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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-820820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Studies on oral health care in North Korea are being pursued in South Korea. However, the covertness of North Korea offers substantial resistance to the access of information from the country, including in the field of oral health care. In this study, we explored North Korea's oral health care policy and its status in the Kim Jong-Un Era.METHODS: We used existing information from Internet searches and also interviewed three health care professionals who had recently contact with North Korea.RESULTS: At present, there are four development policies of oral health care in North Korea: expansion of dental institutions and resource support, strengthening the prevention and treatment of dental diseases, improvement of dental prosthetics, and increasing the responsibility and role of the dental workforce. In addition, there has been an increasing interest in children's oral health with the development of a few programs.CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve overall oral health care, cooperation is required from North Korea in accessing relevant information in the field of children's oral health, dental prosthetics, and dental materials. For this to occur, there should be a preliminary trust building process between North Korea and South Korea as well as access to information from reliable sources.


Subject(s)
Access to Information , Delivery of Health Care , Democratic People's Republic of Korea , Dental Materials , Internet , Korea , Oral Health , Stomatognathic Diseases
2.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-820819

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the characteristics of Streptococcus mutans in the national culture collection from Korea. Twenty-nine (dental plaque, n=27; endodontic infections, n=1; blood, n=1) isolates were included in this study.METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the disk diffusion test. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), serotyping, and collagen-binding genes were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. A collagen-binding (to assess the adhesion properties) assay was performed. S. mutans demonstrated high susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Differences in collagen-binding abilities of the cnm-positive and -negative groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test (P<0.05).RESULTS: MLST analyses revealed 25 sequence types (STs), 17 of which (ST213-ST229) contained new alleles. The strains were classified into four serotypes with the c type encompassing 79.3% of all strains, while the e, f, and k types representing 6.9% each. Analysis of the cnm and cbm genes, which encode the two surface adhesin components of S. mutans, revealed three cnm-positive strains, each displaying greater adhesion ability than those of the cnm-negative strains.CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the presence of a wide variety of S. mutans genotypes in Korea. These findings may provide useful information regarding the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, such as dental caries.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteremia , Communicable Diseases , Dental Caries , Diffusion , Genotype , Inflammation , Korea , Molecular Epidemiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serogroup , Serotyping , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-820817

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between oral health-related quality of life and oral health-related self-efficacy in high school students.METHODS: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among high school students in Daegu, South Korea from November to December 2015, and the final data of 432 students were analyzed.RESULTS: Analysis of oral health-related self-efficacy in terms of general characteristics showed that both grade and income were significant factors (P<0.01). Furthermore, analysis of oral health-related quality of life in terms of general characteristics showed that academic achievement, father's educational level, and academic stress were significant factors (P<0.05). Correlation analyses of oral health-related quality of life with oral health-related self-efficacy revealed positive correlations with tooth brushing and ordinary oral health behavior. Regression analysis of oral health-related quality of life showed that father's educational level, oral health-related self-efficacy, academic stress, and academic achievement were influencing factors.CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that oral health-related self-efficacy may play a significant role in oral health-related quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Korea , Male , Oral Health , Quality of Life , Tooth
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-820816

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The decayed-missing-filled (DMFT) index is a representative oral health indicator. Prediction of DMFT index is an important basis for the development of public oral health care projects and strategies for caries prevention. In this study, we used data from the 2015 Korean children's oral health survey to predict DMFT index and caries risk groups using statistical techniques and four different machine-learning algorithms.METHODS: DMFT prediction models were constructed using multiple linear regression and four different machine-learning algorithms: decision tree regressor, decision tree classifier (DTC), random forest regressor, and random forest classifier (RFC). Thereafter, their accuracies were compared.RESULTS: For the DMFT predictive model, the prediction accuracy of multiple linear regression and RFC were 15.24% and 43.27%, respectively. The accuracy of DTC prediction was 2.84 times that of multiple linear regression. The important feature of the machine-learning model, which predicts DMFT index and the caries risk group, was the number of teeth with sealants.CONCLUSIONS: Using data from the 2015 Korean children's oral health survey, which is considered big data in the field of oral health survey in Korea, this study confirmed that machine-learning models are more useful than statistical models for predicting DMFT index and caries risk in 12-year-old children. Therefore, it is expected that the machine-learning model can be used to predict the DMFT score.


