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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248656, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several species of Cichla successfully colonized lakes and reservoirs of Brazil, since the 1960's, causing serious damage to local wildlife. In this study, 135 peacock bass were collected in a reservoir complex in order to identify if they represented a single dominant species or multiple ones, as several Cichla species have been reported in the basin. Specimens were identified by color pattern, morphometric and meristic data, and using mitochondrial markers COI, 16S rDNA and Control Region (CR). Overlapping morphological data and similar coloration patterns prevented their identification using the taxonomic keys to species identification available in the literature. However, Bayesian and maximum likelihood from sequencing data demonstrated the occurrence of a single species, Cichla kelberi. A single haplotype was observed for the 16S and CR, while three were detected for COI, with a dominant haplotype present in 98.5% of the samples. The extreme low diversity of the transplanted C. kelberi evidenced a limited number of founding maternal lineages. The success of this colonization seems to rely mainly on abiotic factors, such as increased water transparency of lentic environments that favor visual predators that along with the absence of predators, have made C. kelberi a successful invader of these reservoirs.


Resumo Muitas espécies de Cichla colonizaram com sucesso lagos e reservatórios do Brasil desde os anos 1960, causando graves prejuízos à vida selvagem nesses locais. Neste estudo, 135 tucunarés foram coletados em um complexo de reservatórios a fim de identificar se representavam uma espécie dominante ou múltiplas espécies, uma vez que diversas espécies de Cichla foram registradas na bacia. Os espécimes foram identificados com base na coloração, dados morfométricos e merísticos, e por marcadores mitocondriais COI, 16S rDNA e Região Controle (RC). A sobreposição dos dados morfométricos e o padrão similar de coloração impediram a identificação utilizando as chaves de identificação disponíveis na literatura. Entretanto, as análises bayesiana e de máxima verossimilhança de dados moleculares demonstraram a ocorrência de uma única espécie, Cichla kelberi. Um único haplótipo foi observado para o 16S e RC, enquanto três foram detectados para o COI, com um haplótipo dominante presente em 98,5% das amostras. A baixa diversidade nos exemplares introduzidos de C. kelberi evidenciou um número limitado de linhagens maternas fundadoras. O sucesso da invasão parece depender de fatores abióticos, como a maior transparência da água de ambientes lênticos que favorece predadores visuais que, atrelado à ausência de predadores, fez do C. kelberi um invasor bem-sucedido nesses reservatórios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Haplotypes/genetics , Lakes , Bayes Theorem
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253852, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355905

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim objective of this study was to determine the trophic ecology of juvenile and adult Acestrorhynchus falcirostris during the rising and flood (high-water) period in six island lakes adjacent to the Solimões River. As such, we investigated: i) the trophic position, through the fractional trophic niche; ii) the niche breadth; iii) niche overlap and iv) the food strategy of the species. The specimens were collected during the years 2014 to 2017, using gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 30 to 120mm between opposite knots. Through the analysis of stomach contents, the preference in the consumption of items of animal origin was observed. Juveniles consumed insects in greater proportions (IAi% = 50%), while adults consumed fish (IAi%=99,98%). Despite the large supply of food items available in the high-water period, juveniles were the only ones to consume items of allochthonous origin, such as insects. Juveniles presented a different dietary strategy and dietary composition to adults. Juveniles were omnivores with a generalist strategy, while adults were piscivores with a specialist strategy. Thus, the food composition, niche breadth, trophic position and feeding strategy of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris change due to the stage of development.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ecologia trófica de juvenis e adultos de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris durante o período de enchente e cheia em seis lagos de ilha adjacentes ao rio Solimões. Assim, investigamos: i) a posição trófica, através do nicho trófico fracional; ii) a largura de nicho; iii) sobreposição de nicho; iv) a estratégia alimentar. Os espécimes foram coletados durante os anos de 2014 a 2017, utilizando redes de emalhar com malha variando de 30 a 120mm entre nós opostos. Por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal, observamos a preferência no consumo de itens de origem animal. Os juvenis consumiram insetos em maiores proporções (IAi% = 50%), enquanto os adultos consumiram preferencialmente peixes (IAi% = 99,98%). Apesar da grande oferta de alimentos disponíveis no período da cheia, os juvenis eram os únicos a consumir itens de origem alóctone, como por exemplo, os insetos. Os juvenis apresentaram uma estratégia alimentar e composição alimentar diferente para os adultos. Os juvenis foram considerados onívoros com uma estratégia generalista, enquanto os adultos foram considerados piscívoros com uma estratégia alimentar mais especialista. Assim, a composição alimentar, amplitude do nicho, posição trófica e a estratégia alimentar de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris muda em função do estágio de desenvolvimento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rivers , Characiformes , Seasons , Lakes , Ecosystem , Food Chain , Fishes , Gastrointestinal Contents
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244494, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285607

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since water is one of the essentials for life, the presence and quality of water in the habitat is extremely important. Therefore, water quality change and management of Lake Aygır was investigated in this study. For this, water samples collected from the lake and the irrigation pool between May 2015 and May 2016 were analyzed monthly. Spectrophotometric, titrimetric and microbiological methods were used to determine the water quality. According to some water quality regulations, HCO3, NH4, Cu, Mo, Br, fecal coliform and total suspended solid (TSS) values were found above the limit values. The other 29 parameters comply with Turkish national and international legislations. Lake Aygır was negatively affected by the surrounding settlements and agricultural activities. It is thought that the water resource should be monitored periodically and remedial studies should be done to prevent parameters exceeding the limits. However, Lake Aygır was generally suitable for drinking, use, fishing and irrigation.


