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1.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e168438, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1344783

ABSTRACT

Vitamin C supplementation is important for the growth and development of bullfrog tadpoles under optimum water temperature conditions. Therefore, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation on the diet of bullfrog tadpoles at a low temperature. A total of 480 tadpoles with a mean weight of 0.078 g were distributed in 12 aquariums each containing 40 L of water in a closed water recirculation system. The experimental design was entirely randomized with four treatments (0, 150, 300, and 600 mg kg-1 of L-ascorbic acid monophosphate) and three replicates. The productive performance was measured by the weight gain, feed conversion, diet consumption, protein efficiency, carcass yield, hepatosomatic index, viscerosomatic index, visceral fat index, dry matter, and ethereal carcass extract. The water temperature during the experimental period was 21.74 ± 0.43 °C. Vitamin C supplementation did not influence carcass yield and viscerosomatic index. However, there was a quadratic effect of vitamin C supplementation on the weight gain, apparent feed conversion, protein efficiency, visceral fat index, hepatosomatic index, and ethereal carcass extract. Based on these results, bullfrog tadpoles should be supplemented with 600 mg vitamin C kg-1 of the diet when subjected to water temperatures of around 22 °C.(AU)


A suplementação de vitamina C é importante para o crescimento e desenvolvimento de girinos de rã-touro sob condições ótimas de temperatura da água. Desta forma, foi realizado um experimento para avaliar o efeito da suplementação de vitamina C sobre a dieta de girinos de rã-touro em baixa temperatura. O experimento foi realizado com 480 girinos com peso médio de 0,078g, distribuídos em 12 aquários com 40L de água em sistema fechado de recirculação de água. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos (0, 150, 300 e 600 mg kg-1 de monofosfato de ácido L-ascórbico) e três repetições. O desempenho produtivo foi avaliado por meio de ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, consumo de ração, eficiência proteica, rendimento de carcaça, índice hepatossomático, índice viscerossomático, índice de gordura visceral, matéria seca e extrato etéreo de carcaça. A temperatura da água durante o período experimental foi de 21,74 ± 0,43 °C. A suplementação com vitamina C não influenciou o rendimento de carcaça e o índice viscerossomático. No entanto, houve efeito quadrático da suplementação com vitamina C sobre o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar aparente, a eficiência protéica, o índice de gordura visceral, o índice hepatossomático e o extrato etéreo de carcaça. Com base nos resultados do presente estudo, os girinos de rã-touro devem ser suplementados com 600 mg vitamina C kg-1 da dieta quando submetidos em temperaturas médias de 22 °C.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rana catesbeiana/metabolism , Larva/metabolism , Animal Feed , Ascorbic Acid , Cold Temperature
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(7): 475-483, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787555

ABSTRACT

The presence and distribution of surface carbohydrates in the tissues of Galba truncatula snails uninfected or after infection with Fasciola hepatica as well as on the surface of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of the parasite were studied by lectin labelling assay. This is an attempt to find similarities that indicate possible mimicry, utilised by the parasite as an evasion strategy in this snail-trematode system. Different binding patterns were identified on head-foot-mantle, hepatopancreas, genital glands, renopericardial complex of the host as well as of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of F. hepatica. The infection with F. hepatica leads to changes of labelling with Glycine max in the head-mantle cells and Arachis hypogaea in the tubular epithelium of the hepatopancreas. The lectin binding on the other snail tissues is not changed by the development of the larvae. Our data clearly demonstrated the similarity in labelling of G. truncatula tissues and the surface of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of F. hepatica. The role of glycosylation of the contact surfaces of both organisms in relation to the host-parasite interactions is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbohydrates/physiology , Fasciola hepatica/metabolism , Fascioliasis/metabolism , Lectins/metabolism , Lymnaea/metabolism , Arachis , Fasciola hepatica/parasitology , Fascioliasis/parasitology , Glycosylation , Larva/metabolism , Larva/parasitology , Lymnaea/parasitology , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Oocysts/parasitology , Reference Values , Staining and Labeling , Triticum/parasitology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2): 372-379, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749689

