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Braz. j. anesth ; 73(2): 227-229, March-Apr. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439582


Abstract A male patient was scheduled for urgent amputation of his right forearm. His right forearm was stuck inside the insertion slot of a meat grinder, resulting in severe pain to his injured arm. His upper body could not move to sit in a semi-upright position. An endotracheal tube was successfully placed after rapid sequence intubation using a video laryngoscope from behind the patient on the first attempt. This case report is the first documentation of successful anesthetic induction with subsequent endotracheal intubation using a video laryngoscope from behind an injured patient whose upper body was upright with limited positioning.

Humans , Male , Laryngoscopes , Anesthetics , Forearm/surgery , Sitting Position , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(2): 153-158, March-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439590


Abstract Purpose Several bedside clinical tests have been proposed to predict difficult tracheal intubation. Unfortunately, when used alone, these tests show less than ideal prediction performance. Some multivariate tests have been proposed considering that the combination of some criteria could lead to better prediction performance. The goal of our research was to compare three previously described multivariate models in a group of adult patients undergoing general anesthesia. Methods This study included 220 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia. A standardized airway evaluation which included modified Mallampati class (MM), thyromental distance (TMD), mouth opening distance (MOD), head and neck movement (HNM), and jaw protrusion capacity was performed before anesthesia. Multivariate models described by El-Ganzouri et al., Naguib et al., and Langeron et al. were calculated using the airway data. After anesthesia induction, an anesthesiologist performed the laryngoscopic classification and tracheal intubation. The sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the models were calculated. Results The overall incidence of difficult laryngoscopic view (DLV) was 12.7%. The area under curve (AUC) for the Langeron, Naguib, and El-Ganzouri models were 0.834, 0.805, and 0.752, respectively, (Langeron > El-Ganzouri, p= 0.004; Langeron = Naguib, p= 0.278; Naguib = El-Ganzouri, p= 0.101). The sensitivities were 85.7%, 67.9%, and 35.7% for the Langeron, Naguib, and El-Ganzouri models, respectively. Conclusion The Langeron model had higher overall prediction performance than that of the El-Ganzouri model. Additionally, the Langeron score had higher sensitivity than the Naguib and El-Ganzouri scores, and therefore yielded a lower incidence of false negatives.

Laryngoscopes , Neck , ROC Curve , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopy
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(4): 491-499, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447625


Abstract Background Thyromental height (TMH) was first reported as a great single test for prediction of difficult laryngoscopies, although further studies have shown variable estimates of its accuracy. We thus performed this meta-analysis to summarize the predictive values of TMH mainly for prediction of difficult laryngoscopies. Methods A search in PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, and Scielo was conducted in June 2020. We included prospective cohorts fully reported with patients ≥ 16 years old, providing data on predictive values of TMH for prediction of either difficult laryngoscopies or difficult intubations. Diagnostic properties and association between TMH and Cormack and Lehanes's classification by direct laryngoscopy were evaluated. A random-effects meta-analysis using hierarchical models was performed. Results Eight studies evaluating 2844 patients were included. All included studies had high risk of bias and low concern regarding applicability. There was significant heterogeneity among the studies. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios were as follows: DOR, 57.94 (95% CI: 18.19-184.55); LR+, 11.32 (95% CI: 4.28-29.92); and LR-, 0.23 (95% CI: 0.15-0.35). Summary sensitivity and specificity for studies with common threshold were 82.6 (95% CI: 74-88.8%) and 93.5 (95% CI: 79-98.2%), respectively. The estimated AUC was 81.1%. Conclusion TMH arises as a good predictor of difficult laryngoscopies in adult patients from diverse populations presenting better predictive values than most previously reported bedside tests. However, the high risk of bias throughout the studies may have skewed the results of the individual research as well as the summary points of the present meta-analysis.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
Distúrb. comun ; 34(4): 56561, dez. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425485


Introdução: A disfonia causa impacto na qualidade de vida e no mercado de trabalho, sendo sinto-ma importante para triagem de neoplasia laríngea. Objetivo: Realizar avaliação estatística de um grupo populacional da cidade de Guarulhos com queixa de disfonia. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com utilização de amostra correspondente a 2.564 exames, videolaringoscópicos ou nasofibrolaringoscó-picos, de pacientes acima de 5 anos de idade, no município de Guarulhos da região metropolitana de São Paulo, pelo mesmo médico otorrinolaringologista e pelo mesmo fonoaudiólogo, entre os meses de abril de 2011 e abril de 2012. Avaliaram-se as alterações no diagnóstico da voz, levando em consideração idade e sexo dos pacientes. Foram descritos os sexos das pessoas segundo diagnósticos com uso de frequências absolutas e relativas e verificou-se a existência de associação entre sexo e diagnóstico através do uso de teste da razão de verossimilhanças (Kirkwood e Sterne, 2006). As idades foram descritas, segundo diagnósticos, com uso de medidas resumo (média, desvio-padrão (DP), mediana, mínimo e máximo), e foram comparadas as idades entre os diagnósticos, com uso de teste análise de variâncias (ANOVA) seguido de comparações múltiplas de Tukey (Neter et al., 1996). Os testes foram realizados com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Há maior frequência de homens com diagnóstico de neoplasias ou câncer que nos demais diagnósticos. Dos 2.564 exames, 477 apresentaram laringite crônica, sendo 69% do gênero feminino; 279 disfonia funcional, 63,4% do gênero feminino; 137 alterações estruturais míni-mas (AEM), 69,3% do gênero feminino; 36 disfunções neurológicas, sendo igualmente divididos entre os gêneros; e 12 apresentaram neoplasias, sendo 83,3% do masculino. Conclusão: Verificou-se maior número de alterações benignas no gênero feminino. Neoplasias e disfunções neurológicas predominaram no gênero masculino. A disfonia funcional e as AEM ocorrem em pacientes abaixo dos 40 anos, enquanto as demais ocorrem até em idades avançadas, acima dos 50 anos.

