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1.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 49: e20213040, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365391

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to develop a training program in minimally invasive surgery, based on simulation and with an emphasis on the acquisition of laparoscopic competences. Methods: this was a prospective, observational study carried out at a university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, between April 2020 and January 2021. We recruited residents of surgical specialties for structured, progressive training according to instructional principles to promote learning, such as motivation, activation, demonstration, application, and integration. We filmed the skill tests at the program's beginning, middle, and end, which were then anonymously evaluated by a surgical education expert. Individual performances were scored using the global assessment tools "GOALS" and "specific checklist for suture". At the end, all participants received individual feedback and completed a questionnaire to assess the impact of training on the Kirkpatrick model. Results: 43 residents completed the program. The evolution of performances was evident and grew between tests. The average achievements were 29% in the initial test, 43% in the intermediate test, and 88% in the final test, with significant differences between all mean scores, with H=97.59, GL=2, p<0.0001. The program evaluation and learning perceptions were excellent, but only 10.7% of residents felt fully capable of performing unsupervised, low-complexity laparoscopic surgery at the end of training. Conclusions: the training program developed in this study proved to be feasible and promising as a strategy for teaching laparoscopic surgery.


RESUMO Objetivo: desenvolver programa de treinamento em cirurgia minimamente invasiva, baseado em simulação e com ênfase na aquisição de competências laparoscópicas. Métodos: trata-se de estudo prospectivo observacional que foi realizado em hospital universitário de Belo Horizonte, Brasil, entre abril de 2020 e janeiro de 2021. Foram recrutados residentes de clínicas cirúrgicas para treinamento progressivo estruturado de acordo com princípios instrucionais de promoção da aprendizagem, como: motivação, ativação, demonstração, aplicação e integração. Testes de habilidades foram filmados no início, meio e final do programa, e, então, avaliados em anonimato por perito em educação cirúrgica. As performances individuais foram pontuadas por meio das ferramentas de avaliação global "GOALS" e "checklist específico de sutura". Ao final, todos participantes receberam feedbacks individuais e preencheram questionário destinado a avaliar o impacto do treinamento, baseado no modelo de Kirkpatrick. Resultados: 43 residentes concluíram o treinamento. A evolução das performances foi crescente e evidente entre os testes. Os aproveitamentos médios foram: 29% no teste inicial; 43% no teste intermediário; e 88% no teste final, com diferenças significativas entre todas as médias de pontuação, sendo H=97,59; GL=2; p<0,0001. A avaliação do programa e percepções de aprendizagem foram excelentes, mas apenas 10,7% dos residentes sentiram-se totalmente capazes a realizar cirurgia laparoscópica de baixa complexidade sem supervisão ao final do treinamento. Conclusões: o programa de treinamento desenvolvido nesse estudo mostrou-se factível e promissor como estratégia de ensino da cirurgia laparoscópica.


Subject(s)
Humans , General Surgery/education , Laparoscopy/education , Simulation Training , Internship and Residency , Prospective Studies , Clinical Competence , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/education , Curriculum
2.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 49: e20223095, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365390

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to describe the construction of a low-cost laparoscopy training simulator and evaluate its level of acceptance, impact on learning, and skill development in medical students. Methods: we built a video training simulator using low-cost materials. We then carried out a cross-sectional study, with the use of an applied questionnaire to medical students. Results: 51 medical students participated in the research, of whom 76.47% gained confidence in relation to laparoscopic surgery, 100% stated that the model successfully trained the skills of motor coordination and two-dimensional visual-spatial field, in addition to enabling a greater understanding of laparoscopy. All agreed that the simulator should be used before a real laparoscopic surgery scenario. Conclusion: the construction of the described laparoscopic surgery training simulator proved to be feasible and effective as an educational resource. It was well accepted by medical students, with easy handling, and promoted the development of motor and visual skills in video surgery.


RESUMO Objetivos: descrever a construção de um simulador de treinamento de videocirurgia de baixo custo e avaliar, por meio de sua aplicação, o nível de aceitação, de impacto no aprendizado e de desenvolvimento de habilidades em acadêmicos do curso de medicina. Método: foi construído um simulador, de videotreinamento com uso de materiais de baixo custo. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com a utilização de questionário aplicado a acadêmicos do curso de medicina. Resultados: a pesquisa contou com a participação de 51 acadêmicos de medicina. Após o uso do simulador 76,47% dos pesquisados adquiriram confiança em relação à videocirurgia, 100% afirmaram que o modelo treinou com satisfação as habilidades de coordenação motora e campo visoespacial bidimensional, além de possibilitar maior compreensão da videocirurgia. Todos concordaram que o simulador deveria ser utilizado antes da situação real. Conclusão: a construção do simulador de treinamento em videocirurgia descrito mostrou-se factível e eficaz como recurso educacional. Obteve boa aceitação pelos acadêmicos, com fácil manuseio, capaz de fomentar o desenvolvimento das habilidades motoras e visuais em videocirurgia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Medical , Laparoscopy/education , Simulation Training/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Clinical Competence
3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(7): 404-410, July 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137857

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the applicability and efficiency of amulti-approach laparoscopic training in improving basic laparoscopic skills of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) residents. Methods Cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study, developed at the Experimentation and Surgery Training Center (CETEC, in the Portuguese acronym) of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein with OBGYN residents. Theoretical and practical tests were applied to 24 OBGYN residents to assess their laparoscopic skills before and after their participation in an 8-week course. The course involved theoretical lectures and practical laparoscopic surgery exercises developed using rubber models, black boxes, virtual simulators and animal models (pigs). Results There was an overall improvement in the ability of the residents, with an increase in the number of correct answers in the theoretical evaluation and decrease in the time needed to perform practical tests (needle holder assembly and laparoscopic node). The course was evaluated by the students as highly relevant for both improving their surgical skills and motivating them to continue practicing. Conclusion Laparoscopic training using multiple approaches resulted in significant improvement of surgical skills with a high satisfaction level of the participants. Further studies are still needed to measure the long-term retention of these acquired skills.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar a aplicabilidade e eficiência de um treinamento em laparoscopia com múltiplas abordagens, em melhorar as habilidades laparoscópicas básicas de residentes de ginecologia e obstetrícia (GO). Métodos Estudo transversal, observacional e descritivo, desenvolvido no Centro de Treinamento em Experimentação e Cirurgia (CETEC) do Instituto de Pesquisa do Hospital Albert Einstein com residentes de GO. Foram aplicadas avaliações teóricas e práticas a 24 residentes de GO com o objetivo de avaliar suas habilidades laparoscópicas antes e após sua participação em um curso de 8 semanas. O curso envolveu palestras teóricas e exercícios práticos de cirurgia laparoscópica através de modelos de borracha, caixas pretas, simuladores virtuais e modelos animais (porcos). Resultados Houve uma melhora geral na habilidade dos residentes, comaumento do número de respostas corretas na avaliação teórica e diminuição do tempo na execução dos testes práticos (montagem do porta-agulha e realização de nó laparoscópico). O curso foi avaliado pelos alunos como altamente relevante por melhorar suas habilidades cirúrgicas e motivá-los a continuar praticando. Conclusão O treinamento laparoscópico utilizando múltiplas abordagens resultou em melhora significativa das habilidades cirúrgicas atrelado a alto nível de satisfação dos participantes. Novos estudos ainda são necessários para mensurar a retenção destas habilidades adquiridas a longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laparoscopy/education , Gynecology/education , Internship and Residency/methods , Obstetrics/education , Teaching , Cross-Sectional Studies , Clinical Competence , Models, Animal , Virtual Reality , Models, Anatomic
4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(2): 203-213, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090574

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the familiarity of Brazilian urology residents with laparoscopy, methods of training and perspectives. Material and methods a questionnaire with 23 questions was sent by e-mail to all urological residents of 86 Urology Residence Programs certified by the Brazilian Society of Urology (BSU). Results 225 valid answers (85% of all residents) responded. Most residences belong to academic hospitals mainly in the Southeast region of Brazil. Women account for 5% of residents and 82% of programs perform less than 100 procedures per year. Residents have access to LESS, RAL and 98% to surgical laparoscopy and 87% of these participate actively at the surgery, but 84.9% do not have access to RAL. The most common laparoscopic procedure is radical nephrectomy (73.2%), but only 28.8% of residents acted as surgeons, and third year residents (R3) are those that mainly performed this procedure (statistical significance, p <0.05). 61% of residents do not participate in hands-on courses or fellowship in laparoscopy, among those who attended these fellowships, 23.47% were sponsored by BSU in equal regions of the country. Although there are several opportunities of training in laparoscopy, 42% of residents do not have access to any kind of preparation and 52% have no structured specific program. R3 perception of laparoscopy experience is significantly higher than R2 and R1 residents. Almost 30% of them affirms that they are prepared for professional life regarding urologic laparoscopy. Conclusion Brazilian urologic residents have access to laparoscopy and actively participate in the learning process. Robotic surgery is expanding in the country, although still very far from residents. Brazilian resident, at the end of medical residency, is motivated to perform laparoscopic procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Urologic Surgical Procedures/education , Clinical Competence , Laparoscopy/education , Robotic Surgical Procedures/education , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(4): e1559, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152632

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Pediatric procedures have the difficulty of being performed in reduced spaces. Training in reduced spaces has proven to be different in complexity compared to adult laparoscopic endotrainers. Aim: To develop and validate a new neonatal/reduced-space endotrainer. Methods: The simulator was tested and assessed by users with different skill levels and experience in laparoscopic pediatric surgery through an 8-item questionnaire. Construct validity was determined by evaluating the performance of each subject on nine exercises. Results: A 10.5 x 10 x 18 cm acrylic simulator was created, with an internal working surface of 9 x 9 cm. An HD camera was incorporated, with a 0-180° range of movement. All exercises of a Basic Laparoscopic Training Program were adapted on a scale of 1:0.5 to fit in. From 49 participants, 42 (85.71%) answered the survey; 80.5% considered that the simulator reproduces similar conditions to procedures performed in children under one year of age; 61.1% thought that the simulator represents a difficulty identical to procedures performed in newborns; 73.7% considered that the neonatal simulator is more complicated than the adult simulator. Experts showed significantly better performance in all proposed exercises. Conclusion: The simulator has a high-quality image and design that allows training with basic tasks. The endotrainer permitted to discriminate between these different skill levels and was well evaluated by users with diverse surgical experience.


RESUMO Racional: Os procedimentos pediátricos têm dificuldade de serem realizados em espaços reduzidos. O treinamento nesses espaços provou ser diferente em dificuldade em comparação aos endotrainers laparoscópicos adultos. Objetivo: Desenvolver e validar um novo endotrainer neonatal com espaço reduzido. Métodos: O simulador foi criado, testado e avaliado por usuários com diferentes níveis de habilidade e experiência em cirurgia pediátrica laparoscópica por meio de um questionário de oito itens. A validação do método foi determinada pela avaliação do desempenho de cada participante em nove exercícios. Resultados: Foi criado um simulador acrílico de 10,5 x 10 x 18 cm, com uma superfície de trabalho interna de 9 x 9 cm. Uma câmera HD foi incorporada com faixa de movimento de 0-180°. Todos os exercícios do Programa de Treinamento Laparoscópico Básico foram adaptados em escala de 1:0,5 para se ajustarem. Dos 49 participantes, 42 (85,71%) responderam à pesquisa; 80,5% consideraram que o simulador reproduz condições semelhantes às de procedimentos realizados em crianças menores de um ano; 61,1% consideraram que o simulador representa dificuldade semelhante aos procedimentos realizados em recém-nascidos; 73,7% consideraram que o simulador neonatal é mais difícil que o simulador adulto. Especialistas apresentaram desempenho significativamente melhor em todos os exercícios propostos. Conclusão: O simulador possui imagem de alta qualidade e design que permitem o treinamento com exercícios básicos. O aparelho permitiu discriminar entre os diferentes níveis de habilidade e foi bem avaliado por usuários com experiência cirúrgica diversificada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Pediatrics/education , General Surgery/education , Clinical Competence , Laparoscopy/education , Simulation Training/standards , Computer Simulation , User-Computer Interface , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Laparoscopy/standards
7.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 36(2): 171-176, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1115820

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: la enseñanza de la cirugía atraviesa un cambio de paradigma, siendo el entrenamiento en laparoscopía avanzada uno de sus mayores desafíos. El objetivo de este estudio es describir y evaluar la experiencia de un servicio de cirugía universitario con un modelo de entrenamiento simulado de anastomosis intestinal laparoscópica. Método: tres residentes de cirugía general completaron un programa de entrenamiento de cuatro semanas. Se utilizó un modelo biológico ex vivo en box trainer, evaluando objetivamente la realización de una anastomosis entero-entérica. Resultados: el tiempo de ejecución del procedimiento se redujo en una media de 15 minutos, con una mejoría significativa del desempeño según la escala OSATS. Discusión: la implementación de un programa validado y modificado de simulación en laparoscopía avanzada permitió obtener resultados positivos, utilizando para ello solo el 4% de la carga horaria semanal curricular. El modelo tiene una alta fidelidad, bajo costo y es fácilmente reproducible. Conclusiones: el entrenamiento simulado en laparoscopía es una herramienta obligatoria y beneficiosa durante la formación del cirujano general.


Summary: Background: there is a changing paradigm in surgical education, being laparoscopic training one of its major challenges. The objective of this study is to describe and evaluate our experience with a simulated laparoscopic small bowel anastomosis training model at a universitary surgical center. Methods: a 4-week training program was conducted with participation of 3 general surgery residents. An ex vivo biological model in a box trainer was used to objectively evaluate a simulated entero-enterostomy. Results: final procedure time was reduced an average of 15 minutes, with better outcomes according to OSATS scale. Discussion: implementation of a modified, validated advanced laparoscopic skills training program showed positive results, taking only 4% of the weekly curricular schedule. The model has high fidelity, low cost and is easily reproducible. Conclusions: simulated laparoscopic training is both mandatory and beneficial in surgical education.


Resumo: Introdução: o ensino da cirurgia atravessa um cambio de paradigma, sendo o treinamento em laparoscopia avançada um de sus maiores desafios. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever e avaliar a experiencia de um serviço universitário de cirurgia com um modelo de treinamento simulado de anastomose intestinal laparoscópica. Métodos: 3 residentes de cirurgia general completaram um programa de treinamento de 4 semanas. Foi empregado um modelo biológico ex vivo em simuladores de caixa, avaliando objetivamente a realização de uma anastomose entero-entérica. Resultados: o tempo de execução do procedimento foi reduzido em média 15 minutos, com una melhoria significativa do desempenho segundo a escala OSATS. Discussão: a implementação de um programa validado e modificado de simulação em laparoscopia avançada permitiu obter resultados positivos, utilizando somente 4% da carga horaria semanal curricular. O modelo tem alta fidelidade, baixo custo e é facilmente reproduzível. Conclusões: o treinamento simulado em laparoscopia é uma ferramenta obrigatória e benéfica durante a formação do cirurgião geral.


Subject(s)
Laparoscopy/education , Anastomosis, Surgical , Professional Training
9.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(12): 718-725, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057886

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the impact of systematic laparoscopic skills and suture training (SLSST) on the total laparoscopic hysterectomy intra- and postoperative outcomes in a Brazilian teaching hospital. Methods A cross-sectional observational study in which 244 charts of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) patients operated from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed. Patient-specific (age, parity, previous cesarean sections, abdominal surgeries and endometriosis) and surgery-related variables (hospital stay, operative time, uterine volume and operative complications) were analyzed in three different time-frame groups: 2008-09 (I-1) - TLHs performed by senior attending physicians; 2010-11 (I-2) - TLHs performed by residents before the implementation of the SLSST program; and 2012-14 (I-3) - TLHs performed by residents after the implementation of the SLSST program. Results A total of 244 TLH patients (mean age: 45.93 years) were included: 24 (I-1), 55 (I-2), and 165 (I-3). The main indication for TLH was uterine myoma (66.4%). Group I-3 presented a decrease in surgical time compared to group I-2 (p=0.010). Hospital stay longer than 2 days decreased in group I-3 compared to group I-2 (p=0.010). Although we observed decreased uterine volume (154.2 cm3) in group I-2 compared to group I-1 (217.8 cm3) (p=0.030), logistic regression did not find any association between uterine volume and surgical time (p=0.103). Conclusion The total operative time for laparoscopic hysterectomy was significantly shorter in the group of patients (I-3) operated after the systematic laparoscopic skills and suture training was introduced in our hospital.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o impacto do treinamento laparoscópico sistematizado de habilidades e sutura (TLSHS) nos resultados intra e pós-operatórios da histerectomia laparoscópica em um hospital universitário brasileiro. Métodos Estudo observacional transversal de revisão de 244 prontuários de pacientes submetidas a histerectomia total laparoscópica (HTL) operadas entre 2008 e 2014. Os fatores específicos das pacientes (idade, paridade, cesariana prévia, cirurgias abdominais, e endometriose) e as variáveis relacionadas à cirurgia (tempo de hospitalização, tempo de cirurgia, volume uterino e complicações operatórias) foram analisados em três grupos temporais: 2008-09 (I-1) - HTLs realizadas por médicos experientes; 2010-11 (I-2) - HTLs realizadas por residentes sem TLSHS; 2012-2014 (I-3) - HTLs realizadas por residentes após a implementação do TLSHS. Resultados Um total de 244 pacientes submetidas a HTLs foram incluídas (média de idade de 45,93 anos): 24 operadas no período I1, 55 no I2, e 165 no I3. A principal indicação para HTL foi mioma uterino (66,4%). O grupo I-3 apresentou diminuição no tempo cirúrgico quando comparado ao grupo I-2 (p=0,010). Hospitalização superior a 2 dias diminuiu no grupo I-3 comparado ao grupo I-2 (p=0,010). Apesar de observarmos diminuição no volume uterino dos pacientes do grupo I-2 (154,2 cm3) em comparação com os do grupo I-1 (217,8 cm3) (p=0,030), a regressão logística não revelou associação entre volume uterino e tempo cirúrgico (p=0,103). Conclusão O tempo cirúrgico na HTL foi significativamente menor no grupo de pacientes submetidas à cirurgia após a implantação do TLSHS em nosso hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Suture Techniques/education , Clinical Competence , Laparoscopy/education , Hysterectomy/education , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Laparoscopy/methods , Operative Time , Hospitals, Teaching , Hysterectomy/adverse effects , Hysterectomy/methods , Intraoperative Complications , Length of Stay , Middle Aged
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901006, Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054670

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To describe a guide for the construction of a laparoscopic training simulator. Methods: Step-by-step description of an inexpensive and easy to assemble homemade laparoscopic training box, capable of simulating the laparoscopic environment in its peculiarities to enable technical skills training. Results: The total cost of the materials for the construction of the simulator was US$ 75.00 (about R$ 250.00 "reais") and it can be reduced to US$ 60.00 if the builder judges that there is no need for internal lighting. The use of real trocars imposes the same challenges as real surgeries regarding positioning, visibility and limitation of movements. Conclusion: The proposed economical and efficient alternative can contribute to the teaching and practice of laparoscopic surgical technique worldwide, benefiting surgeons and patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laparoscopy/education , Simulation Training/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Clinical Competence , Laparoscopy/instrumentation , Education, Medical/economics , Education, Medical/methods , Simulation Training/economics , Models, Anatomic
11.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 6(1): 45-56, jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1088692

ABSTRACT

Introducción: A pesar de que la evidencia actual respalda ampliamente el abordaje laparoscópico para las resecciones de colon y recto en función de su seguridad y resultados oncológicos, el desarrollo y adopción del mismo ha sido lento y aún hoy no es de rutina en la mayoría de los centros. Se presenta la experiencia inicial en la Clínica Quirúrgica 2 del Hospital Maciel. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo que comprende 41 resecciones laparoscópicas en el período 2016-2018. Resultados: El tiempo operatorio medio fue de 3 h para las colectomías y 4 h para las resecciones de recto. El porcentaje de conversión fue de 10%, la falla de sutura del 12% y la mortalidad a 30 días del 13%. Discusión: El abordaje laparoscópico para la colectomía y resección de recto es seguro y con aceptables resultados oncológicos de acuerdo a nuestros resultados. La curva de aprendizaje se sustenta en el volumen anual de cirugías, la realización de otros procedimientos de laparoscopía avanzada y el entrenamiento en simuladores. Conclusiones: nuestra experiencia muestra resultados inmediatos similares a los reportados en la literatura nacional, aunque el tiempo seguimiento aún es insuficiente para analizar los resultados oncológicos a largo plazo.


Introduction: Although current evidence widely supports the laparoscopic approach for resections of the colon and rectum according to their safety and oncological results, the development and adoption of the same has been slow and even today is not routine in most centers. The initial experience is presented in the Surgical Clinic 2 of the Maciel Hospital. Methods: A retrospective study comprising 41 laparoscopic resections in the period 2016-2018. Results: The mean operative time was 3 hours for colectomies and 4 hours for rectal resections. The conversion rate was 10%, the suture failure was 12% and the 30-day mortality was 13%. Discussion: The laparoscopic approach for colectomy and rectal resection is safe and with acceptable oncological results according to our results. The learning curve is based on the annual volume of surgeries, the performance of other advanced laparoscopy procedures and training in simulators. Conclusions: our experience shows immediate results similar to those reported in the national literature, although the follow-up time is still in sufficient to analyze the long-termoncological results.


Introdução: Embora as evidências atuais apóiem amplamente a abordagem laparoscópica para ressecções do cólon e do reto de acordo com sua segurança e resultados ontológicos, o desenvolvimento e a adoção dos mesmos têm sido lentos e até hoje não é rotineiro na maioria dos casos os centros. A experiência inicial é apresentada na Clínica Cirúrgica 2 do Hospital Maciel. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com 41 ressecções laparoscópicas no período 2016-2018. Resultados: O tempo operatório médio foi de 3 horas para colectomias e 4 horas para ressecções retais. A taxa de conversão foi de 10%, a falha na sutura foi de 12% e a mortalidade em 30 dias foi de 13%. Discussão: A abordagem laparoscópica para a colectomia e ressecção retal é segura e com resultados ontológicos aceitáveis de acordo com nossos resultados. A curva de aprendizado é baseada no volume anual de cirurgias, no desempenho de outros procedimentos avançados de laparoscopia e no treinamento em simuladores. Conclusões: nossa experiência mostra resultados imediatos semelhantes aos relatados na literatura nacional, embora o tempo de seguimento ainda seja insuficiente para analisar os resultados ontológicos em longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Laparoscopy/mortality , Laparoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Colectomy/methods , Proctectomy/methods , Postoperative Period , Surgical Wound Infection , Sutures/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Laparoscopy/education , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Video-Assisted Surgery , Abscess , Intraoperative Period
12.
Rev. inf. cient ; 98(3): 374-385, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1021978

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la calidad de la formación del residente es una exigencia social. Objetivo: diseñar una vía para favorecer la apropiación del diagnóstico laparoscópico (DL) por el residente de Gastroenterología (RG) desde la perspectiva de habilidad profesional. Método: se realizó un estudio con enfoque cualitativo en la Facultad de Medicina de Guantánamo durante el curso 2018-2019. Se emplearon métodos teóricos (analíticosintético e inductivo-deductivo, modelación); empíricos (análisis documental, la encuesta, criterio de especialistas) y matemáticos estadísticos (cálculo de porcentajes). Resultados: el 100 por ciento de los profesores encuestados reconocieron que se manifiestan insuficiencias en la preparación del RG para la realización del DL, en lo que influyó la limitada percepción del DL como habilidad para el gastroenterólogo. Se modeló teóricamente el desarrollo de la habilidad diagnóstico laparoscópico y el 100 por ciento de los profesores consultados consideraron que podría ser instrumentado en la práctica pedagógica. Conclusiones: se modeló didácticamente la preparación del residente para la realización del diagnóstico laparoscópico, lo que puede contribuir a un cambio didácticometodológico cualitativamente superior en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje en la especialización en Gastroenterología(AU)


Introduction: the quality of the resident's education is a social requirement. Objective: to design a way to favor the appropriation of laparoscopic diagnosis (DL) by the resident of gastroenterology (RG) from the perspective of professional skill. Method: a qualitative study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine of Guantánamo during the 2018- 2019 academic year. Theoretical methods were used (analytic-synthetic and inductive-deductive, modeling); empirical (documentary analysis, the survey, criteria of specialists) and statistical mathematicians (calculation of percentages). Results: 100 per cent of the professors surveyed acknowledged that insufficiencies were manifested in the preparation of the GR for the realization of DL, which was influenced by the limited perception of laparoscopic diagnosis (DL) as a skill for the gastroenterologist. The development of the laparoscopic diagnostic skill was theoretically modeled and 100 per cent of the professors consulted considered that it could be instrumented in the pedagogical practice. Conclusions: the preparation of the resident was modeled didactically for laparoscopic diagnosis, which can contribute to a qualitatively superior didactic-methodological change in the teaching-learning process in the specialization in Gastroenterology(AU)


Introdução: a qualidade da educação do residente é uma exigência social. Objetivo: conceber uma forma de favorecer a apropriação do diagnóstico laparoscópico (DL) pelo residente de gastroenterologia (GP) na perspectiva da habilidade profissional. Método: um estudo qualitativo foi realizado na Faculdade de Medicina de Guantánamo durante o ano letivo de 2018-2019. Métodos teóricos foram utilizados (analítico-sintético e indutivo-dedutivo, modelagem); empírica (análise documental, a pesquisa, critérios de especialistas) e matemáticos estatísticos (cálculo de porcentagens). Resultados: 100 por cento dos professores pesquisados reconheceram que as inadequações se manifestaram no preparo do GR para a realização do DL, no qual a limitada percepção do diagnóstico laparoscópico (DL) como habilidade do gastroenterologista influenciou. O desenvolvimento da habilidade diagnóstica laparoscópica foi modelado teoricamente e 100 por cento dos professores consultados consideraram que ela poderia ser instrumentada na prática pedagógica. Conclusões: a preparação do morador foi modelada didaticamente para o diagnóstico laparoscópico, o que pode contribuir para uma mudança didáticometodológica qualitativamente superior no processo de ensinoaprendizagem na especialização em Gastroenterologia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Professional Competence , Laparoscopy/education , Laparoscopy/methods , Diagnostic Techniques, Digestive System , Gastroenterology
13.
Clinics ; 74: e777, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011900

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze our experience and learning curve for robotic pyeloplasty during this robotic procedure. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients underwent 100 consecutive procedures. Cases were divided into 4 groups of 25 consecutive procedures to analyze the learning curve. RESULTS: The median anastomosis times were 50.0, 36.8, 34.2 and 29.0 minutes (p=0.137) in the sequential groups, respectively. The median operative times were 144.6, 119.2, 114.5 and 94.6 minutes, with a significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (p=0.015), 1 and 3 (p=0.002), 1 and 4 (p<0.001) and 2 and 4 (p=0.022). The mean hospital stay was 7.08, 4.76, 4.88 and 4.20 days, with a difference between groups 1 and 2 (p<0.001), 1 and 3 (p<0.001) and 1 and 4 (p<0.001). Clinical and radiological improvements were observed in 98.9% of patients. One patient presented with recurrent obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a high success rate with low complication rates. A significant decrease in hospital stay and surgical time was evident after 25 cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Ureteral Obstruction/surgery , Laparoscopy/education , Learning Curve , Robotic Surgical Procedures/education , Surgeons/education , Kidney Pelvis/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Laparoscopy/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Operative Time , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Length of Stay
14.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 34(4): 234-241, dic. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-968114

ABSTRACT

La simulación surge como una herramienta fundamental dentro de lo que implica el cambio de paradigma de enseñanza de la cirugía al que asistimos en la actualidad, basado en teorías educativas modernas, la seguridad del paciente y en el caso de la laparoscopía las dificultades propias de la técnica. El objetivo fundamental es trasladar el entrenamiento en habilidades motoras fuera del block quirúrgico, al laboratorio de simulación. Para ello, existen diversos modelos de simulación, entre los que destacamos los box trainers, que pese a su baja fidelidad, suman varias ventajas en relación con sus costos, disponibilidad y reutilización. En este artículo realizamos una revisión descriptiva del tema, incluyendo los diferentes modelos y métodos de entrenamiento, estrategias de evaluación, así como de nuestra experiencia inicial en la Clínica Quirúrgica 2 del Hospital Maciel. (AU)


Simulation arises as a fundamental tool within the paradigm shift in the current teaching of surgery. It is based on modern educational theories, patient safety and, in the case of laparoscopy the inherent difficulties of the technique. The main objective is to transfer the training in motor skills outside the operating room, to the simulation laboratory. For this purpose, there are several simulation models, like box trainers -among others- , which despite its low fidelity, adds several advantages in relation to its cost, availability and reuse. This study presents a descriptive review of the subject, including the different models and training methods, evaluation strategies, as well as our initial experience in the Surgical Clinic 2 of the Maciel Hospital.


A simulação surge como uma ferramenta fundamental no cambio de paradigma do ensino da cirurgia no qual trabalhamos atualmente, baseado em teorias educativas modernas, na segurança do paciente e, no caso da laparoscopia, nas dificuldades próprias da técnica. O objetivo fundamental é transferir o treinamento das habilidades motoras do centro cirúrgico ao laboratório de simulação. Existem diversos modelos de simulação, entre os quais destacamos os box trainers, que apesar de sua baixa fidelidade, apresentam varias vantagens em relação a custos, disponibilidade e reutilização. Neste artigo fazemos uma revisão descritiva do tema, incluindo os diferentes modelos e métodos de treinamento, estratégias de avaliação, e também da experiência inicial na Clínica Quirúrgica 2 do Hospital Maciel.


Subject(s)
General Surgery/education , Clinical Competence , Laparoscopy/education , Education, Medical/methods , Simulation Training , Uruguay
15.
Prensa méd. argent ; 104(7): 327-330, sep2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1051000

ABSTRACT

Bariatric surgery is performed usually in a videolaparoscopic form. This involves that surgeons must have the abilities of advanced laparascopy. The learning curve was previously analyzed in numerous reports. This curriculums for the fellowships include the development of cognitive abilities and clinicotechnical training. Through the Course of Specialists for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery from the Buenos Aires University, four fellows have been formed. In this study, the training modality is described


La cirugía bariátrica se realiza generalmente de forma videolaparoscópica. Esto implica que los cirujanos tengan habilidades de laparoscopía avanzada. La curva de aprendizaje se ha analizado en numerosos trabajos. Las currículas para los fellowship incluyen el desarrollo de habilidades cognitivas y clínico-técnicas. A través de la Carrera de Especialista en Cirugía Bariátrica y Metabólica de la UBA se han formado cuatro fellows. En este trabajo se describe la modalidad de aprendizaje


Subject(s)
Humans , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Laparoscopy/education , Educational Measurement , Health Postgraduate Programs , Bariatric Surgery/education , Fellowships and Scholarships , Learning Curve
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(9): 853-861, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973494

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate a novel and adapted low-cost set model for laparoscopic surgery in rats. Methods: Nine Wistar rats underwent two different laparoscopic procedures, splenectomy (n=3) and distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (n = 6), after assembling a low-cost set replacing the conventional one (monitor, micro camera, image processor, light source, laparoscope and insufflator). The new set included an Android Tablet 10.5 ", a 5mm USB Endoscope and semiautomatic sphygmomanometer monitor. Results: The same surgeon performed the laparoscopic procedures. Total surgical time ranged from 36 to 60 minutes with a mean of 45.8 minutes. Three rats died during the distal pancreatic and splenectomy procedure (33.3%), due to respiratory failure (n = 1), uncontrolled abdominal hemorrhage (n=1) and iatrogenic gastric perforation (n = 1). We followed the other six rats (66.6%) for seven days with no further evidence of complications. Conclusions: The laparoscopic partial pancreatectomy and splenectomy can be performed with the novel low-cost set assembled in the present experimental study. Both specific training and skills development are required to validate more advanced laparoscopic procedures and achieve a desirable outcome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pancreatectomy/education , Splenectomy/education , Laparoscopy/education , Pancreatectomy/economics , Pancreatectomy/methods , Splenectomy/economics , Splenectomy/methods , Rats, Wistar , Laparoscopy/economics , Laparoscopy/methods , Costs and Cost Analysis , Models, Animal
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(8): 713-722, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949379

