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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 142-148, ene. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103091


The research of new substances capable of controlling the Aedes aegypti mosquito is urgent due to the increase in the transmission of the diseases such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus by the vector. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots, a native plant from Brazil, and of the isolated compound piperovatine against larvae of A. aegypti by the larval immersion test. The lethal concentration that killed 50% (LC50) and 99% (LC99) of larvae was determined by Probit analysis. The results indicated high larvicidal activity on A. aegypti larvae for crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots with LC50 of 4.86 µg/mL and LC99 of 15.50 µg/mL and piperovatine with LC50 of 17.78 µg/mL and LC99 of 48.55 µg/mL. This work opens new perspectives to the development of future products with crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots and piperovatine that can be applied to mosquito control.

La investigación de nuevas sustancias capaces de controlar el mosquito Aedes aegypti es urgente debido al aumento en la transmisión de enfermedades como el dengue, el chikungunya y el virus Zika por el vector. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad larvicida del extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis, una planta nativa de Brasil, y del compuesto aislado piperovatine contra larvas de A. aegypti mediante la prueba de inmersión larvaria. La concentración letal que mató al 50% (LC50) y al 99% (LC99) de larvas se determinó mediante análisis Probit. Los resultados indicaron una alta actividad larvicida en larvas de A. aegypti para extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis con LC50 de 4.86 µg/mL y LC99 de 15.50 µg/mL y piperovatine con LC50 de 17.78 µg/mL y LC99 de 48.55 µg/mL. Este trabajo abre nuevas perspectivas para el desarrollo de futuros productos con extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis y piperovatine que pueden aplicarse al control de mosquitos.

Animals , Sorbic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Piper/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Sorbic Acid/isolation & purification , Sorbic Acid/pharmacology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Brazil , Plant Roots , Dengue/prevention & control , Larvicides , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Larva/drug effects , Methylene Chloride
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200271, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135271


BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti is the primary transmitter of several arbovirus with great impact in human health. Controlling vector mosquitoes is an essential and complex task. One promising control method is to use mosquitoes as a vehicle to disseminate tiny particles of juvenile-killing insecticides, such as pyriproxyfen (PPF), to breeding sites. OBJECTIVES We aimed to investigate the capacity of Ae. aegypti to disseminate two new formulations of PPF in two sites of Rio de Janeiro city for assessment of the efficacy of these products. METHODS Dissemination stations impregnated with powder and liquid new formulations of PPF were installed in two test sites. Ovitraps were used in the test sites and in a control site for monitoring the presence of Ae. aegypti throughout eggs collection. FINDINGS Entomological indices indicated that the new formulations of PPF were efficient in reducing eggs abundance. Liquid formulation performed better than powder formulation. Ready-to-use formulations of PPF can be quickly applied in the field and can be replaced after a few months. MAIN CONCLUSIONS New formulations of PPF associated with mosquito dissemination approach make a valuable vector control strategy, managing to cover places of difficult access for whatever reason. New formulations application requires less labour, being economically attractive.

Humans , Animals , Adolescent , Pyridines/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Cities , Mosquito Vectors/growth & development , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Larva/growth & development
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190018, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092184


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The larvicidal potential of Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. was studied against the early 4th instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston., Aedes aegypti Linn.,and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. because of the emergence of mosquito resistance to conventional synthetic insecticides. METHODS: At concentrations of 12.5-200 ppm, larvicidal activities were studied under laboratory conditions. RESULTS: After 24 h of exposure, the methanol extract of the roots recorded the highest larvicidal activity against An. stephensi, with LC50 and LC90values of 7.96 and 34.39 ppm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We are developing potent larvicidal compound(s) from S. costus for controlling the mosquito larval population.

Animals , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Culex/drug effects , Saussurea/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Insecticides/isolation & purification
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190489, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057274


Abstract INTRODUCTION: In Brasilia, pyriproxyfen (PPF; 0.01 mg/L) has been used for the larval control of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes since 2016. Information on the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to PPF, and the development of resistance in populations from the Federal District of Brazil (FD) is limited. It is essential to monitor the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides in order to improve vector control strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti populations from five areas of Brasilia to PPF. METHODS: We performed dose-response tests to estimate the emergence inhibition and resistance ratio of each field population, including the Rockefeller reference population. We also analyzed egg positivity, and the density and mortality of larvae and pupae. RESULTS: Populations from Vila Planalto (RR50=1.7), Regiment Guards Cavalry (RR50=2.5), and Sub-secretary of Justice Complex (RR50=3.7) presented high susceptibility to PPF, while the RR values of populations from Lago Norte (RR50=7.7) and Varjão (RR50=5.9) were moderately high, suggesting the emergence of insipient resistance to PPF in Brasilia. At 30 ng/mL, the highest larvae mortality rate was 2.7% for the population from Lago Norte, while that of pupae was 92.1% for Varjão and Vila Planalto. CONCLUSIONS: The five populations of Ae. aegypti from the FD are susceptible to PPF and there is a need to monitor the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti in new areas of the FD.

