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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 1-12, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362657

ABSTRACT

Mesmo com a evolução do conhecimento científico, a utilização de plantas medicinais é uma das práticas mais antigas ainda realizadas pelo homem, especialmente pelos habitantes de comunidades e municípios do interior do Brasil, principalmente em regiões com baixos índices de desenvolvimento humano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um estudo etnobotânico sobre as plantas medicinais utilizadas pelos moradores de um bairro localizado em um município ribeirinho do interior do estado do Amazonas. Participaram do estudo cem indivíduos, e os dados obtidos pela pesquisa foram compilados por meio de um formulário, contendo 14 questões (objetivas e discursivas). Os resultados demonstraram que 95% dos moradores faziam uso de plantas medicinais. Foram citadas 89 espécies, pertencentes a 48 famílias botânicas, com destaque para a Lamiaceae. As plantas mais citadas foram: Plectranthus barbatus (boldo) ­ 6,1%, Citrus sinensis (laranjeira) ­ 5,8% e Allium sativum (alho) ­ 4,7%. No entanto, quando analisado o índice de concordância (porcentagem de uso principal = CUP), a Citrus sinensis (laranjeira) apresentou um CUP de 80,9%, seguida por Plectranthus barbatus (boldo) e Disphania ambrosioides (mastruz), com 68,1% e 61,5%, respectivamente. Com relação ao modo de preparo, 61,1% citaram infusão, e as principais enfermidades tratadas foram as dores de estômago, com 13,1%. É importante enfatizar a necessidade de mais estudos acerca dos reais benefícios dessas ervas, a fim de que a divulgação de tais informações possa complementar o conhecimento empírico já difundido entre a população local. Dessa forma, será possível ampliar o conhecimento etnobotânico como um todo e, consequentemente, promover saúde e bem-estar.


Despite the evolution of scientific knowledge, the use of medicinal plants is one of the oldest practices still used by men and, especially by the inhabitants of communities and municipalities of the interior of Brazil, mainly in regions with low human development rates. The purpose of this work was to perform an ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by residents of a neighborhood located in a riverside city in the interior of the state of Amazonas. A total of 100 individuals participated in the study, with data being obtained through the use of a form containing 14 open and closed-ended questions. The results showed that 95% of the residents used medicinal plants. A total of 89 species, belonging to 48 botanical families were mentioned, with emphasis to Lamiaceae. The plants that were most frequently mentioned were Plectranthus barbatus (locally known as boldo) ­ 6.1%; Citrus sinensis (orange tree) ­ 5.8%; and Allium sativum (garlic) ­ 4.7%. However, when analyzing the agreement index (percentage of main use = CUP), Citrus sinensis (orange tree) presented a CUP of 80.9%, followed by Plectranthus barbatus (boldo) and Disphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea), with 68.1 and 61.5%, respectively. In relation to the method of preparation, 61.1% cited infusion, with the main disorder treated being stomachache, with 13.1%. It is important to emphasize the need for further studies on the actual benefits of these herbs so that the dissemination of the information can complement the already widespread empirical knowledge among the local population. Thus, it will be possible to expand the ethnobotanical knowledge as a whole and, consequently, promote health and well-being.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Ethnobotany , Tea/adverse effects , Agricultural Cultivation , Lamiaceae/adverse effects , Peumus/adverse effects , Citrus sinensis/adverse effects , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/therapy , Juices , Inflammation/prevention & control , Phytotherapy
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 899-908, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153431

ABSTRACT

Abstract Experiments were performed investigating citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) as a repellent to honeybee Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Egypt, it was conducted in laboratory in the Department of Entomology and Pesticides Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, to check long-term survival of honeybee when exposed to different nano insecticides alone or combined with citronella at the same examination box for each. In this study, we used a modeling approach regarding survival data of caged worker bees under chronic exposure to four insecticides (Chloropyrophos, Nano-chloropyrophos Imidacloprid, Nano-Imidacloprid) each of them was supplemented in a box alone and in combination with citronella. Having three replicates and five concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm). Laboratory bioassay of these insecticides showed that chloropyrophos and nano chloropyrophos were the most toxic at their high dose (500 ppm) with LT50 of 120.98 and 122.02 followed by 132.14 and 136.5 minutes for Imidacloprid and Nano-Imidacloprid, respectively. No consumption occurred by bees to mixed sugar syrup with insecticides in all treatments when citronella was added. These data highly recommended that adding citronella is very effective when nicotinoid pesticides are used to longevity honeybee life and keep bee safe.