Introduction: Dysphonia impacts in quality of life and in the labor market, being an important symptom for screening laryngeal neoplasia. Objective: Perform a statistical evaluation of a population group in the city of Guarulhos complaining of dysphonia. Method: This is a cross-sectional study using a sample corresponding to 2,564 examinations, videolaryngoscopic or nasofibrolaryngoscopic, of pa-tients over 5 years of age, in the municipality of Guarulhos of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, by the same ENT physician and the same speech therapist, between April 2011 and April 2012. Changes in voice diagnosis were evaluated taking into account the age and gender of the patient. The sex of subjects was described according to diagnoses using absolute and relative frequencies, and the existence of an association between sex and diagnosis was verified through the use of likelihood ratio testing (Kirkwood and Sterne, 2006). Ages were described according to diagnoses using summary measurements (mean, standard deviation, median, minimum and maximum), and compared the ages between diagnoses, using variance analysis (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparisons by Tukey (Neter et al., 1996). The tests were performed with a significance level of 5%. Results: There is a higher frequency of men diagnosed with neoplasms or cancer than in other diagnoses. Of the 2,564 tests, 477 had chronic laryngitis, 69% in females; 279 functional dysphonia, 63.4% female; 137 minimal structural alterations (AEM), 69.3% female; 36 neurological dysfunctions, being equally divided between genders; and 12 presented neoplasms, 83.3% in males. Conclusion: There were a higher number of benign alterations in the female gender. Neoplasms and neurological dysfunctions predominated in males. Functional dysphonia and AEM occur in patients under 40 years of age, while the others occur even at advanced ages, above 50 years of age.

Introducción: La disfonía impacta en la calidad de vida y en el mercado laboral, siendo un sínto-ma importante para el cribado de la neoplasia laríngea. Objetivo: Realizar una evaluación estadística de un grupo poblacional de la ciudad de Guarulhos que se queja de disfonía. Método: Se trata de un estudio transversal que utiliza una muestra correspondiente a 2564 exámenes, videolaringoscópicos o nasofibrolaringoscópicos, de pacientes mayores de 5 años, en el municipio de Guarulhos de la región metropolitana de São Paulo, realizados por el mismo otorrinolaringólogo y el mismo logopeda, entre abril de 2011 y abril de 2012. Los cambios en el diagnóstico de voz se evaluaron teniendo en cuenta la edad y el sexo de las personas. Los sexos de las personas se describieron de acuerdo con los diagnósticos utilizando frecuencias absolutas y relativas, y la existencia de una asociación entre el sexo y el diagnóstico se verificó mediante el uso de pruebas de razón de probabilidad (Kirkwood y Sterne, 2006). Las edades se describieron de acuerdo con los diagnósticos utilizando mediciones resumidas (media, desviación estándar, mediana, mínima y máxima), y se compararon las edades entre los diagnósticos, utilizando el análisis de varianza (ANOVA) seguido de comparaciones múltiples de Tukey (Neter et al., 1996). Las pruebas se realizaron con un nivel de significancia del 5%. Resultados: Hay una mayor frecuencia de hombres diagnosticados con neoplasias o cáncer que en otros diagnósticos. De las 2.564 pruebas, 477 presentaban laringitis crónica, el 69% en mujeres; 279 disfonía funcional, el 63,4% mujeres; 137 alteraciones estructurales mínimas (AEM), el 69,3% mujeres; 36 disfunciones neurológicas, estando divididas por igual entre géneros; y 12 presentaban neoplasias, el 83,3% en varones. Conclusión: Hubo un mayor número de alteraciones benignas en el género femenino. Las neoplasias y las disfunciones neurológicas predominaron en los varones. La disfonía funcional y la AEM ocurren en pacientes menores de 40 años de edad, mientras que las otras ocurren incluso a edades avanzadas, por encima de los 50 años de edad.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Dysphonia/diagnostic imaging , Voice , Laryngitis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Laryngoscopy , Neoplasms , Neurologic Manifestations
Braz. j. anesth ; 72(6): 742-748, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420617


