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Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 24(1): 8-12, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358812


INTRODUCCIÓN: la coinfección del VIH con la hepatitis B o C es causa de patología hepática crónica, con diversas seroprevalencias en diferentes regiones del mundo. OBJETIVO: conocer la seroprevalencia de hepatitis B y C en personas con VIH que acuden a consulta en el Instituto para el Desarrollo Humano, Cochabamba-Bolivia, gestión 2017-2018. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo, prospectivo-transversal, cuantitativo, no experimental. Se analizaron los resultados serológicos de los marcadores: antígeno de superficie del virus hepatitis B, anticuerpo anti-core del virus de hepatitis B, anticuerpo contra el virus hepatitis C; historial de vacuna para hepatitis B y esquema de tratamiento antirretroviral, de 195 personas con VIH en el Instituto para el Desarrollo Humano, se realizó análisis bivariado para la obtención de datos. RESULTADOS: la seroprevalencia obtenida para hepatitis B es de 7,7% y hepatitis C de 0,5%; la coinfección entre VIH y hepatitis B es de 80% con esquema antirretroviral tenofovir/lamivudina. El grupo poblacional homosexual tiene un riesgo de 5,5 veces más de tener la co-infección de VIH y hepatitis B con un valor de p de 0,006; con relación a la inmunización para hepatitis B solo el 9,2% de los pacientes cuentan con el esquema completo. CONCLUSIÓN: es imperativo ofertar las pruebas para hepatitis B y C a todas las personas con VIH; haciendo énfasis en los grupos más vulnerables homosexuales; es importante el abastecimiento de dosis para la inmunización completa contra la hepatitis B en todos los servicios de salud públicos del país.

INTRODUCTION: HIV co-infection with hepatitis B or C is the cause of chronic liver disease, with various seroprevalences in different regions of the world. OBJECTIVE: To know the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in people with HIV who come for consultation at the Institute for Human Development, Cochabamba-Bolivia, management 2017-2018. MATERIALS AND METHODS: descriptive, prospective-cross-sectional, quantitative, non-experimental study. The serological results of the markers were analyzed: Hepatitis B virus surface antigen, Hepatitis B virus anti-core antibody, Hepatitis C virus antibody; Hepatitis B vaccine history and antiretroviral treatment scheme of 195 people with HIV at the Institute for Human Development, bivariate analysis was performed to obtain data. RESULTS: the seroprevalence obtained for hepatitis B is 7.7% and hepatitis C 0.5%; coinfection between HIV and hepatitis B is 80% with the antiretroviral regimen tenofovir / lamivudine. The homosexual population group hasa 5.5 times risk of having HIV and hepatitis B co-infection with a p value of 0.006; Regarding immunization for hepatitis B, only 9.2% of patients have the complete scheme. CONCLUSION: it is imperative to offer hepatitis B and C testing to all people with HIV; emphasizing the most vulnerable groups (homosexuals); The provision of doses for complete immunization against hepatitis B in all public health services in the country is important.

Lamivudine , HIV , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis B
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19073, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345463


A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of antiretroviral drugs lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (d4T), and zidovudine (AZT) in perfusate samples obtained from the Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion studies. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Gemini C18 column and didanosine as internal standard (IS). The following parameters were considered for the validation procedure: system suitability, accuracy, precision, linearity and selectivity. The limits of detection were 0.32 µg/mL for 3TC, 0.11 µg/mL for d4T and 0.45 µg/mL for AZT and the limits of quantification were 1.06 µg/mL for 3TC, 0.38 µg/mL for d4T and 1.51 µg/mL for AZT. Repeatability and intermediate precision ranged from 1.05 to 1.31 and 1.50 to 1.87, respectively, and are expressed as percent of relative standard deviation (RSD). Based on these results, the developed and validated RP-HPLC method can be used for simultaneous determination of 3TC, d4T, and AZT in perfusate samples. Furthermore, this method is simple and adequate for measurements of the antiretroviral drugs in the same sample, since those compounds are mostly co-administered. Besides, this work can be used as an initial base for the development of similar methods in the same conditions presented in our study.

Zidovudine/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Lamivudine/pharmacology , Validation Study , Anti-Retroviral Agents/pharmacology , Perfusion/instrumentation , Permeability , Measurements, Methods and Theories , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Limit of Detection
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31404, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291370


Os antirretrovirais (ARV) modificaram a evolução natural da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida de um quadro inicialmente com perspectiva fatal para doença de convivência crônica, com sobrevida que pode ser próxima daquela esperada para a pessoa hígida. A administração dos ARV, entretanto, requer vigilância médica, não só do especialista, mas de todos os envolvidos na Atenção Básica, na Unidade de Pronto Atendimento e na Terapia Intensiva, para que seus efeitos adversos sejam reconhecidos e abordados convenientemente, o que significará melhores condições de vida para os portadores do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (VIH). Este relato mostra os riscos de associação de ARV, e alerta para situações limites em que alterações metabólicas graves, como acidemia e hipopotassemia, podem colocar em risco a vida do paciente sob terapia ARV

Antirretrovirals (ARV) are medications that have modified the natural evolution of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from a disease initially with fatal perspective to a chronic coexisting desease, with survival that may be close to that expected for the healthy person. Its administration, however, requires medical supervision, not only of the specialist, but of all those involved in basic care, in the emergency care unit and in the intensive care unit, so that its adverse effects are recognizeed and approached conveniently, which will mean better living conditions for human immunodeficiency vírus (HIV) carriers. This report shows the risk of ARV association, and alerts to limiting situations in whick serious metabolic changes, such as acidemia and hypokalemia, may endanger the lives of patients on ARV therapy.

