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1.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(8): 588-594, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351767

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective In around 85% of vaginal births, the parturients undergo perineal lacerations and/or episiotomy. The present study aimed to determine the incidence of lacerations and episiotomies among parturients in 2018 in a habitual-risk public maternity hospital in southern Brazil, and to determine the risk and protective factors for such events. Methodology A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from medical records and analyzed using the Stata software. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed. Values of p<0.05 were considered significant. Results In 2018, there were 525 vaginal births, 27.8% of which were attended by obstetricians, 70.7% by obstetric nurses, and 1.5% evolved without assistance. Overall, 55.2% of the parturients had some degree of laceration. The professional who attended the birth was a significant variable: a greater number of first- and second-degree lacerations, as well as more severe cases, occurred in births attended by nurses (odds ratio [OR]: 2,95; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1,74 to 5,03). Positions at birth that did not enable perineal protection techniques (expulsive period with the "hands-off" method), when analyzed in isolation, determined the risk; however, in the final regression model, this relationship was not confirmed. Although reported in the literature, there were no associations between the occurrence of laceration and age, skin color, or birth weight. In 24% of the births, episiotomy was performed, and doctors performed 63.5% of them. Conclusion Births attended by nurses resulted in an increased risk of perineal lacerations, of varying degrees. In turn, those assisted by physicians had a higher occurrence of episiotomy.


Resumo Objetivo Aproximadamente 85% dos partos vaginais cursam ou com lacerações perineais e/ou com episiotomia. Este estudo objetivou determinar a incidência de lacerações e episiotomias das parturientes de 2018 de uma maternidade pública de risco habitual, no sul do Brasil, bem como determinar os fatores de risco e proteção para tais eventos. Métodos Estudo transversal retrospectivo, no qual os dados foram obtidos dos prontuários e analisados no programa Stata. Realizaram-se regressões logísticas uni e multivariada. Foram considerados como significantes valores de p<0,05. Resultados Em 2018, aconteceram 525 partos vaginais, sendo 27,8% assistidos por médicos obstetras, 70,7%, por enfermeiros obstetras, e 1,5% evoluíram sem assistência. Ao todo, 55,2% das parturientes apresentaram algum grau de laceração. O profissional que assistiu ao parto foi uma variável que demonstrou significância: um maior número de lacerações de primeiro e segundo graus, bem como casos de maior gravidade, ocorreram em partos assistidos por enfermeiros (razão de probabilidades [RP]: 2,95; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%]: 1,74 a 5,03). Posições ao nascimento que não permitiam técnicas de proteção perineal (período expulsivo na técnica "sem mãos" [hands off, em inglês]), quando analisadas isoladamente, determinaram o risco; contudo, no modelo final de regressão, essa relação não se confirmou. Apesar de relatada na literatura, não houve associação entre a ocorrência de laceração e a idade, a cor da pele, ou o peso de nascimento. Em 24% dos partos, uma episiotomia foi realizada, tendo os médicos executado 63,5% delas. Conclusão Partos assistidos por enfermeiros resultaram em um maior risco de lacerações perineais, de variados graus. Por sua vez, os assistidos por médicos apresentaram maior ocorrência de episiotomia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Lacerations/etiology , Lacerations/epidemiology , Perineum/injuries , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Delivery, Obstetric , Episiotomy
2.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 276-281, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1150698

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar os benefícios e os malefícios que Manobra de Kristeller apresenta na prática obstétrica para a mulher e o concepto. Método: trata-se de uma revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados LILACS, BDENF, IBECS e MEDLINE. Interpretou-se os resultados sintetizando-os de forma crítica e descritiva. Resultados: a amostra foi composta por nove estudos publicados entre 2007 a 2017. Estas publicações evidenciaram que esta manobra não possui benefício, em contrapartida, pode trazer vários malefícios à mulher como disfunções no sistema urinário, dispaurenia, dor perineal, incontinência anal, além do aumento do número de episotomias. Em relação ao concepto, foram encontrados registros de cefalohematomas, aumento do ritmo cardíaco fetal, hemorragia epidural e Caput sucedaneum. Conclusão: as publicações referem que esta manobra trará uma história reprodutiva marcada por traumas, além de reforçar o não uso desta técnica


