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1.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210056, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1356217

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo relatar a experiência de indução da lactação em nuligestas realizada por enfermeira consultora em aleitamento. Método relato de experiência. O processo de indução láctea foi realizado com três mulheres por motivo de gestação em útero de substituição e relacionamento homoafetivo. Resultados todas perceberam o aumento de tamanho e a sensibilidade nas mamas, bem como apresentaram secreção láctea. No entanto, a continuidade da amamentação foi diferenciada entre elas. A primeira não recebeu apoio de profissionais de saúde no contexto de pós-parto hospitalar, nem em casa, e não deu continuidade à amamentação. A segunda recebeu apoio da equipe do hospital e da parceira, amamentando por três meses. A terceira, com o apoio da parceira, amamentou por dois meses, mas interrompeu por sentir-se inibida por familiares. Conclusão e implicações para a prática a técnica de indução é capaz de desencadear a produção láctea. Já o processo de amamentação só se estabeleceu mediante a associação com a rede de apoio, o acolhimento, o incentivo da equipe de saúde e o olhar integral à mulher e sua família. Dessa forma, o cuidado de Enfermagem na indução láctea não deve focar apenas no manejo da indução, mas transcender o aspecto técnico, o que se mostra como fundamental para a proteção, o estabelecimento e a continuidade da amamentação.


Resumen Objetivo reportar la experiencia de inducir la lactancia en nuligestas realizada por una consultora de enfermería en lactancia materna. Método relato de experiencia. El proceso de inducción de la leche se realizó con tres mujeres por embarazo en útero de reemplazo y relación homoafectiva. Resultados todas notaron el aumento de tamaño y la sensibilidad en las mamas, además de presentar secreción de leche. Sin embargo, la continuidad de la lactancia materna se diferencia entre ellos. La primera no recibió apoyo de los profesionales de la salud en el contexto posparto hospitalario, ni en el domicilio, y no continuó con la lactancia. La segunda recibió apoyo del personal del hospital y su pareja, amamantando durante tres meses. La tercera, con el apoyo de su pareja, amamantó durante dos meses, pero la interrumpió porque se sentía inhibida por familiares. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica la técnica de inducción es capaz de desencadenar la producción de leche. El proceso de lactancia materna, en cambio, solo se estableció a través de la asociación con la red de apoyo, la acogida, el estímulo del equipo de salud y la mirada integral a la mujer y su familia. Así, el cuidado de Enfermería en la inducción de la leche no debe enfocarse solo en el manejo de la inducción, sino trascender el aspecto técnico, que se muestra fundamental para la protección, el establecimiento y la continuidad de la lactancia materna.


Abstract Objective to report the experience of lactation induction in women who never got pregnant by a lactation consultant nurse. Method experience report. The process of lactation induction was performed with three women due to surrogate pregnancy and homosexual relationships. Results all noticed an increase in the size and sensitivity of the breasts, as well as milk secretion. However, the continuity of breastfeeding was different between them. The first did not receive support from health professionals in the postpartum hospital setting, nor at home, and did not continue breastfeeding. The second received support from the hospital staff and her partner, breastfeeding for three months. The third, with the support of her partner, breastfed for two months, but stopped because she felt inhibited by family members. Conclusion and implications for practice the induction technique is capable of triggering milk production. However, the breastfeeding process was only established through the association with the support network, the reception, the encouragement of the health team, and the comprehensive view of the woman and her family. Thus, nursing care in lactation induction should not focus only on the management of induction, but transcend the technical aspect, which is essential for the protection, establishment, and continuity of breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Feeding/methods , Lactation , Social Support , Weaning , Women's Rights , Breast/injuries , Lactation/drug effects , Surrogate Mothers , Consultants , Domperidone/therapeutic use , User Embracement , Galactogogues/therapeutic use , Research Report , Breast Milk Expression , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Nurse Midwives
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1207-1216, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038614

ABSTRACT

Aims to investigate the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on production performance, metabolism, and anti-oxidative status of Holstein dairy cattle in early lactation. Forty-eight multiparous Holstein dairy cattle were assigned to four groups (CON, G20, G40 and G80) and supplied with 0, 20, 40, and 80mg GSPE/kg of body weight/day. G20 significantly increased milk yield compared with other groups. Milk protein and non-fat-solids were increased in G20, G40 and G80 groups compared with the control group only at the 7th day during the experiment. No significant difference was observed in milk fat and somatic cell count, nor on parameters of energy metabolism in blood, liver function and kidney function between the four groups. There was no significant difference in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, and hydrogen peroxide between the groups; but the malondialdehyde content of G20 significantly increased at day 14 in comparison with CON, and tended to increase at the 28th day. In conclusion, feeding 20mg GSPE/kg of body weight/day was associated with a significant increase in milk yield without detrimental effects on liver or kidney function and with substantial energy metabolism and antioxidant parameters improvement in early lactation dairy cattle.(AU)


O presente trabalho visa investigar os efeitos do extrato de semente de uva Proanthocyanidin (GSPE) sobre o desempenho da produção, o metabolismo e o status antioxidante de gado leiteiro Holstein em lactação precoce. Quarenta e oito vacas leiteiras multíparas Holstein foram divididas em quatro grupos (CON, G20, G40 e G80) e receberam 0, 20, 40 e 80mg de GSPE/kg de peso corporal/dia, respectivamente. O G20 aumentou significativamente o rendimento do leite em comparação com os outros grupos. A proteína e os sólidos não gordurosos do leite foram aumentados nos grupos G20, G40 e G80 somente no sétimo dia durante a experiência. Não foi observada diferença significativa na gordura do leite e na contagem de células somáticas, bem como nos parâmetros de metabolismo energético no sangue, na função hepática e na função renal entre os grupos em relação ao grupo controle. Não houve diferença significativa na glutationa peroxidase, na dimutase de superóxido, na capacidade antioxidante total e no peróxido de hidrogênio entre os grupos, mas o conteúdo malondialdeído do G20 aumentou significativamente no dia 14 em comparação com o CON, e tendia a aumentar no dia 28. Em conclusão, a alimentação de 20mg de GSPE/kg de peso corporal/dia foi associada a um aumento significativo no rendimento do leite, sem efeitos nocivos sobre a função hepática ou a renal, com o metabolismo de energia substancial e a melhoria dos parâmetros antioxidantes de gado leiteiro no início da lactação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Lactation/drug effects , Proanthocyanidins , Milk , Grape Seed Extract/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/analysis
3.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(2): 209-215, jun. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019255

