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An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 79(1): 87-95, Mar. 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-445588


Rhodnius prolixus Malpighian tubules (MTs) are a good model for fluid and ion secretion studies in view of the dramatic postprandial diuresis, which follows its massive blood meals. Ingestion of a blood meal equals to 10-12 times their initial body mass, leads to rapid activation of high output by excretory system, which eliminates 40-50 percent of the fluid mass. Secretion of ions and water is stimulated 1000-fold by serotonin and diuretic hormone. These hormones cooperate synergistically to activate adenylate cyclase activity from MTs cells, which increase the level of intracellular cAMP. The anti-diuretic hormones have also an important role in the fluid maintenance of Rhodnius prolixus. Several hours after insect feeding occurs a reduction in urine flow, that has been thought to result from a decreased diuretic hormone release or from a novel mechanism of anti-diuresis involving insect cardioacceleratory peptide 2b (CAP2b) and cyclic GMP. In this article it is discussed how the hormone regulation of fluid transport is done in Rhodnius prolixus MTs.

Os túbulos de Malpighi (TMs) de Rhodnius prolixus são reconhecidos por serem excelentes modelos para o estudo da secreção de fluidos e íons devido a grande diurese que ocorre quando esses animais se alimentam de sangue. O inseto, após alimentação, pode aumentar seu peso corporal inicial em até 10-12 vezes, o que leva a rápida ativação do sistema excretor, que elimina 40-50 por cento do fluido corporal. A secreção de íons e água é estimulada 1000 vezes pela serotonina e pelos hormônios diuréticos. Esses hormônios agem sinergicamente ativando a adenil ciclase das células dos TMs, aumentando os níveis intracelulares de AMPc. Os hormônios anti-diuréticos também têm um importante papel na manutenção dos fluídos corporais do Rhodnius prolixus. Várias horas após a alimentação do inseto ocorre uma redução do fluxo urinário, o que foi sugerido ser decorrente da diminuição da liberação dos hormônios diuréticos ou da anti-diurese envolvendo o peptídeo cardioaceleratório 2b (CAP2b) e o GMPc. Neste artigo é discutida a regulação hormonal do transporte de fluido nos MTs de Rhodnius prolixus.

Animals , Diuresis/physiology , Insect Hormones/metabolism , Malpighian Tubules/physiology , Neuropeptides/metabolism , Rhodnius/physiology , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/metabolism , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Ion Transport/physiology , Kinins/metabolism , Malpighian Tubules/metabolism , Rhodnius/metabolism , Serotonin/metabolism
Biol. Res ; 32(2/3): 63-76, 1999. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-256395


Vasopressin and bradykinin are two of the most important peptides in regulating vascular tone, water, and ionic balance in the body, adn thus they play a key role in controlling blood pressure. In addition to being a potent vasoconstrictor, Vasopressin also has an antidiuretic activity in the kidney, whereas kinins regulate renal blood flow in addition to their vasodilatory and natriuretic activity. We review here the primary evidence for the localization of the vasopressin and kinin receptors and their role in ionic and water regulation in the kidney.

Humans , Animals , Arginine Vasopressin/physiology , Kidney Tubules/metabolism , Receptors, Bradykinin/physiology , Receptors, Vasopressin/physiology , Kallikrein-Kinin System/physiology , Kinins/metabolism , Potassium/metabolism , Sodium/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 27(8): 1995-2011, Aug. 1994. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-143628


The vascular itself, through a complex interplay of endocrine, neurocrine and autoparacrine mechanisms, plays an active role in vascular homeostasis. The endothelial cell senses humoral and hemodynamic changes and respondes by secreting a variety of metabolically active substances that act locally causing either vasodilatation or vasoconstriction. Kallikrein (KK) and the nRNA for KK are present in arteries and veins. Vascular KK releases Kinins from kininogen which circulate in plasma and is also present in vascular tissue. Vascular-derived kinins induce vasodilatation through the release of endothelial compounds ( prostacyclin, EDRFs and cytochrome P-450). Disturbance in the delicate balance between vasodilators and vasoconstrictiors may play a role in the development of hypertension. Vascular kallikrein (VKK) was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated after 2 weeks of development of renovascular and mineralocorticoid hypertension, and blood pressure was only slightly elevated. However, VKK decreased in both experimental models when blood pressure was incresed. It is possible that the increase in VKK in the early stages resulted in incresead local vasodilatory activity, thus counteracting the rise in blood pressure. As hypertension developed, KK was significantly decreased in arteries. The decrease in arterial KK during established hypertension is most likely secondary to high blood pressure....

Rats , Humans , Animals , Kinins/metabolism , Muscle Tonus/physiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Kallikrein-Kinin System/physiology