Resumo Foram realizados experimentos para investigar a citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) como repelente de abelhas Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) no Egito, conduzidos no laboratório do Departamento de Entomologia e Ciência de Pesticidas, da Faculdade de Agricultura, da Universidade do Cairo, e verificar a sobrevivência a longo prazo das abelhas quando expostas a diferentes nanoinseticidas isoladamente ou combinados com citronela na mesma caixa de exame para cada um. Neste estudo, usamos uma abordagem de modelagem em relação aos dados de sobrevivência de abelhas operárias enjauladas sob exposição crônica a quatro inseticidas (clorpirifós, nanoclorpirifós, imidacloprida e nanoimidacloprida), e cada um deles foi suplementado em uma caixa e em combinação com citronela, tendo três repetições e cinco concentrações (100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 ppm). O bioensaio em laboratório desses inseticidas mostrou que clorpirifós e nanoclorpirifós foram os mais tóxicos em altas doses (500 ppm) com LT50 de 120,98 e 122,02, seguidos por 132,14 e 136,5 minutos para imidacloprida e nanoimidacloprida, respectivamente. Não houve consumo pelas abelhas do xarope de açúcar misto com inseticidas em todos os tratamentos quando a citronela foi adicionada. Esses dados recomendam a adição de citronela, sendo muito eficaz quando pesticidas nicotinoides são utilizados para longevidade das abelhas e para mantê-las seguras.


Subject(s)
Animals , Magnoliopsida , Lamiaceae , Cymbopogon , Insecticides/toxicity , Bees , Longevity
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879011

ABSTRACT

Based on the investigation of wild medicinal plant resources in Dexing city, Jiangxi province, and the collected plant specimens, which were identified by taxonomy, two new record species of geographical distribution were found, which are Meehania zheminensis A. Takano, Pan Li & G.-H. Xia and Corydalis huangshanensis L.Q.Huang & H.S.Peng. The voucher specimens are kept in Dexing museum of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the new distribution species were reported, which provides valuable information for further enriching and supplementing the species diversity of medicinal plant resources in Jiangxi province.


Subject(s)
China , Corydalis , Humans , Lamiaceae , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Museums , Plants, Medicinal
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 91 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-TESESESSP, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1358925

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar in vitro a atividade de cinco óleos essenciais de plantas da família Lamiaceae, muito conhecidas na culinária brasileira: Ocimum basilicum L, Origanum majorana L, Origanum vulgare L, Rosmarinus officinalis L e Salvia sclarea L, bem como os compostos químicos do óleo essencial com a menor concentração fungicida mínima sobre 16 isolados biológicos de Candida albicans. Determinar as concentrações fungicidas mínimas, o efeito dos óleos e dos compostos químicos em doses subinibitórias sobre a formação de tubo germinativo e a produção de franjas, nos isolados de C. albicans, antes e após contato com os diferentes óleos essenciais e os compostos químicos. Nesse estudo, todos os cinco óleos essenciais apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana sobre os isolados de C. albicans: O. vulgare apresentou CFM 90 de 1,5µg/mL, seguido pelos óleos essenciais de O. marajoana 2,6 µg/mL, S. sclarea 21,93µg/mL, R. officinalis 80,85µg/mL e O. basilicum 92,25 µg/mL. Nas doses sub inibitórias os óleos essenciais de O. vulgare, R. officinalis e S. sclarea inibiram em mais de 80% dos isolados de C. albicans a formação de tubo germinativo e alteraram a produção de franjas em mais de 70% dos isolados de C. albicans. O óleo essencial de O. vulgare foi o que apresentou a menor concentração fungicida sobre os isolados de C. albicans. O composto químico carvacrol do óleo essencial de O. vulgare foi o que apresentou a menor concentração fungicida sobre os isolados de C. albicans e a menor CFM90 0,69 µg/mL. Com excessão do p-cinemo todos os compostos químicos do óleo essencial de O. vulgare inibiram a formação de tubo germinativo e inibiram a produção de franja. Pelo exposto e nas condições desse estudo, conclui-se que o óleo essencial de O. vulgare e o composto químico carvacrol apresentaram a menor concentração fungicida sobre os isolados biológicos de C. albicans.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Lamiaceae , Origanum
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921656

ABSTRACT

Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are well-known Chinese herbal medicines for wind dispersing and exterior releasing. Through textual research on Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica, the discrimination of their medicinal parts in history was clarified, and the processing, the property(nature and flavor), meridian tropism, functions, indications, usage, dosage, and the selection of decoction pieces were compared to provide the basis for clinical application. As a result, the whole herb of Schizonepeta tenuifolia was used as medicine in the early records. The aerial part and the dried spike of S. tenuifolia were used as medicines separately in the Song Dynasty, which was recorded in the Atlas of Materia Medica(Ben Cao Tu Jing). Some ancient classics emphasized that only the dried spike could be used as medicine. The separation of Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica meets the different needs of clinical medication and supports the concept of rational development and utilization of Chinese medicine resources. About ten processing methods for Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica have been recorded since ancient times, and raw and charred drugs were the major products. Raw Schizonepetae Herba is required to be used in sections, whereas raw Schizonepetae Spica in clean preparation. Both charred products should avoid scorching. Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are similar in the property(pungent, bitter, and warm), meridian tropism(lung and liver meridians, as well as qi and blood aspects), and functions(releasing exterior, dispersing wind, regulating and stopping blood, promoting eruption, dispelling sores, promoting digestion, eliminating alcohol effect, etc.), but Schizonepetae Spica is superior in efficacy. For Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica in traditional Chinese medicinal prescriptions, the raw and charred products are similar in usage and dosage, while their focuses in clinical compatibility vary. The raw and charred products of Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are widely applied clinically. Decoction pieces of different specifications can result in different efficacies and clinical applications, so medication should be performed with caution.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Lamiaceae , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 341-352, 01-03-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146253

