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1.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(1): 1-15, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284373

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: el agua de los lagos volcánicos no es estéril, en ella se ha adaptado a través de milenios una microbiota con diversas capacidades metabólicas. La diversidad microbiana de los lagos volcánicos en Ecuador ha sido poco estudiada y aún se desconoce su abundancia y riqueza. OBJETIVO: el objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer la calidad microbiológica del agua del lago Quilotoa, situado en la Provincia de Cotopaxi-Ecuador. MATERIALES Y METODOS: se realizaron dos muestreos durante el año 2019, recolectando un total 32 muestras. La calidad microbiológica se cuantifico utilizando la técnica de filtración por membrana en agar R2A para bacterias heterótrofas, agar eosina azul de metileno para coliformes, agar manitol salado para Staphylococcus, agar cetrimide para Pseudomonas y agar Sabouraud con cloranfenicol para hongos. RESULTADOS: los resultados promedios fueron para bacterias heterótrofas de 2,00 x 102 UFC/mL; Pseudomonas 7,00x 10 UFC/mL, Staphylococcus 3,80 x 10 UFC/mL y hongos 1,40 x 10 UFC/mL. No se detectó la presencia de bacterias coliformes. CONCLUSIONES: los grupos microbianos presentes en bajo número son indicativos de una microbiota característica adaptada a las condiciones fisicoquímicas de este lago. Se concluye que se trata de un lago con una población microbiana escasa lo que indicaría una buena calidad microbiológica.


INTRODUCTION: the water of volcanic lakes is not sterile, native microbiota shows different metabolic capabilities established over millennia. The microbial diversity of volcanic lakes in Ecuador have been little studied and their abundance and richness are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: the objective of this study was to know the microbiological quality of water of Lake Quilotoa, located in the Province of Cotopaxi-Ecuador. MATERIALS AND METHODS: two samplings were carried out during 2019, collecting a total of 32 samples. Microbiological quality was quantified using the membrane filtration technique on R2A agar for heterotrophic bacteria, eosin blue methylene agar for coliforms, salty mannitol agar for Staphylococcus, cetrimide agar for Pseudomonas and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol for fungi. RESULTS: the average results were for heterotrophic bacteria 2.00 x 102 CFU/mL, Pseudomonas 7.00 x 10 CFU/mL, Staphylococcus 3.80 x 10 CFU/mL and fungi 1.40 x 10 CFU/mL. The presence of coliform was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: the microbial groups present in low numbers are indicative of a characteristic microbiota adapted to the physicochemical conditions of this lake. It is concluded that it is a lake with a few microbial populations, which might indicate a good microbiological quality.


Subject(s)
Lakes , Microbiological Techniques , Coliforms
2.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(1): 3-14, jan./jun. 2021. Ilus, Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247805

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: quantificar a abundância e a biomassa de moluscos bentônicos no Lago Igapó I, Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. Material e Métodos: foram realizadas duas coletas no Lago Igapó I, a primeira em junho de 2015 e a segunda em fevereiro de 2016. O substrato (incluindo os moluscos incrustados) foi amostrado utilizando um quadrante com área de 1 m2, onde 10 amostragens foram realizadas entre três pontos distintos do lago. Os moluscos capturados foram anestesiados e eutanasiados por superexposição ao gelo. Posteriormente, o material foi quantificado em abundância (n) e biomassa total (kg), e armazenado em tambores contendo formol 4% tamponado com carbonato de cálcio. Resultados: foram identificadas cinco espécies de moluscos, sendo três não nativas (Limnoperna fortunei, Corbicula fluminea e Melanoides tuberculata), uma nativa (Aylacostoma cf. tenuilabris) e um indivíduo do gênero Pomacea. Em ambas as coletas, L. fortunei compreendeu aproximadamente 90% da abundância e biomassa total. A partir da densidade média de L. fortunei e a área total do Lago Igapó I, estimou-se que a população total de mexilhões-dourados pode chegar a 633 milhões de indivíduos, correspondendo a 638 toneladas de biomassa. Conclusão: é evidente a dominância da espécie invasora L. fortunei no Lago Igapó I, onde esta pode causar diversos efeitos negativos, como alterações no ciclo de nutrientes, redução de espécies nativas, introdução de parasitos, bioacumulação de metais pesados na cadeia trófica, diminuição da qualidade da água para uso humano e obstrução de encanamentos com risco de alagamentos. Desta forma, recomenda-se uma imediata ação de manejo neste ambiente para retirada de indivíduos da espécie, com consequente redução de sua abundância.(AU)