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de Chagas afecta aproximadamente a 10 millones de personas en Sudamérica y 1,5 millones en la Argentina. La transmisión congénita es la más importante en áreas urbanas. Existen dos drogas aprobadas para el tratamiento: nifurtimox (Laboratorios Bayer) y benznidazol (BNZ) (Laboratorios Roche, LAFEPE y Elea) que fueron desarrolladas hace más de 40 años y cuya farmacología y metabolismo en humanos han sido poco estudiados. La información disponible es virtualmente inexistente en niños y mujeres embarazadas. Se busca aportar estudios sistemáticos hacia una farmacoterapéutica racional en niños ya que empíricamente ha demostrado gran efectividad. Se desarrollaron métodos bioanalíticos aplicables a matrices biológicas como plasma, orina y leche materna para las drogas madres y la identificación de metabolitos en muestras de pacientes bajo terapéutica. La farmacocinética poblacional pediátrica descripta aquí para BNZ es concluyente respecto de sus diferencias con la farmacocinética en adultos. Se identificaron tres compuestos presentados como metabolitos del BNZ. La transferencia de dicho fármaco a la leche materna no supone riesgo para el lactante. Estos resultados brindan información para mejorar los protocolos de tratamiento existentes buscando una farmacoterapéutica adaptada a la edad y un uso más seguro de los fármacos en niños y eventualmente en adultos.


Chagas disease affects approximately 10 million people in South America and 1.5 million in Argentina. Congenital transmission is most important in urban areas. There are two drugs approved for treatment: nifurtimox (Bayer) and benznidazole (BNZ) (Roche, LAFEPE, Elea),developed more than 40 years ago. Their pharmacology and metabolism in humans have been seldom studied. The information available on children and pregnant women is virtually non-existent. The aim of this study is to provide systematic studies towards a rational pharmacotherapeutic sin children, which has been empirically proven to be highly effective. Bioanalytical methods were developed for plasma, urine and breast milk for parent drugs and for the identification of their metabolites in samples of patients under treatment. The pediatric population pharmacokinetics described here for BNZ is conclusive about their differences from adult pharmacokinetics. Three compounds presented as BNZ metabolites were identified. The transfer of this drug to the breast milk does not present a risk to the infant. These evidences offer information to improve the existing treatment protocols, seeking a pharmacotherapy adapted to the age and a safer use of the drugs in children and eventually in adults.


A doença de Chagas afeta aproximadamente 10 milhões de pessoas na América do Sul e 1,5 milhão na Argentina. A transmissão congênita é a mais importante em áreas urbanas. Existem dois medicamentos aprovados para o tratamento: nifurtimox (Laboratórios Bayer) e benznidazol (BNZ) (Laboratórios Roche, LAFEPE e Elea), desenvolvidas há mais de 40 anos, e sua farmacologia e seu metabolismo em humanos têm sido pouco estudados. A informação disponível é praticamente inexistente em crianças e mulheres grávidas. O objetivo é fornecer estudos sistemáticos para uma farmacoterapêutica racional em crianças visto que foram comprovadas empiricamente como sendo altamente eficazes. Métodos bioanalíticos aplicáveis a matrizes biológicas como plasma, urina e leite materno para fármacos-mãe e para a identificação de metabólitos em amostras de pacientes em tratamento terapêutico foram desenvolvidos. A farmacocinética da população pediátrica aqui descrita para BNZ é conclusiva em relação às suas diferenças com a farmacocinética de adultos. Três compostos apresentados como metabólitos do BNZ foram identificados. A transferência do referido medicamento para o leite materno não representa risco para o lactente. Essas evidências oferecem informações para melhorar os protocolos de tratamento existentes, buscando uma farmacoterapia adaptada à idade e um uso mais seguro dos medicamentos em crianças e eventualmente em adultos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Toxicology , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Lactation/drug effects , Chagas Disease/etiology , Chagas Disease/ethnology , Pharmacologic Actions , Metabolic Side Effects of Drugs and Substances
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(12): 2289-2292, dez. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976418