Abstract Background and objectives Several anthropometric measurements have been suggested to identify a potentially difficult airway. We studied thyromental height (TMH) as a predictor of difficult laryngoscopy and difficult intubation. We also compared TMH, ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), and thyromental distance (TMD) as predictors of difficult airway. Methods This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 300 adult surgical patients requiring tracheal intubation. Preoperatively airway characteristics were assessed. Standard anesthesia was administered. Degree of difficulty with mask ventilation, laryngoscopic view, duration of laryngoscopy, and difficulty in tracheal intubation (intubation difficulty scale score) were noted. Multivariate logistics regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors for difficult laryngoscopy. Results Laryngoscopy was difficult in 46 of 300 (15.3%) patients; all 46 patients had Cormack-Lehane grade 3 view. Duration of laryngoscopy was 27 ± 11 s in patients with difficult laryngoscopy and 12.7 ± 3.9 s in easy laryngoscopy; p= 0.001. Multivariate analysis identified that TMH, presence of short neck, and history of snoring were independently associated with difficult laryngoscopy. Incidence of difficult intubation was 17.0%. A shorter TMH was associated with higher IDS scores; r = -0.16, p= 0.001. TMH and duration of laryngoscopy were found to be negatively correlated; a shorter TMH was associated with a longer duration of laryngoscopy; r = -0.13, p= 0.03. The cut-off threshold value for TMH in our study is 4.4 cm with a sensitivity of 66% and a specificity of 54%. Conclusion Thyromental height predicts difficult laryngoscopy and difficult intubation. TMD and RHTMD did not prove to be useful as predictors of difficult airway.

Humans , Adult , Anesthesia , Laryngoscopy , Body Height , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intubation, Intratracheal
Braz. j. anesth ; 72(6): 736-741, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420622


Abstract Background There is currently some discussion over the actual usefulness of performing preoperative upper airway assessment to predict difficult airways. In this field, modified Mallampati test (MMT) is a widespread tool used for prediction of difficult airways showing only a feeble predictive performance as a diagnostic test. We therefore aimed at evaluating if MMT test would perform better when used as a screening test rather than diagnostic. Methods An accuracy prospective study was conducted with 570 patients undergoing general anesthesia for surgical procedures. We collected preoperatively data on sex, age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), ASA physical status, and MMT. The main outcome was difficult laryngoscopy defined as Cormack and Lahane classes 3 or 4. Bivariate analyses were performed to build three different predictive models with their ROC curves. Results Difficult laryngoscopy was reported in 36 patients (6.32%). Sex, ASA physical status, and MMT were associated with difficult laryngoscopy, while body mass index (BMI) was not. The MMT cut-off with the highest odds ratio was the class II, which also presented significantly higher sensitivity (94.44%). The balanced accuracy was 67.11% (95% CI: 62.78-71.44%) for the cut-off of class II and 71.68% (95% CI: 63.83-79.54) for the class III. Conclusion MMT seems to be more clinically useful when the class II is employed as the threshold for possible difficult laryngoscopies. At this cut-off, MMT shows the considerable highest sensitivity plus the highest odds ratio, prioritizing thus the anticipation of difficult laryngoscopies.

Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Larynx , Prospective Studies , Laryngoscopy/methods
MedUNAB ; 25(3): [492-498], 01-12-2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1436139


Introducción. El manejo de la vía aérea difícil anticipada es un reto anestésico que supone la valoración preoperatoria de las características anatómicas y los factores de riesgo específicos del paciente. La intubación difícil se presenta en 1.6 de 1,000 eventos y la intubación fallida en 0.06 de 1,000 eventos. El objetivo de este reporte es mostrar la importancia del uso de dispositivos (específicamente videolaringoscopio) en pacientes con predicción de vía aérea difícil. Presentación del caso. Hombre de 63 años con gran masa facial con extensión a nariz, labio superior, erosión a nivel del maxilar superior que ocupaba cavidad oral, con predictores de ventilación e intubación difícil, programado para rinectomía, osteotomía Lefort II, reconstrucción y traqueostomía, con intubación exitosa con videolaringoscopio en primer intento bajo sedación consciente y ventilación espontánea. Discusión. La vía aérea difícil es un escenario relacionado a factores externos e internos del paciente y a complicaciones pre e intraoperatorias. El videolaringoscopio es una herramienta útil que permite la intubación exitosa y disminuye los posibles eventos adversos (como se observó en el paciente del caso presentado) y es descrito en diferentes reportes de casos con compromiso parcial o total de la vía aérea. Conclusión. La videolaringoscopia, en casos de vía aérea difícil anticipada, está asociada con un menor tiempo de intubación, un buen perfil de seguridad y una alta tasa de éxito, comparable a la del fibrobroncoscopio, se logra la intubación en el primer intento en la mayoría de las veces y, por ello, debería considerarse como primera opción.