ABSTRACT

Essential oils have emerged as an alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of stored grain pests. The toxicity and repellency of the essential oils of four basil cultivars and three basil hybrids and the monoterpenes linalool, citral, and (E)-methyl cinnamate were evaluated in the stored grain pests Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophillus zeamais. The essential oils of the cultivar Genovese and the hybrid 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita' were more toxic to C. maculatus. Conversely, the essential oils of the cultivar Sweet Dani and the hybrid 'Cinnamom' x 'Maria Bonita' were more toxic to S. zeamais. Among the monoterpenes, (E)-methyl cinnamate was the most toxic to both pests, taking 0.14 and 0.34 µ L.mL-1 to kill 50% of the C. maculatus and S. zeamais populations, respectively. All essential oils from cultivars, hybrids, and monoterpenes were repellent to S. zeamais, except for (E)-methyl cinnamate. For C. maculatus, this effect was lower, being citral the most repellent compound. Results demonstrate the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of O. basilicum and its monoterpenes in the control of stored grain pests.


Os óleos essenciais surgem como alternativa aos inseticidas sintéticos no controle das pragas de grãos armazenados. A toxicidade e a repelência dos óleos essenciais de quatro cultivares e três híbridos de manjericão e dos monoterpenos linalol, citral e (E)-cinamato de metila foram avaliadas nas pragas de grãos armazenados Callosobruchus maculatus e Sitophillus zeamais. Os óleos essenciais da cultivar Genovese e do híbrido 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita' foram mais tóxicos para C. maculatus. Já para S. zeamais, os óleos essenciais das cultivar Sweet Dani e do híbrido 'Cinnamom' x 'Maria Bonita' apresentaram maior toxicidade. Dentre os monoterpenos, o (E)-cinamato de metila foi o mais tóxico para ambas as pragas. Foram necessários 0,14 e 0,34 µ L.mL-1 para matar 50% da população de C. maculatus e S. zeamais. Todos os óleos essenciais das cultivares, dos híbridos e dos monoterpenos foram repelentes a S. zeamais, com exceção do (E)-cinamato de metila. Já para C. maculatus, este efeito foi reduzido, sendo o citral o composto mais repelente. Nos resultados demonstram o potencial inseticida dos óleos essenciais de O. basilicum e seus monoterpenos para o controle de pragas de grãos armazenados.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Ocimum basilicum , Lamiaceae , Insecticides
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 149-160, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104061

ABSTRACT

Clinopodium mexicanum (Benth.) Govaerts (Lamiaceae) is a native plant of Mexico. This plant is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of cultural specific syndromes such as "susto", "nervios" or "espanto", conditions related to anxiety and depression. In addition, it has a high biocultural value for its medicinal and culinary use and for its exchange value in various indigenous areas of México. This review aims to compile updated information about the ethnobotanical, phytochemistry and commercialization aspects of Clinopodium mexicanum, and it focuses on the potential use of this species as a raw material in the phytopharmaceutical industry for the treatment of anxiety and pain. Moreover, it would be a viable productive alternative for many rural communities, which could not only produce the raw material but who could also add value to the sale of the plant.


Clinopodium mexicanum (Benth.) Govaerts, es una planta nativa de México. Es usada en la medicina tradicional mexicana para tratar síndromes de filiación cultural como "susto", "nervios" o "espanto", los cuales están asociados a la ansiedad y depresión. Además, la planta presenta un alto valor biocultural por sus usos: medicinal, culinario y por el valor de cambio que tiene en áreas indígenas de México. La revisión presentada tiene como objetivo compilar información actualizada sobre aspectos etnobotánicos, fitoquímicos y comercialización de Clinopodium mexicanum. Igualmente señalar el potencial uso de esta especie como materia prima para la elaboración de productos para la ansiedad y el dolor por parte de la industria fitofarmacéutica. Además de ser una alternativa productiva para muchas comunidades rurales, las cuales pueden venderla como materia prima o como producto derivado.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Ethnobotany , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Commerce , Phytochemicals/analysis , Indigenous Peoples , Mexico
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(6): 601-613, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145976