Objective: quantify the abundance and biomass of benthic molluscs in Igapó Lake I, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Material and Methods: two samplings was made at Igapó Lake I, first in June 2015 and then in February 2016. The substrate (including all embedded molluscs) was sampled using a 1 m2 quadrant, where 10 samples were taken between three distinct points from the lake. All molluscs captured were anesthetized and euthanized by overexposure to ice. Subsequently, the material was quantified in quantity (n) and total biomass (kg), and stored in barrels containing 4% formaldehyde buffered with calcium carbonate. Results: five species of molluscs were identified, three non native species (Limnoperna fortunei, Corbicula fluminea and Melanoides tuberculata), one native (Aylacostoma cf. tenuilabris) and one Pomacea sp. In both sampling, L. fortunei comprised approximately 90% of the abundance and total biomass. From the average density of L. fortunei and the total area of the Igapó Lake I, it was estimated that the total population of golden mussels can reach 633 million individuals, corresponding to 638 tons of biomass. Conclusion: the dominance of the invasive species L. fortunei in Igapó Lake I is evident, where it can cause several negative effects, such as alterations in the nutrient cycle, reduction of native species, introduction of parasites, bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, decreased quality of water for human use and obstruction of pipes obstruction with risk of overflow. Therefore, we recommend an immediate management action in this environment in order to remove individuals of this species and, consequently, to reduce its abundance. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Lakes , Bivalvia , Introduced Species , Parasites , Nutrients , Mollusca
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 97-101, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089289

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main objective of the present study was to promote some adaptations to the standard methodology used in the analysis of Cladocera subfossils. The samples used in this study were collected at Lagoa dos Coutos, a temporary lake located on an outcrop with iron-rich duricrust in the Serra do Gandarela (Minas Gerais, Brazil). The sediment from this pond, typical of temporary ecosystems in the region, is characterized by rigid concretions that are difficult to dissolve in aqueous media, making it difficult to visualize and analyze subfossils taxa. Sediment samples were prepared according to the standard methodology used in paleolimological studies and the methodological adaptations proposed in the present study, which included the addition of 1 mg of Kochia scoparia, a palynological marker used to estimate subfossil density, as well as the addition of hydrofluoric acid (HF) to oxidize silicate materials. The samples prepared according to the new methodological procedure improved Cladocera subfossil visualization, facilitating the taxonomic analysis of the species. The samples submitted to the standard methodological procedure had a significantly higher mean of sediment particles (mean of 84.2 sediment particles) and 70% more residues compared to the samples prepared with the newly proposed methodology (mean of 22.1 sediment particles). Absolute data on the temporal variation of the density of Cladocera subfossils was obtained by using the palinological marker K. scoparia, which showed higher densities of subfossils in more recent, humid periods (112,000 subfossils/cm3 at 5 cm, equivalent to 3,500 years BP). The results indicate that the new methodology can contribute to advances in paleolimnological studies of temporary aquatic ecosystems, whose lake histories are rarely investigated, despite their ecological relevance as ecosystems that indicate environmental and climatic changes.


Resumo O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi promover algumas adaptações na metodologia padrão utilizadas para a análise de subfósseis de Cladocera. As amostras utilizadas nessa pesquisa foram coletadas na Lagoa dos Coutos, uma lagoa temporária encontrada em solo de afloramento ferruginoso na Serra do Gandarela (Minas Gerais, Brasil). O sedimento desta lagoa, típico de ecossistemas temporários da região, caracteriza-se por apresentar concreções rígidas de difícil dissolução em meio aquoso, que dificultam a visualização e análise taxonômica dos subfósseis. Amostras de sedimento foram preparadas de acordo com a metodologia padrão utilizada em estudos paleolimnológicos e as adaptações metodológicas propostas no presente estudo, que incluíram a adição de 1 mg de Kochia scoparia, um marcador palinológico utilizado para estimar a densidade de subfósseis, além da adição de ácido fluorídrico (HF) para oxidação de materiais silicáticos. As amostras preparadas de acordo com o novo procedimento metodológico apresentaram melhor visualização dos subfósseis de Cladocera, facilitando a análise taxonômica das espécies. As amostras submetidas ao procedimento metodológico padrão apresentaram uma média significativamente maior de partículas de sedimentos (média de 84,2 partículas de sedimento) e 70% mais resíduos em comparação com as amostras preparadas com a nova metodologia proposta (média de 22,1 partículas de sedimento). Dados absolutos sobre a variação temporal da densidade dos subfósseis de Cladocera foram obtidos a partir do uso do marcador palinológico K. scoparia, revelando densidades mais elevadas de subfósseis nos períodos recentes (112.000 subfósseis/cm3 nos 5 cm iniciais, equivalentes a 3.500 anos BP). Os resultados obtidos indicam que a nova metodologia pode contribuir para avanços em estudos paleolimnológicos de ecossistemas aquáticos temporários, raramente contemplados na reconstrução da história de lagos, apesar de sua relevância ecológica como ecossistemas sinalizadores de mudanças ambientais e climáticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cladocera , Brazil , Lakes , Ecosystem , Geologic Sediments , Ecology
4.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(2): 155-169, 2020. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1348112