Animals , Pyridines/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Brazil , Larva/drug effects
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190211, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057287


Abstract INTRODUCTION Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Recently, plant-sourced larvicides are attracting great interests. METHODS: The essential oil was extracted from the leaf of Cinnamomum camphora (L.), and a bioassay was conducted to determine the larvicidal efficacy. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS analysis. RESULTS: The oil showed strong, dose-dependent larvicidal activities. The onset of larvicidal efficiency was rapid. The LC50 and LC95 were determined as 0.146% and 1.057% at 1 h, 0.031% and 0.237% at 12 h, 0.026% and 0.128% at 24 h, respectively. The oil contains 32 compounds. CONCLUSIONS The essential oil of C. camphora leaf has an excellent larvicidal potential for the control of A. stephensi.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cinnamomum camphora/chemistry , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Biological Assay , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50 , Anopheles/classification
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e003820, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138095


Abstract Semi-intensive equine breeding system favors gastrointestinal nematode infections. The treatment of these infections is based on the use of anthelmintics. However, the inappropriate use of these drugs has led to parasitic resistance to the available active principles. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the main classes of antiparasitic (ATP) used in control in adult and young animals, including: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole), pyrimidines (pyrantel pamoate), macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin and moxidectin), as well as the combination of active ingredients (ivermectin + pyrantel pamoate). The study was carried out in two military establishments, located in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), from January to December, 2018. The intervals between the treatments of the animals were performed from 30 to 90 days. Coproparasitological evaluations were determined by the egg count reduction in the faeces. Cyatostomine larvae were identified in pre and post-treatment cultures. The results demonstrated the multiple parasitic resistance of cyathostomins to fenbendazole, moxidectin in young animals, and to fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate in adult animals. Thus, it is necessary to define or diagnose parasitic resistance to assist in the creation of prophylactic parasitic control, using suppressive treatment with ATP associated with integrated alternatives. The progress of parasitic resistance can be slowed.

Resumo O sistema semi-intensivo de criação de equinos favorece infecções por nematoides gastrointestinais. O tratamento dessas infecções é baseado no uso de anti-helmínticos. No entanto, o uso inadequado desses medicamentos levou à resistência parasitária aos princípios ativos disponíveis. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia das principais classes de antiparasitários (ATP), utilizados no controle em animais adultos e jovens, incluindo: benzimidazois (fenbendazol), pirimidinas (pamoato de pirantel), lactonas macrocíclicas (ivermectina e moxidectina), bem como a combinação de ingredientes ativos (ivermectina + pamoato de pirantel). O estudo foi realizado em dois estabelecimentos militares, localizados no Rio Grande do Sul (RS), de janeiro a dezembro de 2018. Os intervalos entre os tratamentos foram realizados de 30 a 90 dias. As avaliações coproparasitológicas foram determinadas pela redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes. Foram identificadas larvas de ciatostomíneos nas coproculturas pré e pós tratamentos. Os resultados demonstraram a resistência parasitária múltipla dos ciatostomíneos ao fenbendazol, moxidectina em animais jovens, febendazole e pamoato de pirantel em animais adultos. Estabelecer o diagnóstico da resistência parasitária auxiliará na elaboração de um controle parasitário profilático, reduzindo o tratamento supressivo com ATP juntamente com alternativas de controle integrado. Dessa forma, o avanço da resistência parasitária poderá ser retardado.

Animals , Strongyle Infections, Equine/parasitology , Strongyle Infections, Equine/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Military Personnel , Antinematodal Agents/therapeutic use , Antinematodal Agents/pharmacology , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Brazil , Strongylida/drug effects , Feces/parasitology , Horses , Larva/drug effects
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 807-811, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057983


Abstract Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection (GIN) are the main constraint to the production of small ruminants. Studies of medicinal plants have been an important alternative in the effort to control these parasites. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis. The oil was extracted, analyzed by gas chromatography and tested on GIN eggs and larvae in six concentrations, 227.5mg/mL, 113.7mg/mL, 56.8mg/mL, 28.4mg/mL, 14.2mg/mL and 7.1mg/mL. To determine the ovicidal activity, GIN eggs were recovered from sheep feces and incubated for 48h with different concentrations of the oil. For the evaluation of larval migration, third-stage larvae (L3) were obtained by fecal culture, and associated with the essential oil for 24h at the same concentrations, after which they were left for another 24 hours on microsieves, followed by the count of migrating and non-migrating larvae. The assays of R. officinalis oil showed a significant (p<0.05) 97.4% to 100% inhibition of egg hatching and a significant (p<0.05) 20% to 74% inhibition of larval migration. The main constituent revealed by gas chromatography was Eucalyptol. The results indicate that R. officinalis essential oil has ovicidal and larvicidal activity on sheep GINs.

