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Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 941-948, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828200


Abstract In this study, physiological aspects of Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 growing in a new, all-animal free medium in bioreactors were evaluated aiming at the production of this important lactic acid bacterium. Cultivations were performed in submerged batch bioreactors using the Plackett-Burman methodology to evaluate the influence of temperature, aeration rate and stirring speed as well as the concentrations of liquid acid protein residue of soybean, soy peptone, corn steep liquor, and raw yeast extract. The results showed that all variables, except for corn steep liquor, significantly influenced biomass production. The best condition was applied to bioreactor cultures, which produced a maximal biomass of 17.87 g L-1, whereas lactic acid, the most important lactic acid bacteria metabolite, peaked at 37.59 g L-1, corresponding to a productivity of 1.46 g L-1 h-1. This is the first report on the use of liquid acid protein residue of soybean medium for L. plantarum growth. These results support the industrial use of this system as an alternative to produce probiotics without animal-derived ingredients to obtain high biomass concentrations in batch bioreactors.

Soybean Proteins , Culture Media , Lactobacillus plantarum/growth & development , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolism , Biomass , Lactic Acid/biosynthesis , Soybean Proteins/metabolism , Soybean Proteins/chemistry , Bioreactors , Culture Media/chemistry , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Fermentation , Hydrolysis
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 16(4): 8-8, July 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684023


Background: Lactobacillus sp. are probiotic microorganisms, and some of them are able to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) via the bio-hydrogenation of linoleic acid (LA). Both CLA and LA are polyunsaturated fatty acids commonly used in the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol, and cancer, among other ailments. The carbon source is one variable that can affect the growth and characteristics of these bacteria. Molecules called prebiotics are known to benefit human health by stimulating the growth and activity of probiotic bacteria present in the intestinal microflora. The aim of this study was to evaluate how different oligosaccharides affect the growth and fatty acid profile of Lactobacillus plantarum (NRRL - B4496). L. plantarum cultivation was performed in Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) medium, and the original carbon source (glucose) in this medium was partially or totally replaced by an oligosaccharide (isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) or gentio-oligosaccharide (GTO)). Then, the biomass concentration and fatty acid profile were determined using spectrophotometry and gas chromatography, respectively. Results: When 50% of the glucose in the MRS medium was replaced with IMO, the maximum growth was 2.6 g/L at 37ºC. Under the same culture conditions, the incorporation of GTO only produced 2 g/L of biomass. At 45ºC, the growth of the bacterial culture was lower than that observed at 37ºC, reaching only 0.4 g/L. When cultivated at 37ºC in a mixture of glucose and GTO (1:1), CLA (34%, c9t11) was obtained from cells of L. plantarum. However, when the cultivation was performed at 45ºC, CLA was not obtained. When IMO was used, differences in CLA content were not observed between L. plantarum cultivated with glucose or with IMO present; however, vaccenic acid was produced. Conclusions: Lactobacillus plantarum grow well when a mixture of IMO and glucose is used as the carbon source. However, this mixture does not improve the CLA content, most likely due to high enzymatic activity that promotes the conversion of CLA to vaccenic acid. Additionally, GTO is likely less readily metabolized by this strain. Thus, the enzymatic activity is likely lower and less CLA is converted to vaccenic acid, resulting in an accumulation of CLA.

Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Lactobacillus plantarum/growth & development , Fatty Acids/analysis , Biomass , Linoleic Acid , Probiotics , Culture Media , Prebiotics , Hydrogenation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(4): 1406-1413, Oct.-Dec. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665826


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of Pseudomonas fluorescens (10² and 10(6)log10 cfu/ml)and Lactobacillus plantarum (10² and 10(4)log10 cfu/ml)on the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef loins. Beef loins inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and P. fluorescens were aerobically stored for 7 days at 4 ºC, while those inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. plantarum were vacuum packaged and stored for 8 weeks at 4 ºC. Aerobic Plate Counts (APC), E. coli O157:H7 and either P. fluorescens or L. plantarum counts were determined at different storage intervals. For the aerobically packaged beef loins, E. coli O157:H7 was detected throughout the 7 day storage period regardless of the P. fluorescens level in the inoculum. For the vacuum packaged beef loins, similar inoculum levels of E. coli O157:H7 and L. plantarum allowed E. coli O157:H7 to survive until week 5 of storage, while a higher inoculum level of L. plantarum inhibited E. coli O157:H7 from week 3. Once fresh beef has been contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, the level of P. fluorescens in the background flora does not inhibit its survival and growth. However, under vacuum storage, the application of L. plantarum as a biopreservative inhibits the survival of E. coli O157:H7 on beef. The higher the level of L. plantarum in the system, the earlier the onset of the inhibition. Farmers and abattoirs have to strengthen preventive strategies to eliminate contamination of beef carcasses with E. coli O157:H7.