ABSTRACT

Probably as a function of their wide geographical distribution, the different population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp may present distinct physiological, biochemical, reproductive, behavioral, and ecological patterns. These differences are so accentuated that the existence of allopatric speciation has been suggested, although initial studies indicate that the genetic variability of populations happen at an intraspecific level. Among the biological responses described for M. amazonicum populations, those regarding osmoregulation and metabolism play a key role for being related to the occupation of diverse habitats. To this effect, we investigated osmoregulation through the role of free amino acids in cell volume control and metabolism, through oxygen consumption in larvae (zoeae I, II, V and IX) and/or post-larvae of a M. amazonicum population from Amazon, kept in aquaculture fish hatcheries in the state of São Paulo. The results add information regarding the existence of distinct physiological responses among M. amazonicum populations and suggest that possible adjustments to metabolism and to the use of free amino acids as osmolytes of the regulation of the larvae and post-larvae cell volume depend on the appearance of structures responsible for hemolymph osmoregulation like, for example, the gills. In this respect, we verified that zoeae I do not alter their metabolism due to the exposition to fresh or brackish water, but they reduce intracellular concentration of free amino acids when exposed to fresh water, what may suggest the inexistence or inefficient performance of the structures responsible for volume regulation and hemolymph composition. On the other hand, in zoeae II and V exposed to fresh and brackish water, metabolism alterations were not followed by changes in free amino acids concentration. Thus it is possible, as the structures responsible for osmoregulation and ionic regulation become functional, that the role of free amino acids gets diminished and oxygen consumption elevated, probably due to greater energy expenditure with the active transportation of salts through epithelial membranes. Osmotic challenges also seem to alter throughout development, given that in zoeae II oxygen consumption is elevated on brackish water of 18, but in zoeae V it happens in fresh water. After M. amazonicum metamorphosis, free amino acids begin to play an important role as intracellular osmolytes, because we verified an increase of up to 40% in post-larvae exposed to brackish water of 18. The main free amino acids involved in cell volume regulation of ontogenetic stages evaluated were the non essential ones: glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, arginine, and proline. Interestingly, larvae from estuarine population studied here survived until the zoeae V stage in fresh water, but in some populations far from the sea, zoeae die right after eclosion in fresh water or they do not reach zoeae III stage. In addition, given that in favorable conditions caridean shrimp larvae shorten their development, we may infer that the cultivation environment, in which larvae developed in the present work, was appropriate, because almost all zoeae VIII kept on brackish water underwent metamorphosis directly to post-larvae and did not go through zoeae IX stage.


Provavelmente como função da sua ampla distribuição geográfica, as diferentes populações do camarão Macrobrachium amazonicum podem apresentar distintos padrões fisiológicos, bioquímicos, reprodutivos, comportamentais e ecológicos. Essas diferenças são tão acentuadas que tem sido sugerido a existência de especiação alopátrica embora estudos iniciais indiquem que a variabilidade genética das populações ocorre ao nível intraespecífico. Dentre as respostas biológicas descritas para as populações de M. amazonicum, aquelas relacionadas à osmorregulação e metabolismo têm papel central por estarem relacionadas à ocupação dos diversos habitats. Nesse sentido, investigou-se a osmorregulação, por meio do papel dos aminoácidos livres no controle do volume celular e o metabolismo, por meio do consumo de oxigênio, em larvas (zoeas I, II, V e IX) e/ou pós-larvas de uma população de M. amazonicum oriunda da Amazônia e mantida em viveiros de aquicultura no estado de São Paulo. Os resultados adicionam informações a respeito da existência de respostas fisiológicas distintas entre as populações de M. amazonicum e sugerem que possíveis ajustes no metabolismo e no uso de aminoácidos livres como osmólitos da regulação do volume celular das larvas e pós-larvas dependem do surgimento de estruturas responsáveis pela osmorregulação da hemolinfa como, por exemplo, as brânquias. Nesse sentido, verificou-se que as zoeas I não alteram seu metabolismo em função da exposição à água doce ou salobra, mas reduzem a concentração intracelular de aminoácidos livres quando expostas à água doce, o que pode sugerir a inexistência ou um desempenho ineficiente das estruturas responsáveis pela regulação do volume e composição da hemolinfa. Por outro lado, nas zoeas II e V expostas à água doce ou salobra alterações no metabolismo não foram acompanhadas por mudanças na concentração dos aminoácidos livres. Assim é possível que à medida que estruturas responsáveis pela osmo e ionorregulação tornam-se funcionais, o papel dos aminoácidos livres se torne reduzido e o consumo de oxigênio elevado, provavelmente em função do maior gasto energético com o transporte ativo de sais através das membranas epiteliais. Os desafios osmóticos também parecem se alterar ao longo do desenvolvimento visto que em zoeas II o consumo de oxigênio é elevado em água salobra de 18 mas em zoeas V essa resposta ocorre em água doce. Após a metamorfose de M. amazonicum, os aminoácidos livres passam a ter papel importante como osmólitos intracelulares, pois se verificou um aumento de até 40% nas pós-larvas expostas à água salobra de 18. Os principais aminoácidos livres envolvidos na regulação do volume celular dos estágios ontogenéticos avaliados foram os não essenciais ácido glutâmico, glicina, alanina, arginina e prolina. Interessantemente, as larvas da população estuarina aqui estudada sobrevivem até o estágio de zoea V em água doce mas em algumas populações distantes do mar as zoeas morrem logo após a eclosão em água doce ou não chegam ao estágio de zoea III. Adicionalmente, visto que em condições favoráveis as larvas de camarões carídeos abreviam o seu desenvolvimento pode ser inferido que o meio de cultivo em que as larvas se desenvolveram no presente trabalho foi adequado, pois quase todas as zoeas VIII mantidas em água salobra sofreram diretamente a metamorfose para pós-larvas e não passaram pelo estágio de zoeas IX.