Resumo As infecções por nematódeos gastrintestinais (ING) constituem a maior limitação à produção de pequenos ruminantes. Na busca do controle desses parasitos, estudos com plantas medicinais têm sido uma importante alternativa. Visto isto, o estudo desenvolvido teve como objetivo avaliar a ação ovicida e larvicida in vitro do óleo essencial de Rosmarinus officinalis. O óleo foi extraído, analisado por cromatografia gasosa e testado sobre ovos e larvas de ING em seis concentrações, 227,5mg/mL; 113,7mg/mL; 56,8mg/mL; 28,4mg/mL; 14,2mg/mL; 7,1mg/mL. Para determinar a ação ovicida, ovos de ING foram recuperados de fezes de ovinos e incubados por 48h com as diferentes concentrações do óleo. Na avaliação da migração das larvas, as larvas de terceiro estágio (L3) foram obtidas por coprocultura, e associadas ao óleo essencial por 24h nas mesmas concentrações, permanecendo por mais 24h em microtamises, seguindo-se a contagem de larvas que migraram e que não migraram. Os testes in vitro com o óleo de R. officinalis mostraram o nível de significância (p<0.05) 97,4% a 100% na inibição da eclodibilidade e 20% a 74% na inibição da migração das larvas. Na análise por cromatografia gasosa o constituinte majoritário foi o eucaliptol. Os resultados apresentados mostram que o óleo essencial de R. officinalis possui ação ovicida e larvicida sobre ING de ovinos.

Animals , Ovum/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Sheep/parasitology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Larva/drug effects , Nematoda/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Chromatography, Gas , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Nematoda/isolation & purification
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 248-256, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989445


Abstract The use of GMO expressing Bt toxin in soybean production has increased significantly in the last years in Brazil in order to manage the damage caused by lepidopteran pests. In this study, we compared the richness and abundance of owlet moths (Noctuoidea) associated with Bt and non-Bt soybean. We determined the temporal variations as a function of phenology, and correlated the population variations of the most common species with meteorological variables. The research was conducted at the experimental area of Embrapa Cerrados. The collection method used was differentiated being suppressive and absolute. A total of 13 species were collected, of which eight occurred on Bt soybeans. The most representative taxa were Chrysodeixis includens (72.87%), Anticarsia gemmatalis (18.17%) and Spodoptera spp (5.22%). The number of larvae belonging to species targeted by the Bt technology was 10 times lower on Bt than on non-Bt soybeans. Utetheisa ornatrix and Elaphria deltoides were recorded on soybean for the first time, observing larvae of both species in non-Bt soybean and those of U. ornatrix also in Bt soybean. Only A. gemmatalis larvae correlated (p <0.05) negatively with precipitation. This study provided field information on the abundance and species richness of owlet moths on non-Bt soybeans, associated with the effects of Bt soybean. When considering the different levels of infestation between cultivars as a criterion, larvae monitoring is of substantial importance in order to develop the lost control program.

Resumo O uso de OGM que expressam toxina Bt na produção de soja tem aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos no Brasil e são utilizados para conter os danos causados ​​pelos lepidópteros pragas. Neste estudo comparamos a riqueza e a abundância de Noctuoides (Noctuoidea) associados à soja Bt e não-Bt. Determinamos as variações temporais em função da fenologia e correlacionamos às variações populacionais das espécies mais comuns com variáveis ​​meteorológicas. A pesquisa foi conduzida na área experimental da Embrapa Cerrados. O método de coleta utilizado foi diferenciado sendo supressivo e absoluto. Um total de 13 espécies foram coletadas, das quais oito ocorreram em soja Bt. Os taxa mais representativos foram Chrysodeixis includens, Anticarsia gemmatalis e Spodoptera spp. O número de larvas pertencentes às espécies alvo da tecnologia Bt foram 10 vezes menores na soja Bt do que em soja não-Bt . Utetheisa ornatrix e Elaphria deltoides foram registradas na soja pela primeira vez, observando-se larvas de ambas espécies na soja não-Bt e as de U. ornatrix também na soja Bt. Somente as larvas de A. gemmatalis se correlacionaram (p <0,05) negativamente com a precipitação. Este estudo forneceu informações em campo sobre a abundância e riqueza de espécies na soja não- Bt, associada aos efeitos da soja Bt. A importância do monitoramento das lagartas é substancial, a fim de tomar a melhor decisão de controle, considerando-se os diferentes níveis de infestação entre cultivares como critério.