Resumo Como a água é um dos elementos essenciais para a vida, a presença e a qualidade da água no habitat são extremamente importantes. Portanto, a mudança da qualidade da água e a gestão do lago Aygır foram investigadas neste estudo. Para isso, amostras de água coletadas no lago e na piscina de irrigação entre maio de 2015 e maio de 2016 foram analisadas mensalmente. Métodos espectrofotométricos, titulométricos e microbiológicos foram usados para determinar a qualidade da água. De acordo com alguns regulamentos de qualidade da água, os valores de HCO3, NH4, Cu, Mo, Br, coliformes fecais e total sólido suspenso (TSS) foram encontrados acima dos valores limite. Os outros 29 parâmetros estão em conformidade com as legislações nacionais e internacionais turcas. O lago Aygır foi afetado negativamente pelos assentamentos e atividades agrícolas ao redor. Pensa-se que o recurso hídrico deve ser monitorado periodicamente e estudos corretivos devem ser feitos para evitar que os parâmetros ultrapassem os limites. No entanto, o lago Aygır era geralmente adequado para beber, usar, pescar e irrigar.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Lakes , Turkey , Water Quality , Environmental Monitoring , Fisheries
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e232701, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249237

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study objectified to evaluate the trophic relationships and the possible aggressive mimicry involving Carnegiella strigata, Carnegiella marthae and Gnathocharax steindachneri, in lowland forest streams. Samplings occurred in November 2002, March and August 2003 in Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (ASDR). The total of 943 fish was caught, being 79.43% of C. marthae, 3.18% of C. strigata and 17.39% of G. steindachneri. Stomach contents, degree of stomach repletion, relative volume and frequency of occurrence of food items were evaluated. Thirteen food items were identified, and the presence of terrestrial and aquatic insects indicates the high dependence of these species and the flooded forest. Low feeding overlap was observed between Carnegiella strigata and C. marthae compared to Gnathocharax steindachneri. However, the overlap between the two Carnegiella species was relatively high, which could explain the low frequency of syntopic occurrence among these species, suggesting a possible case of competitive exclusion.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as relações tróficas e a possível existência de uma relação de mimetismo agressivo envolvendo Carnegiella strigata, Carnegiella marthae e Gnathocharax steindachneri, em igarapés de terra firme. As coletas ocorreram em novembro de 2002, março e agosto de 2003 e foram realizadas na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável de Amanã (RDSA). Foram capturados 943 peixes, onde C. marthae representou 79,43%, C. strigata 3,18% e G. steindachneri 17,39%. Foram analisados os conteúdos estomacais e verificados grau de repleção, volume relativo e frequência de ocorrência dos alimentos. Foram identificados 13 itens alimentares, onde insetos terrestres e aquáticos denotaram alto grau de dependência destas espécies em relação à floresta alagada. Ocorreu baixa sobreposição alimentar das espécies Carnegiella strigata e C. marthae em relação a Gnathocharax steindachneri. Entretanto, a sobreposição entre as duas espécies de Carnegiella foi relativamente alta, o que poderia explicar a baixa frequência de ocorrência sintópica entre essas espécies, sugerindo um possível caso de exclusão competitiva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Characiformes , Characidae , Lakes , Rivers , Fishes , Gastrointestinal Contents
5.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 9(1): 6-18, 2022. il^c27
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1382357

ABSTRACT

La deposición de nutrientes por vía atmosférica tiene graves impactos sobre la ecología de bosques y cuerpos de agua templados. Sin embargo, su importancia en cuerpos de agua neotropicales casi no ha sido estudiada. En este artículo se cuantifica la contribución de nitrógeno inorgánico disuelto (NID, [NO3--N + NH4+-N]) y fósforo inorgánico soluble (FIS, [PO4-3-P]) depositados en bulto sobre superficies húmedas por vía atmosférica hacia el lago Atitlán (Guatemala). Las cargas estimadas de NID y FIS consecuencia de la deposición atmosférica directa (depositada sobre la superficie del lago) fueron de 151.2 ton/año y 5.6 ton/año, respectivamente. Con estos resulta-dos, se estima que el aporte de FIS por deposición atmosférica al lago Atitlán es comparable al de sus principales ríos tributarios, y de casi el doble para el ingreso de NID. Las estimaciones para el lago Atitlán son mayores que lo reportado para otros lagos. Nuestro estudio proporciona información básica para entender la eutrofización del lago Atitlán, enfatizado en la importancia de la deposición atmosférica como contribuyente al deterioro de este cuerpo de agua. Además, demuestra la necesidad de extender este tipo de estudio a otras cuencas neotropicales y la importancia de minimizar este impacto.


Atmospheric nutrient deposition has serious impacts on the ecology of forests and temperate water bodies nevertheless its importance in Neotropical water bodies has hardly been studied. Here we quantify the contribution of bulk atmospheric deposition on wet surfaces of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN,[NO3--N + NH4+-N])and soluble inorganic phosphorus (SIP, [PO4-3-P])into Lake Atitlán (Guatemala). The estimated NID and SIP loads from this direct deposition on the lake surface were respectively, 151.2 tons/year and 5.6 tons/year. With these results, we estimated that the SIP input from atmospheric deposition to Lake Atitlán is comparable to that from the lake's main tributary rivers, whereas for DIN entry this is almost twice as much. Estimates for Lake Atitlán are higher than those reported for many lakes. Our study provides basic information towards understanding the eutrophication of Lake Atitlán, emphasizes the importance of atmospheric deposition in this process and the need for additional studies to document the process in neotropical watersheds.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phosphorus/analysis , Lakes/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis , Rain/chemistry , Temperature , Wind , Basins , Nutrients , Eutrophication
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940951