ABSTRACT

La presente investigación se avocó a determinar el valor de uso etnomedicinal dado a la flora del Cerro "La Botica", por la Comunidad Andina de Cachicadán, Santiago de Chuco, Perú. Se aplicaron 96 entrevistas semiestructuradas, siguiendo la técnica "bola de nieve". Se realizaron colectas mediante exploraciones botánicas. Para cada una de las especies se detallaron los datos de familia, nombre científico y común, parte utilizada, enfermedad o dolencia tratada, ubicación en UTM e índice de valor de uso (IVU). Se reportan 48 especies empleadas etnomedicinalmente por la Comunidad Andina de Cachicadán, distribuidas en 46 géneros y 26 familias, de las que destacan por su número de especies: Asteraceae (10), Rosaceae (5) y Lamiaceae (3). De estas, el 72 % (35 especies) resultan muy importantes para la cura o tratamiento de sus enfermedades, según su valor de uso (IVU). Además los pobladores de la Comunidad Andina de Cachicadán, refieren padecer de 38 enfermedades o dolencias; agrupadas en 10 categorías, donde prevalecen, las de los sistemas: respiratorio (FCI=0.88), digestivo y gastrointestinal (FCI=0.85), reproductivo (FCI=0.84), urinario (FCI= 0.84), nervioso (FCI=0.83), Músculo-esquelético (FCI=0.82), cardiovascular (FCI=0.82) y rituales (FCI=0.81).


The present investigation was aimed at determining the value of ethnomedicinal use that is given to the flora of the Hill "La Botica", by the Andean Community of Cachicadán, Santiago de Chuco, Perú. 96 semi-structured interviews were applied, following the "snowball" technique. Collections were made by botanical explorations.For each of the species, family data, scientific and common name, part used, disease or disease treated, location in UTM and use value index (IVU) were detailed. 48 species of flora are used ethnobotanically by the Andean Community of Cachicadán, distributed in 46 genera and 26 families, of which they stand out for their number of species: Asteraceae (10), Rosaceae (5) and Lamiaceae (3). Of these, 72% (35 species) are very important for the cure or treatment of their diseases, according to their use value (IVU). In addition the inhabitants of the Andean Community of Cachicadán, report suffering from 38 diseases or ailments; grouped into 10 categories, where they prevail, those of the systems: respiratory (FCI = 0.88), digestive and gastrointestinal (FCI = 0.85), reproductive (FCI = 0.84), urinary (FCI = 0.84), nervous (FCI = 0.83), Musculoskeletal (FCI = 0.82), cardiovascular (FCI = 0.82) and rituals (FCI = 0.81).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Ethnobotany/classification , Asteraceae , Lamiaceae , Rosaceae , Peru , Rural Population , Medicine, Traditional
9.
Article in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145996

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo rescata el acervo etnobotánico de la región más septentrional de Uruguay. En este país la etnobotánica, ha tenido poco desarrollo, siendo escasos los estudios y publicaciones científicas. El área de estudio comprende los departamentos de: Artigas, Rivera, Tacuarembó y Cerro Largo. Por medio de un muestreo aleatorio fueron entrevistadas 315 personas. Entre otras variables, los datos obtenidos se refieren a los usos especiales de las plantas. La información fue procesada en planilla de cálculo y listada por medio de técnicas de estadística descriptiva. Se identificaron 134 especies utilizadas, distribuidas en 57 familias botánicas. Las familias de mayor frecuencia fueron: Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae y Fabaceae. La medicina convencional es complementada con plantas cultivadas que presentan aplicaciones medicinales. Fueron reportadas nueve formas de usos, la infusión mostró ser la práctica más utilizada. El conocimiento relativo a las propiedades de las plantas proviene de personas de mayor edad y se trasmite por tradición oral. La metodología puede ser replicada a otras zonas del país.


This work rescues the ethnobotanical heritage of the northernmost region of Uruguay. In this country, ethnobotany has had little development, with scarce studies and scientific publications. The study area includes the departments of: Artigas, Rivera, Tacuarembó and Cerro Largo. Through random sampling, 315 people were interviewed. Among other variables, the data obtained refer to the special uses of the plants. The information was processed in the spreadsheet and listed by means of descriptive statistics techniques. 134 species used were identified, distributed in 57 botanical families. The most frequent families were: Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Fabaceae. Conventional medicine is complemented with cultivated plants that have medicinal applications. Nine forms of uses were reported, the infusion proved to be the most used practice. The knowledge related to the properties of plants comes from older people and is transmitted by oral tradition. The methodology can be replicated to other areas of the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ethnobotany/classification , Plants, Medicinal , Uruguay , Apiaceae , Asteraceae , Lamiaceae , Fabaceae
10.
Rev. peru. med. integr ; 5(4): 135-139, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1179406