Animals , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Food Analysis , Food Preservation , Lactobacillus plantarum/growth & development , Lactobacillus plantarum/isolation & purification , Product Packaging , Pseudomonas fluorescens/growth & development , Pseudomonas fluorescens/isolation & purification , Food Microbiology , Methods , Swine
Braz. j. microbiol ; 39(2): 337-343, Apr.-June 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-487715


The ethanol production in Brazil is carried out by fed-batch or continuous process with cell recycle, in such way that bacterial contaminants are also recycled and may be troublesome due to the substrate competition. Addition of sulphuric acid when inoculum cells are washed can control the bacterial growth or alternatively biocides are used. This work aimed to verify the effect of chlorine dioxide, a well-known biocide for bacterial decontamination of water and equipments, against contaminant bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides) from alcoholic fermentation, through the method of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), as well as its effect on the industrial yeast inoculum. Lower MIC was found for B. subtilis (10 ppm) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (50 ppm) than for Lactobacillus fermentum (75 ppm) and Lactobacillus plantarum (125 ppm). Additionally, these concentrations of chlorine dioxide had similar effects on bacteria as 3 ppm of Kamoran® (recommended dosage for fermentation tanks), exception for B. subtilis, which could not be controlled at this Kamoran® dosage. The growth of industrial yeasts was affected when the concentration of chlorine dioxide was higher than 50 ppm, but the effect was slightly dependent on the type of yeast strain. Smooth yeast colonies (dispersed cells) seemed to be more sensitive than wrinkled yeast colonies (clustered cells/pseudohyphal growth), both isolated from an alcohol-producing unit during the 2006/2007 sugar cane harvest. The main advantage in the usage of chlorine dioxide that it can replace antibiotics, avoiding the selection of resistant populations of microorganisms.

A produção de etanol no Brasil é atualmente realizada pelo processo de fermentação em batelada alimentada ou contínuo, com reciclo de células de leveduras, de forma que contaminantes bacterianos são também reciclados e podem causar problemas devido à competição pelo mesmo substrato. O controle bacteriano é feito pela adição de ácido sulfúrico na lavagem das células do fermento ou utilizando-se biocidas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar o efeito do dióxido de cloro, um biocida muito utilizado para a descontaminação da água e equipamentos, contra bactérias contaminantes da fermentação alcoólica (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum e Leuconostoc mesenteroides), através do método da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), assim como seu efeito sobre o fermento industrial. Valores menores de CIM foram encontrados para Bacillus subtilis (10 ppm) e Leuconostoc mesenteroides (50 ppm) do que para Lactobacillus fermentum (75 ppm) e Lactobacillus plantarum (125 ppm). Estas concentrações tiveram o mesmo efeito inibidor que 3 ppm de Kamoran®, com exceção de B. subtilis, no qual não se observou inibição de crescimento à esta concentração. As leveduras industriais apresentaram inibição no crescimento em concentrações superiores a 50 ppm, porém esta pareceu ser dependente do tipo de linhagem de levedura. Colônias cremosas (células dispersas) foram ligeiramente mais sensíveis que as colônias rugosas (células agrupadas/pseudohifas), ambas isoladas de uma unidade produtora de álcool durante a safra de cana-de-açúcar 2006/2007. A principal vantagem na utilização deste produto está na eliminação do uso de antibióticos, evitando a geração de populações resistentes de microrganismos.

Anti-Bacterial Agents , Chlorine Dioxide/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Industrial Microbiology , Lactobacillus plantarum/growth & development , Lactobacillus plantarum/isolation & purification , Yeasts/growth & development , Therapeutic Irrigation , Culture Media , Fermentation , Methods
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 39(3): 170-176, jul.-sep. 2007. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-634554