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA) for detection of Schistosoma japonicum infections among boatmen and fishermen in Dongting Lake region, so as to provide insights into improving the schistosomiasis surveillance program among boatmen and fishermen.@*METHODS@#The boatmen and fishermen were detected for S. japonicum infections using IHA and Kato-Katz technique or miracidium hatching test nylon gauze simultaneously at schistosomiasis testing sites in the anchor sites for boatmen and fishermen in the Dongting Lake region during the period from 2014 to 2016, and using IHA for serological screening followed by parasitological testing of seropositives during the period from 2017 to 2019. The sensitivity and specificity of IHA were evaluated for detection of S. japonicum infections among boatmen and fishermen, with the 2014-2016 parasitological testing results as a gold standard. In addition, the seroprevalence of S. japonicum infections was compared among boatmen and fishermen with different characteristics and among years.@*RESULTS@#A total of 306 schistosomiasis testing sites were assigned for boatmen and fishermen, and a total of 143 360 person-time boatmen and fishermen were tested for S. japonicum infections in the Dongting Lake region from 2014 to 2019. The sensitivity and specificity of IHA were 69.9%, 97.3% and 96.1% (χ2 = 74.6, P < 0.05), and 70.9%, 74.5% and 71.9% for detection of S. japonicum infections from 2014 to 2016 (χ2 = 29.4, P < 0.05), respectively. The seroprevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 30.3% in 2014 to 1.8% in 2019 among boatmen and fishermen, appearing an overall tendency towards a decline (Z = 1 552.4, P < 0.05). In addition, male, individuals at ages of 45 to 60 years, full-time boatmen and fishermen were more likely to be seropositive for S. japonicum infections (all P values < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The seroprevalence of S. japonicum infections appeared a tendency towards a decline among boatmen and fishermen in the Dongting Lake region year by year from 2014 to 2019. IHA presented a high efficacy for screening of S. japonicum infections among boatmen and fishermen in the Dongting Lake region.


Subject(s)
Animals , China/epidemiology , Hemagglutination , Humans , Lakes , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Schistosoma japonicum , Schistosomiasis/epidemiology , Schistosomiasis japonica/prevention & control , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940945

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis snails in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020, to provide insights into precision control of O. hupensis snails in Anhui Province.@*METHODS@#O. hupensis snail distribution data were collected in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020 and descriptively analyzed, including actual area of snail habitats, area of emerging snail habitats and area of Schistosoma japonicum-infected snails. The actual area of snail habitats and area of emerging snail habitats were subjected to spatial autocorrelation analysis, hotspot analysis, standard deviation ellipse analysis and space-time scanning analysis, and the clusters of snail distribution and settings at high risk of snail spread were identified in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020.@*RESULTS@#The actual area of snail habitats gradually decreased in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020. The actual area of snail habitats were 26 238.85 hm2 in Anhui Province in 2020, which were mainly distributed in marshland and lake regions. There was a large fluctuation in the area of emerging snail habitats in Anhui Province during the period from 2011 to 2020, with the largest area seen in 2016 (1 287.65 hm2), and 1.96 hm2 emerging infected snail habitats were detected in Guichi District, Chizhou City in 2020. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analyses showed spatial clusters in the distribution of actual areas of snail habitats in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020 (Z = 3.00 to 3.43, all P values < 0.01), and the hotspots were mainly concentrated in the marshland and lake regions and distributed along the south side of the Yangtze River, while the cold spots were mainly concentrated in the mountainous regions of southern Anhui Province. There were no overall spatial clusters in the distribution of areas of emerging snail habitats (Z = -2.20 to 1.71, all P values > 0.05), and a scattered distribution was found in local regions. Standard deviation ellipse analysis showed relatively stable distributions of the actual areas of snail habitats in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020, which was consistent with the flow direction of the Yangtze River, and the focus of the distribution of areas of emerging snail habitats shifted from the lower reaches to upper reaches of Anhui section of the Yangtze River. Space-time scanning analysis identified two high-value clusters in the distribution of actual areas of snail habitats in lower and middle reaches of Anhui section of the Yangtze River from 2011 to 2020, and two high-value clusters in the distribution of areas of emerging snail habitats were identified in mountainous and hilly regions.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There were spatial clusters in the distribution of O. hupensis snails in Anhui Province from 2011 to 2020, which appeared a tendency of aggregation towards the south side and upper reaches of the Yangtze River; however, the spread of O. hupensis snails could not be neglected in mountainous and hilly regions. Monitoring of emerging snail habitats should be reinforced in mountainous and hilly regions and along the Yangtze River basin.


Subject(s)
Animals , China/epidemiology , Ecosystem , Gastropoda , Lakes , Rivers , Schistosoma japonicum
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1054-1060, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153441

ABSTRACT

Abstract One aquatic coleopteran species from family Dytiscidae and two aquatic coleopteran genera from family Hydrophilidae were recorded in the summer period and represent first records in the Egyptian lakes. Beetles were collected from two northern lakes, Lake Idku and Lake Burullus. They were identified by morphological characteristics as well as the mtDNA barcoding method. A molecular phylogenetic approach was used to determine the genetic identity of the collected samples based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Prodaticus servillianus (Dytiscidae) from Egypt showed no significant difference in the COI region and they are highly similar to P. servillianus from Madagascar. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the other two coleopteran genera belong to family Hydrophilidae. Based on COI only, there is no clear evidence for their genetic identity at the species level. So, we defined them to the closest taxon and denoted them as Cymbiodyta type A and B. The results indicated that resolving the molecular identity of the aquatic beetles from northern lakes of Egypt need more considerations in the field of biological conservation. We concluded that utilization of COI as a barcoding region for identifying some coleopteran species is not sufficient and additional molecular markers are required to uncover the molecular taxonomy at deep levels.