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Proponer compuestos fenólicos presentes en el extracto metanólico de hojas de Clinopodium pulchellum (Kunth) Govaerts «panisara¼. Materiales y métodos. Se preparó un extracto metanólico de las hojas de Clinopodium pulchellum (Kunth) Govaerts «panisara¼, se determinó la solubilidad por disolución de extracto en solventes de polaridad creciente. Se detectaron algunos componentes químicos mediante un screening fitoquímico empleando gelatina, tricloruro férrico, reacción de Mayer, reacción de Shinoda, entre otros. Se realizó cromatografía en capa fina, revelándose por aspersión con reactivos cromogénicos y se propone posibles estructuras de componentes mediante espectroscopía UV. Resultados. El extracto metanólico presentó buena solubilidad en solventes de alta y mediana polaridad. El screening fitoquímico dio resultados positivos para la presencia de compuestos fenólicos y compuestos nitrogenados: flavonoides, alcaloides y glicósidos. Conclusión. Se propuso la estructura química de tres flavonoides obtenidos del extracto metanólico de hojas de Clinopodium pulchellum (Kunth) Govaerts «panisara¼.


Objectives. Propose phenolic compounds present in the methanolic extract of Clinopodium pulchellum (Kunth) Govaerts "panisara" leaves. Materials and methods. A methanolic extract of the Clinopodium pulchellum (Kunth) Govaerts "panisara" leaves was prepared by maceration, the solubility was determined by dissolving the extract in solvents of increasing polarity. Some chemical components were detected by phytochemical screening using gelatin, ferric trichloride, Mayer reaction, Shinoda reaction, among others. Thin layer chromatography was performed, revealing by spray with chromogenic reagents and possible component structures by UV spectroscopy. Results. The methanolic extract showed good solubility in solvents of high and medium polarity. Phytochemical screening gave positive results for the presence of phenolic compounds and nitrogen compounds: flavonoids, alkaloids and glycosides. Conclusion. The chemical structure of three flavonoids obtained from the methanolic leaf extract of Clinopodium pulchellum (Kunth) Govaerts "panisara" was proposed.


Subject(s)
Lamiaceae , Phenolic Compounds , Peru , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts , Chromatography, Thin Layer
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190481, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132242

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomass and essential oil production of nine populations of poejo (Cunila galioides) cultivated in five agroecological regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, under different edaphoclimatic conditions. The experiments were performed in field conditions in Erechim, Caxias do Sul, Pelotas, São Francisco de Paula, and Santa Vitoria do Palmar. The experimental design was completely randomized, with nine populations, eight plants per plot and four repetitions. The following were evaluated: biomass production and essential oil chemical composition and yield. The data underwent ANOVA, followed by Tukey's multiple range test. The adaptability and stability of the populations in the different environments were also evaluated by regression analysis. The results showed great differences between the populations and cultivation sites, with genotype vs. environment interaction. Most populations presented the best biomass production results at Erechim. Pelotas and Santa Vitória do Palmar were the worst locations for poejo production, mainly due to a water deficit occurred during the experiment. The Santa Lucia population presented broad stability and the greatest adaptability to the environments for biomass and essential oil production, but its average production was not satisfactory. The André da Rocha population presented the highest average production of essential oil, and was favored in favorable environments. Regarding essential oil chemical composition, the populations kept stable contents of the major compounds at all locations, with a few variations. In some populations, a higher concentration of sesquiterpenes was observed, which can be attributed to environmental stress.


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Biomass , Lamiaceae/genetics , Sesquiterpenes , Soil/chemistry , Tropical Climate , Regression Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Genotype
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 87-99, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983999

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to carry out an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by inhabitants of the Rodeadouro Island, Jatoba Island and Massangano Island, located in The Submedium São Francisco River Valley. Also phytochemicals and preliminary pharmacological tests were performed to species most cited by the community. Ethnobotanical data were collected through observation visits and semi-structured interviews with 12 key informants. We calculated the relative importance (RI), the percentage of agreement related to the main uses (cAMU) and use value (UV). The aerial parts of Rhaphiodon echinus (Ness & Mart.) Schauer were used to obtain the lyophilizate (LYO-Re), crude ethanol extract (CEE-Re) and their hexanic (HEX-Re), chloroform (CLO-Re) and ethyl acetate (EA-Re) fractions. The microdilution technique was used for determining Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for selected microorganisms. Already the spasmolytic effect was evaluated in isolated uterus fragments of Wistar rats, pre contracted with KCl 60 mM. We found 34 species cited, belonging to 22 families. The most plants were grown by locals. There were 51 different diseases, but the main indication was infectious and parasitic diseases. The species R. echinus was the most reported and it was indicated for urinary tract infection and dysmenorrhea. The screening revealed a higher prevalence of flavonoids, tannins, lignans and saponins in LYO-Re and AE-Re. Already terpene compounds were more present in HEX-Re and CLO-Re. The RE-Re fraction stood out with strong effect against E. coli and S. aureus while CEE-Re has moderate effect against gram-negative bacteria. The evaluation of the spasmolytic activity showed that LYO-Re, CEE-Re and HEX-Re fractions have similar activity, with partial effect and concentration-dependent response. This work brought about knowledge and use of medicinal plants by the riparian of the São Francisco River. It also revealed the importance of other methodologies for scientific evidence for the popular use of R. echinus.


Resumo Objetivou-se realizar um levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais utilizadas nas ilhas do Massangano, Jatobá II e Rodeadouro, localizadas entre Petrolina-PE e Juazeiro-BA, no submédio do rio São Francisco e posterior investigação fitoquímica e farmacológica da espécie mais citada, conforme a indicação da comunidade. Realizaram-se visitas de observação nas ilhas e os dados etnobotânicos foram coletados por entrevistas semiestruturadas com 12 informantes-chave. Calculou-se a Importância Relativa (IR), a Porcentagem Corrigida de Concordância quanto ao Uso Principal (CUPc) e o Valor de Uso (VU). Utilizaram-se as partes aéreas da espécie mais citada para obtenção do extrato etanólico bruto (EEB-Re), suas frações hexânica (HEX-Re), clorofórmica (CLO-Re) e acetato de etila (AE-Re); o produto liofilizado (LIO-Re) e o óleo essencial (OE-Re). A técnica de microdiluição foi usada para determinar a Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) para microorganismos selecionados. A atividade espasmolítica foi avaliada em fragmentos isolados de útero de ratas Wistar pré-contraídos com KCl 60 mM. Foram relatadas 34 espécies, contidas em 22 famílias diferentes. A maioria das plantas era cultivada pelos moradores. Registraram-se 51 enfermidades diferentes, mas a principal indicação foi doenças parasitárias e infecciosas. A espécie Rhaphiodon echinus (Ness & Mart.) Schauer foi a mais citada, com principal indicação para tratar infecção do trato urinário e dismenorreia. O screening fitoquímico revelou prevalência de flavonoides, taninos, lignanas e saponinas em LIO-Re e AE-Re e compostos terpênicos em HEX-Re e CLO-Re. Os testes antibacterianos mostraram que AE-Re é mais atuante contra E. coli e S. aureus do que para P. aeruginosa. O EEB-Re tem efeito parcial contra bactérias gram-negativas e OE-Re possui moderada resposta para todos microorganismos testados. LIO-Re, EEB-Re e HEX-Re possuem atividade espasmolítica dependente da concentração, sem diferença significativa e sem relaxamento total. Este trabalho trouxe conhecimento sobre o uso de plantas medicinais pelos ribeirinhos do rio São Francisco e revela a importância de estudos mais aprofundados para a comprovação científica do uso popular da R. echinus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Bacteria/drug effects , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Uterus/drug effects , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Rats, Wistar , Ethnobotany
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180731, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055384

ABSTRACT

Abstract Metallic nanoparticles have great potential as a chemotherapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize silver and gold nanoparticles using a simple method, as well as evaluating the potential cytotoxic activity in relation to the K-562 cell line. For the synthesis, a solution containing the metallic ions was subjected to magnetic stirring with the aqueous extract of Lavandula dentata L. and a change of colour was observed. With the data obtained from the analyses we concluded that the nanoparticles were successfully obtained by a simple and green method using the aqueous extract of L. dentata. The obtained nanoparticles presented a reduced size, a low level of polydispersion, and a homogenous spherical shape. The nanoparticles presented intense and characteristic diffraction peaks, which could be correlated to the planes of the centred cubic structure of the silver and gold. The two formulations presented predominantly crystalline characteristics. The infrared analysis suggested that the amides and alcohols present in the samples may have been responsible for the reduction and limitation of the size and dispersion of the silver and gold nanoparticles. The cytotoxic assay showed that the nanoparticles demonstrated great potential to reduce the cell viability of the K-562 cell line, especially the gold nanoparticles.


Subject(s)
Leukemia, Myeloid , Lamiaceae/toxicity , Cytotoxins , Metal Nanoparticles/analysis
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771512

ABSTRACT

Six compounds were isolated from the aerial part of cultivated Clerodendranthus spicatus in Hainan with various chromatographic techniques,and their structures were determined as:1-dehydroxy-1-oxo-rupestrinol(1),N-trans-feruloyltyramine(2),methyl 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactate(3),caffein acid(4),methyl caffeate(5) and ethyl caffeate(6),via analysis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic evidence.Compound 1 was a new compound,while compounds 2 and 3 were isolated from C.spicatus for the first time.Biological activity results showed that compounds 2-4 exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with different inhibition ratio.