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio sobre la composición y abundancia del fitoplancton en el lago de Amatitlán, y el efecto de la calidad de agua sobre su biodiversidad. Para ello, se colectaron muestras de agua en cuatro puntos específicos del lago, en la superficie del agua y a profundidades de 5, 10 y 20 m, de manera mensual durante el 2017. Se midieron parámetros fisicoquímicos in situ como temperatura y pH. Igualmente, se identificaron y contabilizaron cianobacterias y microalgas. El índice de estado trófico (IETP) catalogó al lago como eutrófico e hipertrófico (IETP = 63.80-88.18). Se reportan 34 géneros de fitoplancton distribuidos en 30 familias, 17 órdenes y 10 clases. Los indicadores biológicos, tales como, floraciones algales de Microcystis (38.41%), baja diversidad de diatomeas (Nitzschia, Aulacoseira y Cyclotella), presencia de microalgas Nitzschia y Scenedesmusresistentes a procesos de eutrofización, y alta concentración de coliformes fecales, de hasta 24,000 NMP/100 ml, evidenciaron la baja calidad de agua que se presenta en el lago de Amatitlán. En época seca se encontró más diversidad de microalgas debido a la mayor incidencia de radiación solar, el poco recambio de agua y la acumulación de materia orgánica. Aunque esto varía con los cambios en la concentración de nitrógeno total (NT) y fosforo total (PT), que potencian la proliferación de cianobacterias tóxicas. La biodiversidad del lago fue baja debido al estado hipereutrófico en que se encuentra. Se recomienda poner en funcionamiento plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales para evitar que esta problemática continúe.


A study was carried out on the composition and abundance of phytoplankton in Amatitlán lake, and the effect of water quality on its biodiversity. For this, water samples were collected at four specific points in the lake, on the water surface and at depths of 5, 10 and 20 m, in a monthly way during 2017. Physicochemical parameters were measured in situ such as temperature and pH. Likewise, cyanobacteria and microalgae were identified and accounted. The trophic state index (IETP) cataloged the lake as eutrophic and hypertrophic (IETP = 63.80-88.18). 34 genera of phytoplankton distributed in 30 families, 17 orders and 10 classes are reported. Biological indicators, such as Microcystis algal blooms (38.41%), low diatom diversity (Nitzschia, Aulacoseira and Cyclotella), presence of Nitzschia and Scenedesmus microalgae resistant to eutrophication processes, and high concentration of fecal coliforms, up to 24,000 NMP/100 ml, evidenced the low quality of water that occurs in lake Amatitlán. In the dry season, more microalgae diversity was found due to the higher incidence of solar radiation, little water change and the accumulation of organic matter. Even though this varies with changes in the concentration of total nitrogen (NT) and total phosphorus (PT), which enhance the proliferation of toxic cyanobacteria. The lake's biodiversity was low due to its hypereutrophic state. We recommend to put this wastewater treatment plants into operation to prevent this problem to continue.


Subject(s)
Phytoplankton/growth & development , Water Quality , Lakes/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Biodiversity , Microcystis/growth & development , Coliforms , Eutrophication , Microalgae , Waste Water/toxicity , Nitrogen/analysis
5.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(1): 129-136, 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121037

ABSTRACT

El impacto antrópico cercano al lago de Amatitlán ha generado niveles altos de eutrofización que conllevan cambios en la dinámica del ecosistema. Uno de ellos es la proliferación de cianobacterias del género Microcystis que pueden llegar a ser perjudiciales para la fauna y flora de lugar e incluso para los seres humanos. Se presenta el caso de cultivo de un consorcio de fitoplancton, tomado directamente del lago y llevado al laboratorio en condiciones controladas, para medir su consumo y aporte de nitrógeno y fósforo, además de los cambios en los factores fisicoquímicos y la biomasa. Se observó la presencia de diatomeas del genero Nitszchia y cianobacterias como Dolichospermum, con una marcada dominancia de Microcystis sp. Se analizó el porcentaje de cambio en la concentración de nutrientes. Los resultados indican que hubo un aumento en las concentraciones de amonio, nitrato y nitrógeno inorgánico disuelto, mientras que disminuyó el nitrógeno total, el fósforo total y los ortofosfatos. Esto indica que hay aporte de nitrógeno inorgánico, consumo de fósforo y nitrógeno orgánico. El fósforo parece ser el nutriente limitante, ya que, al consumirse en un 90 % la biomasa empieza a decrecer.


The anthropic impact near lake Amatitlán has generated high levels of eutrophication that lead to changes in ecosystem dynamics. One of them is the proliferation of cyanobacteria of the genus Microcystis that can be harmful to the fauna and flora of the place and even to humans. The case of cultivation of a phytoplankton consortium, taken directly from the lake and taken to the laboratory under controlled conditions, to measure its consumption and contribution of nitrogen and phosphorus, in addition to changes in physicochemical factors and biomass is presented. The presence of diatoms of the genus Nitszchia and cyanobacteria such as Dolichospermum was detected, with a marked dominance of Microcystis sp. The percentage change in nutrient concentration was analyzed. The results indicated that there was an increase in the amounts of dissolved inorganic ammonium, nitrate and nitrogen, while total nitrogen, total phosphorus and orthophosphates decreased. This indicates that there is contribution of inorganic nitrogen, consumption of phosphorus and organic nitrogen. Phosphorus seems to be the limiting nutrient, since, when consumed by 90 %, biomass begins to decrease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lakes/analysis , Cyanobacteria , Microcystis , Phosphorus/analysis , Phytoplankton , Eutrophication , Nitrogen/analysis
6.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(4): 336­344-2020. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1267479