Objective: to analyze the benefits and harms that the Kristeller Maneuver presents in obstetric practice for women and the concept. Method: this is an integrative review carried out in LILACS, BDENF, IBECS e MEDLINE. The results were interpreted by synthesizing them in a critical and descriptive way. Results: the sample was made by nine studies launched in 2007 to 2017. These subjects showed that this is not a benefit option, in contrast, it can bring several harm to the woman such as dysfunctions in the urinary system, dyspaurenia, perineal pain, anal incontinence, in addition to an increase in the number of episiotomies. Regarding the concept, the records of cephalhematomas, increased cardiac rhythm, epidural hemorrhage and Caput substudum were found. Conclusions: The publications referenced this maneuver to a reproductive culture marked by traumas, besides promoting the non-use of this technique


Objetivo: analizar los beneficios y los maleficios que la Manobra de Kristeller presenta en la práctica obstétrica para la mujer y el concepto. Método: se trata de una revisión integrativa realizada en las bases de datos LILACS, BDENF, IBECS e MEDLINE. Se interpretó los resultados sintetizándolos de forma crítica y descriptiva. Resultados: la muestra fue hecha por nueve estudios lanzados en 2007 a 2017. Estas materias evidenciaron que ésta no es una opción de beneficio, en contrapartida, puede traer varios maleficios a la mujer como disfunciones en el sistema urinario, dispaurenia, dolor perineal, incontinencia anal, además del aumento del número de episotomías. En relación al concepto, se encontraron los registros de cefalhematomas, aumento del ritmo cardíaco, hemorragia epidural y Caput sucedaneum. Conclusión: Las publicaciones referenciaron esta maniobra a una cultura reproductiva marcada por traumas, además de promover el no uso de esta técnica


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Lacerations/etiology , Delivery, Obstetric/adverse effects , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Labor, Obstetric , Episiotomy , Evidence-Based Practice/methods , Maternal Health/classification
3.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 71(6): 518-522, dic. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058312

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El cuerpo extraño rectal (CER) es un problema de difícil manejo para el cirujano general. La vía anal es la puerta de entrada más habitual seguido de la oral. La sospecha clínica es fundamental para el diagnóstico, pudiendo apoyarse de imágenes. El tratamiento es su extracción por vía transanal o por vía anterior. Objetivos: Caracterizar, describir y presentar el tratamiento de los pacientes con CER que consultaron en urgencia del Hospital el Pino (HEP) entre los años 2011 y 2016. Material y Método: Estudio serie de casos. Se realiza revisión de fichas clínicas de pacientes con CER en un periodo de 5 años en el Servicio de Urgencia del HEP. Se identificó a los pacientes tratados en box y a aquellos tratados en pabellón. Se caracterizó según variables demográficas, tratamiento, complicaciones y días de hospitalización. Resultados: Se identificaron 18 pacientes, 13 hombres y 5 mujeres de 45 años (± 36-51) y 34 años (± 23-64) respectivamente. En 1 de ellos fue posible extracción manual transanal en box sin anestesia y en 17 se requirió tratamiento en pabellón, donde 12 fue por vía transanal y 5 por abordaje abdominal. En ningún caso se identificó lesión intestinal. Evolución postoperatoria adecuada. Días de hospitalización promedio 1,8 días. Conclusión: Este es un problema infrecuente y de difícil manejo. Existe mayor frecuencia en hombres de edades media siendo la puerta de entrada la vía anal en todos los casos. En la mayoría se requirió extracción en pabellón bajo anestesia siendo el abordaje transanal el más utilizado y con buenos resultados.


Introduction: The rectal forcing body (RFB) is a problem which involves a difficult management for surgeons. Anal via is the most frequent entrance area, followed by the oral via. Clinical suspicion is fundamental for diagnosis and it is possible to support it using imaging. Treatment considers extraction through transanal or frontal via. Aim: To describe and present the treatment of patients with rectal foreing body in the Urgency Service of El Pino Hospital during years 2011 to 2016. Materials and Method: Case studies. Clinical records revision of patients with rectal foreing body in the Urgency Service of El Pino Hospital considering a 5-year period. Patients are identified as those treated in the box and in a surgical pavilion. Patients were classified according to demographic variables, received treatment, associated complications and hospitalization time. Results: 18 patients are identified, 13 men and 5 women, 45 (± 36-51) and 34 (± 23-64) years respectively. It was possible to manually extract via trans-anal at box, in one of these cases; 17 of them required treatment at surgical pavilion, where 12 were via trans-anal and 5 via abdominal. None of these cases had intestinal injury. Post-surgery evolution was adequate. Average hospitalization was 1.8 days. Conclusion: RFB is a non-frequent problem which requires high diagnose suspicious to be able to carry out proper treatments. It is more frequent in middle age men, with transanal input. In most cases, the extraction was done in surgical pavilion and required anesthesia and were done via trans anal with good results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Rectum/injuries , Rectum/diagnostic imaging , Foreign Bodies/complications , Foreign Bodies/therapy , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Chile , Device Removal , Lacerations/etiology , Mental Disorders/complications
4.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 40(7): 379-383, July 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959016