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine the biochemical profile of dairy cows with induced lactation. For comparison, another group of normally calved cows was used as control. Lactation was induced in multiparous Holstein cows (n=10) with two norgestomet implants (3mg each implant) on day 1. The testing continued with intramuscular norgestomet (3mg/animal) on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15. On days 1, 9, 16 to 18 and then every 14 days, bSTr (500mg/animal) was added. On day 16, the intravaginal implant was removed and intramuscular prostaglandin F2α (0.530mg/animal) and intramuscular estradiol benzoate (5mg/animal) were added. On days 16 to 18 dexamethasone (10mg/animal) was added, and from days 18 to 20 intramuscular metoclopramide (100mg/animal) was added. Milking began on day 19 of the induction. Blood was collected for a biochemical profile after 21 days in milk. It was found that urea and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in the induced cows (P<0.05). Therefore, it was concluded that the animals that had lactation induced did not present disorders related to the biochemical profile indicating that the hepatic function, renal function and lipidogram of the animals were not affected by the use of the drugs to induce lactation.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil bioquímico de vacas leiteiras com submetidas a indução de lactação. Para comparação, outro grupo de vacas que apresentaram parto normal foi usado como controle. A lactação foi induzida em vacas Holandesas (n=10) utilizando dois implantes de norgestomet (3mg cada implante) no dia 1. O protocolo continuou com a aplicação de norgestomet intramuscular (3mg / animal) nos dias 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 e 15. Nos dias 1, 9, 16 a 18 e depois a cada 14 dias, foi adicionado bSTr (500mg / animal). No dia 16, o implante intravaginal foi removido e adicionou-se prostaglandina F2a intramuscular (0,530 mg / animal) e benzoato de estradiol intramuscular (5mg / animal). Nos dias 16 a 18 foi adicionada dexametasona (10mg / animal) e dos dias 18 a 20 foi adicionada metoclopramida intramuscular (100 mg / animal). A ordenha começou no dia 19 da indução. O sangue foi coletado para mensuração do perfil bioquímico após 21 em leite. Verificou-se que as concentrações de ureia e triglicérides foram significativamente maiores nas vacas induzidas (P<0,05). Portanto, concluiu-se que os animais que tiveram a lactação induzida não apresentaram distúrbios relacionados ao perfil bioquímico, indicando que a função hepática, a função renal e o lipidograma dos animais não foram afetados pelo uso das drogas para induzir a lactação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Lactation/drug effects , Cattle/metabolism , Biomarkers
5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 39(2): 86-89, Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843915

ABSTRACT

Abstract Case report of a 39-year-old intended mother of a surrogate pregnancy who underwent induction of lactation by sequential exposure to galactagogue drugs (metoclopramide and domperidone), nipple mechanical stimulation with an electric pump, and suction by the newborn. The study aimed to analyze the effect of each step of the protocol on serum prolactin levels, milk secretion and mother satisfaction, in the set of surrogacy. Serum prolactin levels and milk production had no significant changes. Nevertheless, themother was able to breastfeed for four weeks, and expressed great satisfaction with the experience. As a conclusion, within the context of a surrogate pregnancy, breastfeeding seems to bring emotional benefits not necessarily related to an increase in milk production.


Resumo Relato de caso de mãe por útero de substituição, de 39 anos de idade, submetida a indução da lactação por exposição sequencial a drogas galactogogas (metoclopramida e domperidona), estimulação mamilar mecânica com bomba elétrica, e sucção pelo recém-nascido. O estudo teve como objetivo analisar os efeitos de cada etapa do protocolo na concentração sérica de prolactina, no volume de secreção láctea e na satisfação materna. A concentração sérica de prolactina e a produção láctea não apresentaram mudanças significativas. Entretanto, a mãe foi capaz de amamentar a criança por quatro semanas, e manifestou grande satisfação com a experiência. Como conclusão, no contexto de maternidade por útero de substituição, o aleitamento materno parece promover benefícios emocionais, não necessariamente relacionados ao aumento do volume de leite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Breast Feeding , Domperidone/pharmacology , Lactation/drug effects , Metoclopramide/pharmacology , Prolactin/blood , Prolactin/drug effects , Personal Satisfaction , Surrogate Mothers
6.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(2): 130-137, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782160

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate, in rat offspring, bone changes induced by excess maternal thyroxin during pregnancy and lactation, and to assess the reversibility of these changes after weaning. Material and methods Twenty Wistar rats were distributed in two groups, hyperthyroid and control, that were treated daily with L-thyroxin (50 mcg/animal) and placebo, respectively. The treatment was initiated seven days before mating and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. From every female of each of the two groups, two offspring were euthanized after birth, two at 21 days of age (weaning), and two at 42 days of age (21 days after weaning). In newborns, the length of pelvic and thoracic limbs were measured, and in the other animals, the length and width of the femur and humerus were measured. Bones were dissected, decalcified, embedded in paraffin, and analyzed histomorphometrically. Results Excess maternal thyroxin significantly reduced the length of the pelvic limb in neonates. In 21-day-old individuals, excess maternal thyroxine reduced the length and the width of the femur and the humerus. It also increased thickness of the epiphyseal plate and the percentage of trabecular bone tissue. In 42-day-old individuals, there were no significant differences between groups in relation to the parameters evaluated in the previous periods. Conclusion Excess maternal thyroxine reduced growth in suckling rats both at birth and at weaning, and it also increased the percentage of trabecular bone tissue in 21-day-old animals. These changes, however, were reversible at 42 days, i.e., 21 days after weaning. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2016;60(2):130-7.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Thyroxine/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Bone and Bones/pathology , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Thyroxine/metabolism , Time Factors , Weaning , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Lactation/drug effects , Age Factors , Rats, Wistar , Animals, Newborn/growth & development
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(2): 497-506, jun. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755501

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of passive smoking, in soleus and gastrocnemius muscles associated with physical exercise by swimming during pregnancy and lactation of rats. Twenty-four rats were divided: GF (exposed to cigarette smoke), GC (control), GFN (underwent to the swimming program and exposed to cigarette smoke) and GN (underwent to the swimming program). On the first day of pregnancy procedure of exposure to cigarette smoke began, consisting in 30 minutes twice a day for six weeks. During the same period the swimming program began, which lasted 60 min every day untilthe 21st day of lactation. Soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, were obtained for histological, histochemical, morphometric analysis and fiber profiling. In histology, the groups GF and GFN showed infiltrations, necrotic and phagocytized fibers, centralized nuclei, splittings and coiling; in GN changes were observed due to exercise adaptations, infiltrations, sarcolemal lesion, polymorphic, atrophic and angular fibers. In the histochemical analysis of the groups GF and GFN there was enzymatic activity and amorphous formazan aggregates in subsarcolemmal positions, however in GN the same changes were found in lower frequency and intensity. In regard to the measureof the cross-sectionofmuscle fibers there weren't significant differences among the groups, as well as, in the frequency of types of fibers of the gastrocnemius. It is concluded that aerobic exercise is not enough to impede morphological and histochemical changes caused in an animal model of pregnant and lactating associated with smoking, and the stress not influence the types and size of muscle fibers.