Introduction. Management of an anticipated difficult airway is an anesthetic challenge that involves preoperative assessment of the patient's specific anatomic characteristics and risk factors. Difficult intubation occurs in 1.6 of 1,000 events and failed intubation in 0.06 of 1,000 events. The objective of this report is to show the importance of the use of devices (specifically videolaryngoscope) in patients with predicted difficult airway. Case Presentation. 63-year-old man with large facial mass with extensión to the nose, upper lip, erosion at the level of the upper jaw occupying the oral cavity, with predictors of ventilation and difficult intubation, scheduled for rhinectomy, Lefort II osteotomy, reconstruction and tracheostomy, with successful intubation with videolaryngoscope on the first attempt under conscious sedation and spontaneous ventilation. Discussion. Difficult airway is a scenario related to external and internal patient factors and to pre- and intraoperative complications. The videolaryngoscope is a useful tool that allows successful intubation and decreases possible adverse events (as observed in the patient of the case presented) and is described in different reports of cases with partial or total airway compromise. Conclusion. Videolaryngoscopy, in cases of anticipated difficult airway, is associated with a shorter intubation time, a good safety profile and a high success rate, comparable to that of fibrobronchoscopy, intubation is achieved on the first attempt in most cases and should therefore be considered as a first choice.

Introdução. O manejo da via aérea difícil antecipada é um desafio anestésico que envolve a avaliação pré-operatória das características anatômicas e dos fatores de risco específicos do paciente. A intubação difícil ocorre em 1.6 de 1,000 eventos e a intubação falha em 0.06 de 1,000 eventos. O objetivo deste relato é mostrar a importância do uso de dispositivos (especificamente videolaringoscópio) em pacientes com previsão de via aérea difícil. Apresentação do caso. Homem de 63 anos com grande massa facial estendendo-se ao nariz, lábio superior e erosão ao nível do maxilar superior que ocupava a cavidade oral, com preditores de ventilação e intubação difícil, programado para rinectomia, osteotomia Lefort II, reconstrução e traqueostomia, com intubação bem-sucedida, com videolaringoscópio na primeira tentativa sob sedação consciente e ventilação espontânea. Discussão. A via aérea difícil é um cenário relacionado a fatores externos e internos do paciente e a complicações pré e intraoperatórias. O videolaringoscópio é uma ferramenta útil que permite o sucesso da intubação e reduz possíveis eventos adversos (como observado no paciente do caso apresentado) e está descrito em diversos relatos de casos com comprometimento parcial ou total da via aérea. Conclusão. A videolaringoscopia, em casos de via aérea difícil antecipada, está associada a um menor tempo de intubação, um bom perfil de segurança e uma alta taxa de sucesso, comparável à fibrobroncoscopia, a intubação é realizada na primeira tentativa na maioria dos casos e, portanto, deve ser considerada como a primeira opção.

Airway Management , Laryngoscopy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Intubation , Anesthesia
Braz. j. anesth ; 72(5): 622-628, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420585


Abstract Background Both predictions and predictors of difficult laryngoscopy are controversial. Machine learning is an excellent alternative method for predicting difficult laryngoscopy. This study aimed to develop and validate practical predictive models for difficult laryngoscopy through machine learning. Methods Variables for the prediction of difficult laryngoscopy included age, Mallampati grade, body mass index, sternomental distance, and neck circumference. Difficult laryngoscopy was defined as grade 3 and 4 by the Cormack-Lehane classification. Pre-anesthesia and anesthesia data of 616 patients who had undergone anesthesia at a single center were included. The dataset was divided into a base training set (n = 492) and a base test set (n = 124), with equal distribution of difficult laryngoscopy. Training data sets were trained with six algorithms (multilayer perceptron, logistic regression, supportive vector machine, random forest, extreme gradient boosting, and light gradient boosting machine), and cross-validated. The model with the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was chosen as the final model, which was validated with the test set. Results The results of cross-validation were best using the light gradient boosting machine algorithm with Mallampati score x age and sternomental distance as predictive model parameters. The predicted AUROC for the difficult laryngoscopy class was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.83; p= 0.014), and the recall (sensitivity) was 0.85. Conclusion Predicting difficult laryngoscopy is possible with three parameters. Severe damage resulting from failure to predict difficult laryngoscopy with high recall is small with the reported model. The model's performance can be further enhanced by additional data training.

Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Machine Learning
Rev. ADM ; 79(5): 271-275, sept.-oct. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427848


Introducción: la vía aérea difícil es aquella situación clínica en la cual un anestesiólogo entrenado convencionalmente experimenta dificultad en la aplicación de ventilación con mascarilla facial, en la intubación endotraqueal o ambas, es de vital importancia su identificación, puesto que su manejo adecuado marcará la diferencia en el desenlace de los pacientes que requieren intubación, en especial los recibidos en urgencias. Objetivo: revisar de manera sistemática el estado actual del conocimiento y evidencia clínica relacionada al manejo de la vía aérea difícil en in- tubación de emergencia. Material y métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática en PubMed, Cochrane, EBSCO y OVID; se emplearon los términos manejo de vía aérea difícil e intubación de emergencia. Resul- tados: la búsqueda arrojó 356 resultados, se excluyeron los estudios de revisión sistemática, metaanálisis, artículos basados en opiniones, infor- mes de casos, cartas al editor; 128 artículos fueron analizados; además, se buscó analizar artículos de distinta área de la investigación médica; se seleccionaron 21 artículos para ser analizados en esta revisión sistemática. Conclusiones: inesperadamente los artículos revisados concluyen, en su gran mayoría, que independientemente del protocolo de intubación, el aspecto que juega un rol determinante en el manejo de la vía aérea difícil es la experiencia y preparación previa del médico anestesiólogo (AU)

