelo que prevê a atividade das células NK. Para esse método, considerou-se cada célula com seu respectivo ligante KIR/HLA-C e Bw4. A nomenclatura utilizada foi EA, EI e B. RESULTADOS: Nossos resultados mostraram que 63,5% dos controles saudáveis apresentavam o fenótipo KIR caracterizado por EI, em comparação com 39,1% dos pacientes com ES (P = 0,001). Considerando-se somente indivíduos com presença de KIR2DL2 (KIR2DL2+), encontramos 34,7% de EI em controles sadios e 10,9% em pacientes com ES (P < 0,001). CONCLUSÃO: Em nosso estudo, o modelo que prevê a ação das células NK mostrou que controles sadios têm maior frequência de EI quando comparados a pacientes com ES, sugerindo um efeito protetor do EI contra o desenvolvimento da ES. Outros estudos, porém, devem ser realizados para confirmar nossos dados.

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown an increased expression of natural killer (NK) cells in the peripheral blood of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). NK cells are part of innate immunity, recognizing infected cells through killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), which show marked polymorphism. A novel model has been proposed predicting the activity of NK cells, evaluating whether there is excessive activation (EA), excessive inhibition (EI) or balance (B) (neutral). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the activity of NK cells in patients with SSc and compare it with that of a control group. METHOD: This study comprised 110 patients with SSc and 115 healthy controls. A novel model that predicts the activity of NK cells was used. For that, cells with their respective KIR/HLA-C and Bw4 ligands were considered. The activity of NK cells was defined as EA, EI, or B. RESULTS: Our results showed that 63.5% of healthy controls had the KIR phenotype characterized by EI, as compared with 39.1% of the patients with SSc (P = 0.001). Considering only KIR2DL2-positive individuals, 34.7% of EI was found in healthy controls and 10.9% in patients with SSc (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In our study, the model that predicts the action of NK cells showed that healthy controls have higher frequency of EI as compared with SSc patients, suggesting a protective effect of the EI profile against the development of SSc. These results suggest a potential role of NK cells in the pathogenesis of SSc, but further studies should be conducted to confirm our data.

Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Scleroderma, Systemic/immunology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180667


Constructing a bone marrow chimera prior to graft transplantation can induce donor-specific immune tolerance. Mixed chimerism containing hematopoietic cells of both recipient- and donor-origin has advantages attributed from low dose of total body irradiation. In this study, we explored the mechanism of mixed chimerism supplemented with depletion of Natural Killer cells. Mixed chimerism with C57BL/6 bone marrow cells was induced in recipient BALB/c mice which were given 450 cGy of gamma-ray irradiation (n = 16). As revealed by reduced proliferation and cytokine production in mixed leukocyte reaction and ELISpot assay (24.6 vs 265.5), the allo-immune response to bone marrow donor was reduced. Furthermore, the induction of transferable immunological tolerance was confirmed by adoptive transfer and subsequent acceptance of C57BL/6 skin graft (n = 4). CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells were increased in the recipient compartment of the mixed chimera (19.2% --> 33.8%). This suggests that regulatory T cells may be therapeutically used for the induction of graft-specific tolerance by mixed chimerism.

Animals , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Bone Marrow Transplantation , Cell Proliferation , Chimerism , Cytokines/metabolism , Gamma Rays , Graft Survival , Immune Tolerance , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Leukocytes/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Animal , Skin Transplantation , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/cytology , Whole-Body Irradiation
IJI-Iranian Journal of Immunology. 2013; 10 (1): 31-39
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142675


A possible mechanism by which hyperthermia enhances tumor immunogenicity is the induction of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells. Although the expression of MHC class I chain-related protein A and B [MICA/B] has previously been reported in different carcinomas, there is no information about MICA/B expression in liposarcomas. To investigate MICA/B induction in a human liposarcoma cell line [SW-872] after thermotherapy. SW-872 and HeLa cell lines were subjected to thermal stress for 1 h at 42, 44 and 46[degree sign]C, and after 2, 4 and 6 h of incubation at 37[degree sign]C, MICA/B expression was assessed at the mRNA and protein levels. Despite high levels of MICA/B transcripts in SW-872 cells at baseline, the expression of these genes decreased significantly at both the mRNA and protein levels after almost all thermal treatments. Our data conclude that thermotherapy under 42-46[degree sign]C had no effect on MICA/B induction on SW-872 liposarcoma cell line but the effects of fever-range temperatures remain to be tested on this cell line