Animals , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Endotoxins/genetics , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Hemolysin Proteins/pharmacology , Soybeans/genetics , Soybeans/parasitology , Brazil , Pest Control, Biological , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/parasitology , Larva/drug effects , Moths/drug effects
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 28(1): e2017316, 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-984375


Objetivo: avaliar, em condições simuladas de campo, a eficácia do pyriproxyfen (hormônio juvenil), do novaluron (inibidor de quitina) e do spinosad (biolarvicida) no controle do Aedes aegypti. Métodos: exposição periódica de larvas de Ae. aeypti obtidas em Itabuna a recipientes tratados com os larvicidas, e comparação do efeito residual do tratamento com cepa Rockfeller. Resultados: o efeito inibitório na emergência de adultos, após 60 dias, foi de 89,5% spinosad, 96,5% novaluron e 75,4% pyriproxifen para larvas de Itabuna, não havendo diferença estatística (p=0,412) entre os tratamentos; spinosad e novaluron apresentaram maior percentual de mortalidade na fase larval, 98,8% e 97,9% respectivamente; pyriproxifen apresentou mortalidade maior na fase pupal, 95,1%. Conclusão: os três larvicidas apresentaram controle semelhante; no entanto, o pyriproxifen pode deixar a falsa impressão de positividade dos criadouros, por agir em fase pupal, comprometendo os indicadores de infestação que são parâmetros estratégicos para as ações de controle.

Objetivo: evaluar en condiciones simuladas de campo la eficacia del piriproxifén (hormona juvenil), novaluron (inhibidor de quitina) y spinosad (biolarvicida) en el control del Ae. Aegypti. Métodos: exposición periódica de larvas obtenidas de Itabuna, BA, Brasil, a recipientes tratados con larvicida y comparación del efecto residual con cepa Rockefeller. Resultados: el efecto inhibidor en la emergencia de adultos, después de 60 días, fue de 89,5% spinosad, 96,5% novaluron y 75,4% piriproxifén para larvas de Itabuna, no habiendo diferencia estadística (p=0,412) entre los tratamientos; spinosad y novaluron presentaron mayor mortalidad en la fase larval, 98,8% y 97,9% respectivamente; piriproxifén presentó mayor mortalidad en la fase de pupa, 95,1%. Conclusión: los tres larvicidas fueron eficaces en el control de larvas de Ae. Aegypti; sin embargo, piriproxifén puede dejar falsa positividad de los criaderos, por actuar en fase de pupa, comprometiendo los indicadores de infestación, parámetros estratégicos para las acciones de control.

Objective: to evaluate, under simulated field conditions, the efficacy of pyriproxyfen (juvenile hormone), novaluron (chitin inhibitor) and spinosad (biolarvicide) in controlling Aedes aegypti. Methods: periodic exposition of Ae. aegypti larvae collected in Itabuna, BA, Brazil, to recipients treated with larvicides and comparison of residual effect of treatment with the Rockefeller strain. Results: the inhibitory effect on adult emergence after 60 days was spinosad 89.5%, novaluron 96.5% and pyriproxifen 75.4% for Itabuna larvae, with no statistical difference (p=0.412) between treatments; spinosad and novaluron had a higher percentage of mortality in the larval stage, 98.8% and 97.9% respectively; pyriproxyfen showed higher mortality (95.1%) in the pupal stage. Conclusion: the three larvicides demonstrated similar control; however, pyriprofyxen might give a false impression of breeding ground positivity as it acts at the pupal stage, compromising the indicators of infestation that are strategic parameters for control actions.

Mosquito Control/methods , Intervention Studies , Aedes/growth & development , Aedes/drug effects , Larvicides , Larva/drug effects , Survival Analysis , Mosquito Vectors/growth & development , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/growth & development
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180197, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041584


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are important vectors that transmit arboviruses to human populations. METHODS: Natural products were obtained and tested against larvae collected from the field in Fortaleza, capital of Ceará state. RESULTS: The essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (Ae. aegypti LC50 = 32.7 ppm and Ae. albopictus LC50 = 138.1 ppm) and Croton nepetaefolius (Ae. aegypti LC50 = 81.7 ppm and Ae. albopictus LC50 = 76.1 ppm) showed the most intense larvicidal activity. CONCLUSIONS: The essential oils and methyl esters showed greater larvicidal activity than did the ethanol extracts.