Introduction: difficult airway is that clinical situation in which a conventionally trained anesthesiologist experiences difficulty in ventilation with a face mask, in endotracheal intubation or both. In this review article we will focus on emergency intubation. Objective: to systematically review the current state of knowledge and clinical evidence related to the management of difficult airways in emergency intubation. Material and methods: a systematic review was carried out in PubMed, Cochrane data base, EBSCO and OVID; the terms: difficult airway management and emergency intubation; only clinical trials and scientific research reports were analyzed. Results: the search yielded 356 results, of which systematic review studies, meta-analysis, opinion-based articles, case reports, letters to the editor were excluded; which gave us 128 articles, after they were analyzed; it was also sought to analyze articles from different areas of medical research; 21 articles were selected to be analyzed in this systematic review. Conclusions: unexpectedly, the majority of the reviewed articles conclude that regardless of the intubation protocol or the tools used, the aspect that plays a decisive role in the management of the difficult airway is the experience and previous preparation of the anesthesiologist (AU))

Humans , Emergencies , Airway Management , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Laryngoscopy/methods , Masks
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408161


Introducción: Muchos enfermos de COVID-19 requieren ser ventilados. La laringoscopia directa (LD) es el método tradicional empleado en el manejo de la vía aérea; sin embargo, la videolaringoscopia (VL) es una alternativa en estos pacientes. Objetivo: Comparar la laringoscopia directa y la videolaringoscopia en el manejo de la vía aérea en pacientes con COVID-19. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo. El universo y la muestra estuvieron conformado por los pacientes intubados por médicos de la brigada Henry Reeve en hospitales de Cancún y Ciudad de México. Se conformaron dos grupos; el Grupo laringoscopia directa con 91 pacientes y el Grupo videolaringoscopia con 103. Las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, número de predictores de una vía respiratoria anatómicamente difícil (VRAD), visualización de la apertura glótica, intentos de intubación y las complicaciones de la intubación. El análisis estadístico de los datos se realizó con el paquete estadístico SPSS 23.0. Resultados: Los grupos fueron comparables en cuanto a edad, sexo y predictores de vía respiratoria anatómicamente difícil. La visualización glótica completa o parcial en el grupo videolaringoscopia fue de 97 por ciento, mientras que en el grupo laringoscopia directa fue de 86 por ciento. La intubación endotraqueal al primer intento superó el 70 por ciento en el grupo VL y el 50 por ciento en el grupo LD. Las principales complicaciones encontradas fueron la desaturación y la hipotensión arterial con una mayor frecuencia en el grupo LD (40,7 por ciento y 49,5 por ciento). Conclusiones: La videolaringoscopia mejoró la visualización glótica y la intubación endotraqueal al primer intento, con menos complicaciones en los pacientes estudiados(AU)

Introduction: Many COVID-19 patients require ventilation. Direct laryngoscopy is the traditional method used for airway management; however, videolaryngoscopy is an alternative in these patients. Objective: To compare direct laryngoscopy and videolaryngoscopy for airway management in COVID-19 patients. Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out. The universe and the sample consisted of patients intubated by physicians from Henry Reeve brigade at hospitals in Cancun and Mexico City. Two groups were formed: the direct laryngoscopy group, with 91 patients, and the videolaryngoscopy group, with 103 patients. The variables studied were age, sex, number of predictors of an anatomically difficult airway, visualization of the glottic opening, intubation attempts, and intubation complications. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the SPSS 23.0 statistical package. Results: The groups were comparable in terms of age, sex and predictors of an anatomically difficult airway. Complete or partial glottic visualization in the videolaryngoscopy group was 97 percent , while in the direct laryngoscopy group it was 86 percent . Endotracheal intubation at the first attempt exceeded 70 percent in the videolaryngoscopy group and 50 percent in the direct laryngoscopy group. The main complications observed were desaturation and arterial hypotension with a higher frequency in the direct laryngoscopy group (40.7 percent and 49.5 percent , respectively). Conclusions: Video laryngoscopy improved glottic visualization and endotracheal intubation at the first attempt, with fewer complications in the patients studied(AU)

Humans , Video-Assisted Techniques and Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study , Laryngoscopy/methods
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(2): 199-202, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389857


Resumen Los quistes laríngeos son muy infrecuentes y en su mayoría de etiología benigna. Se reportan dos casos de pacientes adultos que presentaron lesiones quísticas en vallécula glosoepiglótica con diagnóstico histológico de quiste epidermoide. Los quistes epidermoides en vallécula pocas veces han sido reportados en la literatura, pueden ser asintomáticos o por su localización producir síntomas como sensación de ocupación faríngea, tos o incluso dificultad respiratoria.