Resumo Uma espécie de coleópteros aquático da família Dytiscidae e dois gêneros de coleópteros aquáticos da família Hydrophilidae foram registrados no período de verão e representam os primeiros registros nos lagos egípcios. Os besouros foram coletados em dois lagos do norte, o lago Idku e o lago Burullus, e identificados por características morfológicas e pelo método de código de barras mtDNA. Uma abordagem filogenética molecular foi usada para determinar a identidade genética das amostras coletadas com base no citocromo oxidase I mitocondrial (COI). Prodaticus servillianus (Dytiscidae) do Egito não mostrou diferença significativa na região COI e é altamente semelhante a P. servillianus de Madagascar. A análise filogenética revelou que os outros dois gêneros de coleópteros pertencem à família Hydrophilidae. Com base apenas no COI, não há evidências claras de sua identidade genética no nível da espécie. Assim, nós os agrupamos no táxon mais próximo e os denominamos Cymbiodyta tipo A e B. Os resultados indicaram que a identidade molecular dos besouros aquáticos dos lagos do norte do Egito precisa de mais considerações no campo da conservação biológica. Concluímos que a utilização de COI como região de código de barras para identificar algumas espécies de coleópteros não é suficiente, sendo necessários marcadores moleculares adicionais para descobrir a taxonomia molecular em níveis profundos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lakes , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Phylogeny , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Egypt
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 792-796, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153415

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to determine the distribution area of tarek (Alburnus tarichi (Güldenstädt, 1814)) and to define how it must be called according to the scientific name by evaluating its previous studies made by various systematisers and their reports on its distribution, and by comparing literature knowledge. The taxonomic characteristics of the collected samples were evaluated and several measurements and counts were taken on the samples; analfin origin 0-4 scales behind dorsal fin-base; 72-91 lateral line scales; 21-29 gill rakers; 7½-10 branched dorsal-fin rays and 10-12½ branched anal-fin rays. Body and caudal peduncle was moderately compressed. Body was covered by overlapping scales. Tarek has five different populations in the Basin. They are Van, Erçek, Nazik and Aygır Lakes and Koçköprü Dam Lake populations. The main living area of the tarek population is Lake Van; however, between May and June, mature individuals of tarek enter to tributaries of Van Lake. Some of them are Karasu, Bendimahi, Deliçay, Zilan, Karmuç, Sapur, Yanıkçay, Gevaş, Engil, Kurubaş and Akköprü Streams. At the end of study, it was concluded that tarek should be called as Alburnus tarichi (Güldenstädt, 1814) and it is an endemic fish species distributed only in Van Lake Basin.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a área de distribuição de tarek (Alburnus tarichi) (Güldenstädt, 1814) e definir como deve ser chamado de acordo com o nome científico, avaliando estudos anteriores feitos por vários sistematizadores e seus relatórios sobre sua distribuição, e comparando o conhecimento da literatura. As características taxonômicas das amostras coletadas foram avaliadas e várias medições e contagens foram realizadas nas amostras, como origem analfin 0-4 escalas atrás da base da barbatana dorsal; 72-91 escalas de linha lateral; 21-29 rakers branquiais; 7½-10 raios da nadadeira dorsal ramificada, e 10-12½ raios da nadadeira anal ramificados. Pedúnculo caudal e corporal foram moderadamente comprimidos. O corpo estava coberto por escamas sobrepostas. Tarek tem cinco populações diferentes na bacia estudada. São as populações dos lagos Van, Erçek, Nazik e Aygır, e Koçköprü barragem. A principal área de presença da população tarek é o Lago Van; no entanto, entre maio e junho, indivíduos maduros de tarek entram nos afluentes do lago Van. Alguns deles são os fluxos Karasu, Bendimahi, Deliçay, Zilan, Karmuç, Sapur, Yanıkçay, Gevaş, Engil, Kurubaş e Akköprü. No final do estudo, concluiu-se que tarek deveria ser chamado Alburnus tarichi (Güldenstädt, 1814) e que é uma espécie de peixe endêmica distribuída apenas na Bacia do Lago Van.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cyprinidae , Lakes , Rivers , Gills
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 845-853, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153412

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Toltén river is located in the 137 years old Araucania region, Chile (38° S), and is characterized by low alterations through human interference due agriculture and towns in its surrounding basin, the presence of native fishes and salmonids, and by its lake effluent regime originated from Villarrica lake. The aim of the present study was to make a review of ecological role of the benthic inland water macroinvertebrates as preys for native fishes of the River Toltén, in order to understand their importance in the ecosystem of the river. The literature revealed that the main prey for native fishes are Chironomidae larvae, nevertheless there are not specific reports for Tolten river. The exposed results are similar with similar native species for Patagonia, and these native species would have prey for introduced salmonids, or these species would have prey competition with introduced salmonids in according to the literature descriptions for Argentinean and Chilean Patagonia.