Animals , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Plant Oils/classification , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/classification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180459, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041559


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The ability of Vitex trifolia and Vitex negundo essential oils to kill Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae was evaluated. METHODS: The larvae were treated with their respective essential oils at 50-125 ppm concentration. RESULTS: LC50 and LC90 for V. trifolia against Ae. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, and those for V. negundo against Ae. aegypti were 57.7+0.4, 77.9+0.9 ppm and 55.17+3.14, 78.28+2.23 ppm, and 50.86+0.9, 73.12+1.3 ppm, respectively. Eucalyptol and caryophyllene were the major components in Vitex trifolia and Vitex negundo essential oil, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed potential larvicidal properties of essential oil from V. trifolia.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Vitex/chemistry , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190135, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041502


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Musca domestica is resistant to many insecticides; hence, biological control is a suitable alternative. METHODS: We evaluated the lethality of strain Btk176 towards the larval and adult M. domestica and the histopathological effects in the larvae midgut. RESULTS: We observed 99% larval and 78.9% adult mortality within 48 hours of spore ingestion (dosage, 2.4×108 CFU/ml). The histopathological effects were consistent with cytotoxicity. PCR analysis showed the presence of the cry1Ba gene. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a bipyramidal parasporal body. Thurigiensin activity was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: The serovar, Btk176 might be a potential biocontrol agent for houseflies.

Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacterial Toxins/pharmacology , Houseflies/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Exotoxins
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(2): 237-241, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959185


Abstract In this study, we evaluated the ovicidal and larvicidal activity of protein preparations obtained from Cassia fistula L. and Combretum leprosum Mart. leaves on the gastrointestinal parasites of goats. Protein preparations were obtained after the extraction of C. fistula L. and C. leprosum Mart. leaves, followed by protein fractionation (with ammonium sulfate saturation percentages of 30%, 30%-60%, and 60%-90%) and dialysis, which resulted in protein fractions (called F1, F2, and F3, respectively). The fractions were evaluated by egg hatching (the eggs were recovered in stool samples from naturally infected goats) and larval development tests. The results reveled that the inhibition of hatching of eggs caused by the protein fractions of C. fistula (38%) were similar to that of the control drug, thiabendazole. In addition, the fractions of C. fistula caused significant inhibition (61-69%) of larval development also. However, C. leprosum did not reveal significant inhibition of egg hatching and larval development. We conclude that C. fistula L. showed better ovicidal and larvicidal activity against endoparasites.

Resumo Neste estudo, foram avaliadas as atividades ovicida e larvicida de preparações proteicas de Cassia fistula L. e Combretum leprosum Mart. em parasitas gastrointestinais de caprinos. As preparações proteicas foram obtidas por extração das folhas de C. fistula L. e C. leprosum Mart. seguido pelo fracionamento proteico (com porcentagens de saturação de sulfato de amônio de 30%, 30-60%, 60-90%) e diálise, resultando nas frações proteicas (intituladas F1, F2 e F3, respectivamente). As frações foram avaliadas nos testes de eclosão de ovos (os ovos foram recuperados em amostras de fezes de cabras naturalmente infectadas) e de desenvolvimento larvar. Os resultados revelaram que a inibição da eclosão de ovos causada pelas frações proteicas de C. fistula (38%) foi semelhante à do fármaco controle, o tiabendazol. Além disso, as frações de C. fistula também causaram inibição significativa (61-69%) do desenvolvimento larvar. No entanto, C. leprosum não revelou inibição significativa na eclosão dos ovos e no desenvolvimento larvar. Concluiu-se que C. fistula L. mostrou uma melhor atividade ovicida e larvicida contra endoparasitas.