Female , Middle Aged , Acidosis, Lactic , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Hypokalemia , HIV , Ritonavir , Lamivudine , Surveillance , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Lopinavir , Tenofovir , Atazanavir Sulfate
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 65-72, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089327


ABSTRACT Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the outcome of patients with HIV infection, providing virological control and reducing mortality. However, there are several reasons as to why patients may discontinue their antiretroviral therapy, with adverse events being one of the main reasons reported in the literature. This is a case-control nested in a cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS, conducted to identify the incidence of ART modification due to adverse events and the associated factors, in two referral services in Recife, Brazil, between 2011 and 2014. Of the modifications occurred in the first year of ART, 25.7% were driven by adverse events. The median time elapsed between initiating ART and the first modification due to adverse events was 70.5 days (95% CI: 26-161 days). The main adverse events were dermatological, neuropsychiatric and gastrointestinal. Dermatological events were the earliest to appear after initiating ART. Efavirenz was the most prescribed and most modified drug during the study period. The group of participants who used zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz had a 2-fold greater chance (adjusted OR: 2.16 95% CI: 1.28-3.65) of switching ART due to adverse events when compared to the group that used tenofovir with lamivudine and efavirenz.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Time Factors , Brazil , Zidovudine/adverse effects , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/mortality , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Lamivudine/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Benzoxazines/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Tenofovir/adverse effects
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(4): 336­344-2020. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1267479


Background/objective: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends routine assessment of antiretroviral treatment outcomes to detect treatment failure early and prevent the development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to describe treatment outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) over 2 years in children living with the human immune deficiency virus enrolled in the paediatric HIV clinic at the Lagos UniversityTeaching Hospital (LUTH). Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study of antiretroviral treatment outcomes in 278 children receiving antiretroviral therapy at the paediatric HIV clinic of LUTH. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected from clinical records of pediatric patients who received antiretroviral therapy for 2 years ( from November 2015 to December 2017) . Virological failure was defined as viral load > 400 copies/ml and immunological failure was defined as a CD4 count <100 cells/mm3 or CD4 % <15% after receiving antiretroviral agents for 12 months. Data was analysed using graph pad prism version 5.0.Results: After 12 months on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 101 (36%) had virological failure while 14 (5%) and 36 (13%) failed immunologically [CD4 count <100 cells/mn3 and CD4 <15% respectively]. Virological blips were observed at 24 months in 6.1% of patients while immunovirological discordance occurred in 30% of patients (poor virological clearance despite good immunological recovery) . High baseline viral load (>5000 copies/ml), poor adherence (<95%) and low baseline CD4 counts (101-249 cells/mn3) were significantly associated with virological failure, while low baseline CD4 counts (<350 cells/mn3) and poor adherence (<95%) were significantly associated with immunologic failure.Conclusion: The treatment outcomes observed in this study are similar to those reported in earlier studies. At 1 and 2 years of antiretroviral therapy , there was immune restoration however 101 (36%) and 87 (31%) respectively had virological failure despite good adherence to therapy and good Immunological restoration. This calls for early initiation and switch to second and third line drugs

Lakes , Lamivudine , Nevirapine , Nigeria , Zidovudine
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2808-2815, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877936


BACKGROUND@#Lipid abnormalities are prevalent among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) and contribute to increasing risk of cardiovascular events. This study aims to investigate the incidence of dyslipidemia and its risk factors in PLWH after receiving different first-line free antiretroviral regimens.@*METHODS@#PLWH who sought care at the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen from January 2014 to December 2018 were included, and the baseline characteristics and clinical data during the follow-up were collected, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The risk factors of dyslipidemia after antiretroviral therapy were analyzed with the generalized estimating equation model.@*RESULTS@#Among the 7623 PLWH included, the mean levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C were 4.23 ± 0.85 mmol/L, 1.27 ± 0.29 mmol/L and 2.54 ± 0.65 mmol/L, respectively, and the median TG was 1.17 (IQR: 0.85-1.68) mmol/L. Compared with that in PLWH receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) + lamivudine (3TC) + ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r), zidovudine (AZT) + 3TC + efavirenz (EFV), and AZT + 3TC + LPV/r, the incidence of dyslipidemia was lower in PLWH receiving TDF + 3TC + EFV. In multivariate analysis, we found that the risks of elevations of TG, TC, and LDL-C were higher with TDF + 3TC + LPV/r (TG: odds ratio [OR] = 2.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.55-3.11, P < 0.001; TC: OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.14-1.35, P < 0.001; LDL: OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.12, P = 0.041), AZT + 3TC + EFV (TG: OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.28-1.55, P < 0.001; TC: OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.31-1.56, P < 0.001; LDL: OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.12-1.25, P < 0.001), and AZT + 3TC + LPV/r (TG: OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 2.65-3.59, P < 0.001; TC: OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.96-2.94, P < 0.001; LDL: OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.37-1.69, P < 0.001) than with TDF + 3TC + EFV, while treatment with TDF + 3TC + LPV/r was less likely to restore HDL-C levels compared with TDF + 3TC + EFV (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97, P < 0.001). In addition to antiretroviral regimens, antiretroviral therapy duration, older age, overweight, obesity and other traditional factors were also important risk factors for dyslipidemia.@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of dyslipidemia varies with different antiretroviral regimens, with TDF + 3TC + EFV having lower risk for dyslipidemia than the other first-line free antiretroviral regimens in China.