Subject(s)
Child , Decision Trees , Dental Caries , Forests , Humans , Korea , Linear Models , Machine Learning , Models, Statistical , Oral Health , Tooth
5.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-820815

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by a long progressive phase of neuronal changes, including accumulation of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, before the onset of observable symptoms. Many efforts have been made to develop a blood-based diagnostic method for AD by incorporating Aβ and tau as plasma biomarkers. As blood tests have the advantages of being highly accessible and low cost, clinical implementation of AD blood tests would provide preventative screening to presymptomatic individuals, facilitating early identification of AD patients and, thus, treatment development in clinical research. However, the low concentration of AD biomarkers in the plasma has posed difficulties for accurate detection, hindering the development of a reliable blood test. In this review, we introduce three AD blood test technologies emerging in South Korea, which have distinctive methods of heightening detection sensitivity of specific plasma biomarkers. We discuss in detail the multimer detection system, the self-standard analysis of Aβ biomarkers quantified by interdigitated microelectrodes, and a biomarker ratio analysis comprising Aβ and tau.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Biomarkers , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Korea , Mass Screening , Methods , Microelectrodes , Neurofibrillary Tangles , Neurons , Plasma , tau Proteins
6.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study presents a preliminary report on the chest radiographic and computed tomography (CT) findings of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia in Korea.MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of a multi-institutional collaboration coordinated by the Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology, we collected nine patients with COVID-19 infections who had undergone chest radiography and CT scans. We analyzed the radiographic and CT findings of COVID-19 pneumonia at baseline. Fisher's exact test was used to compare CT findings depending on the shape of pulmonary lesions.RESULTS: Three of the nine patients (33.3%) had parenchymal abnormalities detected by chest radiography, and most of the abnormalities were peripheral consolidations. Chest CT images showed bilateral involvement in eight of the nine patients, and a unilobar reversed halo sign in the other patient. In total, 77 pulmonary lesions were found, including patchy lesions (39%), large confluent lesions (13%), and small nodular lesions (48%). The peripheral and posterior lung fields were involved in 78% and 67% of the lesions, respectively. The lesions were typically ill-defined and were composed of mixed ground-glass opacities and consolidation or pure ground-glass opacities. Patchy to confluent lesions were primarily distributed in the lower lobes (p = 0.040) and along the pleura (p < 0.001), whereas nodular lesions were primarily distributed along the bronchovascular bundles (p = 0.006).CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pneumonia in Korea primarily manifested as pure to mixed ground-glass opacities with a patchy to confluent or nodular shape in the bilateral peripheral posterior lungs. A considerable proportion of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia had normal chest radiographs.


Subject(s)
Cooperative Behavior , Coronavirus , Humans , Korea , Lung , Pleura , Pneumonia , Radiography , Radiography, Thoracic , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 432-440, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although dietary management is strongly recommended in patients with hypertension, little is known about how many manage their diet and follow the guidelines for hypertension. We investigated the prevalence of dietary management among adults with known hypertension and evaluated their compliance to the dietary guidelines.METHODS: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2016 were used. Among 15,870 adults aged 30–79 years, 4,162 reported a physician-diagnosed hypertension. Diet management behavior was defined by self-report response. Actual dietary intake was assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary quality was evaluated using the Korean Healthy Eating Index (KHEI).RESULTS: Among adults with hypertension, 28.0% reported that they were managing their diet. Those with hypertension consumed significantly less dietary sodium (p value<0.01), but also less potassium (p value<0.01), resulting in no difference of sodium-to-potassium ratio compared to those without hypertension (p value=0.66). Among those with hypertension, diet-managing adults had better KHEI score (66.9, p value<0.01) and consumed less sodium (3,354.3 mg, p value<0.01) than not-managing adults (63.6 score and 3,554.5 mg, respectively). However, total KHEI score was rather lower in those with hypertension (p value<0.01) than those without hypertension and their sodium intake was still over the recommended amount.CONCLUSIONS: More than two-thirds of Korean adults with hypertension did not manage their diet in daily life. More effective strategies are needed to increase the level of compliance with dietary recommendations for people with high blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Adult , Compliance , Diet Therapy , Diet , Eating , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Nutrition Policy , Nutrition Surveys , Potassium , Prevalence , Self Care , Sodium , Sodium, Dietary
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816641