Resumo O rio Toltén está localizado na região da Araucanía, com 137 anos de idade, Chile (38° S), e é caracterizado por baixas alterações por interferência humana devido à agricultura e cidades da bacia circundante, pela presença de salmonídeos e pelo regime de efluentes dos lagos. do lago Villarrica. O objetivo do presente estudo foi fazer uma revisão do papel ecológico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos de águas interiores do rio Toltén, a fim de entender sua importância no ecossistema do rio. A literatura revelou que as principais presas de peixes nativos são as larvas de Chironomidae, no entanto, não há relatos específicos para o rio Tolten. Os resultados expostos são semelhantes com espécies nativas semelhantes para a Patagônia, e essas espécies nativas teriam presa por salmonídeos introduzidos, ou essas espécies teriam competição de presas com salmonídeos introduzidos de acordo com as descrições da literatura para a Patagônia Argentina e Chilena.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aged, 80 and over , Ecosystem , Rivers , Lakes , Chile , Fishes
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 642-649, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153397

ABSTRACT

Abstract The zooplankton communities often exhibit daily vertical migrations to avoid natural ultraviolet radiation and/or fish predation. However there is no information on this topic in Chilean North Patagonian lakes up to date. Therefore, this study deals with a first characterization of plankton crustacean daily vertical migration in two temperate, oligotrophic lakes (Villarrica and Panguipulli lakes, 39°S) in Southern Chile. Zooplankton were collected at different depths intervals (0-10m, 10-20 m, 20-30m, 30-40m) at early morning, middle day, evening and night in the studied site. The results revealed that zooplankton species (Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Neobosmina chilensis, Mesocyclops araucanus, and Tropocyclops prasinus) are abundant in surface zones at night, early morning and evening, whereas at middle day the zooplankton abundances are high at deep zones. The results agree with observations for Argentinean and North American lakes where these daily migration patterns in crustacean zooplankton species were reported due mainly natural ultraviolet radiation exposure, whereas for northern hemisphere lakes the vertical migration is due to combined effect of natural ultraviolet radiation and fish predation exposure.


Resumo As comunidades zooplanctônicas frequentemente exibem migrações verticais diárias para evitar a radiação ultravioleta natural e/ou a predação de peixes. No entanto, não há informações sobre esse tema em lagos chilenos no norte da Patagônia até a presente data. Portanto, este estudo trata de uma primeira caracterização da migração vertical diária de crustáceo planctônico em dois lagos temperados e oligotróficos (lagos Villarrica e Panguipulli, 39º S) no sul do Chile. O zooplâncton foi coletado em diferentes profundidades (0-10 m, 10-20 m, 20-30 m e 30-40 m) no início da manhã, ao meio-dia, à tarde e à noite no local estudado. Os resultados revelaram que as espécies de zooplâncton (Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Neobosmina chilensis, Mesocyclops araucanus e Tropocyclops prasinus) são abundantes nas zonas de superfície à noite, de manhã cedo e à tarde, enquanto, ao meio-dia, as abundâncias do zooplâncton são altas nas zonas de profundidade. Os resultados expostos corroboram as observações para outros lagos argentinos e da América do Norte, onde foram reportados esses padrões de migração diária em espécies crustáceas de zooplâncton por causa, principalmente, da exposição à radiação ultravioleta natural, enquanto, para lagos do hemisfério norte, a migração vertical se dá em razão do efeito combinado da radiação ultravioleta natural e exposição à predação.


Subject(s)
Zooplankton , Lakes , Plankton , Ultraviolet Rays , Chile
12.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(1): 1-15, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284373

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: el agua de los lagos volcánicos no es estéril, en ella se ha adaptado a través de milenios una microbiota con diversas capacidades metabólicas. La diversidad microbiana de los lagos volcánicos en Ecuador ha sido poco estudiada y aún se desconoce su abundancia y riqueza. OBJETIVO: el objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer la calidad microbiológica del agua del lago Quilotoa, situado en la Provincia de Cotopaxi-Ecuador. MATERIALES Y METODOS: se realizaron dos muestreos durante el año 2019, recolectando un total 32 muestras. La calidad microbiológica se cuantifico utilizando la técnica de filtración por membrana en agar R2A para bacterias heterótrofas, agar eosina azul de metileno para coliformes, agar manitol salado para Staphylococcus, agar cetrimide para Pseudomonas y agar Sabouraud con cloranfenicol para hongos. RESULTADOS: los resultados promedios fueron para bacterias heterótrofas de 2,00 x 102 UFC/mL; Pseudomonas 7,00x 10 UFC/mL, Staphylococcus 3,80 x 10 UFC/mL y hongos 1,40 x 10 UFC/mL. No se detectó la presencia de bacterias coliformes. CONCLUSIONES: los grupos microbianos presentes en bajo número son indicativos de una microbiota característica adaptada a las condiciones fisicoquímicas de este lago. Se concluye que se trata de un lago con una población microbiana escasa lo que indicaría una buena calidad microbiológica.


INTRODUCTION: the water of volcanic lakes is not sterile, native microbiota shows different metabolic capabilities established over millennia. The microbial diversity of volcanic lakes in Ecuador have been little studied and their abundance and richness are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: the objective of this study was to know the microbiological quality of water of Lake Quilotoa, located in the Province of Cotopaxi-Ecuador. MATERIALS AND METHODS: two samplings were carried out during 2019, collecting a total of 32 samples. Microbiological quality was quantified using the membrane filtration technique on R2A agar for heterotrophic bacteria, eosin blue methylene agar for coliforms, salty mannitol agar for Staphylococcus, cetrimide agar for Pseudomonas and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol for fungi. RESULTS: the average results were for heterotrophic bacteria 2.00 x 102 CFU/mL, Pseudomonas 7.00 x 10 CFU/mL, Staphylococcus 3.80 x 10 CFU/mL and fungi 1.40 x 10 CFU/mL. The presence of coliform was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: the microbial groups present in low numbers are indicative of a characteristic microbiota adapted to the physicochemical conditions of this lake. It is concluded that it is a lake with a few microbial populations, which might indicate a good microbiological quality.


