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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(2): 474-482, mar.-abr. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-833963


The present study aimed to identify the climate condition parameters that are associated with the occurrence of antimicrobial and macrocyclic lactone residues in bulk tank milk using a multivariate principal components analysis (PCA). A total of 132 raw milk samples were collected at dairy farms in Minas Gerais State in Brazil and analyzed for 35 analytes, comprising macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode spectrometry. Of the 132 samples, 34 (25.76%) bulk tank milk samples were positive for at least one analyte. PCA showed that antimicrobial residues in bulk tank milk occurred less frequently on days with a higher average temperature, maximum temperature and temperature-humidity index. In contrast, relative humidity was inversely associated with antimicrobial residues in raw milk. The PCA showed that daily milk production was also related to macrocyclic lactone residues, while rainfall showed an inverse association. Thus, some climate conditions, such as average temperature, maximum temperature and temperature-humidity index, can predict the moments with lower risk of occurrence of antimicrobial residues in bulk tank milk, in contrast to relative humidity. Furthermore, the risk of macrocyclic lactone residues in bulk tank milk was higher in months with less rainfall.(AU)

O presente trabalho objetivou identificar fatores climáticos associados à ocorrência de resíduos de antimicrobianos e lactonas macrocíclicas em amostras de leite de tanque por análise multivariada de componentes principais (ACP). Para o presente trabalho, 132 amostras de leite cru foram coletadas em fazendas leiteiras localizadas no estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil) e analisadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e espectrometria de massas in tandem para detecção de 35 analitos, incluindo antimicrobianos e lactonas macrocíclicas. Das 132 amostras de leite analisadas, detectou-se pelo menos um analito em 34 (25,76%) amostras. A ACP demonstrou que a presença de resíduos de antimicrobianos no leite de tanque ocorreu menos frequentemente nos dias com maior temperatura média, temperatura máxima e índice de temperatura e umidade. Por outro lado, a umidade relativa foi inversamente associada à presença de resíduos antimicrobianos no leite. A ACP demonstrou associação entre a presença de resíduos de lactonas macrocíclicas no leite e a produção diária de leite, e a presença de resíduos de lactonas macrocíclicas ocorreu menos frequentemente nos meses com maiores índices pluviométricos. Dessa forma, conclui-se que alguns índices climáticos, como temperatura média, temperatura máxima e índice de temperatura e umidade, podem predizer períodos com maior risco de ocorrência de resíduos de antimicrobianos, em contraste com a umidade relativa. Além disso, o risco de resíduos de lactonas macrocíclicas no leite de tanque foi maior nos meses com menores índices pluviométricos.(AU)

Anthelmintics/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents , Climate Change , Drug Residues/analysis , Lactones/analysis , Milk/chemistry , Cattle , Multivariate Analysis , Time Factors , Veterinary Drugs/analysis
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(2): 97-104, fev. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-833981


A survey of veterinary drug residues in bulk milk tank from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was carried out through a broad scope analysis. Here, 132 raw milk samples were collected at 45 dairy farms in Minas Gerais from August 2009 to February 2010, and analyzed for 42 analytes, comprising pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Within all milk samples, at least one veterinary drug residue was identified in 40 milk samples (30.30%) by confirmatory tests, whereas 16 samples (12.12%) showed the presence of at least two residues. With regard to the Brazilian maximum residue levels, 11 milk samples (8.33%) were non-compliant according to Brazilian Legislation. The veterinary drugs detected in the non-compliant milk samples include penicillin V (one sample), abamectin (one sample) and cypermethrin (nine samples). Furthermore, the antibacterial screening methods failed to identify most of the positive samples that were detected by confirmatory tests, leading to a large discrepancy between the screening and confirmatory antimicrobial tests. Thus, the present study indicated that the veterinary drugs residues still represents a great concern for the milk production chain.(AU)

Avaliou-se a presença de 42 analitos, incluindo piretróides, lactonas macrocíclicas e antimicrobianos em 132 amostras de leite de tanque proveniente de 45 propriedades leiteiras localizadas no Estado de Minas Gerais. Para tal, utilizou-se a cromatografia líquida acoplada a espectrofotometria de massas tandem e cromatografia gasosa com detector com captura de elétrons. Dentre todas as amostras de leite, 40 (30,30%) amostras de leite de tanque apresentaram a presença de pelo menos um analito, enquanto 16 amostras (12,12%) de leite demonstraram a presença de pelo menos dois analitos. Considerando os limites estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, 11 amostras de leite (8,33%) seriam consideradas como não conforme. Ademais, os testes de triagem para detecção de antimicrobianos no leite não conseguiram identificar a maioria das amostras positivas nos testes confirmatórios, levando a grande discrepância entre estes testes. Desta forma, os resultados do presente estudo indicam que os períodos de descarte do leite, especialmente para piretróides, não foram plenamente respeitados por todos os produtores de leite. Além disto, uma discrepância entre os resultados dos testes confirmatórios e os testes de triagem foi observada.(AU)

Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Drug Residues/analysis , Lactones/analysis , Milk/chemistry , Pyrethrins/analysis , Anthelmintics , Cattle , Pesticides , Veterinary Drugs/analysis
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-6, 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950821


BACKGROUND: Limonoids are highly oxygenated compounds with a prototypical structure. Their occurrence in the plant kingdom is mainly confined to plant families of Meliaceae and Rutaceae. Owing to their wide range of pharmacological and therapeutic properties, this study was aimed at investigating the potential nitric oxide (NO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and the cytotoxicity of three limonoids: trichilia lactone D5 (1), rohituka 3 (2) and dregeanin DM4 (3), isolated from Trichilia welwitschii C.DC. RESULTS: Results indicated that the three limonoids had low cytotoxicity towards Vero cells with LC50 values ranging from 89.17 to 75.82 µg/mL. Compounds (2) and (3) had lower cytotoxicity compared to puromycin and doxorubicin used as reference cytotoxic compounds. Compound (1) (LC50 of 23.55 µg/mL) had good antiproliferative activity against RAW 264.7 cancer cells. At the lowest concentration tested (0.5 µg/mL), compound (2) and (3) released the lowest amount of nitric oxide (2.97 and 2.93 µM, respectively). The three limonoids had anti-AChE activity with IC50 values ranged of 19.13 µg/mL for (1), 34.15 µg/mL for (2) and 45.66 µg/mL for (3), compared to galantamine (IC50 of 8.22 µg/mL) used as positive control. CONCLUSION: The limonoid compounds studied in this work inhibited nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated macrophages and had anti-AChE activity. Trichilia lactone D5 had potential antiproliferative activity against RAW 264.7 cancer cells. The limonoids had low cytotoxicity towards Vero cells lines. This study provided further examples of the importance of limonoids compounds as potential AChE inhibitors and anti-inflammatory agents targeting the inhibition of NO production.

Animals , Mice , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Meliaceae/chemistry , Limonins/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Vero Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Lipopolysaccharides , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Limonins/isolation & purification , Limonins/analysis , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , RAW 264.7 Cells , Lactones/analysis , Lactones/pharmacology , Lethal Dose 50 , Macrophages/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/analysis
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(2): 275-282, jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711788


The sesquiterpene lactones lychnopholide and eremantholide C were isolated from Lychnophora trichocarpha Spreng. (Asteraceae), which is a plant species native to the Brazilian Savannah or Cerrado and popularly known as arnica. Sesquiterpene lactones are known to present a variety of biological activities including antitumor activity. The present paper reports on the evaluation of the in vitro antitumor activity of lychnopholide and eremantholide C, in the National Cancer Institute, USA (NCI, USA), against a panel of 52 human tumor cell lines of major human tumors derived from nine cancer types. Lychnopholide disclosed significant activity against 30 cell lines of seven cancer types with IC100 (total growth concentration inhibition) values between 0.41 µM and 2.82 µM. Eremantholide C showed significant activity against 30 cell lines of eight cancer types with IC100 values between 21.40 µM and 53.70 µM. Lychnopholide showed values of lethal concentration 50% (LC50) for 30 human tumor cell lines between 0.72 and 10.00 µM, whereas eremantholide C presented values of LC50 for 21 human tumor cell lines between 52.50 and 91.20 µM. Lychnopholide showed an interesting profile of antitumor activity. The α-methylene-γ-lactone present in the structure of lychnopholide, besides two α,β- unsaturated carbonyl groups, might be responsible for the better activity and higher cytotoxicity of this compound in relation to eremantholide C.