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Perineal trauma is a negative outcome during labor, and until now it is unclear if the maternal position during the second stage of labormay influence the risk of acquiring severe perineal trauma. We have aimed to determine the prevalence of perineal trauma and its risk factors in a low-risk maternity with a high incidence of upright position during the second stage of labor. Methods A retrospective cohort study of 264 singleton pregnancies during labor was performed at a low-risk pregnancymaternity during a 6-month period. Perineal trauma was classified according to the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RCOG), and perineal integrity was divided into three categories: no tears; first/ second-degree tears + episiotomy; and third and fourth-degree tears. A multinomial analysis was performed to search for associated factors of perineal trauma. Results From a total of 264 women, there were 2 cases (0.75%) of severe perineal trauma, which occurred in nulliparous women younger than 25 years old. Approximately 46% (121) of the women had no tears, and 7.95% (21) performed mediolateral episiotomies. Perineal trauma was not associated with maternal position (p = 0.285), health professional (obstetricians or midwives; p = 0.231), newborns with 4 kilos or more (p = 0.672), and labor analgesia (p = 0.319). The multinomial analysis showed that white and nulliparous presented, respectively, 3.90 and 2.90 times more risk of presenting perineal tears. Conclusion The incidence of severe perineal trauma was low. The prevalence of upright position during the second stage of labor was 42%. White and nulliparous women were more prone to develop perineal tears.


Resumo Objetivo O trauma perineal é um desfecho negativo durante o parto, e é incerto, até omomento, se a posiçãomaternal durante o período expulsivo pode influenciar o risco de evoluir com trauma perineal severo. Nós objetivamos determinar a prevalência de trauma perineal e seus fatores de risco em uma maternidade de baixo risco com alta prevalência de posição vertical durante o período expulsivo. Métodos Um estudo de coorte retrospectivo de 264 gestações únicas durante o trabalho de parto foi realizado durante 6 meses consecutivos. O trauma perineal foi classificado de acordo com o Royal College of Obstetricianns and Gynecologists (RCOG). A integridade perineal foi dividida em três categorias: períneo íntegro; trauma perineal leve (primeiro e segundo graus + episiotomia); e trauma perineal severo (terceiro e quarto graus). Uma análise multinomial foi realizada para buscar variáveis associadas ao trauma perineal. Resultados De um total de 264 mulheres, houve 2 casos (0,75%)de trauma perineal severo m nulíparas com menos de 25 anos. Aproximadamente 46% (121) das mulheres não tiveram trauma perineal e 7,95% (21) realizaram episiotomias mediolaterais. Não houve correlação do trauma perineal com a posição de parto (p = 0,285), tipo de profissional que realizou o parto (p = 0,231), recém-nascidos com 4.000 gramas ou mais (p = 0,672), e presença de analgesia de parto (p = 0,319). Uma análise multinomial evidenciou que mulheres brancas e nulíparas apresentaram, respectivamente, um risco 3,90 e 2,90 vezes maior de apresentar trauma perineal. Conclusão A incidência de trauma perineal severo foi baixa. A prevalência de parto vertical durante o período expulsivo foi de 42%. Mulheres brancas e nulíparas foram mais suscetíveis a apresentar trauma perineal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Perineum/injuries , Labor Stage, Second , Lacerations/etiology , Patient Positioning/methods , Patient Positioning/statistics & numerical data , Obstetric Labor Complications/etiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Risk Assessment , Lacerations/epidemiology , Obstetric Labor Complications/epidemiology
5.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 37(spe): e68304, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-845185