ABSTRACT

Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) continues to be a significant economic problem to the swine industry. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MH) are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against PRRSV and MH in the serum of sows and piglets from 89 domestic commercial pig farms by ELISA, and the presence of viral nucleic acids of PRRSV, including North American and European PRRS, and PCV2 was also investigated in the serum of sows and piglets from 89 domestic commercial pig farms by real-time PCR. In case of PRRSV, 78.7% (70/89) of sows were positive for PRRSV antibody, and 96.6% (86/89) of piglets were positive for PRRSV antibody. For MH, 76.4% (68/89) of sows showed positive for MH antibody. In the PRRSV viral nucleic acid detection experiment, 36.0% (32/89) of sows were positive for PRRSV nucleic acids, and virus nucleic acid was detected in 83.1% (74/89) of piglets. In case of virus type, both North American and European types were detected. In case of PCV2, 15.7% (14/89) of sows were positive for PCV2 nucleic acids. Conclusively, PCV2, PRRSV, and MH were widely distributed in pig farms in Korea. These prevalence data related with PRDC provides clinical information for vaccination strategy and development for the control of PRDC.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Antibodies , Circovirus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Korea , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Nucleic Acids , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Swine , Vaccination
9.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816634

ABSTRACT

In 2017, the first Korean nationwide data on serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, serum free thyroxine (fT4) levels, and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were published based on a population of 7,061 Koreans who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI. The mean TSH level was 2.16 mIU/L, with a reference interval of 0.59 to 7.03 mIU/L (men 2.09 mIU/L, women 2.24 mIU/L, P<0.001). A U-shaped association was found between serum TSH levels and age. The mean fT4 level was 1.25 ng/dL, and its reference interval was 0.92 to 1.60 ng/dL (men 1.29 ng/dL, women 1.20 ng/dL, P<0.0001). Serum fT4 levels decreased with age (P for trend <0.0001). Serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) was detected in 7.30% of participants (men 4.33%, women 10.62%). TPOAb titers tended to increase with age, and were higher in women than in men. The median UIC was 294 µg/L, and UIC showed a U-shaped relationship with age. According to the World Health Organization recommendations, only 23% of participants were in the adequate range of iodine intake, while 65% were in the above requirements or excessive, and 12% in insufficient. The prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in Koreans was 0.34% to 0.54% and 0.73% to 1.43%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Hypothyroidism , Iodide Peroxidase , Iodine , Korea , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , World Health Organization
10.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816633

ABSTRACT

The increased incidence of thyroid cancer is a worldwide phenomenon; however, the issue of overdiagnosis has been most prominent in South Korea. The age-standardized mortality rate of thyroid cancer in Korea steeply increased from 1985 to 2004 (from 0.17 per 100,000 to 0.85 per 100,000), and then decreased until 2015 to 0.42 per 100,000, suggesting that early detection reduced mortality. However, early detection of thyroid cancer may be cost-ineffective, considering its very high prevalence and indolent course. Therefore, risk stratification and tailored management are vitally important, but many prognostic markers can only be evaluated postoperatively. Discovery of preoperative marker(s), especially for small cancers, is the most important unmet clinical need for thyroid cancer. Herein, we discuss some such factors that we recently discovered. Another unmet clinical need is better treatment of radioiodine-refractory (RAIR) differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and undifferentiated cancers. Although sorafenib and lenvatinib are available, better drugs are needed. We found that phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, a critical enzyme for serine biosynthesis, could be a novel therapeutic target, and that the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio is a prognostic marker of survival in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma or RAIR DTC. Deeper insights are needed into tumor-host interactions in thyroid cancer to improve treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Incidence , Korea , Medical Overuse , Mortality , Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase , Prevalence , Prognosis , Serine , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
11.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816626