As lactonas sesquiterpênicas licnofolida e eremantolida C foram isoladas de Lychnophora trichocarpha Spreng. (Asteraceae), espécie vegetal nativa do cerrado brasileiro e popularmente conhecida por arnica brasileira. As lactonas sesquiterpênicas são conhecidas por apresentarem variadas atividades biológicas, incluindo atividade antitumoral. O presente artigo relata a avaliação da atividade antitumoral in vitro de licnofolida e eremantolida C frente a um painel de 52 linhagens de células tumorais, provenientes de tumores humanos referentes a nove principais tipos de câncer. Os testes foram conduzidos no National Cancer Institute, USA (NCI, USA). Licnofolida apresentou atividade significativa frente a 30 linhagens de células tumorais referentes a sete tipos de câncer, com valores de CI100 (concentração que inibe 100% do crescimento celular) entre 0,41 µM e 2,82 µM. Eremantolida C mostrou atividade significativa frente a 30 linhagens de células tumorais referentes a oito tipos de câncer, com valores de CI100 entre 21,40 µM e 53,70 µM. Licnofolida apresentou valores de concentração letal 50% (CL50) para 30 linhagens de células tumorais humanas entre 0,72 e 10,00 µM, enquanto eremantolida C mostrou valores de CL50 para 21 linhagens entre 52,50 e 91,20 µM. Licnofolida apresentou um interessante perfil de atividade antitumoral. A presença na estrutura química da licnofolida de uma α-metileno-γ-lactona, além de dois grupos ésteres α,β-insaturados, podem ser responsáveis pela melhor atividade e maior citotoxicidade desta substância em relação à eremantolida C.

Asteraceae/classification , Lactones/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation
Braz. j. microbiol ; 41(1): 91-96, Jan.-Mar. 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-531739


The proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens 07A was investigated, and was optimal on tryptone-calcium medium. N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) were not detected on supernatants of late-exponential and stationary-phase culture broths. Synthetic AHLs or bacterial cell extracts added to the medium did not influence growth or proteolytic activity suggesting that quorum sensing might not regulate protease production in this strain.

Lactones/analysis , Milk , Peptide Hydrolases/analysis , Pseudomonas fluorescens/growth & development , Pseudomonas fluorescens/isolation & purification , Quorum Sensing , Enzyme Activation , Food Samples , Methods , Methods
Braz. j. microbiol ; 41(1): 227-234, Jan.-Mar. 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-531756


Biofouling of membranes demands costly periodic cleaning and membrane replacement. A sustainable and environmentally friendly solution for maintenance is not available and would be of great interest for many purposes including economical. As complex biofilm formation by environmental strains is the major cause of biofouling and biofilm formation in most cases are controlled by N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)mediated Quorum Sensing (QS). An effort was made to understand the appropriateness of 2(5H)-furanone, to use against biofouling of membranes. QS inhibition activity by 2(5H)-furanone was studied using bioindicator strains and known AHLs of different acyl chain lengths. The biofilm inhibition was studied by growth analysis on polystyrene plate of Aeromonas hyrdrophila, an environmental biofilm strain isolated from a bio-fouled reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. Results showed a QS inhibition activity against a wide range of AHLs and also biofilm formation by 2(5H)-furanone, which is believed to act as a potential quorum inhibition agent in a bacterial biofilm community.

Biofilms/growth & development , Membrane Filters/analysis , Furans/analysis , Furans/isolation & purification , Lactones/analysis , Polystyrenes/analysis , Polystyrenes/isolation & purification , Methods , Methods , Water Purification
Ginecol. obstet. Méx ; 63(1): 19-22, ene. 1995. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-151871


Dentro de la terapia sistémica empleada para el tratamiento de cáncer mamario, ha sido extensamente utilizada la quimioterapia, la cual ha sido apoyada por muy diversos compuestos en cuanto a origen y composición química. Sin embargo, todos ellos, producen diversos efectos colaterales adeversos, dignos de tomarse en cuenta. Por este hecho, precisa estudiar nuevas posibilidades en donde el fármaco aplicado, actúa selectivamente sobre célula tumoral, sin lesionar tejido sano. Para su efecto, se estudió una gamma lactona llamada "Helenalina" y sus derivados metálicos He-Co, He-Hg y He-Cu, cuya composición química les permite reaccionar con residuos -SH presentes en el receptor de la célula tumoral, los cuales al intercalarse por una reacción previa, podría modificar su composición estructural y finalemente su afinidad por la hormona. Se investigó el efecto de inhibición para la formación del complejo estradiol-receptor en el citosol de tejido tumoral mamario empleando Helenalina a 12 n M y 126 n M, obteniéndose un efecto de inhibición de 14 por ciento y 56 por ciento respectivamente. Cuando se estudió He-Co, He-Hg y He-Cu este efecto se vió aumentado, obteniéndose 11 por ciento, 10.5 por ciento y 60 por ciento con 12 n m y 44.5 por ciento, 74.5 por ciento y 86 por ciento con 126 n M respectivamente

Humans , Female , Adenocarcinoma/physiopathology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Estradiol/biosynthesis , Estradiol/pharmacokinetics , Lactones/analysis , Lactones/chemical synthesis , Lactones/therapeutic use , Receptors, Estradiol/drug effects , Tumor Stem Cell Assay , Tumor Stem Cell Assay/instrumentation