Subject(s)
China , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Lamiaceae , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Phytochemicals , Pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes, Eudesmane , Pharmacology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761813

ABSTRACT

Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural polyphenolic compound that exists in many medicinal species of Boraginaceae and Lamiaceae. The previous studies have revealed that RA had therapeutic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the H22-xenograft models by inhibiting the inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB p65 pathway in the tumor microenvironment. However, its molecular mechanisms of immunoregulation and pro-apoptotic effect in HCC have not been fully explored. In the present study, RA at 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg was given to H22 tumor-bearing mice via gavage once a day for 10 days. The results showed that RA can effectively inhibit the tumor growth through regulating the ratio of CD4⁺/CD8⁺ and the secretion of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon-γ, inhibiting the expressions of IL-6, IL-10 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, thereby up-regulating Bax and Caspase-3 and down-regulating Bcl-2. The underlying mechanisms involved regulation of immune response and induction of HCC cell apoptosis. These results may provide a more comprehensive perspective to clarify the anti-tumor mechanism of RA in HCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Boraginaceae , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Caspase 3 , Cytokines , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Lamiaceae , Mice , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Therapeutic Uses , Tumor Microenvironment
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773735

ABSTRACT

Ziziphora bungeana is a kind of medicinal plants belongs to Labiatae,and it also a kind of geoherbs in Xinjiang. The main active ingredient linarin has a higher content in inflorescence than in other parts. In this study,high-throughput sequencing technology was used to reveal the transcriptome of the inflorescence of Z. bungeana,77 366 unigenes were acquired,of which 56 375 unigenes were annotated based on search of the database and classification. Through the analysis of metabolic pathways,sixty unigenes were probably encoding some enzymes involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. The contents of linarin in different parts were determined and the key genes were verified by qRT-PCR. The discovery provides the research basis for further analysis of the enzyme genes involved in the biosynthesis of the major flavonoid components in Z. bungeana.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Gene Expression Profiling , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Lamiaceae , Chemistry , Transcriptome
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 566-574, nov. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007336

ABSTRACT

The composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Minthostachys mollis Griseb (Lamiaceae) aerial parts was determined by GC and GC/MS. Menthone (13.2%), pulegone (12.4%), cis-dihydrocarvone (9.8%) and carvacrol acetate (8.8%) were the main essential oil components. The cytotoxic activity of the essential oil was in vitro measured using the MTT colorimetric assay. IC50 values were calculated on healthy non-tumor cells (HEK-293) and three human cancer cell lines (T24, DU-145 and MCF-7). In such latter cells, the estimated values were around 0.2 mg/mL. In addition, the antioxidant activity was determined by interaction with the stable free radical 2,2"-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The essential oil was almost devoid of antioxidant activity indicating that its anti-proliferative action relies on other unknown mechanism.


La composición del aceite esencial obtenido por hidrodestilación a partir de partes aéreas de Minthostachys mollis Griseb (Lamiaceae) se determinó mediante GC y GC/MS. Mentona (13.2%), pulegona (12.4%), junto con cis-dihidrocarvona (9.8%) y acetato de carvacrol (8.8%) fueron los principales componentes del aceite esencial. La actividad citotóxica del aceite esencial se midió in vitro utilizando el ensayo colorimétrico MTT tanto en células sanas no tumorales (HEK-293) como en tres líneas celulares de cáncer humano (T24, DU-145 y MCF-7). Los valores de IC50 calculados fueron de alrededor de 0.2 mg/mL. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante por su interacción con el radical libre 2,2"-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo. El aceite esencial tiene baja actividad antioxidante, lo que indica que su acción antiproliferativa depende de otro mecanismo desconocido.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Lamiaceae , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Peru , Picrates , Terpenes/analysis , Biological Assay , Biphenyl Compounds , Calorimetry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Free Radical Scavengers , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/chemistry
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(4): 875-887, july/aug. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967030

ABSTRACT

The essential oils are secondary metabolites formed by several chemical compounds that confer to these substances great social and economic importance. This diversity of compounds is generally determined by the genetic constitution of the plant, although environmental factors may also influence the type, amount, and concentrations of the compounds present in the essential oil. The aim of this work was to analyze the chemical diversity of the essential oils of native Hyptis pectinata plants collected in the state of Sergipe. The essential oils of 24 plants were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS/FID, revealing 30 compounds. Two clusters were formed by the cluster analysis. Cluster I consisted of 18 plants, and presented -elemene (2.46-25.77%), -caryophyllene (16.20-60.95%), germacrene D (0.00-21.59%), and caryophyllene oxide (5.38-42.21%) as major compounds. Cluster II consisted of six plants, and presented -caryophyllene (5.68-15.57%), (Z)--guaiene (2.18-7.31%), caryophyllene oxide (1.58-22.89%), and calamusenone (23.12-64.36%) as major compounds. Strong correlation was observed between pcymene and -terpinene (r=0.94), and between (E)--guaiene and lepidozene (r=0.95). Results of the present study indicate variation in the essential oil content, and show that the compounds -elemene, -caryophyllene, germacrene D, (Z)--guaiene, caryophyllene oxide and calamusenone were detected in greater proportions in native plants of H. pectinata of the state of Sergipe. The knowledge of the chemical diversity found in H. pectinata plants can assist in the selection of plants of specific interest.