ABSTRACT

Background/objective: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends routine assessment of antiretroviral treatment outcomes to detect treatment failure early and prevent the development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to describe treatment outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) over 2 years in children living with the human immune deficiency virus enrolled in the paediatric HIV clinic at the Lagos UniversityTeaching Hospital (LUTH). Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study of antiretroviral treatment outcomes in 278 children receiving antiretroviral therapy at the paediatric HIV clinic of LUTH. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected from clinical records of pediatric patients who received antiretroviral therapy for 2 years ( from November 2015 to December 2017) . Virological failure was defined as viral load > 400 copies/ml and immunological failure was defined as a CD4 count <100 cells/mm3 or CD4 % <15% after receiving antiretroviral agents for 12 months. Data was analysed using graph pad prism version 5.0.Results: After 12 months on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 101 (36%) had virological failure while 14 (5%) and 36 (13%) failed immunologically [CD4 count <100 cells/mn3 and CD4 <15% respectively]. Virological blips were observed at 24 months in 6.1% of patients while immunovirological discordance occurred in 30% of patients (poor virological clearance despite good immunological recovery) . High baseline viral load (>5000 copies/ml), poor adherence (<95%) and low baseline CD4 counts (101-249 cells/mn3) were significantly associated with virological failure, while low baseline CD4 counts (<350 cells/mn3) and poor adherence (<95%) were significantly associated with immunologic failure.Conclusion: The treatment outcomes observed in this study are similar to those reported in earlier studies. At 1 and 2 years of antiretroviral therapy , there was immune restoration however 101 (36%) and 87 (31%) respectively had virological failure despite good adherence to therapy and good Immunological restoration. This calls for early initiation and switch to second and third line drugs


Subject(s)
Lakes , Lamivudine , Nevirapine , Nigeria , Zidovudine
7.
West Afr. j. radiol ; 27(2): 128-135, 2020. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1273562

ABSTRACT

Background: Fee splitting is a global pandemic in the health-care industry, whereby financial and nonfinancial inducements are offered to health-care practitioners in exchange for guaranteed patient referral, continuous patronage, or preferential usage/prescription of the payer's products. Methods: We surveyed 280 medical doctors from August 2017 to October 2017 to assess their knowledge, perception, and attitude toward fee-splitting using self-administered questionnaires.Results: The majority (89%) of our respondents indicated that they were aware of the existence of fee-splitting in the Nigerian health-care industry. About 34% accept rebates, while 70% admitted to knowing other colleagues who accept rebates. The amount received as rebates was ≤20% of the cost of an investigation. More than half of the respondents (52%) opined that the practice is a nationwide phenomenon. An astonishing 78% of respondents either did not know (61%) or asserted wrongly (17%) that the practice is not a violation Nigerian Medical Council rules. Only 46% affirmed that the practice is unethical. Compared to private hospitals, fee-splitting is less in public hospitals. Sixty-one percent noted that other health-care workers (besides physicians) are also involved. The primary allures of fee-splitting were a quest for an extra source of income (64%), poor/irregular salaries (60%), ignorance of its illegality (56%), and greed (47%). The identified deleterious consequences were unnecessary investigations/procedures, inflated health-care cost, quackery, delayed treatment/prolonged hospital stay, beclouded clinical judgment, and negative public perception.Conclusion: Stricter regulatory enforcement and continuous ethics education are needed to disrupt the widespread fee-splitting culture


Subject(s)
Ethics, Medical , Fees and Charges , Lakes , Nigeria
8.
West Afr. j. radiol ; 27(2): 143-149, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1273565

ABSTRACT

Background: Public­private partnership (PPP) has become a popular model used by public sector organizations that are usually under-funded by their respective governments to render services in fulfillment of their egalitarian responsibilities and goals. Lately, the health sector has been a recipient of such initiatives and the trend is growing. However, the successful delivery of services to patients is sometimes hampered because of difficulties encountered in both the development and interpretation of clauses contained in agreements including Memoranda of Understanding between the parties. The anticipated outcomes and impact often remain elusive due to the tensions encountered during implementation.Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the current operational status as well as explore potential benefits and challenges of the use of the PPP model in radiology departments of selected teaching hospitals within three South-Western States of Nigeria (Lagos, Ogun, and Oyo). It is hoped that the study findings would provide useful data needed for improvement of the PPP model as it is being currently practiced.Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study in which 138 closed- and open-ended questionnaires were administered to all cadres of staff in radiology departments of the selected hospitals teaching hospitals within three South-Western States of Nigeria (Lagos, Ogun, and Oyo).Results: There was a 100% response from the participants. The age range of the participants was 25­65 years. Study findings showed that almost all radiological equipment can be acquired through PPP. There was improved service delivery and residency training with PPP. Jurisdictional conflict was the greatest challenge.Conclusion: PPP is a viable option that should be encouraged by government for the purchase of equipment in hospitals