EL objetivo fue analizar los efectos del tabaquismo pasivo sobre los músculos sóleo y gastrocnemio asociado con el entrenamiento corporal de natación durante la preñez y lactancia de ratas. Veinticuatro ratas se dividieron en grupos: GF (expuestos al humo de cigarrillo), GC (control), GFN (sometido al programa de natación y expuesto al humo del cigarrillo) y GN (sometido al programa de natación). El procedimiento de exposición al humo del cigarrillo comenzó primer día de preñez, durante 30 min dos veces al día por seis semanas. Durante el mismo período, comenzó el programa de natación, con una duración de 60 min todos los días hasta el día 21 de lactancia. Se extrajeron los músculos sóleo y gastrocnemio, y se realizó el análisis histológico, morfométrico histoquímico y de perfiles de fibra. En la histología, los grupos GF y GFN mostraron infiltraciones, fibras necróticas y fagocitadas, núcleos centralizados, divisiones y enrollamientos; en GN se observaron cambios debido a las adaptaciones de ejercicio tales como infiltraciones, lesión del sarcolema, y fibras polimórficas, atróficas y angulares. En el análisis histoquímico de los grupos GF y GFN hubo actividad enzimática y se formaron agregados amorfos en posiciones subsarcolemales; en el grupo GN se encontraron los mismos cambios en menor frecuencia e intensidad. No hubo diferencias en las medidas de las secciones transversales de las fibras musculares entre los grupos, así como en la frecuencia de los tipos de fibras del músculo gastrocnemio. Se concluye que el ejercicio aeróbico no es suficiente para impedir los cambios morfológicos e histoquímicos causados en un modelo animal de ratas preñadas en periodo de lactancia asociados con el tabaquismo, y el estrés no influye en el tipo y tamaño de las fibras musculares.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Exercise/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Pregnancy, Animal/drug effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Body Weight , Lactation/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Swimming/physiology
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(3): 219-230, 09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723816

ABSTRACT

Background: Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. Objective: To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Methods: Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed) and treatment received (treated/untreated). Results: Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05). Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension) in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusions: All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These ...


Introdução: A terapia combinada parece desempenhar papel significativo em reduzir os efeitos cardiovasculares deletérios da exposição ao chumbo (Pb). Objetivo: Para investigar esta possibilidade, ratas Wistar receberam Pb (500 ppm na água de beber) ou água durante a prenhez e a lactação. Ratos com 22 e 70 dias, expostos perinatalmente ao Pb ou não, receberam DMSA, L- arginina, enalapril e a combinação destes por 30 dias adicionais. Métodos: Curvas concentração-efeito à noradrenalina foram obtidas em aortas intactas e desnudas, de ratos com 23, 52, 70 e 100 dias expostos ou não ao Pb, tratados ou não. Resultados: A pressão arterial sistólica caudal (mmHg) foi avaliada e mostrou-se aumentada em ratos expostos ao Pb [23, 52, 70 e 100 dias, respectivamente: controle 107,1±1,8, 118,8±2,1, 126,1±1,1, 120,5±2,2; Pb 117,8±3,9*, 135,2±1,3*, 139,6±1,6* e 131,7± 2,8*]. Observou-se aumento de reatividade à noradrenalina em aorta intacta, mas não desnudada, de ratos com 52, 70 e 100 dias expostos ao Pb [resposta máxima (g de tensão) 52 dias: Pb 3,43±0,16*, controle 2,38±0,33; 70 dias: Pb 4,32±0,18*, controle 3,37±0,13; 100 dias: Pb 4,21±0,23*, controle 3,22±0,21]. (*) p < 0,05 em relação ao respectivo controle. Conclusões: Todos os tratamentos restauraram as alterações de reatividade à noradrenalina em aortas de ratos expostos perinatalmente ao Pb. Exceto pelo enalapril em ratos jovens, a terapia combinada restaurou mais precocemente a pressão arterial de ratos expostos ao Pb em relação aos tratamentos isolados. Estes resultados representam uma nova abordagem no desenvolvimento de protocolos terapêuticos no tratamento da hipertensão induzida pela exposição ao Pb. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Lead Poisoning/drug therapy , Age Factors , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Arginine/therapeutic use , Body Weight , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Chelating Agents/therapeutic use , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Hypertension/etiology , Lactation/drug effects , Lead Poisoning/complications , Lead/blood , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/chemically induced , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/drug therapy , Rats, Wistar , Succimer , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Biol. Res ; 46(2): 139-146, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683990