Subject(s)
Lakes , Microbiological Techniques , Coliforms
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 62-68, Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153308

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the hematological variables (erythrogram, thrombogram, leukogram and plasma metabolites) of three cichlid species: Cichla monoculus, Cichla temensis and Cichla vazzoleri. A total of 45 specimens were captured in Balbina lake, Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil, with the aid of a rod and reel or hand line, with natural or artificial bait: 15 C. monoculus, 15 C. temensis and 15 C. vazzoleri. Their blood was removed by means of caudal puncture of the dorsal aorta, and hematological data were determined in accordance with methodology previously described in the literature. The erythrogram showed similarities between the species, while the thrombogram showed differences between C. vazzoleri and the other species studied (C. monoculus and C. temensis). The total leukocyte counts for C. temensis and C. vazzoleri were higher than those of C. monoculus. The predominant leukocyte in C. temensis and C. vazzoleri was lymphocytes, whereas it was monocytes in C. monoculus. The plasma metabolites showed differences between the three cichlid species, regarding their glucose, cholesterol, urea and potassium levels. It is concluded that these three species present hematological differentiation, thus indicating that they have differentiated blood-cell immune responses and plasma metabolite physiology.


Resumo O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar e comparar as variáveis hematológicas (eritrograma, trombograma, leucograma e metabólitos plasmáticos) de três espécies de tucunarés Cichla monoculus, Cichla temensis e Cichla vazzoleri. Um total de 45 animais foi capturado no lago de Balbina, Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, com auxílio de vara e carretilha, linha de mão com isca natural e artificial, sendo 15 C. monoculos, 15 C. temensis e 15 C. vazzoleri. O sangue foi retirado por punção caudal da aorta dorsal e os dados hematológicos foram determinados de acordo com metodologia previamente descrita na literatura. No eritrograma foram observadas similaridades entre as espécies, o trombograma demonstrou diferenças entre o C. vazzoleri e as demais espécies estudadas (C. monoculus e C. temensis), a contagem total de leucócitos demonstrou que em C. temensis e C. vazzoleri os valores são superiores ao C. monoculus. Foi demonstrado que os linfócitos foram às células predominantes em C. temensis e C. vazzoleri, diferentemente do C. monoculos que apresentou como leucócito predominante os monócitos. Nos metabólitos plasmáticos, foi possível observar diferenças entre as três espécies de tucunarés nos níveis de glicose, colesterol, uréia e potássio. Conclui-se que as três espécies de tucunarés apresentam diferenciação hematológica, indicando que as mesmas possuem respostas diferenciadas, na resposta imunológica de suas células do sangue e na fisiologia dos metabólitos plasmáticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lakes , Cichlids , Brazil
14.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(1): 3-14, jan./jun. 2021. Ilus, Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247805

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: quantificar a abundância e a biomassa de moluscos bentônicos no Lago Igapó I, Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. Material e Métodos: foram realizadas duas coletas no Lago Igapó I, a primeira em junho de 2015 e a segunda em fevereiro de 2016. O substrato (incluindo os moluscos incrustados) foi amostrado utilizando um quadrante com área de 1 m2, onde 10 amostragens foram realizadas entre três pontos distintos do lago. Os moluscos capturados foram anestesiados e eutanasiados por superexposição ao gelo. Posteriormente, o material foi quantificado em abundância (n) e biomassa total (kg), e armazenado em tambores contendo formol 4% tamponado com carbonato de cálcio. Resultados: foram identificadas cinco espécies de moluscos, sendo três não nativas (Limnoperna fortunei, Corbicula fluminea e Melanoides tuberculata), uma nativa (Aylacostoma cf. tenuilabris) e um indivíduo do gênero Pomacea. Em ambas as coletas, L. fortunei compreendeu aproximadamente 90% da abundância e biomassa total. A partir da densidade média de L. fortunei e a área total do Lago Igapó I, estimou-se que a população total de mexilhões-dourados pode chegar a 633 milhões de indivíduos, correspondendo a 638 toneladas de biomassa. Conclusão: é evidente a dominância da espécie invasora L. fortunei no Lago Igapó I, onde esta pode causar diversos efeitos negativos, como alterações no ciclo de nutrientes, redução de espécies nativas, introdução de parasitos, bioacumulação de metais pesados na cadeia trófica, diminuição da qualidade da água para uso humano e obstrução de encanamentos com risco de alagamentos. Desta forma, recomenda-se uma imediata ação de manejo neste ambiente para retirada de indivíduos da espécie, com consequente redução de sua abundância.(AU)