Subject(s)
Hospitals, Teaching , Lakes , Nigeria , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Radiology
9.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Print) ; 9(1): 1-6, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257344

ABSTRACT

Background: Influenza and HIV are endemic in Nigeria but there is no epidemiological data on the co-infection of influenza A and B among HIV patients.Objective: We investigated seasonal influenza A and B, and co-infection among HIV patients on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Lagos, Nigeria.Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study, clear sera collected from 174 HIV-positive patients between August and September 2018 were analysed for immunoglobulin M-specific antibodies to seasonal influenza A subtypes H1N1 and H3N2, and influenza B by enzyme immunoassay. Results: A total of 39.7% (69/174) of HIV patients were seropositive for influenza A or B viruses with 84.1% (58/69) being positive for influenza A, 13.04% (9/69) seropositive for both influenza A and B, and only 2.9% (2/69) positive for influenza B mono-infection. Median age was 44 (mean 45, mode 40, range 18­74) years. The 41­50 years age group had the highest seroprevalence (39.1%; 27/69). Seropositivity was highest among women (65.2%; 45/69). A total of 88.4% (61/69) of HIV patients seropositive for influenza A or B were on fixed dose cART, while 73.9% (51/69) were virologically suppressed. Furthermore, 27.5% (19/69) were immunocompromised, of which 21.1% (4/19) were severely immunosuppressed (cluster of differentiation 4 < 200 cells/mm>3).Conclusion: Influenza A and B was prevalent among HIV patients on cART, which may predispose them to life-threatening complications. We recommend strong advocacy on the need to reduce the risk of exposure to influenza and for the provision of an influenza vaccine in Nigeria


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coinfection , HIV Infections , HIV Seroprevalence , Influenza A virus , Influenza B virus , Lakes , Nigeria
10.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257704

ABSTRACT

Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of public health importance as over 1 million STIs are acquired daily worldwide. One-third of the new cases of curable STIs affect younger persons aged less than 25 years. Sexually transmitted infections can lead to severe complications beyond the immediate impact of infections as such. Aim: This study assessed knowledge of, attitude towards and preventive practices of STI among young unmarried persons in Surulere local government area (LGA) of Lagos State, Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted among young unmarried persons in Surulere LGA, Lagos State, Nigeria, between June and November 2018. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 450 young unmarried persons selected using a multistage sampling technique. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data. Analysis was carried out with Epi-Info 7.2.2.2 software. Chi-square was used to test for associations. Level of significance was at p ≤ 0.05. Results: The mean age was 19.9 + 2.5 years. Majority of the respondents (84.7%) had heard of STIs. About two-third (65.6%) had good knowledge, while majority (98.6%) had good attitude towards the prevention of STIs, but less than half (34.0%) had good preventive practices. Knowledge of STI was statistically significantly associated with age, level of education, attitude and preventive practices of the respondents. Conclusion: Most of the respondents were aware and had good attitude towards prevention of STI, but gaps exist in knowledge and preventive practices. Hence, targeted education to improve the knowledge and preventive practices against STI among young unmarried persons is recommended


Subject(s)
Attitude , Knowledge , Lakes , Nigeria , Primary Prevention , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Single Person , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
Ann. afr. med ; 19(2): 113-118, 2020.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258918

ABSTRACT

There is still conflicting evidence on the extent to which maternal hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for pregnancy complications. Aims: The study aimed to investigate the impact of elevated maternal homocysteine concentrations on adverse pregnancy outcomes among Nigerian women in Lagos. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria. Participants were enrolled during the first trimester of pregnancy following which relevant data were obtained by the interview. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of maternal homocysteine concentration using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Pregnancy outcomes and complications were obtained by abstracting the antenatal, delivery, and newborn medical records. Preterm births, low-birth weight (LBW), and antepartum fetal death were used as confirmatory outcome variables in the final analysis. Descriptive statistics for all data were computed using SPSS version 22.0. The associations between the variables were tested and multivariate analyses were used to study the effects of the major baseline characteristics on the pregnancy outcome. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Hyperhomocysteinemia was recorded in 41 (24.6%) patients. Women with a high homocysteine concentration and those with a normal homocysteine level did not differ significantly in terms of age (P = 0.684), level of education (P = 0.866), and parity (P = 0.647). Women with hyperhomocysteinemia had an approximately twelve-fold higher risk of preterm birth (P = 0.001) and a ten-fold higher risk of delivering a term neonate with LBW (P = 0.004), but had no risk of antepartum fetal death (P = 0.118) compared to women with a normal homocysteine concentration. Conclusions: The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia among mothers in Lagos was relatively low. The associations between hyperhomocysteinemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes could have implications in future for the prevention of these adverse outcomes