Subject(s)
Animals , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Fresh Water , Larva/metabolism , Osmoregulation/physiology , Palaemonidae/metabolism , Salinity , Larva/growth & development , Larva/physiology , Palaemonidae/growth & development , Palaemonidae/physiology
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 964-966, 11/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728807

ABSTRACT

The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the efflux of the insecticide, temephos, was assessed in the larvae of Aedes aegypti. Bioassays were conducted using mosquito populations that were either susceptible or resistant to temephos by exposure to insecticide alone or in combination with sublethal doses of the ABC transporter inhibitor, verapamil (30, 35 and 40 μM). The best result in the series was obtained with the addition of verapamil (40 μM), which led to a 2x increase in the toxicity of temephos, suggesting that ABC transporters may be partially involved in conferring resistance to the populations evaluated.


Subject(s)
Animals , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/physiology , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Temefos/pharmacology , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/drug effects , Aedes/metabolism , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacokinetics , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Insect Vectors/metabolism , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacokinetics , Larva/drug effects , Larva/metabolism , Temefos/pharmacokinetics , Verapamil/pharmacokinetics , Verapamil/pharmacology
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(1): 143-146, jan-mar/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671609

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to examine the action of the crude extract of Duddingtonia flagrans (isolates AC001 and CG722) on infective larvae (L3) of cyathostomins in coprocultures and to confirm its proteolytic activity by means of a zymogram. The following groups were formed in coprocultures: Group 1: 10 mL of crude extract of D. flagrans (AC001); group 2: 10 mL of crude extract of AC001 with 10 mM of Ca2+; group 3: 10 mL of crude extract of D. flagrans (CG722); group 4: 10 mL of crude extract of CG722 with 10 mM of Ca2+; and group 5: control group (distilled water). The third-stage larvae (L3) were obtained after eight days. The crude extract of D. flagrans was effective in reducing the number of L3, with the following percentage reductions: group 1, 49.5%; group 2, 52.5%; group 3, 36.8%; and group 4, 57.7%; in relation to the control group (p > 0.05). The proteolytic activity of the crude extract was confirmed through the zymogram. The results from this study confirmed that the crude extract of the fungus D. flagrans could be used for controlling cyathostomin L3, and suggested that at least one protease of approximately 38 kDa was present.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a ação do extrato bruto de Duddingtonia flagrans (isolados AC001 e CG722) sobre larvas infectantes (L3) de ciatostomíneos em coproculturas e confirmar a sua atividade proteolítica por meio de um zimograma. Foram formados os seguintes grupos em coproculturas: grupo 1: 10 mL de extrato bruto de D. flagrans (AC001); grupo 2: 10 mL de extrato bruto de AC001 com íons Ca2+ 10 Mm; grupo 3: 10 mL de extrato bruto de D. flagrans (CG722); grupo 4: 10 mL de extrato bruto de CG722 com íons Ca2+ 10 Mm; e grupo 5 como controle (água destilada), obtendo-se as L3 ao final de 8 dias. O extrato bruto de D. flagrans foi eficiente na redução do número de L3 com os seguintes percentuais de redução: grupo 1 (49,5%); grupo 2 (52,5%); grupo 3 (36,8%) e grupo 4 (57,7%) em relação ao grupo controle (p > 0,05). Confirmou-se a atividade proteolítica por meio do zimograma. Os resultados do presente trabalho confirmam a utilização do extrato bruto do fungo D. flagrans no controle de L3 de ciatostomíneos e sugere a presença de pelo menos uma protease de aproximadamente 38 kDa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Complex Mixtures/pharmacology , Duddingtonia , Feces/parasitology , Nematoda/drug effects , Nematoda/metabolism , Proteolysis/drug effects , Larva/drug effects , Larva/metabolism
6.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 42(4): 279-283, oct.-dic. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-634667