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivos Implementar práticas assistenciais para prevenção e reparo do trauma perineal no parto normal. Métodos Estudo quase-experimental, realizado no Hospital da Mulher Mãe-Luzia, Macapá, AP. Realizaram-se 74 entrevistas com enfermeiros e médicos e 70 com puérperas, e analisaram-se dados de prontuários (n=555). O desenvolvimento da pesquisa se deu em três fases: pré-auditoria e auditoria de base (fase 1); intervenção educativa e implementação de boas práticas assistenciais (fase 2); auditoria pós-implementação (fase 3); a análise foi pela comparação das fases 1 e 3. Resultados Após a intervenção educativa, menos profissionais incentivavam puxos dirigidos, realizavam episiotomia e suturavam lacerações de primeiro grau; mais mulheres informaram que o parto foi em posição litotômica; mais registros nos prontuários indicaram o uso de Vicryl® na sutura da mucosa e pele. Conclusões A intervenção educativa melhorou os cuidados e os desfechos perineais, porém há lacunas na implementação das evidências e inadequações no manejo do cuidado perineal.


RESUMEN Objetivo Implementar prácticas asistenciales para la prevención y reparación del trauma perineal en el parto. Método Estudio casi experimental, conducido en el Hospital da Mulher Mãe-Luzia, Macapá, AP. Se realizaron 74 entrevistas con médicos y enfermeras y 70 con puérperas y se analizaron los datos de registros médicos (n=555). La investigación se desarrolló en tres fases: preauditoría y auditoría de base (fase 1); intervención educativa e implementación de buenas prácticas asistenciales (fase 2); auditoría posimplementación (fase 3); el análisis fue comparando las fases 1 y 3. Resultados Después de la intervención educativa, menos profesionales incentivaban pujo dirigido, realizaban episiotomía y suturaban desgarros de primer grado; más mujeres tuvieron el parto en posición litotomía; más registros indicaban uso de Vicryl® para suturar la mucosa y piel. Conclusión La intervención educativa ha mejorado el cuidado y los resultados perineales, pero hay lagunas en la implementación de evidencias y deficiencias en el cuidado perineal.


ABSTRACT Objective To implement care practices for perineal trauma prevention and repairing in normal birth. Method Quasi-experimental study conducted at Hospital da Mulher Mãe-Luzia, in Macapá, AP, Brazil. Seventy-four (74) nurses and obstetricians and 70 post-partum women were interviewed and the records of 555 patients were analyzed. The study was conducted in three stages: pre-audit and baseline audit (phase 1); educational intervention and implementation of best practices (phase 2); post-implementation audit (phase 3). Data was analyzed by comparison of the results of phases 1 and 3. Results Following the educational intervention, a lower number of health professionals encouraged directed pushing, performed episiotomies and repaired first-degree lacerations; more women reported lithotomy position; more patient records indicated the use of Vicryl™ to suture the perineal mucosa and skin. Conclusion The educational intervention improved birth care and perineal outcomes. Nevertheless, gaps were identified in the implementation of evidence, as well as inappropriate perineal care management


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Perineum/injuries , Delivery, Obstetric/adverse effects , Obstetric Nursing/education , Obstetrics/education , Polyglactin 910 , Sutures , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Suture Techniques , Patient Satisfaction , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Evidence-Based Medicine , Lacerations/etiology , Lacerations/prevention & control , Lacerations/therapy , Delivery, Obstetric/instrumentation , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Postpartum Period/psychology , Episiotomy/adverse effects , Patient Positioning , Practice Patterns, Nurses'/statistics & numerical data , Medical Audit
6.
Colomb. med ; 46(4): 199-201, Oct.-Dec. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774954

ABSTRACT

Case description: A 25 years old man presented with a laceration on radial side of proximal phalanx of 4th finger (zone II flexor) which was due to cut with glass. Clinical findings: The sheaths of Tendons of flexor digitorum sperficialis and profundus were not the same and each tendon had a separate sheath. Treatment and outcome: The tendons were reconstructed by modified Kessler sutures, after 15 months the patient had a 30 degrees of extension lag even after physiotherapy courses. Clinical relevance: This is the first reported of such normal variation in human hand tendon anatomy.