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hyperhomocysteinemia , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Lakes , Nigeria , Premature Birth
12.
Ann. afr. med ; 19(2): 124-130, 2020. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258920

ABSTRACT

A defining feature of any university is its dedication to scholarly activities, leading to the generation of knowledge and ideas Research productivity is a measure of achievement of a scholar. The number of research publications in peer-reviewed journals is an important criterion for assessing productivity and prestige in the academia. Aims and Objectives: This cross-sectional descriptive study assessed the level of research productivity (RP) among junior faculty at the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, and investigated factors affecting their research output prior to the implementation of a 5-year training grant funded by the National Institutes of Health. Methods: Seventy junior faculty members attended a pre-program training, and the self-reported number of peer-reviewed publications (PRPs) was used as an indicator. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing RP among the attendees were assessed and ranked. Results: The majority (42/70, 60%) of the respondents had <10 PRPs. The median (interquartile range) number of PRPs was 7 (3­18). A desire for the development of their personal skills, contribution to society, and personal research interests topped the list of intrinsic factors influencing RP. Work flexibility, research autonomy, and scholarly pursuits were the bottom three. A desire for promotion, respect from peers, and increased social standing were the top three extrinsic factors, while monetary incentives, employment opportunities, and the need to attend conferences were the lowest three. The top barriers to RP were lack of resources and lack of mentoring. Perceived older age, lack of time, and motivation were the lowest three barriers. Older age and professional cadre were associated with increased RP (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Among the participants, research output appears to be motivated primarily by a desire for personal development,promotion, and respect from peers. Lack of access to resources was the main barrier to increased RP. These factors may need to be considered when developing programs designed to promote RP


Subject(s)
Communication Barriers , Intrinsic Factor , Lakes , Nigeria , Publications , Research Personnel
13.
Niger. J. Dent. Res ; 5(2): 145-154, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1266999

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating the occurrence of six periodontal pathogens in the subgingival plaque of patients with chronic periodontitis in Nigeria. Methods: Forty-two subjects with chronic periodontitis participated in the cross-sectional study between June, 2015 and August, 2016. Subgingival plaque samples from one site of ≤3mm depth (gingivitis) and another site with the greatest depth of ≥4mm (periodontitis) respectively were collected from each subject. Culture and PCR assay using 16S rRNA species-specific primers, were performed. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Majority (73.8%) of the subjects were positive for at least one of the organisms. Culture was positive for P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum and P. intermedia in 23.8%, 14.3% and 14.3% of the subjects respectively in sites of ≤3mm and at 33.3%, 23.8% and 33.3% respectively in sites of ≥4mm. PCR was able to detect all six periodontopathogens in sites of ≥4mm, with A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis F. nucleatum P. intermedia, T. forsythia and T. denticola in 4.8%, 31.0%, 40.4%, 45.2%, 4.8% and 2.4% of the subjects respectively. The pathogen with the most frequent total occurrence in all sites was P. intermedia (54.8%). The difference between the occurrence of the organisms in the sites of periodontal probing depth of ≤3mm and ≥4mm was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study shows the distribution of subgingival periodontal pathogens in chronic periodontitis in a Nigerian population. Wider studies among the Nigerian population are required to assess differences in the pattern of distribution of these bacteria


Subject(s)
Chronic Periodontitis , Dental Plaque , Lakes , Nigeria , Patients
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 120-126, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984005

ABSTRACT

Abstract We evaluated the response of the biomass of aquatic macrophytes under limnological changes after water level fluctuation (WLF) of two tropical reservoirs (R1 and R2), located in northeastern Brazil. Initially we tested the hypothesis that post-WLF limnological conditions and biomass of macrophytes increase or decrease, depending on the variable or species. We monitored a 4 × 50 m permanent plot, in four expeditions per period (pre- or post-WLF), assessing species biomass and 10 limnological variables. We utilized 0.25 × 0.25 m quadrats for biomass. Once the effect of WLF in limnological variables and species biomass was confirmed, we utilized Canonical Correspondence Analysis to understand the relationship between limnological variables and species biomass. The abundant and/or dominant species in pre-WLF of R1 ( Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia auriculata) and R2 (Paspalidium geminatum and S. auriculata) reduced their biomass post-WLF and were correlated with temperature, total phosphorous and nitrate. The reduced biomass of P. stratiotes, E. crassipes and S. auriculata in post-WLF widened resource availability, allowing coexistence of species. Therefore, we suggest that the change of limnological conditions in post-WLF in artificial lakes acts only as a moderator factor of the interspecific interaction (especially coexistence), without direct relation between these conditions and species biomass.