ABSTRACT

Las abejas melíferas son afectadas por gran cantidad de enfermedades infecciosas principalmente producidas por bacterias, hongos, virus y parásitos eucariotas. Dentro de las ocasionadas por procariotas, la loque americana es una enfermedad extremadamente grave que afecta a larvas y pupas de abejas; su agente causal es la bacteria esporulada Paenibacillus larvae. La administración de antibióticos es la principal alternativa para el control de esta enfermedad en colmenares con altos niveles de infección. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar, mediante un método biológico, la unión de los antibióticos tilosina, tilmicosina y oxitetraciclina a las proteínas presentes en abejas adultas, larvas menores de 72 horas, larvas mayores de 72 horas, jalea de obreras, miel y polen, con la finalidad de diseñar un modelo de ruta cinética de los antibióticos. Los límites de sensibilidad de la técnica de valoración de estos antibióticos fueron 0,05 μg/ml para tilosina y tilmicosina, y 0,01 μg/ml para oxitetraciclina. Los coeficientes de correlación fueron superiores a 0,90 y los coeficientes de variación intra e inter-ensayo inferiores al 5%. Tanto tilosina como oxitetraciclina presentaron un porcentaje de unión a proteínas de un 15% en promedio en tejidos y subproductos de la colmena, lo cual resultó inferior a lo observado con tilmicosina (29% en promedio). En conclusión, por sus características químicas, su actividad antimicrobiana y su baja tasa de unión a las abejas, larvas y subproductos de la colmena, la tilosina presenta propiedades farmacocinéticas que podrían representar una ventaja terapéutica para el tratamiento de la loque americana en colmenas.


American Foulbrood (AFB) caused by the spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the most serious disease of bacterial origin affecting larvae and pupae of honeybees. Antibiotics are used in many countries for the control of AFB in high incidence areas, but their misuse may lead to antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains and honey contamination. The objective of the present work was to determine, through a biological method, the protein binding of tylosin, tilmicosin and oxytetracycline to worker jelly; honey; pollen; adult bees and larvae in order to propose their kinetic routes. The sensitivity limit of the technique used was 0.05 μg/ml for tylosin and tilmicosin and 0.01 μg/ml for oxytetracycline, respectively. The method had intra and inter-assay correlation coefficients over 0.90, respectively and a coefficient variation of intra-and inter-assay for all antibiotics and processed samples under 5%. Tylosin and oxytetracycline presented lower percentages of protein binding in tissues and hive products (average 15%) in relation to those observed for tilmicosin (29%). In conclusion, tylosin is useful for AFB control in honey bee colonies due to its chemical characteristics, antimicrobial activity and levels of protein binding in bees, larvae, and beehive products.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Bees/metabolism , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Oxytetracycline/metabolism , Tylosin/analogs & derivatives , Tylosin/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Bees/growth & development , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Honey/analysis , Larva/metabolism , Oxytetracycline/pharmacokinetics , Protein Binding , Pollen/chemistry , Pollen/metabolism , Tylosin/pharmacokinetics
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 58(4): 1467-1478, dic. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-638013

ABSTRACT

Tadpoles inhabit generally well oxygenated rivers and streams, nevertheless they were found in areas with limited oxygen availability inside the rivers. To assess this feature, I examined factors that influence centrolenid tadpole behaviour using Cochranella granulosa. The tadpoles were reared in well-oxygenated and hypoxic environments and their development, survivorship and growth were compared. The tadpoles in oxygenated water acquired a pale color, while tadpoles in hypoxic water grew faster and were bright red and more active. In the oxygenated water, the ammonium, which had its origin in the tadpoles’ urine and feces, was oxidized to nitrate. In contrast, in the hypoxic treatment, the nitrogen compounds remained mainly as ammonium. Presumably, the nitrate in oxygenated water was secondarily reduced to nitrite inside the long intestine coils, because all symptoms in the tadpoles point to methemoglobinemia, which can occur when the nitrite passes through the intestine wall into the bloodstream, transforming the hemoglobin into methemoglobin. This could be checked by a blood test where the percentage of methemoglobin was 2.3% in the blood of tadpoles reared in hypoxic condition, while there was a 19.3% level of methemoglobin in the blood of tadpoles reared in oxygenated water. Together with the elevated content of methemoglobin, the growth of the tadpoles was delayed in oxygenated water, which had high nitrate content. The study about quantitative food-uptake showed that the tadpoles benefit more from the food in hypoxic water, although they spent there more energy moving around than the tadpoles living in oxygenated but nitrate-charged water. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4): 1467-1478. Epub 2010 December 01.