Abstract Laryngeal cysts are very infrequent and mostly benign. Two cases are presented of adult patients who presented cystic lesions in the glossoepiglottic vallecula with histological diagnosis of epidermoid cyst. Epidermoid cysts in vallecula have rarely been reported in the literature, they can be asymptomatic or due to their location produce symptoms such as pharyngeal occupation sensation, cough or even respiratory difficulty.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Epidermal Cyst/surgery , Epidermal Cyst/etiology , Epidermal Cyst/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cysts/surgery , Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Laryngoscopy
Más Vita ; 4(2): 103-119, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1392128


La combinación de los test predictores de la vía área difícil durante la evaluación preanestésica y la preparación de los pacientes quirúrgicos es fundamental para reducir el índice de morbimortalidad. Objetivo: Analizar la relación entre los test predictores de vía aérea difícil y los hallazgos bajo laringoscopia directa en los pacientes que son intervenidos en la sala de operaciones del Hospital General Esmeraldas Sur Delfina Torres de Concha. La institución de salud en mención no registra previamente un estudio de estas características. Materiales y Métodos: El diseño de investigación que se aplicó fue cualitativo, de corte transversal con enfoque descriptivo. En consecuencia, se observaron y se tomaron datos del formulario de anestesiología de 150 historias clínicas de pacientes que fueron derivados a cirugía desde febrero de 2019 hasta julio de 2019. Las variables examinadas correspondieron a paciente adulto, vía aérea difícil, test predictores de VAD y laringoscopia directa. Resultados: Mostraron que el test que alertó más casos de VAD es el de protrusión mandibular con el 59,30%, seguido de la distancia tiromentoniana con el 40,00%. Asimismo, los hallazgos bajo laringoscopia derivaron en procedimientos de intubación difícil, guardando relación con otros test predictores de VAD. Conclusiones: La combinación de varios test de VAD facultan a los médicos a planificar respuestas oportunas ante la presencia de problemas(AU)

The combination of predictive tests of the difficult airway during the pre-anesthetic evaluation and the preparation of surgical patients is essential to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate. Objective: To analyze the relationship between the difficult airway predictive tests and the findings under direct laryngoscopy in patients who are operated on in the operating room of the Hospital General Esmeraldas Sur Delfina Torres de Concha. The aforementioned health institution has not previously registered a study of these characteristics. Materials and Methods: The research design that was applied was qualitative, cross-sectional with a descriptive approach. Consequently, data from the anesthesiology form of 150 medical records of patients who were referred for surgery from February 2019 to July 2019 were observed and collected. The variables examined corresponded to adult patients, difficult airway, VAD predictor tests and direct laryngoscopy. Results: They showed that the test that alerted more cases of VAD is mandibular protrusion with 59.30%, followed by thyromental distance with 40.00%. Likewise, the findings under laryngoscopy led to difficult intubation procedures, being related to other VAD predictive tests. Conclusions: The combination of several VAD tests empower physicians to plan timely responses to the presence of problems(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Airway Management , Forecasting , Anesthesia, General , Laryngoscopy , Operating Rooms , Patients , Hospitals , Intubation, Intratracheal
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(1): 16-20, mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389823


Resumen Introducción: La disfonía infantil puede afectar negativamente la autoestima del niño y su calidad de vida relacionada con la voz. Objetivo: Describir los resultados del cuestionario Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI) en niños con patología vocal benigna. Material y Método: Se diseñó un estudio descriptivo en pacientes con patología vocal benigna entre 3 y 15 años en la Unidad de Voz del Hospital de Niños Dr. Luis Calvo Mackenna entre octubre de 2016 y febrero de 2020. La evaluación se realizó mediante un examen laringoscópico y el cuestionario pVHI para evaluar el impacto en la calidad de vida. Resultados: Se incluyeron 49 pacientes, 35 varones (71,4%) y 14 mujeres (28,6%). La edad media fue de 9,27 años. En el examen laringoscópico, el hallazgo más frecuente fueron los nódulos vocales. La puntuación media total en el pVHI fue de 38,77: 11,67 en la subescala o categoría funcional, 18,59 en la física y 8,42 en la emocional. En la evaluación de pVHI por género no existieron diferencias significativas. Conclusión: La patología vocal benigna en la edad pediátrica ocasiona un impacto negativo en la calidad de vida relacionada con la voz. El cuestionario pVHI es un valioso instrumento para evaluar dicha repercusión.