Resumo Avaliamos a resposta da biomassa de macrófitas aquáticas às alterações ambientais após flutuação do nível de água (WLF) de dois reservatórios tropicais (R1 e R2), localizados no Nordeste do Brasil. Inicialmente, testamos a hipótese de que após uma WLF as condições limnológicas e a biomassa das macrófitas aumentam ou diminuem, dependendo da variável ou espécie. Por isso, monitoramos uma parcela permanente de 4 × 50 m, em quatro amostragens por período (pré ou pós-WLF), avaliando a biomassa de espécies e 10 variáveis ​​limnológicas. Utilizamos quadrados de 0,25 × 0,25 m na amostragem da biomassa. Uma vez que o efeito do WLF em variáveis limnológicas e biomassa das espécies foi confirmado, utilizamos a Análise de Correspondência Canônica para compreender a relação das variáveis ​​limnológicas com a biomassa de espécies. As espécies abundantes e/ou dominantes no pré-WLF de R1 (Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes e Salvinia auriculata ) e R2 (Paspalidium geminatum e S. auriculata ) reduziram sua biomassa pós-WLF, correlacionando-se diretamente com temperatura, fósforo total e nitrato. A redução da biomassa de P. stratiotes , E. crassipes e S. auriculata em pós-WLF ampliou a disponibilidade de recursos, permitindo a coexistência de espécies. Portanto, sugerimos que a mudança das condições limnológicas no pós-WLF em lagos artificiais atua apenas como um fator moderador da interação interespecífica (em especial a coexistência), sem relação direta entre essas condições e a biomassa das espécies.


Subject(s)
Water Movements , Lakes/analysis , Biomass , Magnoliopsida/physiology , Brazil , Lakes/chemistry , Water Resources , Aquatic Organisms/physiology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772952

ABSTRACT

Agricultural activities, including stock-farming, planting industry, and fish aquaculture, can affect the physicochemical and biological characters of freshwater lakes. However, the effects of pollution producing by agricultural activities on microbial ecosystem of lakes remain unclear. Hence, in this work, we selected Honghu Lake as a typical lake that is influenced by agriculture activities. We collected water and sediment samples from 18 sites, which span a wide range of areas from impacted and less-impacted areas. We performed a geospatial analysis on the composition of microbial communities associated with physicochemical properties and antibiotic pollution of samples. The co-occurrence networks of water and sediment were also built and analyzed. Our results showed that the microbial communities of impacted and less-impacted samples of water were largely driven by the concentrations of TN, TP, NO-N, and NO-N, while those of sediment were affected by the concentrations of Sed-OM and Sed-TN. Antibiotics have also played important roles in shaping these microbial communities: the concentrations of oxytetracycline and tetracycline clearly reflected the variance in taxonomic diversity and predicted functional diversity between impacted and less-impacted sites in water and sediment samples, respectively. Furthermore, for samples from both water and sediment, large differences of network topology structures between impacted and less-impacted were also observed. Our results provide compelling evidence that the microbial community can be used as a sentinel of eutrophication and antibiotics pollution risk associated with agricultural activity; and that proper monitoring of this environment is vital to maintain a sustainable environment in Honghu Lake.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , China , Eutrophication , Geologic Sediments , Chemistry , Microbiology , Lakes , Chemistry , Microbiology , Microbiota , Risk Factors , Water Pollutants, Chemical
16.
Non-conventional in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1278004

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) a common noncommunicable diseases associated with high morbidity and mortality.Epidemiology of CKD in Sub­Saharan Africa suggests high burden of CKD with early onset. The adolescent age group has been reported to be at increased risk of kidney disease arising from prevalent risky behaviors and obesity. The in­school adolescents constitute a large group of at­risk individuals that are easily accessible for screening. Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of kidney CKD and its risk factors among in-school adolescents. Materials and Methods: This was a cross­sectional study of 420in­school adolescents in Ibadan, Southwest Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria. A pretested questionnaire was administered to the participants selected using multistage clustered sampling technique. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken,urine samples were collected for dipstick urinalysis, while 80 participants provided blood for serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results: A total of 420 in­school adolescents participated in the study, the mean age was 14.0 ± 2.3 years and 57.4% were female. The mean body mass index, mid­upper arm circumference (MUAC), and median eGFR were 19.9 ± 3.7 kg/m2, 20.8 c ± 3.7 cm, 96.1 (36.6­156) ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The common risk factors for CKD were herbal consumption (59.2%),abnormal MUAC (47.1%), and truncal obesity (28.3%). Proteinuria, hematuria, and CKD were observed in 10%, 16%, and 21.3% of the participants, respectively. Excess body weight (odds ratio [OR], 5.03), abnormal MUAC (OR, 4.11), hypertension (OR, 2.51),and family history of kidney disease (OR, 1.58) were independently associated with CKD. Conclusions: CKD and its risk factors were common among in­school adolescents and the occurrence of CKD was associated with excess body weight, abnormal MUAC,hypertension, and family history of kidney disease


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Lakes , Nigeria , Renal Insufficiency , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Risk Factors
17.
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 10(1): 35-39, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1263187