ABSTRACT

Korea is currently an aged society and is on the cusp of becoming a superaged society in a few years. The health burden of cardiovascular diseases increases with age, and the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, may be linked to increased population-level cardiovascular risk. In 2018, the prevalence of obesity in Korea was 35.7% (men, 45.4%; women, 26.5%) according to the Obesity Fact Sheet 2019, based on National Health Insurance Corporation medical checkup data. In 2016, the prevalence of diabetes was 14.4% in Koreans older than 30 years according to the Diabetes Fact Sheet published by the Korean Diabetes Association, based on data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence of hypertension in the total population of Korea in 2018 was 28.3% according to the Korean Hypertension Fact Sheet produced by the Korean Society of Hypertension. Lastly, the prevalence of dyslipidemia in 2018 was 40.5% according to the Dyslipidemia Fact Sheet published by the Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis. In this article, I would like to review the prevalence and current management of cardiovascular risk factors in Korea according to the fact sheets released by various associations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Atherosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , National Health Programs , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity , Prevalence , Risk Factors
12.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816625

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , Korea , Paraganglioma , Pheochromocytoma
13.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on the relationship between thyroid function and anemia in the euthyroid range are scarce. We aimed to evaluate the association between anemia and serum free thyroxine (fT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) in euthyroid adults.METHODS: Data on 5,352 participants aged ≥19 years were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015). Anemia was defined as hemoglobin (Hb) <13 and <12 g/dL for men and women, respectively.RESULTS: Overall, 6.1% of participants had anemia, and more women (9.9%) had anemia than men (2.8%, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, serum fT4 levels, but not TSH, were positively associated with serum Hb levels in both sexes (P<0.001, each). Serum Hb levels linearly reduced across decreasing serum fT4 quartile groups in both sexes (P<0.001, each). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, participants with low-normal fT4 had 4.4 (P=0.003) and 2.8 times (P<0.001) higher risk for anemia than those with high-normal fT4 among men and women, respectively. When participants were divided into two groups at 50 years of age, in younger participants, men and women with the first quartile were at higher risk of anemia than men with the second quartile (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; P=0.029) and women with the forth quartile (OR, 3.2; P<0.001), respectively. This association was not observed in older participants.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a low-normal level of serum fT4 was associated with a lower serum Hb level and a higher risk of anemia in euthyroid adults, especially in younger participants.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anemia , Female , Humans , Korea , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Nutrition Surveys , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
14.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare endocrine tumors originating from chromaffin cells. PPGLs are associated with a high mortality rate and several complications. To date, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on PPGLs in Asia. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and prognosis of PPGLs in Korea using nationwide data.METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Service Database, subjects with a principal diagnosis of PPGLs on two or more occasions between 2003 and 2014 who satisfied the operational definition of PPGLs were included. Incidence, prevalence, complications, metastasis, and mortality were investigated.RESULTS: In total, 1048 subjects with a mean age of 47.6±16.1 years were included. There was no sex preponderance. The overall prevalence of PPGLs was 2.13 per 100,000 persons, and the overall age-standardized incidence rate was 0.18 per 100,000 person-years. Malignant PPGLs accounted for 17.7% (185 of 1,048) of cases, and 94 subjects exhibited metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Among initially non-metastatic PPGLs, 9.5% (nine of 954) eventually metastasized after a mean duration of 78.1±41.4 months. The 5-year survival rates for non-metastatic and metastatic PPGLs at diagnosis were 97% and 84%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for covariates showed that metastatic PPGLs were associated with a 2.40-fold higher risk of mortality than non-metastatic PPGLs (95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.17; P=0.002).CONCLUSION: PPGLs are rare in Korea, and the prognosis of these endocrine tumors varies depending on whether they are benign or malignant. This epidemiological study paves the way for further research on PPGLs.