Os óleos essenciais são metabólitos secundários formados por diversos compostos químicos que atrelam a estas substâncias grande importância social e econômica. Essa diversidade de compostos geralmente é determinada pela constituição genética da planta, embora fatores ambientais também possam influenciar quanto ao tipo, quantidade e concentrações dos compostos presentes no óleo essencial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a diversidade química dos óleos essenciais de plantas nativas de H. pectinata coletadas no Estado de Sergipe. O óleo essencial de 24 plantas foi obtido por hidrodestilação e analisados por GC/MS-FID. Foram detectados 30 compostos no óleo essencial. Pela análise de agrupamento, foi observada a formação de dois grupos. Grupo 1 foi constituído por 18 plantas, e apresentou o -elemeno (2,46-25,77%), -cariofileno (16,20-60,95%), germacreno-D (0,00-21,59%) e óxido de cariofileno (5,38-42,21%) como compostos majoritários. Grupo 2 foi constituído por 6 plantas com -cariofileno (5,68-15,57%), Z-- guaieno (2,18-7,31%), óxido de cariofileno (1,58-22,89%) e calamusenona (23,12-64,36%) como compostos majoritários. Uma forte correlação foi observada entre os compostos p-cimeno e -terpineno (r=0,94) e entre (E)--guaieno e lepidozeno (r=0,95). Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que existe variação no teor do óleo essencial, e que os compostos - elemeno, -cariofileno, germacreno-D, (Z)--guaieno, óxido de cariofileno e calamusenona, foram detectados em maiores proporções nas plantas nativas de H. pectinata do Estado de Sergipe. O conhecimento da diversidade química encontrada nas plantas de H. pectinata pode auxiliar na seleção de plantas de interesse específico.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Oils, Volatile , Chemical Compounds , Lamiaceae , Medicine, Traditional
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 291-296, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957425

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the present study, we determined the chemical composition of Clinopodium macrostemum essential oil obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and its effect on the growth and development of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae. METHODS: The essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and bioassays were conducted to evaluate the influence on the developmental stages of early second instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus until the emergence of adults, using essential oil concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800mg/L. RESULTS: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the leaf essential oil of C. macrostemum contained 32 compounds and the major chemical compounds identified were linalool (55.4%), nerol (6.4%), caryophyllene (6.25%), menthone (5.8%), geraniol acetate (4.1%), terpineol (3.7%), and pulegone (2.8%). The essential oil yield obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation was 0.8% at 20 min. The treatments showed lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) of 22.49 and 833.35mg/L, respectively, after the final measurement of the total number of dead larvae (second, third, and fourth instars), and LC50 and LC90 of 6.62 and 693.35mg/L, respectively, at the end of the experimental period. The essential oil inhibited the growth and development of the mosquito larvae by 32% (relative growth index = 0.68) at 50mg/L, and up to 47% (relative growth index = 0.53) at 800mg/L. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated the larvicidal effect of C. macrostemum essential oil on Cx. quinquefasciatus, which can be attributed to the oxygenate compounds obtained by the extraction method.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Culex/drug effects , Larva/drug effects , Biological Assay , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lamiaceae/classification , Culex/classification , Lethal Dose 50 , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Microwaves
20.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 61: e18180111, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974108

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Lavandula dentata, popularly known as lavender, is commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of digestive and inflammatory disorders. The objective of this study was to analyzed the chemical oil composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and anatomical markers of the leaf and stem of L. dentata cultivated in South Brazil. Essential oil showed an antioxidant activity similar to rutin and gallic acid when analyzed by phosphomolybdenum method. However, by the free radical DPPH and ABTS methods, it showed a slight potential antioxidant. Essential oil presented 1,8-cineol (63%) as major component, antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria strains and Candida albicans, by broth microdilution. The anatomical profile provided the following main microscopic markers: hypostomatic leaves; diacytic stomata, thin and striate cuticle; multicellular and branched non-glandular trichomes; capitate glandular trichomes; peltate glandular trichomes; dorsiventral mesophyll; flat-convex shape midrib, truncated on the abaxial side; one collateral vascular bundle in the midrib; square stem shape, angular collenchyma alternated with cortical parenchyma; sclerenchymatic fibers well-developed on the four edges.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Lamiaceae , Lavandula/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants
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