Aged , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , HIV , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Lipids , Risk Factors
Medwave ; 20(1): e7767, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087871


Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa, a rare manifestation of Kaposi's sarcoma, is a progressive cutaneous hypertrophy caused by chronic non-filarial lymphedema secondary to obstruction of the lymphatic system that can lead to severe disfigurement of parts of the body that have gravity-dependent blood flow, due to edema, fibrosis, and hyperkeratosis, especially lower extremities. Among the various conditions that can induce chronic lymphedema are tumors, trauma, radiotherapy, obesity, hypothyroidism, chronic venous stasis, and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular tumor associated with the presence of human gammaherpesvirus 8 that is predominantly cutaneous, locally aggressive, with metastasis, and is associated with the production of factors that favor inflammation, lymphatic obstruction, and lymphedema.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sarcoma, Kaposi/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Elephantiasis/diagnosis , Sarcoma, Kaposi/pathology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy , Didanosine/therapeutic use , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Elephantiasis/etiology , Elephantiasis/pathology , Alkynes
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 48-54, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002416


ABSTRACT Aim: To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory factors associated with CKD in Mexican HIV-infected patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study. We included 274 patients with HIV/AIDS. CKD was defined by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 assessed by CKD-EPI) and albuminuria criteria from KDIGO guidelines. Clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics were compared between patients with and without CKD. The factors associated with CKD were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age was 41±11 years, and 72.3% of the patients were men. The global prevalence of CKD was 11.7% (n = 32); 7.2% (n = 20) were defined by eGFR criterion; 7.6% (n = 21), by the albuminuria criterion; and 3.2% (n = 9), by both CKD criteria. The most frequently observed stages of CKD were KDIGO G3A1 stage with 4.7% (n = 13), KDIGO G1A2 stage with 3.6% (n = 10) and KDIGO G3A2 stage with 1.7% (n = 5). The factors associated with CKD were use of abacavir/lamivudine (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.1-8.9; p = 0.03), a CD4 lymphocyte count < 400 cells/µL (OR 2.6; 95% 1.03-6.4, p = 0.04), age (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04-1.2, p = 0.001) and albuminuria (OR 19.98; 95% CI: 5.5-72.2; p < 0.001). Conclusions: CKD was a frequent complication in HIV-infected patients. These findings confirm the importance of screening and the early detection of CKD, as well as the importance of identifying and treating traditional and non-traditional risk factors associated with CKD.

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência de doença renal crônica (DRC) e os fatores epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais associados à DRC em pacientes mexicanos infectados pelo HIV. Métodos: Estudo transversal. Incluímos 274 pacientes com HIV/AIDS. A DRC foi definida pela taxa de filtração glomerular estimada (TFGe < 60 mL/min/1,73 m2, avaliada pelo CKD-EPI) e pelos critérios de albuminúria das diretrizes do KDIGO. As características clínicas, epidemiológicas e laboratoriais foram comparadas entre pacientes com e sem DRC. Os fatores associados à DRC foram avaliados por análise de regressão logística. Resultados: A média da idade foi de 41 ± 11 anos e 72,3% dos pacientes eram homens. A prevalência global de DRC foi de 11,7% (n = 32); 7,2% (n = 20) foram definidos pelo critério TFGe; 7,6% (n = 21), pelo critério da albuminúria; e 3,2% (n = 9), pelos dois critérios para DRC. Os estágios mais frequentemente observados da DRC foram o estágio KDIGO G3A1 com 4,7% (n = 13); estágio KDIGO G1A2 com 3,6% (n = 10) e estágio KDIGO G3A2 com 1,7% (n = 5). Os fatores associados à DRC foram o uso de abacavir/lamivudina (OR 3,2; IC95% 1,1-8,9; p = 0,03), contagem de linfócitos CD4 < 400 células/µL (OR 2,6; 95% 1,03-6,4, p = 0,04), idade (OR 1,1; IC95% 1,04-1,2, p = 0,001) e albuminúria (OR 19,98; IC95%: 5,5-72,2; p < 0,001). Conclusões: A DRC foi uma complicação frequente em pacientes infectados pelo HIV. Esses achados confirmam a importância do rastreamento e da detecção precoce da DRC, bem como a importância de identificar e tratar os fatores de risco tradicionais e não tradicionais associados à DRC.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Dideoxynucleosides/adverse effects , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Lamivudine/adverse effects , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Diabetes Complications , Albuminuria , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hypertension/complications , Mexico/epidemiology
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(1): 32-40, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003654


Resumen Antecedentes: Los estudios clínicos orientados a evaluar la calidad de medicamentos genéricos pueden ser útiles para fortalecer políticas de acceso a terapia anti-retroviral combinada (TARc). Objetivo: Describir la efectividad y seguridad del esquema genérico lamivudina/tenofovir/efavirenz (3TC/TDF/EFV) en pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA naïve, pertenecientes a un programa de atención integral. Materiales/Métodos: Estudio clínico prospectivo fase IV abierto y sin grupo control. Entre 2012-2014, se incluyeron y siguieron 40 pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA naïve y con indicación para iniciar tratamiento. Los pacientes fueron tratados con el esquema genérico 3TC/TDF/EFV y fueron seguidos durante 12 meses. El seguimiento incluyó valoración clínica, parámetros inmunovirológicos y de laboratorio, al inicio del tratamiento y a los 3, 6 y 12 meses. Resultados: De los 40 pacientes, 30 (75%) cumplieron los doce meses de tratamiento; de ellos, 80% alcanzó CV indetectable (< 40 copias/mL) y 83,3% CV < 50 copias/mL. Adicionalmente, en el grupo hubo un incremento en la mediana de 173 linfocitos TCD4/mm3. Por su parte, los resultados del hemograma completo, creatininemia y transaminasas hepáticas se conservaron en rangos normales y no generaron cambios del TARc. Los efectos adversos reconocidos para estos medicamentos se presentaron en menos de 10% de los pacientes y no tuvieron implicaciones graves. Conclusiones: En este grupo pequeño de pacientes, el esquema genérico 3TC/TDF/EFV es efectivo y seguro en el tratamiento de pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA naïve, y su perfil de efectividad y seguridad es similar al del esquema 3TC/TDF/EFV innovador en pacientes con condiciones clínicas similares.

Background: Clinical studies aimed to evaluating the quality of generic drugs may be useful to strengthen policies of access to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Aim: To describe the effectiveness and safety of the generic schema lamivudine/tenofovir/efavirenz (3TC/TDF/EFV) in patients with HIV/AIDS naive, belonging to a comprehensive care program. Methods: A nonrandomized, open-label, phase IV study, during 2012 to 2014 naive HIV-infected patients 18 years or older with indication to receive cART were recruited. Patients were treated with generic scheme 3TC/TDF/EFV and were followed-up during 12 months. Clinical, immunological and laboratory parameters were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Results: Of the 40 patients, 30 (75%) met the 12 months of treatment; of them, 80% achieved undetectable viral load (< 40 copies/mL) and 83.3% viral load < 50 copies/mL. Additionally, there was a significant increase (173 cells/mm3) in the median for CD4 T lymphocyte count. Moreover, the results of the whole blood count, creatinine and transaminases were preserved in normal ranges and did not generate changes in the cART. Potential side effects of antiretroviral drugs occurred in less than 10% of patients and had no serious implications. Conclusions: In this small group of patients, the generic scheme 3TC/TDF/EFV is effective and safe in the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS naïve, and its effectiveness and safety profile is similar to show by innovator scheme 3TC/TDF/EFV in patients with similar clinical conditions. Registro Estudio: Registro Público Cubano de Ensayos Clínicos (RPCEC) ID: RPCEC00000134. Registered 20 July 2012.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Colombia , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cyclopropanes , Alkynes
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763391


Despite all these exciting developments, there remain some unmet needs in the management for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). As majority of CHB patients are going to use oral nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) for decades, Safety profile of NAs is of no doubt an important issue. The newest nucleotide analogue tenofovir alafenamide is potent in terms of viral suppression, together with favourable renal and bone safety profile. Biochemical response as reflected by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization is recently found to be prognostically important. Patients who achieved ALT normalization have reduced the risk of hepatic events by 49%. Functional cure as reflected by hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance not only implies patients may stop NA treatment, it also confers to a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and other hepatic events. Hence functional cure should be the ultimate treatment goal in CHB patients. Preemptive antiviral treatment may reduce mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus, especially if birth dose of vaccination cannot be given in the first two hours after delivery. Lastly, despite the currently first-line NAs have high-genetic barrier to drug resistance mutations, there are still are many patients who were previously treated with low barrier of resistance including lamivudine, telbivudine or adefovir dipivoxil which could lead to antiviral resistance and affecting the choice of NAs.

Alanine Transaminase , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Drug Resistance , Fibrosis , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Lamivudine , Mortality , Parturition , Tenofovir , Vaccination
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(6): 477-486, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984016


ABSTRACT Antiviral drug resistance is the most important factor contributing to treatment failure using nucleos(t)ide analogs such as lamivudine for chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Development of a system supporting efficient replication of clinically resistant HBV strains is imperative, and new antiviral drugs are needed urgently to prevent selection of drug-resistant HBV mutants. A novel fluorinated cytidine analog, NCC (N-cyclopropyl-4′-azido-2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-β-d-cytidine), was recently shown to strongly inhibit human HBV in vitro and in vivo. This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral activity of NCC against lamivudine-resistant HBV. We generated a stable cell line encoding the major pattern of lamivudine-resistant mutations rtL180M/M204V and designated it "HepG2.RL1". Immuno-transmission electron microscopic examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect secretion of HBV-specific particles and antigens. Quantification of extracellular DNA and intracellular DNA of HepG2.RL1 cells by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed >625-fold and >5556-fold increases in the 50% inhibitory concentration of lamivudine, respectively, compared with that for the wild-type virus. The results showed that NCC inhibited DNA replication and HBeAg production in wild-type or lamivudine-resistant HBV in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, screening for antiviral compounds active against lamivudine-resistant HBV can be carried out with relative ease using hepG2.RL1 cells. NCC is a potential antiviral agent against wild-type HBV and clinical lamivudine-resistant HBV and deserves evaluation for the treatment of HBV infection.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Hepatitis B virus/drug effects , Lamivudine/pharmacology , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , DNA, Viral/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Line , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/physiology , Hepatocytes/virology , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Mutation
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 206 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-970094


O uso de ferramentas estatísticas no ciclo de vida de um produto farmacêutico permite verificar e controlar o processo tendo como objetivo a sua melhoria contínua. No presente estudo foi avaliada a estabilidade e a capacidade estatística do processo de fabricação dos comprimidos revestidos de lamivudina 3TC e zidovudina AZT (150 + 300 mg) fabricados pela Fundação para o Remédio Popular "Chopin Tavares de Lima" (FURP). Esse medicamento, distribuido gratuitamente pelo programa DST/AIDS do Ministério da Saúde, e fabricado por compressão direta, processo rápido que permite a implementação futura da tecnologia analítica de processo (Process Analytical Technology - PAT). No Capítulo I foi realizada avaliação retrospectiva da variabilidade de atributos criticos da qualidade de 529 lotes dos comprimidos fabricados de acordo com a RDC ANVISA 17/2010 e as monografias oficiais, sendo tais atributos: peso médio, uniformidade de dose unitária e % m/v de fármaco dissolvido, antes e após o revestimento. O objetivo foi identificar eventuais causas especiais de variabilidade dos processos que permitam melhorias contínuas. No Capitulo II foi desenvolvida metodologia analítica empregando a espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo com transformada de Fourier para a avaliação da homogeneidade da mistura dos pós. Nesse estudo foram analisadas amostras de misturas dos fármacos lamivudina 3TC e zidovudina AZT e mistura excipiente, empregando como método de referência a CLAE, para a quantificação desses dois fármacos. No Capitulo I, a avaliação do processo para o peso médio revelou a necessidade de investigação das causa especiais de variabilidade, evidenciada por meio das cartas de controle. Os resultados do ano de 2015 indicaram necessidade de centralização e de consistência do processo, com redução de probabilidade de falha. As cartas de controle para uniformidade de dose unitária, no ano de 2013, revelaram menor variabilidade do processo. Porem, nesse ano, a análise estatística para a dissolução revelou processo descentralizado e sem consistência, com maior evidência para o fármaco 3TC que demonstrou menor desempenho, Cpk<1,0. A avaliação da estabilidade e da capacidade do processo de fabricação de comprimidos de lamivudina + zidovudina (150+300 mg), no período de 2012 a 2015, permitiu o maior entendimento de suas fontes de variação. Foi possível detectar e determinar o grau dessa variação e seu impacto no processo e nos atributos críticos de qualidade do produto com evidentes oportunidades de melhoria do processo, reduzindo os riscos para o paciente. No capítulo II, no desenvolvimento do método, as estatísticas de validação revelaram que os menores valores de BIAS foram observados para a 3TC, 0,000116 e 0,0021, respectivamente para validação cruzada e validação. Os valores de BIAS próximos a zero indicaram reduzida porcentagem de variabilidade do método. O presente estudo demonstrou a viabilidade do uso do modelo desenvolvido para a quantificação da 3TC e AZT por FT-NIR apos ajustes que contribuam para a elevação de R, R2 e RPD para valores aceitáveis. Valores de RPD acima de 5,0 que permitem o uso do modelo para uso em controle de qualidade

The use of statistical tools in the life cycle of a pharmaceutical product allows verifying and controlling the process aiming at its continuous improvement. In the present study, the stability and statistical capacity of the lamivudine coated tablets 3TC and zidovudine AZT (150 + 300 mg) manufactured by the Chopin Tavares de Lima Foundation (FURP) were evaluated. This drug, distributed free of charge by the Ministry of Health's DST/AIDS program, is manufactured by direct compression, a rapid process that allows the future implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT). In Chapter I, a retrospective evaluation of the variability of critical quality attributes of 529 batches of tablets manufactured was carried out, such attributes being: mean weight, unit dose uniformity and % m/v of dissolved drug substances, before and after coating. The objective was to identify possible special causes of variability of the processes that allow continuous improvements. In Chapter II an analytical methodology was developed employing the near infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform for the evaluation of the homogeneity of the powder mixture. In this study, samples of mixtures of the drugs lamivudine 3TC and zidovudine AZT and excipient mixture were analyzed, using as reference method the HPLC, for the quantification of these two drugs. In Chapter I, the evaluation of the process for the mean weight revealed the need to investigate the special cause of variability, as evidenced by the charts. The results of the year 2015 indicated the need for centralization and process consistency, with a reduction in the probability of failure. The control charts for unit dose uniformity, in the year 2013, revealed less process variability. However, in that year, the statistical analysis for dissolution revealed a decentralized process with no consistency, with greater evidence for the 3TC drug that showed lower performance, Cpk<1.0. The evaluation of the stability and capacity of the lamivudine + zidovudine tablet manufacturing process (150 + 300 mg) in the period from 2012 to 2015 allowed a better understanding of its sources of variation. It was possible to detect and determine the degree of this variation and its impact on the process and the critical quality attributes of the product with evident opportunities to improve the process, reducing risks for the patient. In Chapter II, in the development of the method, the validation revealed that the lowest values of BIAS were observed for 3TC, 0.000116 and 0.0021, respectively for cross validation and validation. BIAS values close to zero indicated a reduced percentage of variability of the method. The present study demonstrated the feasibility of using the model developed for the quantification of 3TC and AZT by FT-NIR after adjustments that contribute to the elevation of R, R2 and RPD to acceptable values. RPD values above 5.0 that allow the use of the model for use in quality control

Tablets/analysis , Zidovudine/analysis , Statistical Analysis , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Lamivudine/analysis , Validation Study , Drug Compounding/instrumentation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764908


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the long-term efficacy of entecavir (ETV) and lamivudine (LAM) therapy in children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who had not received nucleoside analogue treatment. METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective study, we included pediatric CHB patients younger than 20 years who received ETV or LAM treatment for at least 12 months and had no concomitant diseases. All of the patients were followed up every 1 to 3 months. At each visit, the patients underwent clinical evaluation and biochemical testing. RESULTS: Eight (53.3%), 14 (93.3%), and 2 (15.4%) of the ETV-treated patients achieved virologic suppression, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion, respectively, at 1 year. In the ETV group, the cumulative rate of virologic suppression at 3 years was 91.7%, which was significantly higher than that in the LAM group (P < 0.001). The mean duration of treatment before virologic suppression was shorter in the ETV group than in the LAM group (P = 0.040). The cumulative rate of seroconversion in the ETV group at 3 years was 39.4%, which was not significantly different from that in the LAM group (P = 0.439). The ETV group showed lower cumulate rates of virologic breakthrough (33.3% at 6 years) and genotypic mutation than the LAM group (P = 0.033 and P = 0.011, respectively). CONCLUSION: ETV is superior to LAM in pediatric CHB treatment because of its higher virologic suppression rate and lower cumulative rates of virologic breakthrough and genotypic mutation.

Alanine Transaminase , Child , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Lamivudine , Retrospective Studies , Seroconversion
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764858


BACKGROUND: The purpose was to compare the efficacy between tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and lamivudine (LMV) in children with nucleos(t)ide-naive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. Patients with CHB were treated with TDF in the immune-reactive phase and compared with a historical control group of patients treated with LMV before the TDF era. METHODS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA titer decrements (> 3 log₁₀ IU/mL) were monitored after treatment initiation. The treatment duration for HBV DNA clearance ( 3 log₁₀ IU/mL) was achieved in 100% (16/16) of the TDF group but in only 62.5% (15/24) of the LMV group (P = 0.005) at 48 weeks. The HBV DNA clearance (< 357 IU/mL) in the TDF and LMV groups was, respectively, as follows: 62.5% (10/16) and 25.0% (6/24) at 12 weeks (P = 0.018), 81.3% (13/16) and 37.5% (9/24) at 24 weeks (P = 0.006), 93.8% (15/16) and 50.0% (12/24) at 48 weeks (P = 0.004), and 100% (16/16) and 54.2% (13/24) at 96 weeks (P = 0.001). Complete response occurred in 41.7% (5/12) of HBeAg-positive patients in the TDF group and 28.6% (6/21) of the LMV group at 96 weeks (P = 0.443). CONCLUSION: TDF monotherapy for 96 weeks produced a significantly more effective virologic response than LMV monotherapy in children with nucleos(t)ide-naive CHB.

Child , DNA , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Lamivudine , Tenofovir
Gut and Liver ; : 331-341, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714663


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Direct sequencing is the gold standard for the detection of drug-resistance mutations in hepatitis B virus (HBV); however, this procedure is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and difficult to adapt to high-throughput screening. In this study, we aimed to develop a dendron-modified DNA microarray for the detection of genotypic resistance mutations and evaluate its efficiency. METHODS: The specificity, sensitivity, and selectivity of dendron-modified slides for the detection of representative drug-resistance mutations were evaluated and compared to those of conventional slides. The diagnostic accuracy was validated using sera obtained from 13 patients who developed viral breakthrough during lamivudine, adefovir, or entecavir therapy and compared with the accuracy of restriction fragment mass polymorphism and direct sequencing data. RESULTS: The dendron-modified slides significantly outperformed the conventional microarray slides and were able to detect HBV DNA at a very low level (1 copy/μL). Notably, HBV mutants could be detected in the chronic hepatitis B patient sera without virus purification. The validation of our data revealed that this technique is fully compatible with sequencing data of drug-resistant HBV. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a novel diagnostic technique for the simultaneous detection of several drug-resistance mutations using a dendron-modified DNA microarray. This technique can be directly applied to sera from chronic hepatitis B patients who show resistance to several nucleos(t)ide analogues.

DNA , Drug Resistance , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis , Humans , Lamivudine , Mass Screening , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741857


PURPOSE: This prospective study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of lamivudine in children with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: During July 2003 through October 2015, children with chronic hepatitis B who visited our institution were included in this study. Fifty-five patients, who received first-line treatment of lamivudine (3 mg/kg, 100 mg maximum) for over three months, were enrolled. After initiating lamivudine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), HBV-DNA, and HBV markers were followed up at 1 month, 3 months, and every 3 months, thereafter. The treatment endpoint was determined as 1) normalization of ALT, 2) HBeAg seroconversion, and 3) anti-HBe positivity for twelve consecutive months. RESULTS: Thirty-one male (56.4%) and 24 female (43.6%) patients were included. The mean age at treatment initiation was 8.1 years. The mean duration of treatment was 23.4 months. ALT normalization was found in 98.2% (54 of 55). Anti-HBe seroconversion was found in 70.6% (36/51). Loss of HBsAg was found in 10.9% (6/55). All biochemical responses occurred under age seven. The rate of virologic response (defined as HBV-DNA <2,000 IU/mL) at six months after treatment initiation was 78.7% (37/47). At twelve months after reaching treatment endpoint, 87.2% (34/39) maintained their virologic response. Resistance to lamivudine was found in 16.4% (9/55). CONCLUSIONS: Lamivudine treatment in Korean pediatric patients with chronic hepatitis B showed better outcomes compared with other studies that implemented similar protocols in foreign populations. Further studies are needed to investigate the efficacy of newly recommended antiviral drugs on the Korean pediatric population.

Adolescent , Alanine Transaminase , Antiviral Agents , Child , Female , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Lamivudine , Male , Prospective Studies , Seroconversion
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 50(2): 139-142, mar.-abr. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-879993


Importância do problema: Relatar um caso de hipersensibilidade à lamivudina, droga considerada segura e antirretroviral indicado como de primeira linha para início de tratamento para pacientes infectados pelo HIV. Comentários: É relatado o caso de paciente infectada pelo HIV que evoluiu com farmacodermia associada à terapia antirretroviral (TARV) utilizando tenofovir, lamivudina e efavirenz. Inicialmente, a hipersensibilidade foi atribuída ao efavirenz, pela maior incidência de eventos desta natureza com este medicamento e este foi substituído por fosamprenavir/ ritonavir. Apesar da substituição, paciente desenvolveu síndrome de Stevens-Johnson. Foi hospitalizada e iniciou novo esquema, com introdução de droga a droga, com atazanavir/ritonavir, seguido de zidovudina e lamivudina, desenvolvendo manifestação de eritema multiforme após a última droga, sendo esta considerada a responsá- vel pela hipersensibilidade. (AU)

Relevance: To report a case of hypersensitivity to lamivudine, a medicine that is considered safe and is indicated as part of the initial therapy for HIV infected patients. Comments: It is reported the evolution of an HIV patient who developed a drug eruption due to the following antirretroviral therapy: tenofovir, lamivudine and efavirenz. It initially was attributed to efavirenz, due to its higher incidence in these adverse reactions and it was replaced by fosamprenavir/ritonavir. In spite of the replacement, the patient developed Stevens-Johnson's Syndrome. She was hospitalized and began a new therapy with atazanavir/ritonavir, followed by zidovudine and lamivudine and presented a drug reaction with the last one, which was considered to be the responsible for the hypersensitivity. (AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV , Hypersensitivity , Lamivudine/adverse effects
Ann. hepatol ; 16(2): 207-214, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887224