Subject(s)
Asia , Chromaffin Cells , Diagnosis , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Mortality , National Health Programs , Neoplasm Metastasis , Paraganglioma , Pheochromocytoma , Prevalence , Prognosis , Survival Rate
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid and accurate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is of primary importance for infection control and selection of anti-tuberculosis drugs. However, most clinical laboratories report MTB complex (MTC) without reporting MTB because MTC comprising MTB, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium microti, Mycobacterium caprae and Mycobacterium pinnipedii have 99.9% similarity at the nucleotide level and identical 16S rRNA sequences. This study was conducted to analyze the species frequency of MTC isolates obtained from clinical specimen.METHODS: Of 310 MTC isolates obtained from clinical samples in a tertiary care hospital from February 2017 to August 2018, MolecuTech Real TB-Taq (YD Diagnostics, Korea) real-time PCR was performed, specifically to detect MTB. For DNA showing MTB negative results by MTB-specific real-time PCR or pyrazinamide-resistant strains, PCR-based MTC typing, spoligotyping, and exact tandem repeat D gene sequencing were performed.RESULTS: All the 310 MTC isolates were identified to be MTB. Two MTB strains of East-African-Indian 4-Vietnam genotype, which have not been reported in Korea, were also found.CONCLUSION: There was no zoonotic tuberculosis in this study. Since we investigated only 310 MTC isolates detected in only one medical institution, multi-center study is needed to accurately know the prevalence of zoonotic tuberculosis in Korea.


Subject(s)
DNA , Genotype , Goats , Infection Control , Korea , Mycobacterium bovis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis , Tandem Repeat Sequences , Tertiary Healthcare , Tuberculosis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The weather has well-documented effects on infectious disease and reports suggest that summer peaks in the incidences of gram-negative bacterial infections among hospitalized patients. We evaluated how season and temperature changes affect bloodstream infection (BSI) incidences of major pathogens to understand BSI trends with an emphasis on acquisition sites.METHODS: Incidence rates of BSIs by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were retrospectively analyzed from blood cultures during 2008–2016 at a university hospital in Seoul, Korea according to the acquisition sites. Warm months (June–September) had an average temperature of ≥20℃ and cold months (December–February) had an average temperature of ≤5℃.RESULTS: We analyzed 18,047 cases, where 43% were with community-onset BSI. E. coli (N = 5,365) was the most common pathogen, followed by Enterococcus spp. (N = 3,980), S. aureus (N = 3,075), K. pneumoniae (N = 3,043), Acinetobacter spp. (N = 1,657), and P. aeruginosa (N = 927). The incidence of hospital-acquired BSI by Enterococcus spp. was weakly correlated with temperature, and the median incidence was higher during cold months. The incidence of community-onset BSI by E. coli was higher in warm months and was weakly correlated with temperature.CONCLUSION: We found seasonal or temperature-associated variation in some species-associated BSIs. This could be a useful information for enhancing infection control and public health policies by taking season or climate into consideration.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter , Climate , Climate Change , Communicable Diseases , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Korea , Pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , Seoul , Staphylococcus aureus , Tertiary Care Centers , Weather
17.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762180

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) induces immunological tolerance, and there is increasing evidence of the clinical efficacy of AIT in the treatment of allergic asthma. However, the optimal parameters for asthma control in clinical trials are still unclear. We investigated the efficacy of AIT with respect to changes in the inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose in patients with allergic asthma. METHODS: A total of 117 adults with allergic asthma who had used ICS for more than 1 year in a single tertiary hospital in Korea were included in this retrospective study. We compared the clinical parameters and outcomes between the AIT group (ICS with AIT, n = 48) and the non-AIT group (ICS without AIT, n = 69) by applying an inverse probability of treatment weighting method. The patients in the AIT group had received subcutaneous AIT monthly as a maintenance treatment for more than 1 year. The changes in the ICS dose from baseline were evaluated in the 2 groups for 3 years. RESULTS: The proportion of responders who discontinued or decreased in the ICS dose with achieving control status of asthma was significantly higher in the AIT group than in the non-AIT group throughout the study period (at 6 months, 52.1% vs. 24.6%; at 1 year, 70.8% vs. 34.7%; at 2 years, 89.5% vs. 35.6%; at 3 years, 96.3% vs. 51.2%). Treatment responses did not differ significantly by type of allergen (single- or multi-allergens or 3 different products) used throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of the type of allergen, long-term maintenance AIT helps to spare ICS dose and achieve better control in patients with allergic asthma in real-world clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Desensitization, Immunologic , Humans , Immunomodulation , Korea , Methods , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762176