ABSTRACT

Studies of developmental effects of mixtures of endocrine disrupters on the male reproductive system are of great concern. In this study, the reproductive effects of the co-administration of di-2-(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and genistein (GEN) during pregnancy and lactation were studied in male rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged from gestation day 3 to postnatal day 21 with vehicle control, DEHP 250 mg/kg body weight (bwyday, GEN 50 mg/kg bwday, GEN 400 mg/kg bwday, and two combinations of the two compounds (DEHP 250 mg/kg bwday + GEN 50 mg/kg bwday, DEHP 250 mg/kg bwday + GEN 400 mg/kg bwday). The outcomes studied were general morphometry (weight, AGD), testicular histology, testosterone levels, and expression at the mRNA level of genes involved in steroidogenesis. Organ coefficient, AGD / body weight1/3 י, serum testosterone concentration and genes involved in steroidogenic pathway expression when exposed to DEHP (250mg/kg bwday), GEN(50mg/kg bwday) or GEN(400mg/kg bwday) alone were not significantly different from the control group. When exposed to (DEHP 250mg/kg bwday +GEN 50mg/kg bwday) together during pregnancy and lactation, serum testosterone concentration, epididymis coefficient and Cypal17a1,Scarb1 m RNA expression significantly decreased compared to the control and GEN(50mg/kg bwday). When exposed to (DEHP 250mg/kg bwday +GEN 400mg/kg bwday) together during pregnancy and lactation, AGD / body weight1/3 י, serum testosterone concentration, testis and epididymis coefficient and Star, Cypal17a1 mRNA expression appeared significantly decreased compared to the control and DEHP/GEN single exposure, together with developmental impairment of seminiferous tubules and seminiferous epithelium. Overall, co-administration of DEHP and GEN during gestation and lactation seem to acts in a cumulative manner to induce the most significant alterations in the neonate, especially with GEN at high dose, although the effect of the DEHP-GEN mixture on adult offspring should be observed further.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Diethylhexyl Phthalate/toxicity , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Genistein/toxicity , Genitalia, Male/drug effects , Lactation/drug effects , Phytoestrogens/toxicity , Plasticizers/toxicity , Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2/genetics , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/genetics , /genetics , Testis/drug effects
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(10): 982-987, Oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-647755

ABSTRACT

The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of kappa group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Lactation/physiology , Maternal Behavior/physiology , Periaqueductal Gray/drug effects , Receptors, Opioid, kappa/agonists , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Gene Expression , Lactation/drug effects , Lactation/genetics , Maternal Behavior/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Opioid, kappa/genetics
11.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 56(2): 96-103, Mar. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate physical and sexual development and reproductive physiology in female rat offspring that developed in hyperglycemia conditions in utero and during lactation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maternal diabetes was induced in female rats by a single IV injection of streptozotocin before mating. Female offspring development was evaluated by means of the following parameters: physical development; age of vaginal opening and first estrus; weight and histological evaluation of uterus and ovaries; duration of the estrous cycle, sexual behavior, and fertility after natural mating. RESULTS: In the female offspring, maternal diabetes caused delays in initial physical development; diminution in ovary weight and number of follicles; and inferior reproductive performance compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The exposure to hyperglycemia in uterus and during lactation caused delays in physical and sexual development, and affected the reproductive physiology of female rats negatively.


OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento físico e sexual e a fisiologia reprodutiva de ratas que se desenvolveram em condições hiperglicêmicas in utero e lactação. MATERIAIS E METODOS: Para induzir o diabetes nas ratas, foi utilizada estreptozotocina em dose única via intravenosa antes do acasalamento. A prole feminina foi avaliada por meio dos seguintes parâmetros: o desenvolvimento físico; a idade de abertura vaginal e do primeiro estro, peso e avaliação histológica do útero e ovários; a duração do ciclo estral, o comportamento sexual e a fertilidade após acasalamentos naturais. RESULTADOS: O diabetes materno provocou, na prole feminina, retardo no desenvolvimento físico; diminuição do peso dos ovários e do número de folículos; a performance reprodutiva foi inferior à do grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: Concluiu-se que a exposição aos meios intrauterino e lactacional hiperglicêmicos provocou retardo no desenvolvimento físico e sexual e prejudicou a fisiologia reprodutiva de ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Lactation/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Reproduction/drug effects , Sexual Development/drug effects , Animals, Newborn/growth & development , Disease Models, Animal , Fertility/drug effects , Ovary/drug effects , Ovary/growth & development , Random Allocation , Streptozocin , Sexual Behavior, Animal/drug effects
12.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 32(12): 591-596, dez. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-581582

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: investigar o efeito da exposição à fumaça de cigarro durante os períodos de prenhez e lactação de ratas sobre o ganho de peso corpóreo e tecidual, parâmetros séricos e produção láctea, bem como a repercussão na prole, desde o nascimento até o período jovem adulto. MÉTODOS: 40 ratas Wistar prenhes foram divididas em quatro grupos: CG - não expostas à fumaça de cigarro e sacrificadas ao término da gestação; CL - não expostas à fumaça de cigarro e sacrificadas ao término da lactação; FG - expostas à fumaça de cigarro e sacrificadas ao término da gestação; FL - expostas à fumaça de cigarro e sacrificadas ao término da lactação. As proles foram separadas por sexo e dividas conforme o grupo de suas mães, sendo sacrificadas na fase jovem adulto. Nas ratas e nas proles foram avaliados peso tecidual, peso corpóreo e parâmetros séricos. Foi também analisada a produção láctea por filhote. RESULTADOS: o peso corpóreo de ratas estava diminuído no grupo FL durante a lactação (CL=267,0±7,2; FL=235,5±7,2 g*,*p<0,05). Não foi detectado tecido adiposo nos grupos CL e FL, porém, em FG, esse tecido estava reduzido comparado ao CG (CG=3,3±0,3; FG=2,4±0,3 g*, *p<0,05). As ratas expostas à fumaça de cigarro apresentaram maiores valores de glicemia (CG=113±17, CL=86±16, FG=177±21*, FL=178±23 mg/dL*, *p<0,05 CG versus FG e CL versus FL). Os grupos CL e FL apresentaram menor valor de colesterol-HDL, sem alteração no colesterol total. Por fim, as ratas expostas à fumaça de cigarro tiveram a produção láctea inferior comparadas às não expostas (CL=6,7±0,4, FL=5,4±0,3 g*, *p<0,05). Nas proles das ratas FG e FL observou-se diminuição do PC desde o nascimento até a fase jovem adulto, porém não houve alteração nos pesos de gastrocnêmio, fígado e coração de todos os grupos, e o tecido adiposo não foi detectado em proles fêmeas. Houve aumento na glicemia da prole de ratas expostas à fumaça de cigarro em ambos os sexos (machos: Pcg=107±10,5, Pcl=115±8,6, Pfg=148±16,8*, Pfl=172±11,2**; fêmeas: Pcg=109±27,2, Pcl=104±9,7, Pfg=134±20,0*, Pfl=126±13,3**; p<0,05 Pcg versus Pfg e Pcl versus Pfl). CONCLUSÕES: a exposição à fumaça de cigarro durante a prenhez e a lactação acarretou prejuízos morfométricos e séricos tanto nas mães como nas proles, o que persistiu até a fase jovem adulta.