Los renacuajos por lo general viven en ríos y arroyos bien oxigenados, sin embargo, como han sido encontrados en áreas con disponibilidad de oxígeno limitada en los ríos, se estudió como influye este factor en su comportamiento. Renacuajos de Cochranella granulosa fueron criados en ambientes bien oxigenados y de hipoxia para comparar su desarrollo, supervivencia y crecimiento. En el agua que no fue cambiada durante al menos un mes, los renacuajos mostraron diferencias en su desarrollo cuando vivían en agua hipóxica u oxigenada. Los renacuajos en el agua aireada tenían un color pálido, mientras que en la hipóxica fueron más activos y de un color rojo brillante. En el agua hipóxica, el nitrógeno que se originó de la orina y las heces de los renacuajos se mantuvo principalmente en forma de amonio; en cambio, el amonio fue oxidado a nitrato en el agua aireada. Presumiblemente, el nitrato en el agua oxigenada se redujo secundariamente a nitrito dentro del intestino, ya que todos los síntomas en los renacuajos que vivían en esta agua apuntaron a una metahemoglobinemia, que se produce cuando el nitrito pasa a través de la pared del intestino a la corriente sanguínea transformando la hemoglobina en metahemoglobina. Esto pudo comprobarse mediante un análisis sanguíneo en donde el porcentaje de metahemoglobina fue del 2.3% en la sangre de los renacuajos criados en condición hipóxica y de un 19.3% de metahemoglobina en aquellos criados en agua aireada. En la misma forma en que la metahemoglobina aumenta en la sangre de los renacuajos que viven en agua oxigenada, su crecimiento disminuye en agua con alto contenido de nitrato. El estudio cuantitativo de la ingestión de nutrientes mostró que el crecimiento de los renacuajos se beneficia más de los alimentos en agua hipóxica, a pesar de que los renacuajos son más activos en sus movimientos que los que viven en agua oxigenada pero cargada de nitratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia/metabolism , Anura/metabolism , Cyanosis/metabolism , Methemoglobinemia/metabolism , Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics , Anura/growth & development , Anura/physiology , Larva/growth & development , Larva/metabolism , Larva/physiology , Nitrates/pharmacokinetics , Nitrites/pharmacokinetics , Water Pollutants, Chemical/adverse effects
8.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(4): 568-571, July-Aug. 2010.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-558843

ABSTRACT

Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) has cryptonephridial type Malphigian tubules (MT). This type of MT is characterized by the penetration of the distal part of the MT into the external walls of the rectum, which is usually lined with a perinephral membrane. The MT is divided into three differentiated regions: proximal, middle and distal. In this study, our objective was to compare the nuclear activities of each one of the three regions of the D. saccharalis MT by using a nuclear basophilic technique and critical electrolyte concentration with a toluidine blue stain at pH 4.0. This method allows differentiation of DNA/protein complexes in in situ and in vitro chromatin. MT chromatin structure in D. saccharalis is variable. Fifth instars have a more decondensed chromatin than fourth instars. The distal tubule region was the most decondensed region of the MT. Our data show an elevated genetic activity of the MT in the pre-metamorphosis period. The distal region of the MT has the highest observed activity, which may be associated with the re-absorption of useful components and the excretion of waste materials.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electrolytes/metabolism , Lepidoptera/metabolism , Malpighian Tubules/metabolism , Larva/metabolism
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 70(1): 171-179, Feb. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539748

ABSTRACT

The water balance and the upper limit of osmotic tolerance of premetamorphic Rhinella arenarum larvae (Gosner's stage 26) was evaluated after semistatic incubation in electrolyte (NaCl) and non-electrolyte (mannitol) media following a protocol of progressively increased osmotic pressure. Wet and dry weights were measured to calculate the water content as a derived variable indicative of the hydric balance. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and integrated multivariate analysis. Tadpoles survived in electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions up to 200 mOsm. The discriminant function was the best tool to describe the responses of the animals to external environmental stress under experimental conditions. The results were compared with those obtained in previous studies using a protocol of acute exposure to the same media used in this study. It was concluded that a) multivariate analysis is an appropriate approach to describe the responses of tadpoles to changes in the environmental physicochemical parameters, and b) progressive and acute acclimation to the experimental solutions induced similar responses.


Avaliou-se o balanço hídrico e o limite superior de tolerância osmótica em larvas pré-metamórficas do Rhinella arenarum (etapa 26 de Gosner) sob condições de incubação semiestáticas, num meio eletrolítico (NaCl) e não eletrolítico (manitol), seguindo um protocolo de aumento progressivo da pressão osmótica do meio. A quantificação das respostas se efetuou por meio da medição dos valores de peso úmido e seco e do cálculo, a partir destes, do conteúdo de água, como variável derivada indicativa do equilíbrio hídrico. A análise estatística foi realizada usando análise univariada e multivariada. As larvas conseguiram sobreviver em soluções eletrolíticas e não eletrolíticas até 200 mOsm. A função discriminante foi a melhor ferramenta para descrever as respostas dos animais ao estresse osmótico ambiental. Os resultados foram comparados com os obtidos em estudos anteriores, usando um protocolo de exposição aguda aos mesmos meios de incubação usados neste estudo. Concluiu-se: a) a análise multivariada é a aproximação adequada para descrever as respostas das larvas às mudanças nos parâmetros físico-químicos do seu meio; e b) tanto a aclimatação progressiva, como as exposições agudas às soluções experimentais induziram as respostas semelhantes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bufonidae/physiology , Water-Electrolyte Balance/physiology , Bufonidae/metabolism , Larva/metabolism , Larva/physiology , Osmolar Concentration , Time Factors
10.
J Genet ; 2008 Dec; 87(3): 235-40
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114483

ABSTRACT

In Drosophila melanogaster, dosage compensation occurs through hypertranscription of sex-linked genes in males. The hypertranscription involves acetylation of histone 4 at lysine 16 (H4K16) on amale X-chromosome, brought about by a histone acetyltransferase encoded by the dosage compensation gene, males absent on the first (mof). We report a phenomenon in the strain In(1)B(M2)(reinverted) of D. melanogaster where the global structure of the male X-chromosome can be altered at the third instar larval stage through a 4-h cold shock at 12+/-1 degrees C. We show that the cold shock results in a transient hyperacetylation of H4K16 and an increased expression of MOF. Control proteins H4 acetylated at lysine 5, and the dosage compensation gene msl-2, do not show any change in expression after cold shock. Cytology of the male X-chromosome at different time points during cold shock and recovery, suggests that the hyperacetylation of H4 at lysine 16 causes the X-chromosome to corkscrew into itself, thereby achieving the cold-induced change in the higher order structure of the male polytene X-chromosome. Our studies suggest a role for H4K16 in maintaining the structure of the male X-chromosome in Drosophila.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Animals , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Cold Temperature , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolism , Female , Histones/metabolism , Immunoblotting , Larva/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , Male , X Chromosome/metabolism
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 68(2): 349-357, May 2008. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-486760

ABSTRACT

Measurements of ammonium and phosphate excretion by the Chironomus larvae were conducted in order to evaluate the importance of these chironomids for the internal loads of a small eutrophic urban reservoir. Ammonium and phosphate excretion rates by Chironomus larvae of small size (6-10 mm total length) were significantly higher than those of the Chironomids having medium (9-11 mm) and large (11-16 mm) sizes. A dependence in relation to temperature was recorded for the ammonium and phosphate excretions that was significantly higher at 25 °C than at 20 and 15 °C. Through a linear relation between biomass (dry weight) and total length and, between excretion and biomass and, data on chironomids densities, after an intense sampling in 33 sites distributed all along the reservoir bottom, the mean phosphate and ammonium excretion rates corresponded to 2,014 ± 5,134 µg.m-2/day and 1,643 ± 3,974 µg.m-2/day, respectively. Considering the mean biomass (34 mg.m-2) of Chironomus, the lake area (88,156 m²) and the mean excretion rates, the contribution of benthic chironomids to the internal loads would be 181 KgP and 147 KgN. for the sampling months (October-November 1998). These values showed that the internal loads by excretion from Chironomus larvae correspond to approximately 33 percent of the external loads of phosphorus in the lake and, in the case of nitrogen, to only 5 percent.


Medidas de excreção de amônia e fosfato por larvas de Chironomus foram executadas com a finalidade de avaliar a importância desses quironomídeos nas cargas internas de um pequeno reservatório urbano eutrófico. Taxas de excreção de amônia e fosfato significativamente mais elevadas foram encontradas nas larvas de Chironomus de pequeno (6-10 mm) tamanho, em relação às de tamanho médio (9-11 mm) e grande (11-16 mm). Uma dependência em relação à temperatura foi registrada para a excreção de amônia e fosfato, significativamente mais alta a 25 °C do que a 20 e 15 °C. Depois da obtenção das relações lineares entre biomassa (peso seco) e comprimento total e excreção com biomassa e dos dados de densidade de quironomídeos, após amostragem em 33 pontos distribuídos por todo o reservatório, foi possível estimar uma taxa média de excreção de fosfato de 2014 ± 5134 µg.m-2/dia e, de amônia em 1643 ± 3974 µg.m-2/dia. Considerando a biomassa média (34 mg.m-2) de quironomídeos, a área do lago (88.156 m²) e as taxas médias de excreção, a contribuição dos quironomídeos bênticos para as cargas internas seria de 181 KgP e 147 KgN, para o mês da amostragem (outubro-novembro de 1998). Esses valores mostraram que as cargas internas por excreção pelas larvas de Chironomus correspondem aproximadamente a 33 por cento das cargas externas de fósforo para o lago e, somente 5 por cento no caso de nitrogênio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chironomidae/metabolism , Environmental Monitoring , Nitrogen/analysis , Phosphates/metabolism , Phosphorus/analysis , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/metabolism , Biomass , Eutrophication , Fresh Water/chemistry , Larva/metabolism , Population Density , Phosphates/analysis , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/analysis , Temperature
12.
Biocell ; 31(2): 205-211, ago. 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-491563