Hyperthermia, Induced , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Killer Cells, Natural
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86385


Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB) is a rare disease characterized by intense skin reactions such as bulla and necrotic ulcerations at bite sites, accompanied by general symptoms such as high-grade fever and malaise occurred after mosquito bites. It has been suggested that HMB is associated with chronic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and natural killer (NK) cell leukemia/lymphoma. We describe here a Korean child who presented with 3-yr history of HMB without natural killer cell lymphocytosis. He has been ill for 6 yr with HMB. Close observation and examination for the development of lymphoproliferative status or hematologic malignant disorders is needed.

Child , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Humans , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Insect Bites and Stings/diagnosis , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocytosis/complications , Male , Republic of Korea , Skin/pathology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144659


Background & objectives: Interferon alpha 2b (IFNα2b) has been reported to regulate several immune functions efficiently to enhance the cytotoxic activity of NK and T cells towards various forms of tumours. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of IFNα2b in overcoming disease induced and/or treatment associated imunosuppression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) patients undergoing chemotherapy for better clinical outcome. Methods: Seven TSCC patients under cisplatin + 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy in combination with IFNα2b were assessed for various immunohaematological parameters before treatment, after chemotherapy and after IFNα2b therapy. Results: Deterioration of the haematological and immune responses was detected in immunosuppressed TSCC patients after chemotherapy. IFNα2b treatment led to a recovery in these parameters in most of the patients. Greater number of T/NK cells and enhanced secretion of type 1 cytokines were also noted. Haematological complications were reduced after completion of the therapy. Immune- and haematostimulation were also observed in patients with partial response. No positive clinical response was detected in one patient. Interpretation & conclusions: IFNα2b appears to be an effective immunostimulator having clinical impact to combat the immunosuppression in TSCC patients. Successful immunostimulation by IFNα2b may help TSCC patients in clinical improvement. The findings of this preliminary study need to be confirmed on a large number of patients with TSCC.

Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/immunology , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Flow Cytometry , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Humans , Immune Tolerance/drug effects , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tongue Neoplasms/drug therapy , Tongue Neoplasms/immunology
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 16(1): 16-26, mar. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662986


Objective: To understand the biologic and clinical importance of intratumoral natural killer cells CD16+CD56+CD3 and NKT CD16+CD56+CD3 cells in immune surveillance against cervical cancer. Methods: To understand the significance of NK (CD16+CD56+CD3-) and NKT (CD16+CD56+CD3-) in immune surveillance against cervical cancer, we analysed 39 peripheral blood and 30 biopsy samples from cervical cancer patients, and 40 peripheral blood and 5 biopsy samples from healthy women with normal cytology. The frequencies of NK and NKT and HLA-I expression in keratinocytes were analysed by flow cytometry. Results: In peripheral blood, a higher frequency of NK was observed in the patient group compared with the controls (p=0.002). However, this increase was not reflected in TILs (p=0,095). A significant reduction of HLA-I expression was observed in the patient group compared to the control group (p=0.019). A low number of NK infiltrated was observed in tumors of patients with HLA-I down regulation, but it was not significant (p=0.374). A low number of NK infiltration was associated with shorter survival, but it was not significant (p=0.275). Conclusions: Our results show that although in peripheral blood an increase in NK population was observed in patient group, this increase was not reflected in TILs. It is possible that this inefficient migration of NK´s into the tumor milieu could be related to the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines, in particular IL-10.