PURPOSE: to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on body and tissue weight gain, serum parameters and milk yield during pregnancy and lactation in rats, and the impact on offspring from birth toil young adulthood. METHODS: 40 Wistar pregnant rats were randomly divided into: CG - not exposed to cigarette smoke and sacrificed at the end of pregnancy; CL - not exposed to cigarette smoke and sacrificed at the end of lactation; FG - exposed to cigarette smoke and sacrificed at the end of pregnancy; FL - exposed to cigarette smoke and sacrificed at the end of lactation. The offspring were separated by gender and divided according to their mothers' groups. Tissue weight, body weight and serum parameters were evaluated in rats and offspring. Milk yield per pup was calculated. RESULTS: body weight was decreased in FL during lactation (CL=267.0±7.2; FL=235.5±7.2 g*,*p<0.05). Adipose tissue was not detected in the CL and FL groups, and was reduced in FG compared to CG (CG=3.3±0.3; FG=2.4±0.3 g*, *p<0.05). Rats exposed to cigarette smoke had higher blood glucose levels (CG=113±17, CL=86±16, FG=177±21*, FL=178±23 mg/dL*, *p<0.05 CG versus FG e CL versus FL), CL and FL groups presented lower HDL-cholesterol with no change in total cholesterol. Finally, rats exposed to cigarette smoke had lower milk yield compared to unexposed rats (CL=6.7±0.4, FL=5.4±0.3 g*, *p<0.05). In offspring from the FG and FL groups, there was a decrease of body weight from birth to young adulthood, with no changes in gastrocnemius, liver or heart weights in any group, and adipose tissue was no detected in female offspring. There was an increase in blood glucose in offspring of both sexes from rats exposed to cigarette smoke (males: Pcg=107±10.5, Pcl=115±8.6, Pfg=148±16.8*, Pfl=172±11.2**; females: Pcg=109±27.2, Pcl=104±9.7, Pfg=134±20.0*, Pfl=126±13.3**; p<0.05 *Pcg versus Pfg and **Pcl versus Pfl). CONCLUSIONS: exposure to cigarette smoke provokes impairment of morphometric and serum parameters during pregnancy and lactation both in mothers and offspring, which is maintained during young adulthood.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Lactation/drug effects , Maternal Exposure , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Animals, Suckling , Rats, Wistar
13.
Veterinary Medical Journal. 2010; 58 (1): 31-48
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110761

ABSTRACT

Oxytetracycline [OTC] and diminazene aceturate are commonly administered to diseased ruminants with mixed bacterial and protozoal infections. We were therefore interested in characterizing the pharmacokinetics of a new long acting OTC formulation after IV or IM administration, and whether concurrent administration of diminazene altered the pharmacokinetics. Ten clinically healthy lactating female Baladi goats were used in a sequential order. Goats received the treatments in sequential order with a 2 week wash out period between each study: 1] a single dose of OTC [30 mg/kg BW] by TV or TM injection in non-treated and diminazine aceturate pre-treated goats [3.5 mg/kg BW] 2 hours before OTC treatment. Blood, milk and urine samples were collected periodically and OTC concentration was assayed using a microbiological method. The extent of protein binding in serum and milk was determined using an in vitro ultra filtration method and assayed using the same method as serum Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that serum OTC concentrations after IV administration could be fit to a two-compartment model, and that pre-treatment with diminazene aceturate increased serum OTC concentrations. Following IV injection [t[0.5] beta] was 25.9 +/- 5.1 and 24.5 +/- 2.7 hours, and [Vd[area]] was 22.0 +/- 0.8 and 23.7 +/- 0.4 L.kg[-1], in non-treated and diminazine pre-treated goats, respectively. The maximum OTC concentration after IM injection [1.25 +/- 0.02 micro g ml[-1] and 1.39 +0.04 micro g ml[-1] was obtained at 1.8 +0.3 hours and 2.4 +/- 0.4 hours in non-treated and diminazine pretreated goats, respectively. Moreover, effective milk concentrations were detected for 24 to 48 h, and effective urine concentrations were detected for 96 to 120 h after IM injection. The LA-OTC formulation was moderately bound to goat serum protein [46.0 +3.2% for OTC alone and 40.0 +/- 2.3% for OTC +diminazine]. The binding of the LA-OTC formulation was lower in milk [29.3 +/- 3.6%] than plasma. We conclude that concurrent administration of LA-OTC and diminazine aceturate alters the serum concentration-time profile and pharmacokinetics of a new long acting OTC formulation and could therefore potentially alter treatment efficacy


Subject(s)
Animals , Goats/growth & development , Lactation/drug effects , Diminazene/analogs & derivatives
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2009 Jan; 47(1): 53-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56162

ABSTRACT

A comparative pharmacokinetic study of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, sc) was conducted in probenecid-pretreated (70 mg/kg, orally 1.5 h prior to enrofloxacin administration) lactating goats to assess the effect of probenecid on the kinetics of enrofloxacin. Concentration of enrofloxacin in plasma, milk and urine was estimated by microbiological assay using Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). Minimum detection level of enrofloxacin was 0.01 microg/ml. The plasma log concentration versus time curve showed monophasic pattern and followed one compartment open model. Plasma drug concentration was significantly higher during 1-2 h in probenecid-pretreated group. Significantly higher drug concentration in milk was noted at most of the time points, while significantly lower urine drug concentration (0.083-1 h and 5-12 h) were obtained in probenecid-pretreated group. The kinetic parameters (A, B and 3) were significantly higher, while t(1/2)beta, MRT and Vd(area) were significantly lower in probenecid-pretreated group. Probenecid pretreatment decreased the urinary excretion of enrofloxacin, whereas enhanced excretion in milk which could be useful in cases of affections of udder in goats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage , Fluoroquinolones/analysis , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacokinetics , Goats/blood , Goats/physiology , Goats/urine , Injections, Subcutaneous , Lactation/drug effects , Milk/chemistry , Probenecid/administration & dosage , Probenecid/pharmacology
15.
Al-Azhar Medical Journal. 2009; 38 (4): 1061-1070
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-128709