Different natural antimicrobials affected viability of bacterial contaminants isolated at critical steps during a beer production process. In the presence of 1 mg/ml chitosan and 0.3 mg/ml hops, the viability of Escherichia coli in an all malt barley extract wort could be reduced to 0.7 and 0.1% respectively after 2 hour- incubation at 4 °C. The addition of 0.0002 mg/ml nisin, 0.1 mg/ml chitosan or 0.3 mg/ml hops, selectively inhibited growth of Pediococcus sp. in more than 10,000 times with respect to brewing yeast in a mixed culture. In the presence of 0.1mg ml chitosan in beer, no viable cells of the thermoresistant strain Bacillus megaterium were detected. Nisin, chitosan and hops increased microbiological stability during storage of a local commercial beer inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum or Pediococcus sp. isolated from wort. Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) (8 kV/cm, 3 pulses) application enhanced antibacterial activity of nisin and hops but not that of chitosan. The results herein obtained suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds in isolation or in combination with PEF would be effective to control bacterial contamination during beer production and storage.

Diferentes antimicrobianos naturales disminuyeron la viabilidad de bacterias contaminantes aisladas en etapas críticas del proceso de producción de cerveza. En un extracto de malta, el agregado de 1 mg/ml de quitosano y de 0,3 mg ml de lúpulo permitió reducir la viabilidad de Escherichia coli a 0,7 y 0,1%, respectivamente, al cabo de 2 horas de incubación a 4 °C. El agregado de 0,0002 mg/ml de nisina, 0,1 mg/ml de quitosano o de 0,3 mg/ml de lúpulo inhibió selectivamente (10.000 veces más) el crecimiento de Pediococcus sp. respecto de la levadura de cerveza en un cultivo mixto. El agregado de 0,1 mg/ml de quitosano permitió disminuir la viabilidad de una cepa bacteriana termorresistente, Bacillus megaterium, hasta niveles no detectables. Por otra parte, el agregado de nisina, quitosano y lúpulo aumentó la estabilidad microbiológica durante el almacenamiento de cervezas inoculadas con Lactobacillus plantarum y Pediococcus sp. aislados de mosto de cerveza. La aplicación de campos eléctricos pulsantes (CEP) (3 pulsos de 8kV/cm) aumentó el efecto antimicrobiano de la nisina y del lúpulo, pero no el del quitosano. Los resultados obtenidos indicarían que el uso de antimicrobianos naturales en forma individual o en combinación con CEP puede constituir un procedimiento efectivo para el control de la contaminación bacteriana durante el proceso de elaboración y almacenamiento de la cerveza.

Bacillus megaterium/isolation & purification , Beer/microbiology , Chitosan/pharmacology , Electromagnetic Fields , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Humulus , Industrial Microbiology/methods , Lactobacillus plantarum/isolation & purification , Nisin/pharmacology , Pediococcus/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Bacillus megaterium/drug effects , Bacillus megaterium/growth & development , Bacillus megaterium/radiation effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Escherichia coli/radiation effects , Fermentation , Food Preservation , Lactobacillus plantarum/drug effects , Lactobacillus plantarum/growth & development , Lactobacillus plantarum/radiation effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pediococcus/drug effects , Pediococcus/growth & development , Pediococcus/radiation effects , Temperature
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 3(3): 432-440, 2004. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-482166


Human consumption of soy-derived products has been limited by the presence of non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO), such as the alpha-galactooligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose. Most mammals, including man, lack pancreatic alpha-galactosidase (alpha-Gal), which is necessary for the hydrolysis of these sugars. However, such NDO can be fermented by gas-producing microorganisms present in the cecum and large intestine, which in turn can induce flatulence and other gastrointestinal disorders in sensitive individuals.The use of microorganisms expressing alpha-Gal is a promising solution to the elimination of NDO before they reach the large intestine. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria engineered to degrade NDO have been constructed and are being used as a tool to evaluate this solution. The alpha-Gal structural genes from Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC8014 (previously characterized in our laboratory) and from guar have been cloned and expressed in Lactococcus lactis. The gene products were directed to different bacterial compartments to optimize their possible applications. The alpha-Gal-producing strains are being evaluated for their efficiency in degrading raffinose and stachyose: i) in soymilk fermentation when used as starters and ii) in situ in the upper gastrointestinal tract when administered to animals orally, as probiotic preparations. The expected outcomes and possible complications of this project are discussed.

Animals , Digestion , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolism , Lactococcus lactis/metabolism , Soy Milk/chemistry , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Raffinose/metabolism , alpha-Galactosidase/genetics , Cultured Milk Products , Fermentation , Food, Genetically Modified , Lactobacillus plantarum/growth & development , Lactococcus lactis/growth & development , Probiotics , Rodentia , alpha-Galactosidase/metabolism