Descripción del caso: Se presentó un hombre de 25 años con una laceración en la parte radial de la falange proximal del cuarto dedo de la mano (zona flexor II) causada por el corte con un vidrio. Hallazgos clínicos: Las cubiertas de los tendones del flexor digitorum sperficialis y profundus estaban separadas en diferentes cubiertas. Tratamiento y resultado: Los tendones se reconstruyeron por la suturas modificadas de Kessler. Después de 15 meses el paciente presentó una pérdida del 30% en la extensión , aun después de la fisioterapia. Relevancia clínica: Es el primer reporte de la variación en la anatomía de la mano.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Tendons/anatomy & histology , Finger Phalanges , Finger Injuries/etiology , Finger Injuries/surgery , Incidental Findings , Lacerations/etiology , Lacerations/surgery , Tendon Injuries/surgery , Tendons/surgery
7.
Oman Medical Journal. 2013; 28 (2): 97-101
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-127706

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the etiological characteristics and visual outcomes of ocular trauma with more attention to eyelid laceration. In a cross-sectional study, 98 cases of isolated traumatic eyelid laceration were consecutively studied and its epidemiology, etiology and association with visual outcome were evaluated. The findings of this study could be used to develop healthcare related precautions and work place safety recommendations. Of the 98 patients included in the study, men exhibited a greater vulnerability and they were mostly aged around 29 years old. In terms of the place of trauma, 42 [42.8%] cases occurred in the street, 29 cases [29.6%] occurred at home, and 18 cases [18.4%] occurred at the workplace, while 5 cases [5.1%] happened in entertaining environments like parks. For 3 patients [3%], the incident took place at a public pathway, and in 1 patient [1%], the case occurred at school. As the most common cause of trauma, 41 patients [41.8%] had an object hit their eyes. In addition, assaults were a major cause of injury. The right eye and the upper lid were also the most common sites of injuries. Although no blindness occurred due to trauma causing eyelid laceration, the visual outcomes were correlated with severity of the incident defined based on the presence of open globe injuries. This study could possibly highlight the risk factors of eyelid laceration and provide the healthcare community with the essential recommendations regarding the safety precautions in dangerous settings, including daily/routine work places


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Lacerations/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lacerations/epidemiology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86384

ABSTRACT

Vascular injuries in lumbar disc surgery are serious complications which may be overlooked due to a broad range of clinical manifestations. It is important to be aware of the perioperative implications of this rare occurrence to lower mortality risk. A 20-yr-old man with a right L4-5 lumbar disc protrusion was operated on routinely under a surgical microscope. A bloody surgical field was noted temporarily during a discectomy along with a decreased blood pressure. After fluid resuscitation with an ephedrine injection, the bleeding soon stopped spontaneously and his vital signs were stabilized. Fifty hours after the operation, the patient showed signs of hypovolemic hypotension with abdominal distension. The right femoral artery pulsation was absent on palpation. An enhanced CT angiography revealed a retroperitoneal hematoma and obstruction of the left common iliac artery. An urgent laparotomy was done to repair the injured vessel by excision and interposition of a graft. The patient had an uneventful recovery.The subacute course of deterioration might have been due to intermittent blood leakage from the lacerated common iliac artery, which was sealed spontaneously. It is very important to pay close attention to post-surgical clinical manifestations to avoid a potentially fatal outcome in lumbar disc surgery.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Diskectomy/adverse effects , Hematoma/etiology , Humans , Iliac Artery/injuries , Intervertebral Disc , Lacerations/etiology , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Male , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
9.
West Indian med. j ; 60(2): 195-198, Mar. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672749

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify significant and modifiable risk factors associated with obstetric third and fourth degree perineal lacerations and to produce recommendations that may reduce their morbidity and prevalence. METHODS: This is a retrospective case control study performed between March 2004 and March 2008. All patients diagnosed with third and fourth degree perineal lacerations were identified (cases) along with randomly assigned controls who delivered during the same time period. Nineteen cases and 38 controls were identified giving a total of 57 patients. Each patient's hospital record was collected and the data extracted. RESULTS: When analysed for weight greater than or equal to 3.5 kg versus birthweight of less than 3.5 kg, the difference between cases and controls was found to be statistically significant, with a p value of 0.012. Of the cases, 21% had an operative delivery (forceps or vacuum) whereas only 2.6% of the controls had an operative delivery. This was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the two main factors related to the obstetric third and fourth degree perineal lacerations were babies weighing more than 3.5 kg and the use of forceps or vacuum to assist with deliveries. These high risk patients should be attended to by the most senior staff that is available.