Abstract Introduction: Childhood dysphonia can negatively affect a child's self-esteem and voice-related quality of life. Aim: To describe the results of the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI) questionnaire in children with benign vocal fold pathology. Material and Method: A descriptive study was designed in patients with benign vocal fold pathology between 3 and 15 years of age in the Voice Unit of the Dr. Luis Calvo Mackenna Children's Hospital between October 2016 and February 2020. The evaluation was carried out through a laryngoscopic examination and pVHI questionnaire to assess the impact on quality of life. Results: Forty-nine patients were included, 35 boys (71.4%) and 14 girls (28.6%). The mean age was 9.27 years. On laryngoscopic examination, the most frequent finding was vocal fold nodules. The total mean score on the pVHI was 38.77: 11.67 on the functional subscale, 18.59 on the physical subscale, and 8.42 on the emotional subscale. In the evaluation of pVHI by gender, no significant differences were found. Conclusion: Benign vocal fold pathology in pediatric age causes a negative impact on voice-related quality of life. The pVHI questionnaire is a valuable instrument to assess this repercussion.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Voice Disorders/diagnosis , Voice Disorders/epidemiology , Dysphonia/diagnosis , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Laryngoscopy/methods
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(1): 95-100, mar. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389837


Resumen La patología quirúrgica de la vía aérea pediátrica suele ser desafiante. Una visualización adecuada de las estructuras faríngeas y laríngeas es absolutamente necesaria para su correcto diagnóstico y tratamiento. Distintos instrumentos, como laringoscopios de intubación, laringoscopios de suspensión y broncoscopios flexibles o rígidos, permiten acceder a la vía aérea. Muchas veces se requiere el uso de una combinación de ellos para abordar con éxito estos problemas. En esta revisión, discutimos el uso de videolaringoscopios en el manejo de condiciones como estenosis subglótica, lesiones de vía aérea y cuerpos extraños. Aunque los anestesiólogos los utilizan frecuentemente para intubaciones difíciles debido a su cámara incorporada que facilita la visión de las estructuras laríngeas, existen escasos informes sobre su uso por cirujanos de vía aérea. Las ventajas sobre la laringoscopía convencional incluyen una mejor visualización, la capacidad de supervisar el procedimiento a través de una pantalla, una mejor ergonomía, que es portátil y que permite una rápida inserción de diferentes instrumentos. Consideramos que es particularmente útil en la dilatación de estenosis subglóticas. Presentamos un método fácil, barato y reproducible para realizarla.

Abstract Surgical pediatric airway diseases are often challenging, and an adequate visualization of pharyngeal and laryngeal structures is absolutely necessary for their correct diagnosis and treatment. Different instruments such as intubation laryngoscopes, suspension laryngoscopes and flexible and rigid bronchoscopes allow for access to the airway, and using a combination of them, is usually required to successfully address these problems. In this review, we discuss the use of videolaryngoscopes in the management of conditions such as subglottic stenosis, airway lesions and foreign bodies. Although commonly used by anesthesiologists for difficult intubations because of their built-in cameras that facilitate the view of laryngeal structures, there are scarce reports on its use by airway surgeons. Advantages over standard laryngoscopy include improved visualization and the ability to supervise the procedure through a screen. We also consider that it allows for improved ergonomics, portability and fast insertion of different instruments. We have found it to be particularly useful in subglottic stenosis dilation and an easy, cheap and reproducible method is also presented.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pediatrics , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods , Laryngoscopes
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965303


@#Acute epiglottitis (AE), an inflammation of the epiglottis and adjacent supraglottic structures, can lead to a fatal airway obstruction. We report the case of a 47­year­old male who developed AE after experiencing a sore throat, odynophagia, and high­grade fever for a week. The patient came in with late signs of AE, suggesting a poor prognosis. Laryngoscopy revealed a swollen epiglottis obstructing the patient’s tracheal opening. He had cardiopulmonary arrest due to the airway obstruction. The patient was successfully resuscitated but had several episodes of generalized seizure after the return of spontaneous circulation. He was discharged in a persistent vegetative state. Because AE is unusual in the adult population, a clinician's high index of suspicion for the diagnosis and the emergency team’s prompt intervention are crucial factors in the management approach to AE. Physicians working in the emergency room must be equipped with skills in establishing a definitive airway, especially in securing a surgical airway.

Epiglottitis , Laryngoscopy , Tracheostomy
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 81(4): 566-572, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389809


Los quistes subglóticos adquiridos son una causa rara de estridor en la infancia, cuyo reporte ha ido en aumento en las últimas décadas. Su aparición se relaciona con la prematurez y la intubación en el periodo neonatal. Histológicamente, se observa una obstrucción de las glándulas mucosas de la subglotis debido una metaplasia escamosa del epitelio respiratorio. Esta es una condición que usualmente requiere de un alto índice de sospecha para llegar al diagnóstico, ya que pueden confundirse con otras patologías como laringitis aguda (croup), laringomalacia o asma. La nasofibroscopía permite sospechar su presencia, pero el gold standard diagnóstico lo constituye la laringo-tra-queo-broncoscopía directa en pabellón. Existen diversas técnicas para su manejo, siendo las más frecuentemente utilizadas la marsupialización con instrumental frío y láser. La recurrencia es frecuente, por lo que algunos autores han utilizado mitomicina C y la terapia antirreflujo para intentar disminuirla. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha falta evidencia de calidad que permita llegar a un consenso respecto al manejo ideal de esta patología. En este trabajo, presentamos tres casos clínico de pacientes con antecedentes de prematurez que fueron diagnosticados con quistes subglóticos adquiridos y manejados en un hospital pediátrico de alta complejidad.