Objetivo: Entender la importancia biológica y clínica de las células intratumorales natural killer (NK) CD16+CD56+CD3- y de las células natural killer T (NKT) CD16+CD56+CD3- en la inmunovigilancia del cáncer de cuello uterino (CCU). Métodos: Para comprender el papel de las NK (CD16+CD56+CD3-) y de las células natural killer T (NKT) (CD16+CD56+CD3-) en la inmunovigilancia del CCU, se analizaron 39 muestras de sangre periférica (SP) y 30 biopsias de pacientes con CCU, así como de 40 muestras de SP y 5 biopsias de cuello uterino de mujeres con citología normal. Las frecuencias de NK y NKT y la expresión de HLA-I se analizaron por citometría de flujo. Resultados: Se observó una mayor frecuencia de NK en SP en el grupo de pacientes comparado con el grupo control (p = 0,002). Sin embargo, este aumento no se reflejó en TIL (p = 0,095). Una reducción significativa de HLA-I se observó en el grupo de pacientes (p = 0,019). Esta disminución se asoció una disminución en el número de NK, pero no fue significativa (p = 0,374). Un bajo número de NK se asoció con una menor supervivencia, pero no fue significativo (p = 0,275). Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados muestran que aunque en SP se observa un incremento de NK, este no se refleja en los TIL. Es posible que este tráfico ineficiente de células NK hacia el tumor esté alterado por la expresión de citoquinas inmunosupresoras, en particular IL-10.

Humans , Female , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Killer Cells, Natural/classification , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/immunology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/blood , Flow Cytometry/methods , Flow Cytometry , Colombia/epidemiology
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2012 Jan-Mar 55(1): 17-21
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142169


Background: Placenta has long been a neglected organ as far as its pathology is concerned. This study is an attempt to observe the morphological features of placentae both gross and microscopic in normal pregnancy, preeclampsia, and eclampsia. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 placentae were collected; of these, 50 belonged to normal pregnancy, 50 belonged to pre-eclamptic women, and 50 were from patients of eclampsia. Results: Placental trimmed weight was seen to be decreased in patients of preeclampsia and eclampsia. Placental infarcts were more commonly seen in the diseased group and they were more centrally located. Hypertrophy of the spiral arterioles was observed in the decidual portion found in placental disc and membranes. Distal villous hypoplasia was also frequently seen in the diseased group. Fetal membranes were thickened and showed infarcts in preeclampsia and eclampsia. Conclusions: Morphological features seen in eclamptic placentae were similar but exaggerated compared to preeclampsia. In conclusion, the pathological changes were found to be more severe and frequent in preeclampsia and eclampsia, but more so in eclamptic placentae as compared with placenta of normal pregnancy. CD56 immunomarker was also used to identify NK cells. They were found to be present only in the diseased group and were located in the decidual portion of the basal plate, implicating their role in the development of the disease.

Adolescent , Adult , CD56 Antigen/analysis , Eclampsia/pathology , Female , Histocytochemistry , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Microscopy , Placenta/pathology , Pre-Eclampsia/pathology , Pregnancy , Young Adult
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211047


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a home based exercise program for patients with stomach cancer who were undergoing oral chemotherapy. METHODS: The home-based exercise program was developed from the study findings of Winningham (1990) and data from the Korea Athletic Promotion Association (2007). The home-based exercise program consisted of 8 weeks of individual exercise education and exercise adherence strategy. Participants were 24 patients with stomach cancer who were undergoing oral chemotherapy following surgery in 2007 or 2008 at a university hospital in Seoul. Patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (11) or control group (13). The effects of the home-based exercise program were measured by level of cancer related fatigue, NK cell ratio, anxiety, and quality of life. Data were analyzed using SPSS/WIN 13.0 version. RESULTS: The degree of cancer related fatigue and anxiety in the experimental group decreased compared to the control group. The NK cell ratio and the degree of quality of life of experimental group increased while that of the control group decreased. CONCLUSION: This study result indicate the importance of exercise and provide empirical evidence for continuation of safe exercise for patients with cancer during their chemotherapy.

Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Anxiety , Exercise Therapy , Fatigue , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Program Evaluation , Quality of Life , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome