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1.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 757-762, jan.-dez. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1222817

ABSTRACT

Objective:To identify the prevalence of klebsiella pneumoniae and to analyze the factors related to the infection by this bacterium in a private hospital in northeastern Brazil. Method: descriptive retrospective documentary study, carried out with patients who developed infection in the year 2017 (n: 64). Sociodemographic and infection information was collected. The data was processed in SPSS 20.0. The project was approved by the ethics committee. Results: the most prevalent topographic site was the urinary tract (34; 56.7%). the main risk factor for triggering klebsiella pneumoniae infection was the use of mechanical ventilation, presenting a risk of 43.8% for the appearance of infections by this microorganism. Higher resistance was found for the piperacillin / tazobactam 52 antimicrobial (82.5%). Conclusion: because of the high resistance to antibiotics and the great potential of klebsiella contamination, measures should be taken to minimize the high level of contamination and, especially, the negative prognosis for the patient


Objetivo: Identificar a prevalência de Klebsiella pneumoniae e analisar os fatores relacionados à infecção por essa bactéria em hospital privado do nordeste brasileiro. Método: estudo descritivo retrospectivo documental, realizado com pacientes que desenvolveram infecção no ano de 2017 (n:64). Coletou-se informações sociodemográficas e referentes a infecção. Os dados foram processados no SPSS 20.0. O projeto foi aprovado pelo comitê de ética. Resultados: o sítio topográfico mais prevalente foi o trato urinário (34;56,7%). o principal fator de risco para desencadear infecção por Kebsiella pneumoniae foi a utilização de ventilação mecânica, apresentando risco de 43,8% para o aparecimento de infecções por esse microrganismo. Maior resistência foi encontrada para o antimicrobiano piperacilina/tazobactam 52 (82,5%). Conclusão: pela alta resistência aos antibióticos e o grande potencial de contaminação da klebsiella, medidas devem ser adotadas para minimizar o alto nível de contaminação e, principalmente do prognóstico negativo para paciente


Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia de klebsiella pneumoniae y analizar los factores relacionados con la infección por esta bacteria en un hospital privado en el noreste de Brasil. Método: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, realizado con pacientes que desarrollaron infección en el año 2017 (n: 64). Se recogió información sociodemográfica y de infección. Los datos fueron procesados en SPSS 20.0. El proyecto fue aprobado por el comité de ética. Resultados: el sitio topográfico más prevalente fue el tracto urinario (34; 56,7%). El principal factor de riesgo para desencadenar la infección por Klebsiella pneumoniae fue el uso de ventilación mecánica, que presenta un riesgo del 43.8% por la aparición de infecciones por este microorganismo. Se encontró una mayor resistencia para el antimicrobiano piperacilina / tazobactam 52 (82.5%). Conclusión: debido a la alta resistencia a los antibióticos y al gran potencial de contaminación por klebsiella, se deben tomar medidas para minimizar el alto nivel de contaminación y, especialmente, el pronóstico negativo para el paciente


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Piperacillin/therapeutic use , Urinary Tract/microbiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Hospitals, Private , Tazobactam/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200064, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136871

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection lacks treatment options and is associated with prolonged hospital stays and high mortality rates. The production of carbapenemases is one of the most important factors responsible for this multi-resistance phenomenon. METHODS: In the present study, we analyzed the presence of genes encoding carbapenemases in K. pneumoniae isolates circulating in one of the public hospitals in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. We also determined the best combination of drugs that display in vitro antimicrobial synergy. First, 147 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were validated for the presence of blaKPC, bla GES, bla NDM, bla SPM, bla IMP, bla VIM, and bla OXA-48 genes using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Thereafter, using two isolates (97 and 102), the role of double and triple combinational drug therapy as a treatment option was analyzed. RESULTS: Seventy-four (50.3%) isolates were positive for bla NDM, eight (5.4%) for bla KPC, and one (1.2%) for both bla NDM and bla KPC. In the synergy tests, double combinations were better than triple combinations. Polymyxin B and amikacin for isolate 97 and polymyxin B coupled with meropenem for isolate 102 showed the best response. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians in normal practice use multiple drugs to treat infections caused by multi-resistant microorganism; however, in most cases, the benefit of the combinations is unknown. In vitro synergistic tests, such as those described herein, are important as they might help select an appropriate multi-drug antibiotic therapy and a correct dosage, ultimately reducing toxicities and the development of antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics
3.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 9(4): 281-286, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152242

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e objetivos: Infecções Relacionadas à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS) causadas por bacilos Gram negativos multirresistentes (BGN-MDR) são consideradas um problema de saúde pública e um impacto nas taxas de mortalidade nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o perfil fenotípico de resistência à colistina e à tigeciclina, consideradas como último recurso terapêutico aos BGN-MDR. Métodos: Os dados foram coletados nas fichas de busca ativa do serviço de controle de infecções e prontuários médicos de pacientes internados em duas UTIs de um hospital público de Joinville, entre janeiro de 2016 e junho de 2017. Resultados: Ocorreram 256 IRAS por BGN, acometendo principalmente o gênero masculino (62%), com mediana de idade de 65 anos. Entre os BGN, 37% expressaram MDR; sendo as espécies mais frequentes: Klebsiella pneumoniae e (47%), Acinetobacter baumannii (23%) e Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (11%). A resistência de BGN-MDR à colistina e tigeciclina foi de 5% e de 12%, respectivamente; 5% dos isolados foram resistentes aos dois antibióticos. A taxa de óbito entre os pacientes com IRAS por BGN-MDR resistentes à colistina foi mais alta (60%) que aquelas à tigeciclina (45%). Conclusão: K. pneumoniae e A. baumannii produtores de carbapenemases, resistentes a colistina e tigeciclina prevaleceram entre os BGN-MDR, e estiveram associadas a maioria dos óbitos. Essas observações, junto com o alto uso de carbapenêmicos na terapia empírica, mostra a necessidade do uso racional de antimicrobianos.(AU)


Background and objectives: Healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB-MDR) are considered a public health problem and have an impact on mortality rates in Intensive Care Units (ICU). The aim of this study was to verify the phenotypic profile of resistance to colistin and tigecycline, considered as the last antimicrobial choice to treat BGNMDR infections. Methods: Data were collected on the active search records of the infection control service and medical records of patients admitted to two ICUs at a public hospital in Joinville between January 2016 and June 2017. Results: There were 256 HAIs caused by GNB, mainly affecting males (62%), with a median age of 65 years. Among GNBs, 37% expressed MDR; the most frequent species were: Klebsiella pneumoniae (47%), Acinetobacter baumannii (23%) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (11%). The resistance of GNB-MDR to colistin and tigecycline was 5% and 12%, respectively; 5% of the isolates were resistant to both antibiotics. The death rate among patients with HAIs caused by colistin-resistant GNB-MDR was higher (60%) than those to tigecycline (45%). Conclusion: Carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii, resistant to colistin and tigecycline, prevailed among GNB-MDRs, and were associated with most deaths. These observations, coupled with the high use of carbapenems in empirical therapy, show the need for rational use of antimicrobials.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: Las Infección nosocomial (IHs) causadas por bacilos Gram negativos multirresistentes (BGN-MDR) se consideran un problema de salud pública y un impacto en las tasas de mortalidad en las Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar el perfil fenotípico de resistencia a la colistina ya la tigeciclina, consideradas como último recurso terapéutico a los BGN-MDR. Métodos: Los datos fueron recolectados en las fichas de búsqueda activa del servicio de control de infecciones y prontuarios médicos de pacientes internados en dos UTIs de un hospital público de Joinville, entre enero de 2016 y junio de 2017. Resultados: Ocurrieron 256 IHs por BGN, que afectan principalmente al género masculino (62%), con mediana de edad de 65 años. Entre los BGN, el 37% expresó MDR; siendo las especies más frecuentes: Klebsiella pneumoniae (47%), Acinetobacter baumannii (23%) y Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (11%). La resistencia de BGN-MDR a la colistina y tigeciclina fue del 5% y del 12%, respectivamente; 5% de los aislados fueron resistentes a los dos antibióticos. La tasa de muerte entre los pacientes con IH causadas por los BGN-MDR resistentes la colistina fue más alta (60%) que aquellas a tigeciclina (45%). Conclusión: K. pneumoniae y A. baumannii productoras de carbapenemases, resistentes la colistina y la tigeciclina, fueron más frecuentes entre los BGN-MDR y su asociación estuvo presente en la mayoría de las muertes. Estas observaciones, junto con el alto uso de carbapenems en la terapia empírica, muestran la necesidad de un uso racional de los antimicrobianos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Colistin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Tigecycline/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Colistin/therapeutic use , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/drug effects , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Tigecycline/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics , Hospitalization , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180266, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055379

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phytochemical content of plant extracts can be used effectively to reduce the metal ions to nanoparticles in one-step green synthesis process. In this study, six plant extracts were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Biologically synthesized AgNPs was characterized using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The individual and combined effects of AgNPs and tetracycline against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae were assessed. Ginger, onion and sidr extracts supported AgNPs formation while arak, garlic and mint extracts failed to convert the silver ions to AgNPs. The present findings revealed significant differences between the tested plant extracts in supporting AgNPs synthesis. AgNPs synthesized by ginger showed the highest individual and combined activity against tested strains followed by AgNPs prepared by sidr then that synthesized by onion. AgNPs significantly enhanced tetracycline activity (p≤0.05) against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. The results of this study demonstrated that the combination of tetracycline and biologically synthesized AgNPs presented a useful therapeutically method for the treatment of bacterial infection and counterattacking bacterial resistance.


Subject(s)
Silver/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Tetracycline/biosynthesis , Plant Extracts/biosynthesis , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission/instrumentation , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , Spectrophotometers/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180502, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041563

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Plant products are sources for drug development against multidrug resistant bacteria. METHODS The antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVeo) against carbapenem-resistant strains was assessed by disk-diffusion, microdilution (REMA-Resazurin Microtiter Assay), and time kill assays. RESULTS Carbapenemase production was confirmed for all strains. OVeo exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.059% v/v for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens, and of 0.015 % v/v for Acinetobacter baumannii. A decrease in cell count was observed after a 4 h treatment. CONCLUSIONS OVeo antimicrobial effect was rapid and consistent, making it a candidate for developing alternative therapeutic options against carbapenem-resistant strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Serratia marcescens/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Origanum/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Serratia marcescens/growth & development , Bacterial Proteins , beta-Lactamases , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Gram-Negative Bacteria/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180352, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041560

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The emergence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) is concernig because it reduces the antibiotic therapy options for bacterial infections. METHODS: Resistant and virulent genes from an isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae derived from a patient with sepsis in a hospital in Recife-PE, Brazil, were investigated using PCR and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: bla NDM-1, aac(6')-Ib-cr and acrB resistance genes, and cps and mrkD virulence genes were detected. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first report on bla NDM-1 in Recife-PE. This detection alerts researchers to the need to control the spread of bla NDM-1 resistance gene by this bacterium in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Virulence/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sepsis/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190089B, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041519

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The relationships between phagocytosis, and mucoid phenotype, plasmid profile and virulence, and resistance genetic characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates were evaluated. METHODS Thirty isolates were used to determine the mucoid aspect. Four were selected for analysis of phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. RESULTS Thirty percent of the samples presented the mucoid phenotype. The phagocytosis rate ranged from 21.5% to 43.43%. Phagocytosis was not correlated with the plasmid profile, but was apparently correlated with mucoid phenotype and antibiotic susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: Several virulence factors act in parallel in K. pneumoniae to impair host defense.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phagocytosis/genetics , Virulence/genetics , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phagocytosis/physiology , Phenotype , Plasmids , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 885-890, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In this study, the performance of the "RESIST-3 O.K.N. K-SeT" (Coris BioConcept, Gembloux, Belgium) immunochromatographic assay was evaluated in 132 Klebsiella pneumoniae comprising 102 carbapenem resistant and 30 carbapenem susceptible isolates. Genotypically known isolates of Gram negative bacteria (n = 22) including various species were also tested by the assay as controls. The isolates tested by the immunochromatographic assay and also were run PCR for bla KPC, bla IMP, bla VIM, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48. The rates of bla NDM, bla OXA-48, and bla KPC in carbapenem resistant isolates were found at 52.9%, 39.2%, and 2.0%, respectively. Both bla NDM and bla OXA-48 were found in six (5.9%) isolates. The results of the assay showed 100% concordance with those obtained by PCR in 132 K. pneumoniae. The agreement between the two methods was found to be identical at the isolate level. The assay also correctly detected all genotypically known isolates of Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, K. pneumoniae carrying bla KPC, bla NDM, and/or bla OXA-48. On the other hand, the assay did not exhibit any cross-reaction in control isolates harboring bla IMP and bla VIM. We conclude that the RESIST-3 O.K.N. K-SeT is a reliable, rapid, and user friendly test and we recommend it for routine diagnostic laboratories.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , beta-Lactamases/analysis , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Immunoassay/methods , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Turkey , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
10.
West Indian med. j ; 67(4): 344-349, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045862

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the role of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from south-western Nigeria. Methods: Twenty-seven carbapenem-resistant isolates that were found to be non-carbapenemase producers (15 Escherichia coli, 9 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were further studied. These isolates were subjected to analysis including phenotypic and genotypic detection of various β-lactamases, efflux activity, outer membrane protein, plasmids replicon typing, detection of transferable genes and resistances and typing using random amplified polymorphic DNA tests. Results: No isolates demonstrated de-repression of efflux, but all showed either complete loss or reduced production of outer membrane proteins. Transconjugants from these strains contained various genes including plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. All the transconjugants carried the blaCTX-M-15 gene. The transconjugants had varying minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems ranging from 0.03 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Varying resistances to other antimicrobial agents were also transferred with the plasmids. The donor isolates were not clonally related by molecular typing. Conclusion: Resistance to carbapenem antibiotics in this sample was not mediated only by carbapenemases but also by production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (largely CTX-M-15), accompanied by protein loss. This was an important mechanism underpinning carbapenem resistance in these clinical isolates of various species.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Determinar el papel de las betalactamasas de espectro extendido en la resistencia al carbapenem en las bacterias gramnegativas en Nigeria. Métodos: Veintisiete aislados resistentes al carbapenem que fueron hallados productores de no carbapenemasas (15 Escherichia coli, 9 Klebsiella pneumoniae, y 3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) fueron estudiados con mayor profundidad. Estos aislados fueron sometidos a análisis incluyendo la detección fenotípica y genotípica de varias betalactamasas, la actividad de eflujo, las porinas de la membrana externa, la tipificación del replicón plasmídico, la detección de genes transferibles y resistencias y tipificación usando pruebas de ADN polimórficas amplificadas aleatorias. Resultados: Ninguno de los aislamientos mostró desrepresión de eflujo, pero todos demostraron la pérdida completa o la producción reducida de porinas externas de la membrana. Los transconjugantes de estas cepas contenían varios genes incluyendo resistencia a la quinolona mediada por plásmidos y betalactamasas de espectro extendido. Todos los transconjugantes portaban el gen blaCTX-M-15. Los transconjugantes tenían diversas concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas de carbapenemas que oscilaban entre 0.03 μg/ml y 8 μg/ml. Varias resistencias a otros agentes antimicrobianos fueron también transferidas con los plásmidos. Los aislamientos del donante no estuvieron relacionados clonalmente por tipificación molecular. Conclusión: La resistencia al antibiótico carbapenem en esta muestra no fue mediada solamente por las carbapenemasas, sino también por la producción de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (en gran parte CTX-M-15), acompañado por pérdida de porina. Éste era un mecanismo importante que sustentaba la resistencia al carbapenem en estos aislados clínicos de varias especies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Genotype , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology , Nigeria
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 676-679, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041483

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli is a health threat, limiting therapeutic options and increasing morbimortality rates. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of 1805 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected from Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria between January 2015 and December 2016. RESULTS: Resistance to colistin (239.3%), meropenem (74.2%), ciprofloxacin (68%), gentamicin (35.1%), tigecycline (33.9%), imipenem (29.7%), ertapenem (26.8%), and amikacin (21.4%) was found increased. CONCLUSIONS: Infection control measures in the hospitals are necessary for reducing the spread of multidrug-resistant microorganisms and preventing efficacy loss of these drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Middle Aged
12.
West Indian med. j ; 67(3): 226-228, July-Sept. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045848

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The main mechanism of quinolone resistance in Klebsiella (K) pneumoniae is caused by mutation of porin-related proteins and efflux pumps. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant K pneumoniae in burns patients and to understand the role of the AcrAB multidrug efflux system on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin. For this reason, 52 K pneumoniae samples were collected from burns patients and evaluated for the mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance. The results demonstrated that 40 isolates of K pneumoniae were ciprofloxacin-resistant and 35 showed the mutation on gyrA locus. By inhibition of the efflux system, the MIC yield showed a significant decrease. Therefore, it could be concluded that the high rate of mutation on the gyrA locus in combination with quinolone resistance was responsible for ciprofloxacin resistance and by inhibition of AcrA, the resistance rate showed a significant decrease in K pneumoniae isolated from burns patients.


RESUMEN El principal mecanismo de resistencia a la quinolona en las Klebsiella (K) Pneumoniae tiene como causa la mutación de las porinas y las bombas de eflujo. Este estudio tuvo por objetivo investigar la prevalencia de las K pneumoniae resistentes a la ciprofloxacina en pacientes con quemaduras, así como entender el papel del sistema de eflujo multidroga AcrAB en la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) de la ciprofloxacina. Por esta razón, se recogieron 52 muestras de K pneumoniae de pacientes con quemaduras, a fin de evaluar el mecanismo de resistencia a la ciprofloxacina. Los resultados mostraron que 40 aislados de K pneumoniae eran resistentes a la ciprofloxacina y 35 mostraron la mutación en el locus gyrA. Con la inhibición del sistema de eflujo, el rendimiento de CIM tuvo una disminución significativa. Por lo tanto, se pudo concluir que la alta tasa de mutación en el locus gyrA en combinación con la resistencia a la quinolona era responsable de la resistencia a la ciprofloxacina, y por la inhibición de AcrA, la tasa de resistencia mostró una disminución significativa en las K pneumoniae aisladas de los pacientes con quemaduras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Burns/microbiology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 533-536, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041470

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION This aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of fractions and isolates of Maytenus guianensis, a plant species used in Amazonian folk medicine. METHODS A disk diffusion technique was used to investigate the antibacterial potential. RESULTS The hexanic fractions and tingenone B isolate showed inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate the antibacterial potential of this species and will enable future studies to identify novel therapeutic alternatives from this species.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Maytenus/chemistry , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(3): 239-242, May-June 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974204

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Febrile Neutropenia represents a medical emergency and the use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is essential for a better outcome. Although being time-consuming, conventional cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility tests remain the golden standard practices for microbiology identification. Final reports are typically available within several days. Faster diagnostic tools, such as species identification trough Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) and molecular techniques might help to shorten time to diagnostic and also guide definitive therapy in this scenario. Here we present a case in which the use of a diagnostic molecular workflow combining MALDI-TOF and real-time PCR for relevant genes codifying antibiotic resistant integrated with instant communication report, led to a tailored and more appropriate treatment in a patient presenting with febrile neutropenia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ceftazidime/administration & dosage , Azabicyclo Compounds/administration & dosage , Febrile Neutropenia/microbiology , Febrile Neutropenia/drug therapy , beta-Lactamase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Drug Combinations , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 32: 41-46, Mar. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022633

ABSTRACT

Background: In view of the current low efficacy of bacterial infection treatment the common trend towards searching for antibiotic systems exhibiting synergistic action is well justified. Among carbapenem analogues a particularly interesting option is provided by combinations of clavulanic acid with meropenem, which have proven to be especially effective. Results: Determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) along with the method based on flow cytometry constitutes an important tool in the identification of bacterial sensitivity to active substances. Within this study the inhibitory effect of doripenem, clavulanic acid and the doripenem-clavulanate acid system was analyzed in relation to such bacteria as Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium pasteurianum, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter aerogenes. The lowest MIC, amounting to 0.03 µg/mL, was observed for the doripenem-clavulanate acid system in the case of E. coli ATCC 25922. In turn, the lowest MIC for doripenem applied alone was recorded for K. pneumoniae ATCC 31488, for which it was 0.1 µg/mL. The strain which proved to be most resistant both to doripenem and the doripenem-clavulanate acid system, was A. baumannii, with MIC of 32 µg/mL (clinical isolate) and 16 µg/mL (reference strain). Cytometric analysis for P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and S. aureus ATCC 25923 showed changes in cells following exposure to limiting concentrations of the active substance. Conclusions: Analysis of MIC supplies important information concerning microbial sensitivity to active substances, mainly in terms of limiting concentrations causing mortality or vitality of the tested species, which is essential when selecting appropriate antibiotic therapy.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Clavulanic Acids/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Salmonella/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Clostridium/drug effects , Drug Interactions , Flow Cytometry , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects
16.
Medwave ; 18(2): e7191, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-912086

ABSTRACT

Las carbapenemasas son uno de los mecanismos enzimáticos de resistencia antimicrobiana, que compromete la mayor parte de los antibióticos betalactámicos. Por lo general, su producción se debe al uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos. A nivel mundial, la expansión de este mecanismo de resistencia es inminente y las medidas de control son limitadas. Con el objeto de discutir los problemas relacionados a este mecanismo emergente de resistencia, reportamos un caso de Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de carbapenemasas en Huancayo, la Región de la Sierra Central de Perú.


Carbapenemases are one of the major mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance, usually due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. The expansion of this mechanism of resistance at world level is imminent and control measures are limited. In the region of the Central Sierra of Peru - Huancayo, we report a case of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, with the purpose of discussing the problems related to this emerging mechanism of antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Peru , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 239-245, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959437

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La emergencia de Klebsiella productora de carbapenemasas resistente a colistín representa un desafío clínico y un problema emergente. Objetivo: Evaluar la mortalidad intrahospitalaria y sus potenciales factores de riesgo en pacientes internados con infecciones clínicas por Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de carbapenemasas (KPC) resistente a colistín. Material y Método: Realizamos un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo, incluyendo pacientes adultos admitidos a un hospital universitario de tercer nivel en Buenos Aires, infectados por KPC resistente a colistín. El evento primario considerado fue la mortalidad intrahospitalaria. Se utilizaron modelos generalizados lineales para evaluar potenciales predictores de dicho evento. Resultados: En total, se identificaron 18 pacientes hospitalizados que presentaron una infección clínica por esta bacteria durante el año 2016 y que fueron incluidos en el análisis final. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en esta cohorte fue de 38,9%. La presencia de bacteriemia, la injuria renal aguda al momento del diagnóstico y la presencia de shock séptico se asociaron a la ocurrencia del evento primario. Conclusión: El desarrollo de infecciones clínicamente relevantes por KPC resistente a colistín en pacientes internados es frecuente y presenta una elevada mortalidad. En nuestra cohorte, la presencia de shock e injuria renal aguda al momento del diagnóstico se asociaron a un incrementado riesgo de mortalidad intrahospitalaria. Futuras investigaciones deberían corroborar estos hallazgos e investigar factores adicionales que permitan identificar tempranamente a aquellos pacientes que presentarán eventos desfavorables.


ABSTRACT Background: The emergence of colistin resistant carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella represents a therapeutic challenge and a worldwide problem. Aim: To estimate the in-hospital mortality and identify the associated risk factors among patients with colistin-resistant carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC) that present with a clinical infection. Methods: We carried a retrospective cohort study, including adult patients infected with colistin-resistant KPC hospitalized at a tertiary teaching hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina during the year 2016. The main outcome was in-hospital mortality. We used generalized lineal models to evaluate potential predictors of mortality. Results: 18 patients that developed a colistin-resistant KPC clinical infection were identified and included in the final analysis. In-hospital mortality in this cohort was 38.9%. The presence of bacteremia, acute renal injury at the time of diagnosis and septic shock were associated with the main outcome. Conclusions: Infections due to colistin-resistant KPC among in-hospital patients was frequent and was associated with high mortality rate. In our cohort, both shock and acute kidney injury were associated with a higher likelihood of poor outcomes. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the role of these and others risk factors so as to aid in the early detection of high risk patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Klebsiella Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Colistin , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Argentina , Klebsiella Infections/enzymology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 93-100, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974332

ABSTRACT

Abstract Klebsiella pneumoniae is important human and animal pathogen that causes a wide spectrum of infections. In this study, isolates from cattle nasal swabs samples were identified by 16S rRNA, and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence gene carrying levels, and multilocus sequence typing of K. pneumoniae isolates. 33 isolates of K. pneumoniae were isolated and identified in 213 nasal swabs samples, of which 12 were hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains. Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases genes were found in 93.4% of the strains. Of which, TEM was the most prevalent (93.4%), followed by CTX-M and SHV were 57.6% and 39.4%, respectively. A main mutation pattern of quinoloneresistance-determining region, Thr83-Ieu and Asp87-Asn in gyrA and Ser87-Ile in parC, was detected in 33 K. pneumoniae isolates. All the isolates harbored at least two virulence factor genes, with ureA (97.0%) and wabG (91.0%) exhibiting high carriage rates in 33 K. pneumoniae isolates. MLST revealed 7 sequence types, of which 3 STs (2541, 2581 and 2844) were newly assigned. Using eBURST, ST2844 and ST2541 were assigned to new clonal complex 2844. Our study provides evidence and biological characteristics of K. pneumoniae isolates from cattle upper respiratory tract in Southwest China.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Klebsiella Infections/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Virulence Factors/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , China , Virulence Factors/metabolism , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/metabolism
19.
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(1): 13-18, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899650

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción La resistencia a antibióticos es un problema mundial. En los pacientes que requieren cirugía de urgencia, los antibióticos son un apoyo importante concomitante al acto quirúrgico. Objetivo Analizar los cultivos de líquido peritoneal obtenidos de pacientes operados por patología quirúrgica abdominal de urgencia. Materiales y Métodos Se realiza una cohorte prospectiva de los pacientes operados de urgencia. Se tomó cultivo de líquido peritoneal y se procesó según técnica estandarizada. Resultados Se encontró un 39,4% de cultivos positivos. E. coli fue el germen más frecuente. Destacan 5 cultivos positivos para P. aeruginosa. Existe un 25% de resistencia a ampicilina/sulbactam y 19% a quinolonas para E. coli. Conclusión La resistencia encontrada fue menor a lo reportado en la literatura, pero aún destacable. El conocimiento del perfil de bacterias y sus resistencias a antimicrobianos son importantes para las políticas hospitalarias locales de uso racional de antibióticos.


Background Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem. In patients requiring emergency surgery, antibiotics are an important assistance additional to surgical intervention. Objective Analize peritoneal fluid cultures obtaines from patients who underwent emergency surgery. Methods A prospective cohort of emergency abdominal surgical patients were enrolled. Peritoneal fluid cultures were taken and processed according to standarized technique. Results A 39.4% of positive cultures was found. E. coli was the most common bacteria identified. Five positive cultures for P. aeruginosa stand out. E. coli had 25% resistance to ampicillin/sulbactam and 19% for quinolones. Conclusion Resistance found was lower than international reports, but still noteworthy. Knowledge of local bacteria profile and antimicrobial resistance is important for local antibiotic hospital policy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacteria/drug effects , Ascitic Fluid/microbiology , Abdomen/surgery , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Emergencies , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 329-331, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042647

ABSTRACT

Resumen Actualmente se recomienda el uso de cefazolina para determinar la susceptibilidad a cefalosporinas orales de primera generación en cepas de enterobacterias en ITU no complicada. Nuestro objetivo fue establecer la susceptibilidad a cefalosporinas orales en cepas urinarias según puntos de corte para cefalotina o cefazolina y la correlación de susceptibilidad entre cefazolina y cefadroxilo. Se estudió la concordancia entre cefalotina y cefazolina en 52 cepas por método de Kirby-Bauer y Vitek XL. En Escherichia coli fue de 0% para VitekXL y 50% para Kirby-Bauer. La concordancia entre cefazolina y cefadroxilo fue 95,6%. En el laboratorio debiera usarse cefazolina para determinar susceptibilidad a cefalosporinas orales de primera generación. La concordancia entre cefazolina y cefadroxilo sugiere que cefazolina podría predecir susceptibilidad para cefadroxilo.


Currently, the use of cefazolin is recommended to determine the susceptibility to first-generation oral cephalosporins in strains of enterobacteria in uncomplicated UTI. We determined susceptibility differences to oral cephalosporins in urinary strains according to cefazolin or cefalotin breakpoints and the correlation of susceptibility between cefazolin and cefadroxil. We studied 52 strains with cefalotin and cefazolin by disk-diffusion and MIC (Kirby-Bauer and Vitek XL) and a subgroup by disk-diffusion for cefadroxil. Agreement among different methods was 100% for K. pneumoniae and Proteus spp. In Escherichia coli, agreement for Vitek and disk-diffusion were 0 and 50% respectively. Susceptibility to first generation cephalosporins in E. coli should be determined with cefazolin. Agreement between cefazolin and cefadroxil suggests that cefazolin could also predict the susceptibility of cefadroxil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Proteus/drug effects , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Cefadroxil/pharmacology , Cefazolin/pharmacology , Cephalosporins/classification , Cephalothin/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/classification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects
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