Animals , Plant Proteins/pharmacology , Stomach/parasitology , Goats/parasitology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cassia , Combretum , Intestines/parasitology , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Nematoda/drug effects , Ovum/drug effects , Plant Leaves , Larva/drug effects
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(2): 203-210, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959179


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of essential oils from three species of plants with intermediary concentrations of 1,8-cineole against the tick species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. For this purpose, five serial concentrations (100.0, 50.0, 25.0, 12.5, 6.2 mg/mL) of essential oils from Mesosphaerum suaveolens (L.) Kuntze, Ocimum gratissimum L. and Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B. L. Burtt & R. M. Sm. were used on larval packet and adult immersion tests. The essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), being detected 35.8, 24.7 and 24.0% of 1.8-cineol in the oils of M. suaveolens, O. gratissimum and A. zerumbet, respectively. The lethal concentration (LC 50) of each oil for larvae and engorged females was calculated through Probit analysis. All essential oils showed high efficacy (≥ 95.0%) on engorged females at the 100.0 mg/mL concentration. In regards to larvae, O. gratissimum (LC 50 = 11.9 mg/mL) was the most potent, followed by the A. zerumbet (LC50 = 19.7 mg/mL) and the M. suaveolens (LC50 = 51.6 mg/mL) essential oils. These results show that other compounds interfere with 1,8-cineole action.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade acaricida de óleos essenciais de três espécies de plantas com concentrações intermediárias de 1,8-cineol contra o carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus . Dessa forma, cinco concentrações diferentes (100,0; 50,0; 25,0; 12,5; 6,2 mg/mL) de óleos essenciais de Mesosphaerum suaveolens (L.) Kuntze , Ocimum gratissimum L. e Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B. L. Burtt & R. M. Sm. foram avaliadas pelos testes de pacote de larvas e de imersão de adultos. Os óleos essenciais foram analisados pela cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectometria de massa (GC/MS) e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a detector de ionização de chama (GC-FID), sendo detectados 35,8, 24,7 e 24,0% de 1,8-cineol nos óleos de M. suaveolens, O. gratissimum e A. zerumbet , respectivamente. A concentração letal (CL50) de cada óleo essencial para larvas e fêmeas ingurgitadas foi calculada por meio da análise de Probit. Todos os óleos essenciais na concentração de 100,0 mg/mL apresentaram elevada eficácia (≥ 95,0%) sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas. Com relação as larvas, o óleo essencial de O. gratissimum (CL50 = 11,9 mg/mL) foi o mais potente, seguido pelos óleos de A. zerumbet (LC50 = 19,7 mg/mL) e M. suaveolens (LC50 = 51,6 mg/mL). Estes resultados demonstram que outros compostos interferem na eficácia de 1,8-cineol.

Animals , Female , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Eucalyptol/analysis , Eucalyptol/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Larva/drug effects
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 291-296, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957425


Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the present study, we determined the chemical composition of Clinopodium macrostemum essential oil obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and its effect on the growth and development of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae. METHODS: The essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and bioassays were conducted to evaluate the influence on the developmental stages of early second instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus until the emergence of adults, using essential oil concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800mg/L. RESULTS: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the leaf essential oil of C. macrostemum contained 32 compounds and the major chemical compounds identified were linalool (55.4%), nerol (6.4%), caryophyllene (6.25%), menthone (5.8%), geraniol acetate (4.1%), terpineol (3.7%), and pulegone (2.8%). The essential oil yield obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation was 0.8% at 20 min. The treatments showed lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) of 22.49 and 833.35mg/L, respectively, after the final measurement of the total number of dead larvae (second, third, and fourth instars), and LC50 and LC90 of 6.62 and 693.35mg/L, respectively, at the end of the experimental period. The essential oil inhibited the growth and development of the mosquito larvae by 32% (relative growth index = 0.68) at 50mg/L, and up to 47% (relative growth index = 0.53) at 800mg/L. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated the larvicidal effect of C. macrostemum essential oil on Cx. quinquefasciatus, which can be attributed to the oxygenate compounds obtained by the extraction method.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Culex/drug effects , Larva/drug effects , Biological Assay , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lamiaceae/classification , Culex/classification , Lethal Dose 50 , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Microwaves
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(1): 90-93, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042461


Abstract Cyathostomins are the most prevalent nematodes of horses, and multidrug resistance has been reported worldwide. There is a need to implement alternative drug monitoring analytical tests. The objective of this study was to determine the consistency (5 repetitions) of the larval migration on agar test (LMAT) using ivermectin, moxidectin, pyrantel or albendazole against cyathostomin infective-stage larvae in eight different concentrations. LMAT showed a strong coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.91), between the test repetitions (n=5). The average 50% effective concentration (EC50) for ivermectin, moxidectin, pyrantel and albendazole were 0.0404, 0.0558, 0.0864 and 0.0988 nMol, respectively. The results of the EC50 for albendazole showed the greatest range of concentration. Ivermectin and moxidectin had the lowest in between-test variation. In the future, internationally certified susceptible isolates could be used for screening new drug candidates, or to follow up the pattern of drug efficacy from field populations.