ABSTRACT

Although insects lack the adaptive immune response of the mammalians, they manifest effective innate immune responses, which include both cellular and humoral components. Cellular responses are mediated by hemocytes, and humoral responses include the activation of proteolytic cascades that initiate many events, including NO production. In mammals, nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are also present in the endothelium, the brain, the adrenal glands, and the platelets. Studies on the distribution of NO-producing systems in invertebrates have revealed functional similarities between NOS in this group and vertebrates. We attempted to localize NOS activity in tissues of naïve (UIL), yeast-injected (YIL), and saline-injected (SIL) larvae of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala, using the NADPH diaphorase technique. Our findings revealed similar levels of NOS activity in muscle, fat body, Malpighian tubule, gut, and brain, suggesting that NO synthesis may not be involved in the immune response of these larval systems. These results were compared to many studies that recorded the involvement of NO in various physiological functions of insects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diptera/enzymology , Diptera/immunology , Diptera/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/immunology , Larva/enzymology , Larva/immunology , Larva/metabolism , Tissue Distribution
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 67(1): 111-115, Feb. 2007. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-449634

ABSTRACT

The presence of pollutants in the ocean may affect different physiological parameters of animals. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were evaluated in D-shaped larvae of mussels (Perna perna) exposed to zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) and benzene (C6H6). When compared to the control group, both pollutants presented a significant reduction in oxygen consumption. A reduction in the ammonia excretion was also observed, both for ZnSO4 and C6H6 and also in the oxygen consumption. The results indicate that anaerobic metabolism may occur at the beginning of P. perna mussels development, as observed in veliger larvae. The O:N ratio under experimental conditions showed low values indicating that catabolism in veliger larvae was predominantly proteic.


A presença de poluentes no oceano pode afetar diferentes parâmetros fisiológicos. O consumo de oxigênio e a excreção de amônia foram avaliados nas larvas D de mexilhão (Perna perna) expostas ao sulfato de zinco (ZnSO4) e ao benzeno (C6H6). Quando comparados ao grupo controle, ambos os poluentes apresentaram uma significativa redução no consumo de oxigênio. A redução na excreção de amônia também foi observada para o ZnSO4 e para o C6H6, assim como para o consumo de oxigênio. Os resultados indicam que o metabolismo anaeróbico pode ocorrer no início do desenvolvimento do mexilhão P. perna, como foi observado na larva véliger. A razão O:N apresentou baixos valores, indicando que o catabolismo nas larvas véliger foi predominantemente protéico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ammonia/metabolism , Benzene/pharmacology , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Perna/metabolism , Zinc Sulfate/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Larva/metabolism , Perna/drug effects
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-31635

ABSTRACT

Laboratory investigations were carried out to study the effects of lead toxicity and lead uptake on Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Three different concentrations of lead nitrate were used in laboratory tests (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/l). An atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) was used to the determine lead concentrations. The results showed that lead significantly reduced hatching, egg-production, and emergence rates, compared with the unexposed group (p < 0.05). The ratio of female to male offspring was 3.64:1, which was observed in the second generation, after the parents were exposed to 0.2 mg/l lead. No effects were observed on oviposition preference, larval weight, or larval deformation. The LC50 of lead against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae within 24 hours was 0.18 mg/l. There was a significant increase in lead uptake related to increased lead exposure in mosquito larvae (p < 0.05). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) showed that the lead concentration in the larvae was 62 times greater than in the water. The lead concentration from parents to offspring reduced in the first and second generations (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between female and male mosquitoes in lead concentration (p > 0.05).