Acquired subglottic cysts are an infrequent cause of stridor in infants, which has been increasingly reported in the last decades. Its appearance is related to prematurity and intubation in the neonatal period. Histologically, findings are characterized by an obstruction of the mucosal glands, due to squamous metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium. This condition usually requires a high index of suspicion to be diagnosed, as it can be misdiagnosed as croup, laryngomalacia or asthma. Flexible nasendoscopy allows an initial exploration of the larynx, but direct laryngo-tracheo-bronchoscopy in the operating room is the diagnostic gold standard. There are several techniques for its management, but the most frequently used are cold-steel marsupialization and laser. Recurrence is common, and some authors have used mitomycin C and antireflux therapy to try to decrease it. However, up to date, there is a lack of high-quality evidence, regarding the ideal management of this pathology, which prevents reaching a consensus. In this article, we present three clinical cases of premature patients who were diagnosed with subglottic cysts, treated in a tertiary pediatric hospital.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Laryngeal Diseases/therapy , Cysts/therapy , Infant, Premature, Diseases/therapy , Laryngoscopy/methods , Infant, Premature , Laryngeal Diseases/diagnosis , Laryngeal Diseases/drug therapy , Mitomycin/therapeutic use , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 270-273, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280932


En pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2 la intubación endotraqueal es un procedimiento con riesgo elevado de contagio. La videolaringoscopia complementa la protección del profesional, pero los videolaringoscopios comerciales son caros y no siempre están disponibles en las terapias intensivas pediátricas argentinas. El objetivo fue describir la práctica de intubación en un modelo de cabeza de simulación de lactante con un videolaringoscopio artesanal de bajo costo.Quince pediatras sin experiencia previa con el dispositivo participaron de una práctica de intubación en una cabeza de simulación con un videolaringoscopio artesanal. El tiempo promedio del primer intento fue de 116,4 segundos (intervalo de confianza del 95 % [IC95 %]: 84,8-148,0) y, el del siguiente fue de 44,2 segundos (IC95 %: 27,7­60,6). El tiempo disminuyó de forma significativa en el segundo intento (p : 0,0001). El dispositivo permitió la intubación exitosa en todos los intentos acortando la duración del procedimiento en la segunda práctica

In patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, endotracheal intubation is a procedure with a high risk for transmission. A videolaryngoscopy is a supplementary level of health care provider protection, but commercial videolaryngoscopes are expensive and not always available in pediatric intensive care units in Argentina. Our objective was to describe intubation practice using an infant head mannequin with a low-cost, handcrafted videolaryngoscope.Fifteen pediatricians with no prior experience using the device participated in an intubation practice in a head mannequin with a handcrafted videolaryngoscope. The average time for the first attempt was 116.4 seconds (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 84.8-148.0) and, for the second one, 44.2 seconds (95 % CI: 27.7-60.6). Time decreased significantly for the second attempt (p: 0.0001).A successful intubation was achieved with the device in all attempts, and the procedure duration decreased with the second practice

Humans , Infant , Pediatrics/education , Laryngoscopes/economics , Simulation Training/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngoscopy/economics , Pediatrics/economics , Time Factors , Video Recording , Health Care Costs , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Learning Curve , COVID-19/transmission , Internship and Residency/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/economics , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/education , Laryngoscopy/instrumentation , Laryngoscopy/methods , Manikins
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(1): 30-36, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154717


Abstract Objective: To determine the effect of a training program using simulation-based mastery learning on the performance of residents in pediatric intubations with videolaryngoscopy. Method: Retrospective cohort study carried out in a tertiary pediatric hospital between July 2016 and June 2018 evaluating a database that included the performance of residents before and after training, as well as the outcome of tracheal intubations. A total of 59 pediatric residents were evaluated in the pre-training with a skills' checklist in the scenario with an intubation simulator; subsequently, they were trained individually using a simulator and deliberate practice in the department itself. After training, the residents were expected to have a minimum passing grade (90/100) in a simulated scenario. The success of the first attempted intubation, use of videolaryngoscopy, and complications in patients older than 1 year of age during the study period were also recorded in clinical practice. Results: Before training, the mean grade was 77.5/100 (SD 15.2), with only 23.7% (14/59) of residents reaching the minimum passing grade of 90/100. After training, 100% of the residents reached the grade, with an average of 94.9/100 (SD 3.2), p < 0.01, with only 5.1% (3/59) needing more practice time than that initially allocated. The success rate in the first attempt at intubation in the emergency department with videolaryngoscopy was 77.8% (21/27). The rate of adverse events associated with intubations was 26% (7/27), representing a serious event. Conclusions: Simulation-based mastery learning increased residents' skills related to intubation and allowed safe tracheal intubations with video laryngoscopy.

Humans , Child , Laryngoscopes , Laryngoscopy , Retrospective Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects