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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249664, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345558

ABSTRACT

Abstract The impact of antibiotics on growth, cocoon production was assessed in addition to isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with silkworm gut of infected larvae. Larval rearing was maintained at recommended conditions of temperature and humidity. Silkworm larvae showing abnormal symptoms were collected from the control group and dissected for gut collection. Bacteria were isolated from the gut content by spreading on agar plates and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hrs. Bacterial identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (disc diffusion methods) by using Penicillin (10 µg/mL), Tetracycline (30 µg/mL), Amoxicillin (25 µg/mL), Ampicillin (10 µg/mL), and Erythromycin (15 µg/mL). All isolated strains showed positive results for the catalase test. We isolated and identified bacterial strains (n = 06) from the gut of healthy and diseased silkworm larvae. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated bacteria showed close relation with Serratia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas spp. Notably, 83.3% of strains were resistant to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Erythromycin but 16.6% showed antibiotic susceptibility to the above-mentioned commonly used antibiotics. Silkworm larvae fed on penicillin-treated leaves showed significant improvement in larval weight, larval length, and cocoon production. Significantly higher larval weight (6.88g), larval length (5.84cm), and cocoon weight (1.33g) were recorded for larvae fed on leaves treated with penicillin as compared to other antibiotics. Isolated bacterial strains showed close relation with Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.


Resumo O impacto dos antibióticos no crescimento e na produção do casulo foi avaliado, além do isolamento e caracterização das bactérias associadas ao intestino de larvas infectadas do bicho-da-seda. A criação das larvas foi mantida nas condições recomendadas de temperatura e umidade. As larvas do bicho-da-seda com sintomas anormais foram coletadas do grupo controle e dissecadas para coleta do intestino. As bactérias foram isoladas do conteúdo intestinal por espalhamento em placas de ágar e incubadas a 37° C durante 48 horas. A identificação bacteriana e a análise filogenética foram realizadas pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. As bactérias isoladas foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana (métodos de difusão em disco) com penicilina (10 µg / mL), tetraciclina (30 µg / mL), amoxicilina (25 µg / mL), ampicilina (10 µg / mL) e eritromicina (15 µg / mL). Todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resultados positivos para o teste da catalase. Isolamos e identificamos cepas bacterianas (n = 06) do intestino de larvas de bicho-da-seda saudáveis e doentes. Com base na sequência do gene 16S rRNA, as bactérias isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia, Bacillus e Pseudomonas spp. Notavelmente, 83,3% das cepas eram resistentes a penicilina, tetraciclina, amoxicilina, ampicilina e eritromicina, mas 16,6% mostraram suscetibilidade aos antibióticos comumente usados mencionados acima. As larvas do bicho-da-seda alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina apresentaram melhora significativa no peso larval, comprimento larval e produção de casulo. Peso larval significativamente maior (6,88g), comprimento larval (5,84cm) e peso do casulo (1,33g) foram registrados para larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina, em comparação com outros antibióticos. Cepas bacterianas isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. e Pseudomonas spp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Larva
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251883, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350313

ABSTRACT

Abstract The lower lignin content in plants species with energy potential results in easier cellulose breakdown, making glucose available for ethanol generation. However, higher lignin levels can increase resistance to insect attack. The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of a bmr-6 biomass sorghum (a mutant genotype with a lower concentration of lignin) to important pests of energy sorghum, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda. Experiments were performed in the laboratory and greenhouse to evaluate the development of these pests on the biomass sorghum bmr hybrids BR007, BR008, and TX635 and their respective conventional near-isogenic genotypes (without the bmr gene). The lignin content was higher in non-bmr hybrids, but the evaluated insect variables varied between treatments, not being consistent in just one hybrid or because it is bmr or not. The lowest survival of S. frugiperda was observed in the BR008 hybrid, both bmr and non-bmr. The S. frugiperda injury scores on plants in the greenhouse were high (>7) in all treatments. For D. saccharalis, there was no difference in larval survival in the laboratory, but in the greenhouse, the BR007 hybrid, both bmr and non-bmr, provided greater survival. Due the need to diversify the energy matrix and the fact that greater susceptibility of the bmr hybrids to either pests was not found in this study, these results hold promise for cultivation of these biomass sorghum hybrids for the production of biofuels.


Resumo O menor teor de lignina em espécies de plantas com potencial energético resulta na maior facilidade de quebra da celulose, disponibilizando glicose para geração de etanol. Porém, maiores teores de lignina representa um fator de resistência ao ataque de insetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar como importantes pragas do sorgo energia, Diatraea saccharalis e Spodoptera frugiperda, se comportam quanto à alimentação e desempenho em sorgo bmr-6, um genótipo mutante com menor concentração de lignina. Foram realizados experimentos em laboratório e casa de vegetação, avaliando o desenvolvimento destas pragas nos híbridos de sorgo biomassa bmr 007, 008, TX635 e seus respectivos genótipos isogênicos convencionais (sem o gene bmr). O teor de lignina foi maior nos híbridos não bmr, mas nos parâmetros avaliados nos insetos, houve variação entre os tratamentos, não sendo consistente em apenas um híbrido e nem por ser ou não bmr. A menor sobrevivência de S. frugiperda foi verificada no híbrido BR008 tanto bmr quanto não bmr. As notas de injúria por S. frugiperda no sorgo em casa de vegetação foram altas (>7) em todos os tratamentos. Para D. saccharalis, não houve diferença significativa para a sobrevivência larval em laboratório, mas em casa de vegetação o híbrido BR007 tanto bmr quanto não bmr proporcionaram maior sobrevivência. Diante da necessidade de diversificar a matriz energética e o fato de que não foi comprovada neste estudo maior suscetibilidade dos híbridos bmr a ambas as pragas, estes resultados são promissores para o cultivo desses híbridos de sorgo biomassa para produção de biocombustíveis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Saccharum/genetics , Sorghum/genetics , Moths , Spodoptera , Larva
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254479, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355910

ABSTRACT

Abstract Earias vittellaFabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) is deliberated to be one of the most destructive pests of cotton and okra vegetation in the world including Asia. The pest has established resistance to various synthetic insecticides. The use of bio-pesticide is one of the unconventional approaches to develop a vigorous ecosystem without harming non- target pests and beneficial natural insect fauna. In the present study, the toxicity levels of Citrullus colocynthis seed extract have been evaluated against the populations of E. vittellaunder standardized laboratory conditions. The toxic effects of C. colocynthis on development periods, protein contents and esterase activity of the life stages of E. vittella were also evaluated. The toxicity levels of methanol, ethanol, hexane, water and profenofos were evaluated on the 1st instar larvae of E. vittella. LC30 and LC80 concentrations exhibited the effectiveness of methanol-based C. colocynthis seed extract against 1st instar larvae of E. vitella. The enhanced larval and pupal periods were revealed in treated samples during the comparison with untreated samples. The intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate in the LC30 and LC80 concentrations exposed larvae remained less than the control treatment. Fecundity, the esterase activity and protein contents were declined in LC30 and LC80 treated samples as compared to the control. The present findings suggest that C. colosynthis extracts based botanical insecticides are beneficial, ecosystem sustainable and can be integrated with insect management programs from environment safety perspective.


Resumo Earias vittella Fabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) é considerada uma das pragas mais destrutivas de algodão e quiabo no mundo, incluindo a Ásia. Essa praga estabeleceu resistência a vários inseticidas sintéticos. O uso de biopesticidas é uma das abordagens não convencionais para desenvolver um ecossistema saudável sem prejudicar as pragas não alvo e a fauna natural benéfica de insetos. No presente estudo, os níveis de toxicidade do extrato de semente de Citrullus colocynthis foram avaliados nas populações de E. vittella em condições de laboratório padronizadas. Os efeitos tóxicos de C. colocynthis nos períodos de desenvolvimento, conteúdo de proteína e atividade esterase das fases de vida de E. vittella também foram avaliados. Os níveis de toxicidade de metanol, etanol, hexano, água e profenofós foram avaliados em larvas de 1º instar de E. vittella. As concentrações de LC30 e LC80 apresentaram eficácia do extrato de sementes de C. colocynthis à base de metanol contra larvas de 1º instar de E. vittella. Os períodos larval e pupal aumentados foram revelados nas amostras tratadas durante a comparação com as amostras não tratadas. A taxa intrínseca de aumento e a taxa reprodutiva líquida nas concentrações de larvas expostas LC30 e LC80 permaneceram menores do que o tratamento controle. A fecundidade, a atividade da esterase e o conteúdo de proteína diminuíram nas amostras tratadas com LC30 e LC80 em comparação com o controle. As presentes descobertas sugerem que os extratos de C. colocynthis à base de inseticidas botânicos são benéficos, sustentáveis ​​para o ecossistema e podem ser integrados com programas de manejo de insetos do ponto de vista da segurança ambiental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Citrullus colocynthis , Insecticides , Moths , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ecosystem , Larva
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252836, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360210

ABSTRACT

The bioecology and infestation aspects of Neotuerta platensis Berg, 1882 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on plants are poorly known. This insect fed on the leaves of common purslane, Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae) for two consecutive years, which triggered its study in the following five years in Januária, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The objective of this work was to study the bioecology and infestation aspects of N. platensis on P. oleracea plants in the field and laboratory. The mean duration (± SD) of the egg, larva and pupa stages was 3.6 ± 0.89, 11.5 ± 2.81 and 10.7 ± 1.97 days, respectively. The mean numbers of egg masses and eggs per female (± SD) were 3.8 ± 1.16 and 891.6 ± 116.83, respectively. The percentage of infested plants was 59, 74, 0, 78 and 75% and the mean numbers of larvae per plant (± SD) ranged from 0.7 ± 0.45 to 1.6 ± 0.49 individuals, respectively from 2015 to 2019. Neotuerta platensis larvae infested P. oleracea plants in four out of five years evaluated.


Os aspectos de bioecologia e infestação de Neotuerta platensis Berg, 1882 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em plantas são pouco conhecidos. Esse inseto se alimentou das folhas de beldroega comum, Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae) por dois anos consecutivos, o que desencadeou seu estudo nos cinco anos seguintes em Januária, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a bioecologia e os aspectos da infestação de N. platensis em plantas de P. oleracea em campo e laboratório. A duração média (± DP) dos estágios de ovo, larva e pupa foi de 3,6 ± 0,89, 11,5 ± 2,81 e 10,7 ± 1,97 dias, respectivamente. Os números médios de posturas e ovos por fêmea (± DP) foram de 3,8 ± 1,16 e 891,6 ± 116,83, respectivamente. A porcentagem de plantas infestadas foi de 59, 74, 0, 78 e 75% e os números médios de larvas por planta (± DP) variaram de 0,7 ± 0,45 a 1,6 ± 0,49 indivíduos, respectivamente de 2015 a 2019. Larvas de N. platensis infestaram plantas de P. oleracea em quatro dos cinco anos avaliados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Portulaca/parasitology , Larva , Lepidoptera
5.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz (Online) ; 82: e39163, maio 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1517759

ABSTRACT

A identificação precisa de nematódeos de interesse médico-veterinário em amostras de solo ou alimentos é uma ação complexa, devido à grande diversidade de nematódeos no ambiente. O objetivo do estudo foi realizar a caracterização morfológica e morfométrica de diferentes estágios larvários de ancilostomídeos, Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides venezuelensis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis e Angiostrongylus costaricensis, e desenvolver um estudo de similaridade entre espécies do mesmo gênero, a fim de orientar o diagnóstico diferencial com os nematódeos ambientais. As larvas foram fixadas e diversos parâmetros corporais foram mensurados, para os quais foi realizada estatística descritiva e estudo de similaridade. Os resultados médios das larvas padrões foram compatíveis com os descritos para as espécies, com variabilidade em alguns parâmetros. S. stercoralis e S. venezuelensis demonstraram similaridade de 59% para L1 e 79% para L3, com maior diferenciação entre os grupos em relação à extremidade anterior e ao primórdio genital. No pool de larvas de ancilostomídeos, verificou-se uma grande variação nos parâmetros avaliados, especialmente quanto ao comprimento total do corpo. A. cantonensis e A. costaricensis apresentaram 48% de similaridade entre L1 e 76% para L3. Por meio da análise morfométrica e de similaridade verificou-se a possibilidade do aprimoramento do diagnóstico diferencial de nematódeos de origem ambiental. (AU)


Due to the enormous diversity of nematodes in the environment, identifying nematodes of medical and veterinary significance within soil or food samples can be challenging. To facilitate the differential diagnosis with environmental nematodes, this study aimed morphologically and morphometrically characterize various larval stages of hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides venezuelensis, Angiostrongylus cantonensi and Angiostrongylus costaricensis. Additionally, a similarity study was conducted among species within the same genus. The larvae were fixated and several body parameters were measured for the analysis, which included a comparison using descriptive statistics. Despite some parameter fluctuation, the average results for standard larvae were consistent with those of the respective species as a whole. The similarity between S. stercoralis and S. venezuelensis was 59% for L1 and 79% for L3, with more pronounced differences observed in the anterior extremity and the genital primordium. The examined parameters exhibited significant variation among the pool of hookworm larvae, particularly concerning the total length of the body. The similarities between A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis larvae ranged from 48% for L1 to 76% for L3. Analyses of morphometric and similarity data provided support for the potential improvement of differentiation between nematodes with environmental origins. This research contributes to enhancing the accuracy of identifying medically and veterinary relevant nematodes present in soil. (AU)


Subject(s)
Morphological and Microscopic Findings , Helminths , Larva , Nematoda , Strongyloides , Angiostrongylus
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4087-4096, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008604

ABSTRACT

To understand the current quality status and rearing situation of Bombyx Batryticatus, the authors collected 102 batches of Bombyx Batryticatus from different main producing areas and five major Chinese medicine markets from 2016 to 2018, and measured the properties and quality of the silk gland, to clarify the quality status of Bombyx Batryticatus from different producing areas and markets. In addition, 35 batches of Bombyx Batryticatus from 2019 to 2022 were used to verify the silk gland after revision. Moreover, Beauveria Bassiana was inoculated in the silkworm of 4-5 instars, and standardized rearing was carried out until they die. The death rate and the quality of Bombyx Batryticatus were measured to determine the differences in Bombyx Batryticatus of different instars, and explore the rationality of the infection age of Bombyx Batryticatus in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020). The results revealed that in the 102 batches of Bombyx Batryticatus, the qualification rate of silk gland was low; the content of total ash far exceeded the standard; the content of beauvericin varied greatly. The qualification rate of the silk gland of the 35 batches of Bombyx Batryticatus was only 47.49%, which could be increased to 73.00% if the number of silk gland was 2 to 4. The death rate of Bombyx Batryticatus at different infection ages was quite different, with uneven quality. Generally, the yield of Bombyx Batryticatus inoculated on the first day of the fifth instar was high with good quality. Therefore, in combination with the quality and actual production of Bombyx Batryticatus, the following suggestions were proposed for revision of Bombyx Batryticatus in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2025): The number of silk gland should be revised as 2-4 bright brown or bright black silk glands, after which, the quality of Bombyx Batryticatus could be guaranteed, and the "quality identification based on character" could also be reflected scientifically; the content determination index that the content of beauvericin shall not be less than 0.017% should be added to better control the quality of Bombyx Batryticatus; the infection age should be revised as the first day of the fifth instar to narrow the age span, which could better fit the actual production and ensure the quality of Bombyx Batryticatus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Silk , Larva
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4950-4964, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008071

ABSTRACT

Molting is an important physiological phenomenon of many metamorphosis insects, during which the old and new epidermis are separated by enzymes present in the molting fluid. Various proteomic studies have discovered the presence of Bombyx mori carboxypeptidase A (Bm-CPA) in the molting fluid of silkworm, but its function remains unclear. In order to better understand the role of Bm-CPA in the molting process of silkworm, Bm-CPA was analyzed by bioinformatics analysis, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, antibody preparation, immunofluorescence staining, and expression in Pichia pastoris. The results showed that Bm-CPA had a conserved M14 zinc carboxypeptidase domain and glycosylation site. Its expression was regulated by ecdysone 20E, and large expression was observed in the epidermis of the upper cluster stage. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Bm-CPA was enriched in the epidermis during the molting stage, and the inhibitor of Bm-CPA led to the larval death due to the inability to molt. We also successfully obtained a large number of recombinant Bm-CPA proteins by Pichia pastoris expression in vitro. These results may facilitate further understanding the molting development process of silkworm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Molting/genetics , Bombyx/genetics , Carboxypeptidases A/metabolism , Proteomics , Larva/metabolism , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Insect Proteins/metabolism
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 140-147, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970509

ABSTRACT

This study used the zebrafish model to explore the hepatotoxicity of Rhododendri Mollis Flos(RMF). The mortality was calculated according to the number of the survival of zebrafish larvae 4 days after fertilization under different concentration of RMF, and the dose-toxicity curve was fitted to preliminarily evaluate the toxicity of RMF. The liver phenotypes under the sublethal concentration of RMF in the treatment group and the blank control group were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and acridine orange(AO) staining. Meanwhile, the activities of alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) were determined to confirm the hepatotoxicity of RMF. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(real-time PCR) and Western blot were used to determine the expressions of genes and proteins in zebrafish larvae. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry(GC-TOF-MS) was used to conduct untargeted metabolomics testing to explore the mechanism. The results showed that the toxicity of RMF to zebrafish larvae was dose-dependent, with 1 100 μg·mL~(-1) of the absolute lethal concentration and 448 μg·mL~(-1) of sublethal concentration. The hepatocyte apoptosis and degeneration appeared in the zebrafish larvae under the sublethal concentration of RMF. The content of ALT and AST in zebrafish larvae at the end of the experiment was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Under the sublethal concentration, the expressions of genes and proteins related to apoptosis in zebrafish larvae were significantly increased as compared with the blank control group. The results of untargeted metabolomics showed that the important metabolites related to the he-patotoxicity of RMF were mainly enriched in alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and other pathways. In conclusion, it is inferred that RMF has certain hepatotoxicity to zebrafish larvae, and its mechanism may be related to apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zebrafish/genetics , Apoptosis , Larva , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 217-230, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970370

ABSTRACT

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a new class of non-coding RNAs, which have been confirmed to regulate insect gene expression and immune response through multiple manners such as competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network. Currently, function of circRNA in honey bee immune response remains unclear. In this study, PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed to validate the back splicing (BS) site of ame_circ_000115 (in short ac115). RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression profile of ac115 in larval guts of Apis mellifera ligustica stressed by Ascosphaera apis. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was conducted to verify the binding relationship between ac115 and ame-miR-13b. Interference of ac115 in larval guts was carried out by feeding specific siRNA, followed by determination of the effect of ac115 interference on expression of six genes relevant to host immune response. The results confirmed the existence of BS site within ac115. Compared with the un-inoculated group, the expression of ac115 in 4-day-old larval gut of the A. apis-inoculated group was up-regulated with extreme significance (P < 0.000 1), while that in 5- and 6-day-old larval guts were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05). The brightness of specific band for ac115 in 4-, 5- and 6-day-old larval guts of the siRNA-circ_000115-fed group gradually became weak, whereas that of the siRNA-scrambl-fed group was pretty high without obvious variation. Compared with that of the siRNA-scramble-fed group, the expression of ac115 in 4-day-old larval gut of the siRNA-circ_000115-fed group was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05), whereas that of the 5- and 6-day-old larval guts were down-regulated with extreme significance (P < 0.001). Ame-miR-13b was truly existed and expressed in A. m. ligustica larval guts, and there was true binding relationship between ac115 and ame-miR-13b. Compared with that of the siRNA-scramble-fed group, the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes hymenoptaecin and abaecin in 6-day-old larval gut of the siRNA-circ_000115-fed group was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05), while that of ecdysone receptor (Ecr) was down-regulated with extreme significance (P < 0.01). These results indicate that ac115 is truly expressed in A. m. ligustica larval guts, BS site truly exists within ac115, and effective interference of ac115 in A. m. ligustica larval guts can be achieved via feeding siRNA. Moreover, ac115 potentially regulates Ecr expression through adsorption of ame-miR-13b and expression of hymenoptaecin and abaecin using a non-ceRNA manner, further participating in host stress-response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/genetics , Larva/metabolism , RNA, Circular/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 229-235, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969871

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the relationship between extracellular enzymes activity and virulence of Candida glabrata clinical isolates based on the infection model of Galleria mellonella larvae. Methods: Using experimental research methods, 71 strains of non-repetitive Candida glabrata were collected from Qinghai Provincial People's Hospital from June 2021 to January 2022. Bovine serum protein agar medium, egg yolk agar medium, sheep blood agar medium, Tween-80 agar medium and triglyceride agar medium were used to detect the aspartyl protease activity, phospholipase activity, hemolysis activity, esterase activity and lipase activity of Candida glabrata. Median lethal concentration (LC50) was calculated by using 1.25×108 CFU/ml,2.50×108 CFU/ml,3.75×108 CFU/ml,5.00×108 CFU/ml suspension of Candida glabrata ATCC2001 to infect Galleria mellonella larvae. Histopathological and etiological analysis was performed to determine whether the infection model was successfully established. The clinical isolates of Candida glabrata were configured to infect Galleria mellonella larvae with LC50 concentration to detect the pathogenicity of Galleria mellonella larvae.Spearman test or Pearson test were used to analyze the correlation between the extracellular enzyme activity of Candida glabrata clinical isolates and the pathogenicity of Galleria mellonella larvae. Results: 71 strains of Candida glabrata isolated clinically were detected to have low hemolytic activity after 2 days of culture. Aspartyl protease was detected after 4 days of culture, among which 7 strains (9.86%), 19 strains (26.76%) and 45 strains (63.38%) showed low, medium and high aspartyl protease activity. After 7 days of culture, 71 strains did not detect phospholipase, esterase and lipase activities. Candida glabrata on Galleria mellonella larvae of LC50=2.5×108 CFU/ml Fungal spore were found in the intestinal tissue pathological section of Galleria mellonella larvae in the experimental group, and Candida glabrata was identified by the microbial Mass Spectrometry after culture, while no fungi were found in the pathological section and culture of the control group. Spearman test shows that, there was a linear positive correlation between aspartyl protease activity and the survival rate of Galleria mellonella larvae (r = 0.73, P<0.01), the difference was statistically significant.Pearson test shows that, there was no significant linear relationship between hemolytic activity and survival rate of Galleria mellonella larvae (r = 0.16, P = 0.34), the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The clinical isolates of Candida glabrata in this study had aspartyl protease activity and low hemolytic activity, but no phospholipase, esterase and lipase activity. The activity of aspartyl aspartyl protease of Candida glabrata was positively correlated with the pathogenicity of Galleria mellonella larvae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep , Larva/microbiology , Virulence , Candida glabrata , Agar , Moths/microbiology , Esterases , Aspartic Acid Proteases , Lipase
11.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 333-340, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982273

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate toxicity of raw extract of Panax notoginseng (rPN) and decocted extract of PN (dPN) by a toxicological assay using zebrafish larvae, and explore the mechanism by RNA sequencing assay.@*METHODS@#Zebrafish larvae was used to evaluate acute toxicity of PN in two forms: rPN and dPN. Three doses (0.5, 1.5, and 5.0 µ g/mL) of dPN were used to treat zebrafishes for evaluating the developmental toxicity. Behavior abnormalities, body weight, body length and number of vertebral roots were used as specific phenotypic endpoints. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) assay was applied to clarify the mechanism of acute toxicity, followed by real time PCR (qPCR) for verification. High performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed to determine the chemoprofile of this herb.@*RESULTS@#The acute toxicity result showed that rPN exerted higher acute toxicity than dPN in inducing death of larval zebrafishes (P<0.01). After daily oral intake for 21 days, dPN at doses of 0.5, 1.5 and 5.0 µ g/mL decreased the body weight, body length, and vertebral number of larval zebrafishes, indicating developmental toxicity of dPN. No other adverse outcome was observed during the experimental period. RNA-seq data revealed 38 genes differentially expressed in dPN-treated zebrafishes, of which carboxypeptidase A1 (cpa1) and opioid growth factor receptor-like 2 (ogfrl2) were identified as functional genes in regulating body development of zebrafishes. qPCR data showed that dPN significantly down-regulated the mRNA expressions of cpa1 and ogfrl2 (both P<0.01), verifying cpa1 and ogfrl2 as target genes for dPN.@*CONCLUSION@#This report uncovers the developmental toxicity of dPN, suggesting potential risk of its clinical application in children.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zebrafish/genetics , Saponins/pharmacology , Panax notoginseng/chemistry , Larva , Sequence Analysis, RNA
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2730-2742, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981229

ABSTRACT

c-Myc protein encoded by c-Myc (cellular-myelocytomatosis viral oncogene) gene regulates the related gene expression through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and has received extensive attention in recent years. The purpose of this study was to express Helicoverpa armigera c-Myc gene (Ha-c-Myc) by using prokaryotic expression system, prepare the polyclonal antibody, examine the spatio-temporal expression profile of Ha-c-Myc, and investigate the possible function of Ha-c-Myc in regulating H. armigera sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) gene expression. The Ha-c-Myc gene was amplified by PCR and cloned into a prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-32a(+). The recombinant plasmid pET-32a-Ha-c-Myc was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. IPTG was used to induce the expression of the recombinant protein. Protein was purified by Ni2+-NTA column and used to immunize New Zealand rabbits for preparing the polyclonal antibody. The Ha-c-Myc expression levels in different developmental stages (egg, larva, prepupa, pupa, and adult) of H. armigera and different tissues (midgut, fat body, head, and epidermis) of the prepupa were determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Ha-c-Myc siRNA was synthesized and transfected into H. armigera Ha cells. The relative mRNA levels of Ha-c-Myc and HaSCP-2 in Ha cells were detected by qRT-PCR. Results showed that the pET-32a-Ha-c-Myc recombinant plasmid was constructed. The soluble Ha-c-Myc protein of about 65 kDa was expressed in E. coli. The polyclonal antibody was prepared. Western blotting analysis suggested that the antibody had high specificity. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the titer of the antibody was high. Ha-c-Myc gene expressed at all developmental stages, with high levels in the early and late instars of larva, and the prepupal stage. Tissue expression profiles revealed that Ha-c-Myc expressed in various tissues of prepupa, with high expression level in the midgut, but low levels in the epidermis and fat body. RNAi results showed that the knockdown of Ha-c-Myc expression significantly affected transcription of HaSCP-2, leading to a 50% reduction in HaSCP-2 mRNA expression level. In conclusion, the Ha-c-Myc was expressed through a prokaryotic expression system, and the polyclonal anti-Ha-c-Myc antibody was obtained. Ha-c-Myc may promote the expression of HaSCP-2 and play an important role in the lipid metabolism of H. armigera. These results may facilitate further study on the potential role and function mechanism of Ha-c-Myc in H. armigera and provide experimental data for exploring new targets of green pesticides.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Moths/genetics , Blotting, Western , Larva/genetics , Isoantibodies/metabolism , Antibody Specificity
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1655-1669, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981161

ABSTRACT

Deacetylation of chitin is closely related to insect development and metamorphosis. Chitin deacetylase (CDA) is a key enzyme in the process. However, to date, the CDAs of Bombyx mori (BmCDAs), which is a model Lepidopteran insect, were not well studied. In order to better understand the role of BmCDAs in the metamorphosis and development of silkworm, the BmCDA2 which is highly expressed in epidermis was selected to study by bioinformatics methods, protein expression purification and immunofluorescence localization. The results showed that the two mRNA splicing forms of BmCDA2, namely BmCDA2a and BmCDA2b, were highly expressed in the larval and pupal epidermis, respectively. Both genes had chitin deacetylase catalytic domain, chitin binding domain and low density lipoprotein receptor domain. Western blot showed that the BmCDA2 protein was mainly expressed in the epidermis. Moreover, fluorescence immunolocalization showed that BmCDA2 protein gradually increased and accumulated with the formation of larval new epidermis, suggesting that BmCDA2 may be involved in the formation or assembly of larval new epidermis. The results increased our understandings to the biological functions of BmCDAs, and may facilitate the CDA study of other insects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx/metabolism , Metamorphosis, Biological/genetics , Larva/metabolism , Gene Expression , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Chitin
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244647, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278527

ABSTRACT

Abstract The essential oil of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) has several biological activities, among them the insect repellent action. Some studies showed that cinnamic acid esters can be applied as natural pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. In this context, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the production of esters from citronella essential oil with cinnamic acid via enzymatic esterification. Besides, the essential oil toxicity before and after esterification against Artemia salina and larvicidal action on Aedes aegypti was investigated. Esters were produced using cinnamic acid as the acylating agent and citronella essential oil (3:1) in heptane and 15 wt% NS 88011 enzyme as biocatalysts, at 70 °C and 150 rpm. Conversion rates of citronellyl and geranyl cinnamates were 58.7 and 69.0% for NS 88011, respectively. For the toxicity to Artemia salina LC50 results of 5.29 μg mL-1 were obtained for the essential oil and 4.36 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with NS 88011. In the insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, was obtained LC50 of 111.84 μg mL-1 for the essential oil of citronella and 86.30 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with the enzyme NS 88011, indicating high toxicity of the esters. The results demonstrated that the evaluated samples present potential of application as bioinsecticide.


Resumo O óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus) possui diversas atividades biológicas, entre elas a ação repelente a insetos. Alguns estudos mostraram que os ésteres do ácido cinâmico podem ser aplicados como pesticidas naturais, inseticidas e fungicidas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a produção de ésteres a partir do óleo essencial de citronela com ácido cinâmico via esterificação enzimática. Além disso, foi investigada a toxicidade do óleo essencial antes e após a esterificação contra Artemia salina e a ação larvicida sobre Aedes aegypti. Os ésteres foram produzidos utilizando ácido cinâmico como agente acilante e óleo essencial de citronela (3: 1) em heptano e 15% em peso da enzima NS 88011 como biocatalisadores, a 70 ° C e 150 rpm. As taxas de conversão de cinamatos de citronelil e geranil foram 58,7 e 69,0% para NS 88011, respectivamente. Para a toxicidade sobre Artemia salina foram obtidos CL50 de 5,29 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial e 4,36 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com NS 88011. Na atividade inseticida contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, obteve-se CL50 de 111,84 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial de citronela e 86,30 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com a enzima NS 88011, indicando alta toxicidade dos ésteres. Os resultados demonstraram que as amostras avaliadas apresentam potencial de aplicação como bioinseticida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/toxicity , Aedes , Cymbopogon , Insect Repellents , Insecticides/toxicity , Esterification , Larva
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244480, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278535

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of garlic as a growth promoter in larvae of angelfish Pterophyllum scalare and its benefits during transport of juveniles of this species. The experiment was conducted in recirculation aquaculture system, consisting of 20 tanks of 40 L equipped with independent water input and output. We used 1,400 larvae distributed among five treatments, with four repetitions, which totaled 20 experimental units. The treatments were 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg of garlic extract per kilo of feed. The results showed that the inclusion of levels of garlic extract in the feed did not significantly effect the fish's development or their transport. Neither did the inclusion of levels of garlic extract affect the survival of the larvae during the trial period. New research with extracts of higher dosages should be performed to elucidate the effect of garlic extract as a growth promoter.


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades do alho como promotor de crescimento em larvas de acará bandeira Pterophyllum scalare e seus benefícios no transporte de juvenis da mesma espécie. O experimento foi conduzido em sistema de recirculação composto por 20 aquários de 40 L de volume útil, dotado de entrada e saída de água independentes e teve a duração de 40 dias. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, totalizando 20 unidades experimentais. Foram utilizadas 1.400 larvas de acará bandeira (Pterophyllum scalare) divididas entre os tratamentos. Os tratamentos consistiram em: 0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 mg de extrato de alho por quilo de ração. Os resultados mostraram que não houve efeito significativo dos níveis de inclusão do extrato do alho sobre os índices zootécnicos avaliados e posteriormente no transporte dos juvenis. Também não foi observado influência na sobrevivência das larvas durante o período experimental. Novas pesquisas com dosagens maiores de extratos devem ser realizados para melhor elucidação do efeito do extrato de alho como promotor de crescimento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids , Garlic , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Aquaculture , Larva
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247539, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), ɣ-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.


Resumo Numerosos estudos têm investigado a composição química e as atividades biológicas de óleos essenciais extraídos de cascas dos frutos, folhas e flores de diferentes espécies de Citrus. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a composição química e as atividades larvicida e leishmanicida in vitro do óleo essencial das cascas dos frutos de Citrus reticulata (CR-EO). CR-EO foi obtido pela técnica de extração em aparelho Clevenger e sua composição química foi determinada por CG-EM e CG-DIC. Limoneno (85,7%), ɣ-terpineno (6,7%) and mirceno (2,1%) foram identificados como os constituintes majoritários. CR-EO mostrou alta atividade contra as formas promastigota de Leishmania amazonensis (CI50 = 8,23 µg/mL). CR-EO também exibiu alta atividade larvicida contra as larvas do terceiro estágio do Aedes aegypti com concentração letal (CL50 = 58,35 µg/mL) e mortalidade de 100% em 150 µg/mL. Este estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, o uso potencial de CR-EO contra esta importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos do gênero Aedes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Citrus , Aedes , Insecticides/pharmacology , Fruit , Larva
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243890, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278548

ABSTRACT

Abstract Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) is an omnivorous predator that finds different food resources in the corn plant: eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredospores of Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897), and pollen. Knowing the survival and food preferences of this predator is essential to define its relevance as a biological control agent. We hypothesize that the foraging behavior and predatory capacity of D. luteipes may be affected when several food resources, especially eggs of S. frugiperda, uredospores of P. polysora, and pollen are concurrently in the same plant. The survival of D. luteipes in the nymph stage and their preference among food resources, often available in corn plants, were determined. To verify the survival of D. luteipes, newly hatched nymphs were fed exclusively with 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- a combination of uredospores + eggs, and 5- artificial diet (control). In another experiment, nymphs and adults of D. luteipes with 24 and 48 hours of fasting were individually released in the center of a container with four diets: 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- artificial diet, and maintained for 10 minutes, to evaluate the food choice and feeding time. The exclusive feeding with S. frugiperda eggs caused low nymph survival (8%), but the combination of P. polysora uredospores + S. frugiperda eggs allowed 58.3% survival. D. luteipes preferred feeding during the nighttime and the most significant proportions of choices by nymphs and adults were for pollen and diet, with adults spending more time eating pollen. These findings indicate that the trophic choices of D. luteipes are relevant to understand its contribution as an agent to control pest insects and fungal diseases in corn.


Resumo Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) é um predador onívoro, que encontra na planta do milho diferentes recursos alimentares: ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredósporos de Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897) e pólen. Para definição da relevância desse predador como agente de controle biológico, conhecer a sobrevivência e preferência alimentar é essencial. Nós hipotetizamos que o comportamento de forrageamento e a capacidade de predação de D. luteipes podem ser afetados quando uma mesma planta oferece ovos, uredósporos e pólen, concomitantemente. A sobrevivência de D. luteipes na fase de ninfa e sua preferência entre os recursos alimentares, frequentemente disponíveis nas plantas de milho, foram determinados. Para verificar a sobrevivência de D. luteipes, ninfas recém eclodidas foram alimentadas exclusivamente com 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- combinação de uredósporos + ovos e 5- dieta artificial (controle). Em outro experimento, ninfas e adultos de D. luteipes com 24 e 48 horas de jejum foram liberadas individualmente, em recipientes contendo quatro dietas: 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- dieta artificial e mantidas durante 10 min, sendo avaliados a escolha pelo alimento e o tempo de alimentação. A alimentação exclusiva com ovos de S. frugiperda ocasionou baixa sobrevivência das ninfas (8%), porém a combinação de uredósporos de P. polysora + ovos de S. frugiperda possibilitou sobrevivência de 58,3%. D. luteipes preferiu se alimentar durante o período noturno e as maiores proporções de escolhas das ninfas e dos adultos ocorreram no pólen e na dieta, sendo que os adultos gastaram mais tempo se alimentando de pólen. Estas descobertas indicam que as escolhas tróficas de D. luteipes são relevantes para compreender sua contribuição como agente de controle de insetos-praga e doença fúngicas em milho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Predatory Behavior , Insecta , Spodoptera , Zea mays , Larva , Nymph
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246230, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339369

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x 108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.


Resumo A dengue transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti é uma das doenças transmitidas por insetos de propagação mais rápida. A dependência atual do controle do vetor da dengue é principalmente de inseticidas químicos. O aumento da resistência a inseticidas no principal vetor do mosquito, Aedes aegypti, limita a eficácia do controle do vetor por meio de inseticidas químicos. Esses inseticidas químicos também têm impactos ambientais negativos sobre os animais, plantas e saúde humana. Os agentes de micobiocontrole são organismos que ocorrem naturalmente e são menos prejudiciais ao meio ambiente em comparação com os inseticidas químicos. No presente estudo, avaliou-se o potencial entomopatogênico de cepas locais de fungos isolados do solo para o controle do vetor da dengue. Isolados de fungos locais apresentam melhor alternativa para a introdução de uma cepa de biocontrole estrangeira, pois podem ser mais bem adaptados às condições ambientais da área para sobreviver e podem ter maior eficácia entomopatogênica contra o organismo-alvo. A eficácia larvicida de Fusarium equiseti e Fusarium proliferatum foi avaliada contra Aedes aegypti. Cepas locais de F. equiseti (MK371718) e F. proliferatum (MK371715) foram isoladas do solo de Changa Manga Forest, Paquistão, usando o método de isca para insetos. Atividade larvicida de dois Fusarium spp. foi testado contra larvas de quarto ínstar de A. aegypti em laboratório, nas concentrações 105, 106, 107 e 108 conídios / ml. Os valores de LC50 para F. equiseti após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição foram registrados como 3,8x 108, 2,9x107, 2,0x107 e 7,1x106 conídios / ml, respectivamente, enquanto os valores de LC50 para F. proliferatum foram registrados como 1,21x108, 9,6 x107, 4,2x107, 2,6x107 conídios / ml, respectivamente, após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição. Os resultados indicam que entre duas cepas de fungos F. equiseti se mostrou mais eficaz em termos de atividade larvicida do que F. proliferatum contra larvas de A. aegypti.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aedes , Fusarium , Insecticides/pharmacology , Pakistan , Soil , Plant Extracts , Forests , Mosquito Vectors , Larva
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240842, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339375

ABSTRACT

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culex , Chenopodium , Insecticides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Hexanes , Larva
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Moths , Phosphorus , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Insecticide Resistance , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Fertilizers , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Larva , Nitrogen
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