OBJETIVOS: El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar factores de riesgo modificables y significativos asociados con las laceraciones perineales obstétricas de 3er y 4to grado, y producir recomendaciones que puedan reducir su morbilidad y prevalencia. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio de caso control retrospectivo realizado entre marzo de 2004 y marzo de 2008. Todas las pacientes diagnosticadas con laceraciones perineales de 3er y 4to grado fueron identificadas (casos) con controles asignados de manera aleatoria, que tuvieron el parto en el mismo período de tiempo. Diecinueve casos y 38 controles fueron identificados, para un total de 57 pacientes. Se recogieron y se extrajeron los datos de las historias clínicas de cada paciente. RESULTADOS: Al analizárseles en términos de peso superior o igual a 3.5 kg frente a un peso al nacer por debajo de 3.5 kg, la diferencia entre los controles y los casos resultó ser estadísticamente significativa, con un valor p de 0.012. De los casos, el 21% tuvo un parto operativo (fórceps o vacío), mientras que sólo el 2.6% de los controles tuvo un parto operativo. Esto resultó ser estadísticamente significativo (p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio ha demostrado que los dos factores principales relacionados con las laceraciones perineales obstétricos de 3er y 4to grado, eran bebés con un peso de más de 3.5 kg y el uso de fórceps o vacío en la asistencia a los partos. Estos pacientes de alto riesgo deben ser atendidos por el personal disponible de mayor experiencia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Lacerations/etiology , Obstetric Labor Complications/etiology , Perineum/injuries , Birth Weight , Case-Control Studies , Delivery, Obstetric , Episiotomy , Lacerations/prevention & control , Obstetric Labor Complications/prevention & control
10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 35(8): 809-813, ago. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-524983

ABSTRACT

A laceração traqueal pós-intubação é uma complicação rara e potencialmente fatal. Entre as principais causas, se destacam a hiperinsuflação do balonete e tentativas repetidas de intubação em situações de emergência. O diagnóstico depende da suspeita clínico-radiológica e da confirmação por fibrobroncoscopia. O manejo pode ser conservador ou cirúrgico, e essa opção depende de fatores do paciente (comorbidades, estabilidade ventilatória), das características da lesão (tamanho e topografia) e do tempo decorrido até o diagnóstico. O presente estudo relata três casos de laceração traqueal decorrente de trauma de intubação com dois pacientes submetidos a tratamento operatório e um deles ao tratamento conservador.


Post-intubation tracheal injury is a rare and potentially fatal complication. Among the most common causes, cuff overinflation and repetitive attempts of orotracheal intubation in emergency situations are paramount. Diagnosis is based on clinical and radiological suspicion, confirmed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Both conservative and surgical management apply, and the decision-making process depends on the patient profile (comorbidities, respiratory stability), characteristics of the lesion (size and location) and the time elapsed between the occurrence of the injury and the diagnosis. We report the cases of three patients presenting tracheal laceration due to traumatic orotracheal intubation, two submitted to surgical treatment and one submitted to conservative treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Lacerations/etiology , Trachea/injuries , Fatal Outcome
11.
Femina ; 33(11): 841-846, nov. 2005. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-446529

ABSTRACT

O corpo perineal feminino é uma estrutura de interconecção para componentes musculares, fasciais e fibrosos, medindo cerca de 2 cm de diâmetro, situado em posição mediana, entre o ânus e a vagina. É também o ponto de conexão dos mecanismos de continência fecal e urinária. A função do corpo perineal é dar suporte da região anorretal à pelve e da vagina à fáscia pélvica, prevenir a expansão do hiato urogenital, funcionar como barreira entre vagina e reto e preservar a continência urinária e fecal. É importante na obstetrícia, pois pode ser lesado durante o parto vaginal e geralmente é mal reparado, devido ao desconhecimento de sua anatômia; é o local onde o cirurgião realiza a episiotomia com risco de lesão ao nervo pudendo durante o parto. A revisão sistemática deste assunto evidenciou que a massagem protege do trauma e que a episiotomia não deve ser usada como rotina. Para assegurar um atendimento obstétrico e ginecológico de qualidade é necessário ter um conhecimento adequado da anatomia pélvica, das indicações corretas da episiotomia e da importância clínica do corpo perineal.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Obstetric Labor Complications/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Episiotomy , Lacerations/etiology , Perineum , Pelvic Floor , Fecal Incontinence/prevention & control , Urinary Incontinence/prevention & control
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-134715

ABSTRACT

In a case of vehicular accident the heart was found lacerated, when there were only some scratch abasions on the chest externally without fracture of the ribs or sternum. This case is reported to highlight the possiblitity of a serious fatal internal injury without significant external injury in the chest.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Fatal Outcome , Heart/injuries , Humans , Lacerations/etiology , Lacerations/mortality , Male , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/complications , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/etiology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/mortality
13.
Annals of King Edward Medical College. 2005; 11 (4): 442-444
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-69702