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Oak is the dominant tree species in Korea. Oak pollen has the highest sensitivity rate among all allergenic tree species in Korea. A deep neural network (DNN)-based estimation model was developed to determine the concentration of oak pollen and overcome the shortcomings of conventional regression models. METHODS: The DNN model proposed in this study utilized weather factors as the input and provided pollen concentrations as the output. Weather and pollen concentration data were used from 2007 to 2016 obtained from the Korea Meteorological Administration pollen observation network. Because it is difficult to prevent over-fitting and underestimation by using a DNN model alone, we developed a bootstrap aggregating-type ensemble model. Each of the 30 ensemble members was trained with random sampling at a fixed rate according to the pollen risk grade. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed model, we compared its performance with those of models of regression and support vector regression (SVR) under the same conditions, with respect to the prediction of pollen concentrations, risk levels, and season length. RESULTS: The mean absolute percentage error in the estimated pollen concentrations was 11.18%, 10.37%, and 5.04% for the regression, SVR and DNN models, respectively. The start of the pollen season was estimated to be 20, 22, and 6 days earlier than that predicted by the regression, SVR and DNN models, respectively. Similarly, the end of the pollen season was estimated to be 33, 20, and 9 days later that predicted by the regression, SVR and DNN models, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the DNN model performed better than the other models. However, the prediction of peak pollen concentrations needs improvement. Improved observation quality with optimization of the DNN model will resolve this issue.


Subject(s)
Korea , Pollen , Quercus , Rhinitis, Allergic , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Seasons , Trees , Weather
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 218-228, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811474

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major public health problem related to increased risks of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether recommended levels of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) decrease the risk of MetS in a community-based prospective cohort study (Ansung and Ansan cohort).MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 3910 adults (1890 men, 2020 women) without MetS examined in 2001–2002 (baseline) were included in this study and followed up from 2013 to 2014. We measured LTPA energy expenditure using the standard metabolic equivalent value [metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-h/wk]. Individuals were categorized into five groups (physically inactive, 0.1 to <7.5, 7.5 to <15.0, 15.0 to <22.5, 22.5 to <40.0, and ≥40.0 MET-h/wk).RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 11.8 years. Among the cohort, 482 men (25.5%) and 541 women (26.8%) were diagnosed with newly developed MetS. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed a 4.4% lower MetS risk among those performing two to three times the recommended minimum of 7.5 MET-h/wk [multivariate relative risk (RR), 0.956; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.654–1.398] and a 21.9% lower risk among those performing three to four times the physical activity minimum (multivariate RR, 0.781; 95% CI, 0.574–1.063). This association was only significant in females performing three to four times the minimum (crude RR, 0.655; 95% CI, 0.432–0.994).CONCLUSION: We noted that physical activity at more than 2 times the recommended minimum prevents MetS. Healthcare professionals should encourage inactive adults to be physically active during their leisure time to take advantage of its health benefits.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Energy Metabolism , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Insurance Benefits , Korea , Leisure Activities , Male , Metabolic Equivalent , Motor Activity , Prospective Studies , Public Health
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 229-234, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811473

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was designed to provide a basis for building a master plan for a regional trauma system by analyzing the distribution of trauma deaths in the most populous province in Korea.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the time distribution to death for trauma patients who died between January and December 2017. The time distribution to death was categorized into four groups (within a day, within a week, within a month, and over a month). Additionally, the distribution of deaths within 24 hours was further analyzed. We also reviewed the distribution of deaths according to the cause of death and mechanism of injury.RESULTS: Of the 1546 trauma deaths, 328 cases were included in the final study population. Patients who died within a day were the most prevalent (40.9%). Of those who died within a day, the cases within an hour accounted for 40.3% of the highest proportion. The majority of trauma deaths within 4 hours were caused by traffic-related accidents (60.4%). The deaths caused by bleeding and central nervous system injuries accounted for most (70.1%) of the early deaths, whereas multi-organ dysfunction syndrome/sepsis had the highest ratio (69.7%) in the late deaths. Statistically significant differences were found in time distribution according to the mechanism of injury and cause of death (p<0.001).CONCLUSION: The distribution of overall timing of death was shown to follow a bimodal pattern rather than a trimodal model in Korea. Based on our findings, a suitable and modified trauma system must be developed.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Central Nervous System , Hemorrhage , Humans , Korea , Wounds and Injuries
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