ABSTRACT Background. Patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) are often treated with nucleoside/nucleotide antiviral agents and metabolic bone toxicity is a possible concern. Objective. To determine the relationships between fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a phosphaturic hormone, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone biochemical abnormalities in these patients. Material and methods. This is a cross-sectional observational study comparing HBV-infected subjects treated for at least one year with tenofovir (TDF), lamuvidine (LVD), entacavir (ETV), or not treated (CON). Patients with abnormalities in either calcium (Ca), phosphate (PO4), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) or FGF23 were further evaluated with BMD by DXA. Results. No difference in liver enzymes or renal function seen among groups, but hypophosphatemia was seen in all groups with the highest incidence with TDF treatment (14%). FGF 23 levels were found to be elevated in 11.1% of TDF patients, 2.77% amongst controls. No elevations were found in the LVD or ETV groups. Among a subset of subjects (FGF23, PO4, and/or Ca abnormalities) who underwent further evaluation, 67% had insufficient 25-OH vitamin D, and 30% had elevated 24 h urinary Ca or PO4 excretion. No patients with FGF23 abnormalities had urine abnormalities. 40% had low DXA Z-score (<-2) at spine or hip but there was no difference between control and antiviral treatment groups and the mean FRAX score was 2.33% for major osteoporotic fractures and 0.29% for hip fracture. Conclusion. Abnormalities in bone metabolism, particularly involving vitamin D insufficiency, in HBV-treated subjects were observed with a small increased likelihood in TDF treated patients.

Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Phosphates/blood , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Calcium/blood , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Fibroblast Growth Factors/blood , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Time Factors , Vitamin D Deficiency/chemically induced , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers/blood , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density/drug effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis B, Chronic/blood , Fractures, Bone/chemically induced , Tenofovir/adverse effects , Guanine/adverse effects , Guanine/therapeutic use
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(3): e5796, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839267


We aimed to investigate the influence of regulatory T cells including CD4+CD25+, CD8+CD28- and hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype on sustained virological response and tolerance of nucleoside drugs. One hundred and thirty-seven patients were enrolled. Lamivudine was administered to 84 patients. Entecavir was administered to the other 53 patients. Before treatment, biochemical tests, HBV DNA load, HBV serum level, HBV genotype, PB CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+CD25+/CD3+, and CD8+CD28-/CD3+ frequencies were measured. Based on HBV DNA loads after 4 weeks of therapy, patients were divided into response group and suboptimal response group. The lamivudine group received treatment continuously, and then patients were categorized into non-resistance group and resistance group. Compared with the suboptimal response and resistance groups for lamivudine, CD4+CD25+/CD3+ levels were higher in the response and non-resistance groups (t=4.372, P=0.046; t=7.262, P=0.017). In the non-resistance group, CD8+CD28-/CD3+ frequency was lower than in the resistance group (t=5.527, P=0.037). Virus load and hepatitis B E antigen (HBeAg)-positive rate were significantly lower than in the response and resistance group (t=2.164, P=0.038; X2=4.239, P=0.040; t=2.015, P=0.044; X2=16.2, P=0.000). Incidence of drug resistance was high in patients with virogene type C. For the virological response to entecavir, CD8+CD28-/CD3+ level was significantly lower than that of the suboptimal response group (t=6.283, P=0.036). Response and suboptimal response groups were compared in CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+CD25+/CD3+ and virus genotype, and differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Baseline regulatory T cells including CD4+CD25+/CD3+ and CD8+CD28-/CD3+ frequencies have a relationship with the incidence of rapid virological response and the resistance to nucleoside drugs. Patients with HBV genotype C receiving lamivudine more often underwent drug resistance. Antiviral efficacy and the resistance to lamivudine were closely correlated with baseline factors; the same cannot be found for entecavir.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Nucleosides/therapeutic use , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Drug Resistance , Genotype , Guanine/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B virus/drug effects , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , Sustained Virologic Response , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Time Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219271


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy for 48 weeks provided a virological response comparable to that of TDF and entecavir (ETV) combination therapy in patients infected with ETV-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV). Little long-term data in routine clinical practice are available regarding the optimal treatment of patients with ETV-resistant HBV. METHODS: We investigated the long-term antiviral efficacy of combination therapy of TDF+lamivudine (LAM) or TDF+ETV compared to that of TDF monotherapy in 73 patients with resistance to both LAM and ETV. RESULTS: Patients were treated with TDF monotherapy (n=12), TDF+LAM (n=19), or TDF+ETV (n=42) for more than 6 months. The median duration of TDF-based rescue therapy was 37 months. Virologic response (VR) was found in 63 patients (86.3%). The rates of VR among the three groups (TDF monotherapy, TDF+LAM, and TDF+ETV) were not statistically different (log-rank P=0.200) at 12 months (59.3%, 78.9%, and 51.8%, respectively) or at 24 months (88.4%, 94.7%, and 84.2%). In addition, treatment efficacy of TDF-based combination or TDF monotherapy was not statistically different with ETV-resistant strains or exposure to other antiviral agents. In multivariate analysis, only lower baseline HBV DNA level was an independent predictor for VR (hazard ratio, 0.723; 95% confidence interval, 0.627-0.834; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: TDF monotherapy was as effective as combination therapy of TDF+LAM or TDF+ETV in maintaining long-term viral suppression in chronic hepatitis B patients with resistance to both LAM and ETV. HBV DNA level at the start of TDF rescue therapy was the only independent predictor of subsequent VR.

Antiviral Agents , DNA , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Lamivudine , Multivariate Analysis , Tenofovir , Treatment Outcome