Objective: quantify the abundance and biomass of benthic molluscs in Igapó Lake I, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Material and Methods: two samplings was made at Igapó Lake I, first in June 2015 and then in February 2016. The substrate (including all embedded molluscs) was sampled using a 1 m2 quadrant, where 10 samples were taken between three distinct points from the lake. All molluscs captured were anesthetized and euthanized by overexposure to ice. Subsequently, the material was quantified in quantity (n) and total biomass (kg), and stored in barrels containing 4% formaldehyde buffered with calcium carbonate. Results: five species of molluscs were identified, three non native species (Limnoperna fortunei, Corbicula fluminea and Melanoides tuberculata), one native (Aylacostoma cf. tenuilabris) and one Pomacea sp. In both sampling, L. fortunei comprised approximately 90% of the abundance and total biomass. From the average density of L. fortunei and the total area of the Igapó Lake I, it was estimated that the total population of golden mussels can reach 633 million individuals, corresponding to 638 tons of biomass. Conclusion: the dominance of the invasive species L. fortunei in Igapó Lake I is evident, where it can cause several negative effects, such as alterations in the nutrient cycle, reduction of native species, introduction of parasites, bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, decreased quality of water for human use and obstruction of pipes obstruction with risk of overflow. Therefore, we recommend an immediate management action in this environment in order to remove individuals of this species and, consequently, to reduce its abundance. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Lakes , Bivalvia , Introduced Species , Parasites , Nutrients , Mollusca
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 557-564, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132412

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lake Laguna Santa Elena, a freshwater body, located in mid-south of Chile, is an environmental asset used as a water resource by the agricultural and touristic sector and is the habitat for a wide variety of endemic avifauna. The objective of this study was to assign a monetary value to this lacustrine body, using the methodology of AMUVAM (Multicriteria Analysis of Environmental Active Values). The information was collected through the application of surveys to a panel of experts involved in the use of the environmental resource. The result obtained with the AMUVAM method corresponds to the US $ 17,780,686, a figure that represents an estimated value of the TEV (Total Economic Value) of the environmental asset. This study, a pioneer in the Region, will support decision making, allowing an adequate management of this critical water resource.


Resumo A Laguna Santa Elena, um corpo de água doce localizado no centro-sul do Chile, é um ativo ambiental usado como recurso hídrico pelos setores agrícola e turístico e é o habitat de uma ampla variedade de avifauna endêmica. O objetivo deste estudo foi atribuir um valor monetário a esse corpo lacustre, utilizando a metodologia da AMUVAM (Análise Multicritério de Valores Ambientais Ativos). As informações foram coletadas por meio da aplicação de pesquisas a um painel de especialistas envolvidos no uso do recurso ambiental. O resultado obtido com o método AMUVAM corresponde a US$ 17.780.686, que representam um valor estimado do valor econômico total (VT) do ativo ambiental. Este estudo, pioneiro na região, apoiará a tomada de decisões, permitindo um gerenciamento adequado desse recurso hídrico crítico.


Subject(s)
Lakes , Ecosystem , Chile , Conservation of Natural Resources , Agriculture
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 97-101, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089289

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main objective of the present study was to promote some adaptations to the standard methodology used in the analysis of Cladocera subfossils. The samples used in this study were collected at Lagoa dos Coutos, a temporary lake located on an outcrop with iron-rich duricrust in the Serra do Gandarela (Minas Gerais, Brazil). The sediment from this pond, typical of temporary ecosystems in the region, is characterized by rigid concretions that are difficult to dissolve in aqueous media, making it difficult to visualize and analyze subfossils taxa. Sediment samples were prepared according to the standard methodology used in paleolimological studies and the methodological adaptations proposed in the present study, which included the addition of 1 mg of Kochia scoparia, a palynological marker used to estimate subfossil density, as well as the addition of hydrofluoric acid (HF) to oxidize silicate materials. The samples prepared according to the new methodological procedure improved Cladocera subfossil visualization, facilitating the taxonomic analysis of the species. The samples submitted to the standard methodological procedure had a significantly higher mean of sediment particles (mean of 84.2 sediment particles) and 70% more residues compared to the samples prepared with the newly proposed methodology (mean of 22.1 sediment particles). Absolute data on the temporal variation of the density of Cladocera subfossils was obtained by using the palinological marker K. scoparia, which showed higher densities of subfossils in more recent, humid periods (112,000 subfossils/cm3 at 5 cm, equivalent to 3,500 years BP). The results indicate that the new methodology can contribute to advances in paleolimnological studies of temporary aquatic ecosystems, whose lake histories are rarely investigated, despite their ecological relevance as ecosystems that indicate environmental and climatic changes.


Resumo O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi promover algumas adaptações na metodologia padrão utilizadas para a análise de subfósseis de Cladocera. As amostras utilizadas nessa pesquisa foram coletadas na Lagoa dos Coutos, uma lagoa temporária encontrada em solo de afloramento ferruginoso na Serra do Gandarela (Minas Gerais, Brasil). O sedimento desta lagoa, típico de ecossistemas temporários da região, caracteriza-se por apresentar concreções rígidas de difícil dissolução em meio aquoso, que dificultam a visualização e análise taxonômica dos subfósseis. Amostras de sedimento foram preparadas de acordo com a metodologia padrão utilizada em estudos paleolimnológicos e as adaptações metodológicas propostas no presente estudo, que incluíram a adição de 1 mg de Kochia scoparia, um marcador palinológico utilizado para estimar a densidade de subfósseis, além da adição de ácido fluorídrico (HF) para oxidação de materiais silicáticos. As amostras preparadas de acordo com o novo procedimento metodológico apresentaram melhor visualização dos subfósseis de Cladocera, facilitando a análise taxonômica das espécies. As amostras submetidas ao procedimento metodológico padrão apresentaram uma média significativamente maior de partículas de sedimentos (média de 84,2 partículas de sedimento) e 70% mais resíduos em comparação com as amostras preparadas com a nova metodologia proposta (média de 22,1 partículas de sedimento). Dados absolutos sobre a variação temporal da densidade dos subfósseis de Cladocera foram obtidos a partir do uso do marcador palinológico K. scoparia, revelando densidades mais elevadas de subfósseis nos períodos recentes (112.000 subfósseis/cm3 nos 5 cm iniciais, equivalentes a 3.500 anos BP). Os resultados obtidos indicam que a nova metodologia pode contribuir para avanços em estudos paleolimnológicos de ecossistemas aquáticos temporários, raramente contemplados na reconstrução da história de lagos, apesar de sua relevância ecológica como ecossistemas sinalizadores de mudanças ambientais e climáticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cladocera , Brazil , Lakes , Ecosystem , Geologic Sediments , Ecology
17.
Ann. afr. med ; 19(2): 113-118, 2020.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258918