ABSTRACT

Weanling 60 female mice were treated by at the dose of 375 mg/kg b.w/day of tartrazine till sexual maturity to gestation and lactation period. Body weight absolute and relative weight of the thymus gland and spleen were recorded. Also percentage of Thy 1.2[+] and PNA[+] in thymus and Thy 1.2[+], Ig[+] in spleen respectively during gestation days [15, 17, 19] and weekly during lactation period. The total body weight, absolute and relative weight of the thymus and spleen recorded a significant decrease during gestation. An increase in body weight was recorded as well no significant difference in absolute or relative weight was observed in lactation period. On the other hand, an significant decrease well be observed in PNA[+], Thy 1.2[+] and Ig[+], in both two organs


Subject(s)
Female , Animals, Laboratory , Lactation/drug effects , Tartrazine/adverse effects , Food Coloring Agents , Lymphocyte Subsets , Thymus Gland , Spleen , Mice , Female
16.
Veterinary Medical Journal. 2008; 56 (4): 367-385
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-90766

ABSTRACT

This study examined the mechanism by which calcium soaps of long chain of fatty acids [CSFA] and recombinant bovine Somatotropin [rbST] affect production and reproduction of Baladi goats [does]. The present study was carried out on 16 multiparous pregnant Baladi does aged 2.5 - 3 years. The treatments were initiated approximately four weeks before lambing until eight weeks post-lambing. Animals received 1 kg /head/day basal diet and allocated into four groups [n = 4 does /group]: without any treatment [control group I], plus 50 gm/head/day of CSFA [group II], 1 mg /kg body weight of rbST S/C injection every 14 days [group III], or a combination of CSFA supplementation and rbST injection [group IV]. It was found that a significantly shorter mean intervals [days] from lambing to first luteal activity and to conception and a higher percentage of ovarian cyclicity [100%] in group II and IV than in group I and III [75%]. Conception rate was also higher in group II and IV [100%] than group III [75%] and I [50%]. All kids of the treated groups had a significantly increase in their birth and weaning weights when compared with those from control group. There were significant increases in serum insulin in group II and IV and in serum leptin in all treated groups throughout the trial. Prolactin concentration was significantly higher in all treated groups than in the control one especially in rbST injected does. Also serum progesterone level showed a significant increase in all treated groups. Meanwhile, there was a significant effect of CSFA and rbST on T3 level during the first two weeks only of post-partum period and on T4 at day of lambing and during the second month of post-partum period. There was a significant increase in milk fat in all treated groups than control one, but showed highly significant increase in groups II and IV than in group III. Meanwhile, there was a non-significant effect of treatments on percentage of milk protein, total solids or solid not fat throughout the trial. In addition, there was a significant decrease in milk urea content in the three treated groups than in the control group. In conclusion, using of CSFA and rbST have a positive effect on lamb performance and milk composition. Meanwhile, CSFA supplementation has a more positive effect on reproductive performance, lamb performance and milk composition than injection of rbST. So, we recommend that using CSFA for does during late pregnancy and early post-partum period as a feed supplement at a level of 50 gm/head/day to improve reproductive performance, enhance metabolic profile, enhance lamb performance [in terms of birth weight, weaning weight and growth rate] and improve milk quantity and quality


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Lactation/drug effects , Growth Hormone/pharmacology , Fatty Acids , Reproduction , Fertilization , Insulin/blood , Leptin/blood , Prolactin/blood , Progesterone/blood , Milk , Calcium
17.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 51(6): 1000-1006, ago. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-464294

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a histomorfometria e a taxa de proliferação e apoptose da glândula mamária de ratas tratadas com tiroxina pela imuno-expressão de CDC-47 e caspase-3, respectivamente. Também foi avaliado o desenvolvimento dos filhotes de ratas tratadas com tiroxina. Foram utilizadas 36 ratas distribuídas em dois grupos, tratado com tiroxina e controle. Após 60 dias de tratamento com tiroxina, as ratas foram acasaladas. Seis animais/grupo foram sacrificados no 2° e 21° dias de lactação e no 5° dia após o desmame. Houve diferença significativa entre grupos apenas no quinto dia após o desmame. O tratamento com tiroxina aumentou a taxa de apoptose caracterizada pela maior expressão de caspase-3 nas células do epitélio mamário. As mães tratadas com tiroxina apresentaram comportamento alterado, mas não houve diferença significativa no que se refere aos cuidados com o filhote quanto a higienização e aquecimento. Levando-se em consideração o sexo e o tamanho da ninhada, os filhotes das ratas tratadas com tiroxina e controle não apresentaram diferença significativa de peso ao desmame. Conclui-se que a administração de baixas doses de tiroxina aumenta a taxa de apoptose, caracterizada pelo aumento da expressão de caspase-3 no epitélio mamário cinco dias após o desmame, mas não altera a taxa de proliferação celular e o comportamento materno.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate mammary gland histomorphometry and proliferation rate and apoptosis of thyroxine-treated rats by CDC-47 and caspase-3 immunoexpression. The development of thyroxine-treated rats offspring was also evaluated. Thirty-six female rats were used, distributed in two groups, treated and non-treated with thyroxine. After 60 days of treatment, with thyroxine, rats were mated. Six animals/group were sacrificed on the 2nd and 21st days of lactation and on the 5th day after weaning. A significant difference was observed between groups only on the 5th day after weaning. Thyroxine treatment increased apoptosis rate, which was characterized by a higher caspase-3 expression in mammary epithelial cells. Thyroxine-treated mothers presented changed behavior, but there was no significant difference regarding taking care of offspring, as for cleaning offspring and keeping them warm. Taking into account sex and size of offspring, those from control and thyroxine-treated mothers presented no significant difference of weight and weaning. In conclusion, administering low doses of thyroxine increases apoptosis rate, which is characterized by the increased caspase-3 immunoexpression in mammary epithelial cells 5 days after weaning. But does not affect proliferation rate and development of thyroxine-treated rats offspring.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Lactation/drug effects , Mammary Glands, Animal/drug effects , Thyroxine/pharmacology , Weaning , Breast Feeding , Case-Control Studies , /drug effects , /metabolism , Cell Cycle Proteins/drug effects , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Mammary Glands, Animal/pathology , Maternal Behavior/drug effects , Maternal Behavior/psychology , Rats, Wistar , Thyroxine/administration & dosage
18.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 83(3): 267-273, May-June 2007. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-454885

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Analisar o efeito da exposição à fumaça do cigarro na gestação e lactação sobre a produção láctea de ratas, ganho ponderal e crescimento linear dos filhotes. MÉTODOS: Três grupos de ratas foram estudados na gestação e lactação: 15 ratas expostas à fumaça do cigarro mais fluxo de ar, 18 ratas manipuladas, isto é, expostas ao fluxo de ar comprimido e 18 ratas controle. Os filhotes foram medidos e pesados a cada 5 dias, do primeiro ao 15° dia. A produção láctea foi estimada pelos métodos de captação de leite em 1 hora e ganho ponderal dos filhotes. RESULTADOS: Os filhotes das ratas expostos à fumaça do cigarro apresentaram menor peso e comprimento ao nascer. Durante a lactação, os filhotes das ratas expostas à fumaça e das apenas manipuladas ganharam menos peso que o grupo controle. A produção láctea pelo método de captação de leite em 1 hora foi reduzida no grupo exposto à fumaça e, em menor proporção, nas ratas do grupo manipulado. Pelo método do ganho ponderal dos filhotes, a produção láctea reduziu-se igualmente nos grupos exposto à fumaça e manipulado, comparados ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: A exposição à fumaça do cigarro comprometeu o peso e o comprimento ao nascer, mas, durante a lactação, também a manipulação comprometeu o ganho de peso dos filhotes. A manipulação e, mais acentuadamente, a exposição ao tabaco prejudicaram a produção de leite.


OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of exposure to cigarette smoke during gestation and lactation on the milk production of rats and on the weight gain and linear growth of their offspring. METHODS: Three groups of female rats were studied during gestation and lactation: 15 rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and air flow, 18 rats were handled, i.e., exposed to compressed air flow, and 18 rats were used as controls. Newborn rats were measured and weighed every 5 days, from the first to the 15th day. Milk production was estimated by 1-hour milk extraction and weight gained by litters. RESULTS: The offspring of rats exposed to cigarette smoke weighed less and were shorter at birth. During lactation, the offspring of rats exposed to smoke and also of rats that had merely been handled gained less weight than the control group. Milk production gauged by the 1-hour extraction method was reduced in the group exposed to smoke and, to a lesser extent, also in the group that had been handled. Milk production estimated according to the pups' weight gain was reduced equally in the groups exposed to smoke and merely handled, when compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to cigarette smoke compromised the birth weight and birth length, but during lactation, handling also compromised weight gain of offspring. Handling and, to a greater extent, exposure to tobacco, were prejudicial to milk production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Birth Weight/drug effects , Lactation/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Weight Gain/drug effects , Animals, Newborn , Rats, Wistar
19.
Pakistan Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2007; 15 (1-4): 45
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-84704
20.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 6(1): 67-78, 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-456752

ABSTRACT

Records of Holstein cows from the Dairy Records Processing Center at Raleigh, NC were edited to obtain three data sets: 65,720 first, 50,694 second, and 65,445 later lactations. Correlations among yield traits and somatic cell score were estimated with three different models: 1) bovine somatotropin (bST) administration ignored, 2) bST administration as a fixed effect and 3) administration of bST as part of the contemporary group (herd-year-month-bST). Heritability estimates ranged from 0.13 to 0.17 for milk, 0.12 to 0.20 for fat, 0.14 to 0.16 for protein yields, and 0.08 to 0.09 for somatic cell score. Estimates were less for later than first lactations. Estimates of genetic correlations among yields ranged from 0.35 to 0.85 with no important differences between estimates with the 3 models. Estimates for lactation 2 agreed with estimates for lactation 1. Estimates of genetic correlations for later lactations were generally greater than for lactations 1 and 2 except between milk and protein yields. Estimates of genetic correlations between yields and somatic cell score were mostly negative or small (-0.45 to 0.11). Estimates of environmental correlations among yield traits were similar with all models (0.77 to 0.97). Estimates of environmental correlations between yields and somatic cell score were negative (-0.22 to -0.14). Estimates of phenotypic correlations among yield traits ranged from 0.70 to 0.95. Estimates of phenotypic correlations between yields and somatic cell score were small and negative. For all three data sets and all traits, no important differences in estimates of genetic parameters were found for the two models that adjusted for bST and the model that did not


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Cattle/genetics , Growth Hormone/pharmacology , Lactation/genetics , Quantitative Trait, Heritable , Dairying , Environment , Fats/analysis , Genetic Variation , Linear Models , Lactation/drug effects , Lactation/physiology , Milk/chemistry , Regression Analysis , Seasons
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