Resumo Ciatostomíneos são os nematodas mais prevalentes em equinos e a resistência múltipla foi relatada em todo o mundo. Existe a necessidade de implementar o monitoramento dos produtos com testes analíticos alternativos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a consistência (5 repetições) do teste de migração larval em ágar (TMLA) usando ivermectina, moxidectina, pirantel e albendazole contra larvas infectantes de ciatostomíneos em oito concentrações diferentes. O TMLA demonstrou um coeficiente de determinação (R2) acima de 0,91 entre as repetições do teste. A concentração efetiva para 50% (CE50) para ivermectina, moxidectina, pirantel e albendazole foi de 0,0404; 0,0558; 0,0864 e 0,0988 nMol, respectivamente. A CE50 do albendazole demonstrou a maior amplitude entre os testes. A ivermectina e a moxidectina tiveram as menores variações das doses entre as repetições. No futuro, isolados certificados susceptíveis poderão ser testados com o TMLA para indicação de novos produtos e mesmo para acompanhar o perfil de eficácia de populações do campo.

Animals , Horses/parasitology , Nematoda/drug effects , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Parasitology/methods , Pyrantel/pharmacology , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Albendazole/pharmacology , Macrolides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 141-147, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742492


PURPOSE: microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs composed of 20 to 22 nucleotides that regulate development and differentiation in various organs by silencing specific RNAs and regulating gene expression. In the present study, we show that the microRNA (miR)-183 cluster is upregulated during hair cell regeneration and that its inhibition reduces hair cell regeneration following neomycin-induced ototoxicity in zebrafish. MATERIALS AND METHODS: miRNA expression patterns after neomycin exposure were analyzed using microarray chips. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to validate miR-183 cluster expression patterns following neomycin exposure (500 µM for 2 h). After injection of an antisense morpholino (MO) to miR-183 (MO-183) immediately after fertilization, hair cell regeneration after neomycin exposure in neuromast cells was evaluated by fluorescent staining (YO-PRO1). The MO-183 effect also was assessed in transgenic zebrafish larvae expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in inner ear hair cells. RESULTS: Microarray analysis clearly showed that the miR-183 cluster (miR-96, miR-182, and miR-183) was upregulated after neomycin treatment. We also confirmed upregulated expression of the miR-183 cluster during hair cell regeneration after neomycin-induced ototoxicity. miR-183 inhibition using MO-183 reduced hair cell regeneration in both wild-type and GFP transgenic zebrafish larvae. CONCLUSION: Our work demonstrates that the miR-183 cluster is essential for the regeneration of hair cells following ototoxic injury in zebrafish larvae. Therefore, regulation of the miR-183 cluster can be a novel target for stimulation of hair cell regeneration.

Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Cell Count , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Hair Cells, Auditory/drug effects , Hair Cells, Auditory/physiology , Larva/drug effects , Larva/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Morpholinos/pharmacology , Neomycin/toxicity , Regeneration/drug effects , Regeneration/genetics , Zebrafish/genetics
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(2): 171-176, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899271


Abstract Plants respond to wounding caused by mechanical stress or herbivory by synthesizing defense proteins. There are no studies reporting the action of induced plant proteins against ticks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanically wounded Leucaena leucocephala leaves against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Initially, we carried out time course experiments to evaluate the impact of mechanical wounding on the protein content and the peroxidase, catalase and protease inhibitor activities in L. leucocephala. We then evaluated the acaricidal activity on R. (B.) microplus from protein extract collected from L. leucocephala after mechanical wounding. L. leucocephala leaves were artificially wounded, and after 6, 12, 24 and 48h, the leaves were collected for protein extraction. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the proteins were performed. The protein content and peroxidase and protease activities increased 12h after wounding, and the acaricidal activity of this protein extract was evaluated using engorged R. (B.) microplus females. The protein extract obtained after wounding reduced egg production (8.5%) compared to those without wounding. Furthermore, the extract reduced egg hatching by 47.7% and showed an overall efficacy of 56.3% at 0.1 mgP/mL of the protein. We demonstrated that L. leucocephala defensive proteins could be effective against R. (B.) microplus.