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effects of episiotomy on the frequency of perineal lacerations. Cross-Sectional analytical study. Department of Gynae Obstetrics unit III. Lady willingdon Hospital Lahore. From April 1994 to March 1996. 2918 women who delivered vaginally were included in the study. Only right mediolateral episiotomy incision was used in these cases. Local anaesthesia in the form of 2% Lignocain was used in all cases to infiltrate the area before episiotomy cut. The delivery was conducted in most cases by a resident. The rate of perineal lacerations with or without episiotomy in both primiparae and multiparae groups was noted. Results 2918 women of term singleton babies were entered into this study. Episiotomy was performed in 1419 [48.63%] of these women. There were 1095[37.53%] primiparae and 1823 [62.47%] multiparae in the study groups. The rate of episiotomy in primiparae and multiparae were 93.42% and 21.72% respectively. A total of 267 [9.2%] perineal tears were sustained by these women during vaginal delivery. Episiotomy was associated with 151 [10.6%] perineal tears compared to 116[7.7%] without episiotomy. The incidence of fourth degree perineal laceration was 0.4% without episiotomy but increased to 1% with the use of episiotomy. This difference is statistically significant. Episiotomy is not protective against severe perineal lacerations. A selective use of episiotomy is recommended for appropriate indications


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Perineum/injuries , Lacerations/etiology , Labor, Obstetric/complications , Anesthesia, Local , Parity , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 62(3B): 882-884, set. 2004. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-384146

ABSTRACT

Relatamos o caso de um homem de 27 anos que procurou o pronto atendimento de um hospital com cefaléia intensa, vômitos e um episódio de perda de consciência. Uma tomografia de crânio foi normal e o paciente foi dispensado. Dez horas após, o paciente procurou o setor de emergência do nosso hospital com as mesmas queixas. Uma punção suboccipital tecnicamente dificultada pela ansiedade do paciente que se movimentou durante a coleta foi realizada evidenciando amostra de LCR levemente hemorrágico. A análise do LCR mostrou presença de 1600 hemácias íntegras sem aumento de leucócitos nem alterações bioquímicas. Houve piora acentuada da cefaléia e após 6 horas apresentou sonolência, torpor e sinais de descerebração. Nova tomografia mostrou sangue no espaço subaracnóideo e nos ventrículos. Uma angiografia realizada de emergência demonstrou laceração da artéria cerebelar póstero-inferior esquerda com a formação de um pseudoaneurisma. O paciente foi de imediato operado tendo sido realizada a clipagem do pseudoaneurisma com sucesso. Dezesseis dias após o paciente teve alta com exame neurológico normal.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Aneurysm, False/etiology , Cerebellum/blood supply , Lacerations/etiology , Spinal Puncture/adverse effects , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/etiology , Aneurysm, False/surgery , Arteries/injuries , Cerebral Angiography , Cisterna Magna , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
MJIH-Medical Journal of the Iranian Hospital. 2004; 6 (2): 45-49
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-67788

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to define the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical profile and evaluation of final visual outcome of corneal scleral laceration. A prospective survey was conducted over a two year period from March 2000 to March 2002 on 79 consecutively admitted patients who underwent corneal scleral repairment at Yazd Eye Hospitals. This study included 79 eye injuries. Fifty nine of cases [74.7%] occurred in males and 20 cases [25.3%] in females. Mean age was 17.08 years. Left eye was more commonly involved [57%]. Initial VA was an important predictor of final VA. Good initial VA > 20/200 leading to excellent final VA. 40.6% of traumas occurred in the first decade of life. Injuries less than 10 mm and related to zone I and II predicted a good visual outcome. In this study endophthalmitis [5.1%] was much less likely to develop in eyes with primary repairment within 24 hours from the injury [1.5%] than in eyes being repaired after 24 hours [21.4%] and the difference was significant [P==0.016]. Significant predictive factors for final VA after corneal scleral injury include: initial VA, wound length, wound and location,, and the time of primary repair


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cornea/surgery , Sclera/injuries , Sclera/surgery , Lacerations/etiology , Eye Injuries, Penetrating/etiology , Eye Injuries, Penetrating/surgery , Suture Techniques , Visual Acuity , Prospective Studies
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