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To develop a model and curriculum for simulated training of an effective and well accepted laparoscopic vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA). Methods: Experimental longitudinal study of quantitative character. The sample consisted of 12 general surgery residents and 6 urology residents (R3). The training consisted of making twelve VUAs on synthetic organs. The training was divided into four sessions and accompanied by an instructor who performed positive feedback. The evaluation of the anastomoses considered the time and the analysis of the operative technique through the global evaluation scale Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Results: Residents showed a reduction in operative time and evolution in the surgical technique statistically significant (p<0.01). The best-rated items were the facilitator positive feedback and the fact that the training was carried out at the teaching hospital premises. Conclusions: The proposed training model was well accepted and proved to be effective in reducing operative time and improving laparoscopic skills. The training should be fractionated (4 sessions in 3 weeks), repetitive (12 anastomoses) and have positive feedback.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Urethra/surgery , Urinary Bladder/surgery , Laparoscopy/education , Simulation Training/methods , Time Factors , Anastomosis, Surgical/education , Analysis of Variance , Longitudinal Studies , Clinical Competence , Statistics, Nonparametric , Internship and Residency , Models, Anatomic
18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(2): 273-279, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892988

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose The LRP has a steep learning curve to obtain proficiency during which patient safety may be compromised. We present an adapted modular training system which purpose to optimize the learning curve and perform a safe surgery. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis of the LRP safe learning protocol applied during a fellowship program over eight years (2008-2015). The surgery was divided in 12 steps and 5 levels of difficulty. A maximum time interval was stipulated in 240 minutes. After an adaptation, the fellows had 120 minutes to perform all the corresponding modules to its accumulated skill. The participants gradually and safely pass through the steps and difficulty levels. Surgeries performed by fellows were analyzed as a single group and compared to a prior series performed by tutor. Results In eight years, 250 LRP were performed (25 per apprentice) during fellowship program and 150 procedures after completion. The baseline characteristics were comparable. Most cases operated were of intermediate risk. Mean operative time was longer in the fellow group when compared to the tutor (150 min). Mean estimated blood loss were similar among the groups. Functional and oncological outcomes were better in the Tutor's group. No conversion to open surgery was performed. Conclusions The LRP safe learning protocol proved to be an effective method to optimize the learning curve and perform safe surgery. However, the tutor's functional and oncological results were better, showing that this is a procedure with a steep learning curve and proficiency demands more than 25 cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatectomy/education , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Laparoscopy/education , Education, Medical, Continuing , Learning Curve , Retrospective Studies , Operative Time , Middle Aged
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(1): 86-94, Jan. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886248

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate whether the use of the physical surgical simulator may benefit the development of laparoscopic skills. Methods: Ten medical students were divided into two groups: the first one performed ten weekly training sessions with a physical surgical simulator - ETX A2 LAP and, afterwards, one laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a porcine model, while the second group performed only a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Both groups were compared regarding bleeding, total surgical time, time to perform each surgical step and qualitative parameters, based on a previously validated tool. Results: There was no difference in any of the evaluated parameters. Conclusion: We did not find any evidence of benefit in the use of the physical simulator for surgical performance in medical students.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Laparoscopy/education , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Simulation Training/methods , Students, Medical , Swine , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Clinical Competence , Laparoscopy/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Educational Measurement , Equipment Design , Operative Time
20.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 45(5): e1954, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-976931

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A aquisição de habilidades psicomotoras em cirurgia é o componente central dos programas de residência médica em Cirurgia Geral e Especialidades. Tornar o aprendizado mais efetivo é ponto basilar dos processos educacionais. Esse artigo retrata os aspectos das taxonomias educacionais e teorias de aprendizagem que podem ser envolvidas no treinamento da cirurgia. Entre as inúmeras taxonomias e teorias educacionais aplicáveis no aprendizado em cirurgia destacam-se: 1) Taxonomia de Dave- Hierarquização a ações que facilitam a aquisição de habilidades psicomotoras; 2) Teoria de Miller- Definição do passo a passo que facilita a aquisição das habilidades; 3) Teoria de Ericsson- Competência após a repetição da prática seguida de reforço sistemático; 4) Teoria de Vigotsky- Definição do papel do especialista no aprendizado; 5) Teoria de Boud, Schon e Ende- Importância da devolutiva (feedback) para alunos e professores. O conhecimento dessas ferramentas por professores e preceptores pode facilitar o aprendizado na cirurgia, em especial nas atividades mais complexas.


ABSTRACT The acquisition of psychomotor skills in surgery is the central component of medical residency programs in General Surgery and Specialties. Making learning more effective is a cornerstone of educational processes. This article portrays aspects of educational taxonomies and learning theories that may be involved in the training of surgery. Among the many taxonomies and educational theories applicable to learning in surgery, the following stand out: 1) Dave's taxonomy- Hierarchy to actions that facilitate the acquisition of psychomotor skills; 2) Miller's theory- Step-by-step definition that facilitates acquisition; 3) Ericsson's theory- Competence after repetition of the practice followed by systematic reinforcement; 4) Vigotsky's theory- Definition of the role of the specialist in learning; and 5) Theory of Boud, Schon and Ende- Importance of feedback for students and teachers. Knowledge of these tools by teachers and preceptors can facilitate learning in surgery, especially in more complex activities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Competence , Laparoscopy/education , Simulation Training/methods , Internship and Residency , Learning
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