Resumo As plantas respondem a injúria causada por estresse mecânico ou por ataque de herbívoros através da síntese de proteínas de defesa. Não há estudos de proteínas induzidas de plantas contra carrapatos. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a atividade acaricida de extratos protéicos de folhas Leucaena leucocephala após injúria mecânica, sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Inicialmente foram conduzidos experimentos em diferentes intervalos de tempo para avaliar o impacto da injúria mecânica no conteúdo de proteína, atividade de peroxidase, catalase e inibidor de protease de L. leucocephala. Em seguida foi avaliada a atividade acaricida sobre R. (B.) microplus de um extrato protéico após injúria mecânica. Folhas de L. leucocephala foram artificialmente feridas e após 6, 12, 24 e 48h, as folhas foram coletadas para extração de proteínas. Análises quantitativas e qualitativas das proteínas foram realizadas. A quantidade de proteína e atividades de peroxidase e protease aumentaram 12h após a injúria. O extrato proteico obtido após injúria (12h) reduziu a produção de ovos (8,5%) em comparação com extratos de plantas sem injúria. O extrato reduziu 47,7% a eclosão de ovos e apresentou eficácia geral de 56,3% a 0,1 miligrama de proteína por mL (mgP/mL). Apresentamos que proteínas de defesa de L. leucocephala podem ter atividade sobre R. (B.) microplus.

Animals , Female , Stress, Mechanical , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Fabaceae/metabolism , Acaricides/metabolism , Larva/drug effects
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 74(3): 193-199, May.-Jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888615


Abstract: Background: Chemical pesticides, widely used in agriculture and vector-borne disease control, have shown toxic effects on the environment and the people in contact with them. Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterium for alternative and safer control of insect pests. Its toxins are specific for insects but innocuous for mammals and may be used as powerful adjuvants when applied with vaccines. The objective of this work was to characterize some autochthonous B. thuringiensis strains, which could be used for the control of a local pest (Diatraea considerata Heinrich) that affects sugar cane crops in Sinaloa, Mexico. Also, to evaluate these strains as a source of Cry toxins, which may be used in the future as adjuvants for some vaccines. Methods: Eight strains from field-collected dead insects were isolated. These were microbiologically identified as B. thuringiensis and confirmed by amplification and sequencing of 16S rDNA. Bioassays were performed to evaluate their pathogenicity against D. considerata, and Cry toxins were identified by proteomic analyses. Results: An increased mortality among larvae infected with strain Bt-D was observed, and its toxin was identified as Cry1Ac. Conclusions: The observed data showed that the selected strain was pathogenic to D. considerata and seemed to produce Cry1Ac protein, which has been reported as an adjuvant in different types of immunization.

Resumen: Introducción: Los pesticidas químicos, ampliamente usados en agricultura y en el control de vectores transmisores de enfermedades, han mostrado efectos tóxicos sobre el medio ambiente y las personas expuestas a ellos. Bacillus thuringiensis es una bacteria ampliamente utilizada como una alternativa segura y eficaz en el control biológico de plagas agrícolas. Sus toxinas son específicas de insectos, pero inocuas para mamíferos, e incluso poseen gran potencial para ser usadas como adyuvantes en vacunas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar cepas autóctonas de B. thuringiensis con efectividad contra el gusano barrenador (Diatraea considerata Heinrich) de la caña de azúcar en cultivos del estado de Sinaloa, México, y como fuente de proteínas Cry, con potencial de utilizarse como adyuvantes en vacunas. Métodos: Se lograron aislar ocho cepas a partir de insectos muertos en campos agrícolas, las cuales fueron identificadas microbiológicamente como B. thuringiensis, lo que se confirmó por amplificación y secuenciación del 16S rDNA. La efectividad de los aislados para el control del gusano barrenador fue evaluada mediante bioensayos y las toxinas Cry fueron identificadas por análisis proteómico. Resultados: Se observó una mortalidad elevada en las larvas infectadas con las cepas de estudio. Particularmente, la cepa Bt-D, de la cual el análisis molecular mostró que posee una toxina tipo Cry1Ac. Conclusiones: Los resultados mostraron que la cepa Bt-D posee un elevado potencial patogénico hacia D. considerata y produce la proteína Cry1Ac, de la cual existen reportes de su aplicación como adyuvante en diferentes formas de inmunización.

Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Proteomics/methods , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Hemolysin Proteins/pharmacology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Endotoxins/isolation & purification , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Hemolysin Proteins/isolation & purification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Larva/drug effects , Mexico , Moths/drug effects
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 373-382, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886653


ABSTRACT Cardanol is a constituent of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid that presents larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. The isolation of cardanol is somewhat troublesome, however, in this work we describe an efficient and inexpensive method to obtain it as a pure material. The compound was used as starting material to make chemical transformation leading to saturated cardanol, epoxides and, halohydrins. These derivatives were tested for toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae. The results showed that iodohydrins are very promising compounds for making commercial products to combat the vector mosquito larvae presenting a LC50 of 0.0023 ppm after 72 h of exposure.

Animals , Phenols/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/toxicity , Phenols/chemistry , Time Factors , Insecticides/chemical synthesis , Insecticides/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50