Subject(s)
Animals , Culex/drug effects , Environmental Monitoring , Female , Laboratories , Larva/metabolism , Lead/toxicity , Male , Nitrates/toxicity , Reproduction , Sex Ratio , Thailand , Water Pollution
15.
J Biosci ; 2005 Mar; 30(2): 191-200
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110845

ABSTRACT

Female sex pheromone production in certain moth species have been shown to be regulated by a cephalic endocrine peptidic factor: pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), having 33 amino acid residues. Antisera against synthetic Heliothis zea-PBAN were developed. Using these polyclonals, immunoreactivity was mapped in the nervous system of Achaea janata. Three distinct groups of immunopositive secretory neurons were identified in the suboesophageal ganglion; and immunoreactivity was observed in the corpora cardiaca, thoracic and in the abdominal ganglia. From about 6000 brain sub-oesophageal ganglion complexes, the neuropeptide was isolated; and purified sequentially by Sep-pak and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic methods. Identity of purified PBAN fraction was confirmed with polyclonal antibody by immunoblotting. Molecular mass of the isolated peptide was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, and was found to be 3900 Da, same as that of known H. zea-PBAN. Radiochemical bioassay confirmed the pheromonotropic effect of the isolated neuropeptide in this insect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Ganglia, Invertebrate/metabolism , Immunoblotting , Immunohistochemistry , Larva/metabolism , Moths/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Neuropeptides/isolation & purification
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Jan; 42(1): 91-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-63219

ABSTRACT

Extracts and purified extracts of seeds of two plant species, Madhuca latifolia and Calophyllum inophyllum when evaluated against the 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera reared on synthetic diet, exhibited high larval mortality, prolongation of developmental period, morphological deformities and highly significant reduction in adult emergence. The reduction in larval weights in the treatments was also highly significant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Larva/metabolism , Moths , Pest Control, Biological , Plant Extracts , Seeds/metabolism , Temperature , Time Factors
17.
J Biosci ; 2002 Sep; 27(5): 479-87
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110668

ABSTRACT

We have identified the Drosophila homologue of the non-motor accessory subunit of kinesin-II motor complex. It is homologous to the SpKAP115 of the sea urchin, KAP3A and KAP3B of the mouse, and SMAP protein in humans. In situ hybridization using a DmKAP specific cRNA probe has revealed a dynamic pattern of expression in the developing nervous system. The staining first appears in a subset of cells in the embryonic central nervous system at stage 13 and continues till the first instar larva stage. At the third instar larva stage the staining gets restricted to a few cells in the optic lobe and in the ventral ganglion region. It has also stained a subset of sensory neurons from late stage 13 and till the first instar larva stage. The DmKAP expression pattern in the nervous system corresponds well with that of Klp64D and Klp68D as reported earlier. In addition, we have found that the DmKAP gene is constitutively expressed in the germline cells and in follicle cells during oogenesis. These cells are also stained using an antibody to KLP68D protein, but mRNA in situ hybridization using KLP64D specific probe has not stained these cells. Together these results proved a basis for further analysis of tissue specific function of DmKAP in future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Female , In Situ Hybridization , Kinesin/genetics , Larva/metabolism , RNA Probes , RNA, Messenger/genetics
18.
J Biosci ; 2001 Mar; 26(1): 25-38
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111291

ABSTRACT

The nucleus-limited large non-coding hsr(omega)-n RNA product of the 93D or the hsr(omega) gene of Drosophila melanogaster binds to a variety of RNA-binding proteins involved in nuclear RNA processing. We examined the developmental and heat shock induced expression of this gene by in situ hybridization of nonradioactively labelled riboprobe to cellular transcripts in intact embryos, larval and adult somatic tissues of wild type and an enhancer-trap line carrying the hsr(omega) 05241 allele due to insertion of a P-LacZ-rosy+ transposon at -130 bp position of the hsr(omega) promoter. We also examined LacZ expression in the enhancer-trap line and in two transgenic lines carrying different lengths of the hsr(omega) promoter upstream of the LacZ reporter. The hsr(omega) gene is expressed widely at all developmental stages; in later embryonic stages, its expression in the developing central nervous system was prominent. In spite of insertion of a big transposon in the promoter, expression of the hsr(omega) 05241 allele in the enhancer-trap line, as revealed by in situ hybridization to hsr(omega) transcripts in cells, was similar to that of the wild type allele in all the embryonic, larval and adult somatic tissues examined. Expression of the LacZ gene in this enhancer-trap line was similar to that of the hsr(omega) RNA in all diploid cell types in embryos and larvae but in the polytene cells, the LacZ gene did not express at all, neither during normal development nor after heat shock. Comparison of the expression patterns of hsr(omega) gene and those of the LacZ reporter gene under its various promoter regions in the enhancer-trap and transgenic lines revealed a complex pattern of regulation, which seems to be essential for its dynamically varying expression in diverse cell types.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drosophila melanogaster/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Genes, Reporter , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , In Situ Hybridization , Lac Operon , Larva/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic , RNA/genetics
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