ABSTRACT

There is still conflicting evidence on the extent to which maternal hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for pregnancy complications. Aims: The study aimed to investigate the impact of elevated maternal homocysteine concentrations on adverse pregnancy outcomes among Nigerian women in Lagos. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria. Participants were enrolled during the first trimester of pregnancy following which relevant data were obtained by the interview. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of maternal homocysteine concentration using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Pregnancy outcomes and complications were obtained by abstracting the antenatal, delivery, and newborn medical records. Preterm births, low-birth weight (LBW), and antepartum fetal death were used as confirmatory outcome variables in the final analysis. Descriptive statistics for all data were computed using SPSS version 22.0. The associations between the variables were tested and multivariate analyses were used to study the effects of the major baseline characteristics on the pregnancy outcome. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Hyperhomocysteinemia was recorded in 41 (24.6%) patients. Women with a high homocysteine concentration and those with a normal homocysteine level did not differ significantly in terms of age (P = 0.684), level of education (P = 0.866), and parity (P = 0.647). Women with hyperhomocysteinemia had an approximately twelve-fold higher risk of preterm birth (P = 0.001) and a ten-fold higher risk of delivering a term neonate with LBW (P = 0.004), but had no risk of antepartum fetal death (P = 0.118) compared to women with a normal homocysteine concentration. Conclusions: The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia among mothers in Lagos was relatively low. The associations between hyperhomocysteinemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes could have implications in future for the prevention of these adverse outcomes


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hyperhomocysteinemia , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Lakes , Nigeria , Premature Birth
18.
Ann. afr. med ; 19(2): 124-130, 2020. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258920

ABSTRACT

A defining feature of any university is its dedication to scholarly activities, leading to the generation of knowledge and ideas Research productivity is a measure of achievement of a scholar. The number of research publications in peer-reviewed journals is an important criterion for assessing productivity and prestige in the academia. Aims and Objectives: This cross-sectional descriptive study assessed the level of research productivity (RP) among junior faculty at the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, and investigated factors affecting their research output prior to the implementation of a 5-year training grant funded by the National Institutes of Health. Methods: Seventy junior faculty members attended a pre-program training, and the self-reported number of peer-reviewed publications (PRPs) was used as an indicator. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing RP among the attendees were assessed and ranked. Results: The majority (42/70, 60%) of the respondents had <10 PRPs. The median (interquartile range) number of PRPs was 7 (3­18). A desire for the development of their personal skills, contribution to society, and personal research interests topped the list of intrinsic factors influencing RP. Work flexibility, research autonomy, and scholarly pursuits were the bottom three. A desire for promotion, respect from peers, and increased social standing were the top three extrinsic factors, while monetary incentives, employment opportunities, and the need to attend conferences were the lowest three. The top barriers to RP were lack of resources and lack of mentoring. Perceived older age, lack of time, and motivation were the lowest three barriers. Older age and professional cadre were associated with increased RP (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Among the participants, research output appears to be motivated primarily by a desire for personal development,promotion, and respect from peers. Lack of access to resources was the main barrier to increased RP. These factors may need to be considered when developing programs designed to promote RP


Subject(s)
Communication Barriers , Intrinsic Factor , Lakes , Nigeria , Publications , Research Personnel
20.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Print) ; 9(1): 1-6, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257344

ABSTRACT

Background: Influenza and HIV are endemic in Nigeria but there is no epidemiological data on the co-infection of influenza A and B among HIV patients.Objective: We investigated seasonal influenza A and B, and co-infection among HIV patients on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Lagos, Nigeria.Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study, clear sera collected from 174 HIV-positive patients between August and September 2018 were analysed for immunoglobulin M-specific antibodies to seasonal influenza A subtypes H1N1 and H3N2, and influenza B by enzyme immunoassay. Results: A total of 39.7% (69/174) of HIV patients were seropositive for influenza A or B viruses with 84.1% (58/69) being positive for influenza A, 13.04% (9/69) seropositive for both influenza A and B, and only 2.9% (2/69) positive for influenza B mono-infection. Median age was 44 (mean 45, mode 40, range 18­74) years. The 41­50 years age group had the highest seroprevalence (39.1%; 27/69). Seropositivity was highest among women (65.2%; 45/69). A total of 88.4% (61/69) of HIV patients seropositive for influenza A or B were on fixed dose cART, while 73.9% (51/69) were virologically suppressed. Furthermore, 27.5% (19/69) were immunocompromised, of which 21.1% (4/19) were severely immunosuppressed (cluster of differentiation 4 < 200 cells/mm>3).Conclusion: Influenza A and B was prevalent among HIV patients on cART, which may predispose them to life-threatening complications. We recommend strong advocacy on the need to reduce the risk of exposure to influenza and for the provision of an influenza vaccine in Nigeria


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coinfection , HIV Infections , HIV Seroprevalence , Influenza A virus , Influenza B virus , Lakes , Nigeria
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