ABSTRACT

Research has documented that food security at national level does not translate to food security at household level. The study assessed the level of food security among urban households in Shomolu LGA, Lagos State. Using the 9-item Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) information was collected from 306 heads of households on adequacy of food availability and consumption. Data were analyzed using Epi info and presented as frequencies and percentages. Associations between variables were tested using Chisquare at a significance level of 0.05. Households were classified as food secure, food insecure without hunger and food insecure with hunger. Only 33.8% of households were food secure, 45.1% were food insecure without hunger and 21.1% were food insecure with hunger. Food secure households were statistically significantly associated with households where heads had secondary or higher education, women were married, spending <40% of household monthly income on food and living in their own homes (P=0.001). Household food insecurity is found in urban communities and is positively associated with indicators of poverty


Subject(s)
Family Characteristics , Food , Lakes , Nigeria
18.
J. appl. sci. environ. manag ; 23(1): 87-92, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1263373

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Greenspace campaign regulates urban air quality and global warming effects. Four areas with trees planting (TP: Ojota-Ketu, Anthony, Costain and Airport-Agege) and non-trees planting (NP: Mile 12, Jibowu, Ojuelegba and Iyana-ipaja) were selected considering traffic volumes. Gaseous pollutants: CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, VOC; SPM and noise levels; meteorological conditions: O2 and Temperature in the selected areas were assessed to be TP and NP were CO: 3.76 ± 1.23 and 4.70 ± 1.59 µg/ m3, CO2: 8.39 ± 1.50 and 14.68 ± 2.62 µg/ m3, NO2: 1.94 ± 0.84 and 2.57 ± 1.11 µg/ m3, SO2: 0.32 ± 0.54 and 0.46 ± 0.77 µg/ m3, VOC: 2.08 ± 0.65 and 2.60 ± 1.66 µg/ m3, SPM: 101.5 ± 26.19 and 189.34 ± 48.99 µg/ m3, Temp.: 41.25 ± 6.92 and 45.38 ± 7.26 OC, O2: 28.25 ± 2.74 and 21.73 ± 2.09 %, and Noise: 93.75 ± 37.21 and 112.50 ± 44.65 dB. Gaseous pollution levels were below the standards at the TP. Levels of SPM were generally lower but Temperature was higher than the limit. Greenspace significance to improve urban air quality and abate global warming was observed


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Lakes , Nigeria
19.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1264322

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of Sodium Diclofenac Phonophoresis (SDP) as an effective adjunct in the management of inflammation and pain has been established though its application entails complicated choices of treatment parameters. Intrasound Therapy (IST), acclaimed for its simplicity of operation has been reported to promote healing though no studies have been done on its effect in Chronic cervical spine pain (CCSP). The aim of this study was to determine if IST could be an effective therapeutic option to SDP as an adjunct in the management of CCSP. Forty seven (47) participants with CCSP that had definite diagnoses were randomly assigned into 3 groups. All participants had exercises and massage while in addition, group 1 had SDP and group 2 IST for 10 minutes each. Participants were treated for 40 minutes twice a week for 4 weeks and were evaluated for pain, Quality of life (QoL), disability and range of motion (ROM) of the cervical spine. Paired sample t-test was used to compare the outcome parameters in each group and data presented as Mean ± SEM with significance at p<0.05. IST and SDP significantly (p˂0.05) improved the clinical parametres compared with the control group and there were no significant (p ˃0.05) differences in clinical outcome between the IST and SDP groups. IST was as effective as SDP and considering its relative simplicity of operation could be an alternative therapeutic adjunct in the management of chronic cervical pain


Subject(s)
Cervical Vertebrae , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Diclofenac/therapeutic use , Lakes , Nigeria , Pain Management , Spine
20.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1264360

ABSTRACT

Background: The global malaria agenda has the ultimate goal of eliminating malaria in all countries of the world by 2030 through universal access to malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Presumptive treatment of malaria with Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) has been associated with the development of resistance, therefore parasitological confirmation of all fevers is crucial in the context of eliminating malaria. This study assessed physicians' compliance with the national guidelines in the treatment of malaria among under-five (U-5) children and their prescription pattern in a Maternal and Child Care (MCC) centre in Lagos State. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted as an exit interview among 427 mothers/caregivers of febrile U-5 children who were consecutively sampled.The data was collected using a pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire and a proforma. Epi-info version 7.2.1 was used to analyze the data and the level of significance was set as p<0.05. Results: Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT) was done for 75 17.6%) of the children and 37 (49.3%) was positive. Anti-malarial drugs were prescribed at consultation to 400 (93.7%) of the febrile children. Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) was prescribed for 364 (91.0%) of the children. The most prescribed ACT was Artemether-Lumefantrine (AL) in 222 (60. 9%).Conclusion: The physician's compliance with malaria treatment guidelines for febrile illnesses in U-5 children was poor with regards to parasitological confirmation before treatment. However, the use of ACTs was adhered to in almost all cases. Regular training workshops are recommended for health workers to improve adherence to parasitological confirmation before treatment


Subject(s)
Compliance , Guidelines as Topic , Lakes , Malaria , Nigeria
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