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1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 371-372, March-Apr. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364945

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Tissue transfer has been used in urethral reconstruction for decades, and several grafts have been described (1, 2). The ideal graft would have optimal tissue characteristics and lead to minimal morbidity at the donor site. Urethroplasty using bladder mucosa was first described by Memmelaar in 1947 (3). The main limitation in using bladder mucosal grafts has been the invasiveness of open harvesting (4). We describe an endoscopic technique using Holmium: YAG laser to harvest bladder mucosal graft for substitution urethroplasty. Methodology: A 33-year-old male with no history of urethral instrumentation, trauma, or infection presented with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. On retrograde urethrogram a 6cm bulbar urethral stricture was identified. Several options were discussed, and the patient opted for a one-sided onlay dorsal urethroplasty (5) using a bladder mucosal graft. Equipment used to harvest the graft included an 18.5Fr continuous flow laser endoscope with a Kuntz working element (RZ) and a 60W Holmium Laser (Quanta) with 550μm laser fiber. The procedure was started by making a perineal incision, urethral mobilization and incision of the stricture segment. The laser endoscope was then introduced via the perineum. Settings of 0.5J, 30 Hz, and long pulse were used and a 7 x 2.5cm graft was harvested from the posterior bladder wall. Hemostasis of the harvest site was performed. The bladder mucosal graft was thinned in similar fashion to a buccal mucosal graft and sutured as per previously described techniques. Conclusion: Endoscopic Holmium Laser harvesting of bladder mucosal graft is feasible and may allow this graft to become an alternative to buccal mucosa. Further studies are required to define its role in urethral reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Urethral Stricture/surgery , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Urethra/surgery , Urinary Bladder/surgery , Mouth Mucosa/transplantation
2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 328-335, March-Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364937

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare thulium laser enucleation of prostate (ThuLEP) versus laparoscopic trans-vesical simple prostatectomy (LSP) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods: Data of patients who underwent surgery for "large" BPH (>80mL) at three Institutions were collected and analyzed. Two institutions performed ThuLEP only; the third institution performed LSP only. Preoperative (indwelling catheter status, prostate volume (PVol), hemoglobin (Hb), Qmax, post-voiding residual volume (PVR), IPSS, QoL, IIEF-5) and perioperative data (operative time, enucleated adenoma, catheterization time, length of stay, Hb-drop, complications) were compared. Functional (Qmax, PVR, %ΔQmax) and patient-reported outcomes (IPSS, QoL, IIEF-5, %ΔIPSS, %ΔQoL) were compared at last follow-up. Results: 80 and 115 patients underwent LSP and ThuLEP, respectively. At baseline, median PVol was 130 versus 120mL, p <0.001; Qmax 9.6 vs. 7.1mL/s, p=0.005; IPSS 21 versus 25, p <0.001. Groups were comparable in terms of intraoperative complications (1 during LSP vs. 3 during ThuLEP) and transfusions (1 per group). Differences in terms of operative time (156 vs. 92 minutes, p <0.001), Hb-drop (-2.5 vs. −0.9g/dL, p <0.001), catheterization time (5 vs. 2 days, p <0.001) and postoperative complications (13.8% vs. 0, p <0.001) favored ThuLEP. At median follow-up of 40 months after LSP versus 30 after ThuLEP (p <0.001), Qmax improved by 226% vs. 205% (p=0.5), IPSS decreased by 88% versus 85% (p=0.9), QoL decreased by 80% with IIEF-5 remaining almost unmodified for both the approaches. Conclusions: Our analysis showed that LSP and ThuLEP are comparable in relieving from BPO and improving the patient-reported outcomes. Invasiveness of LSP is more significant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Hyperplasia/surgery , Prostatic Hyperplasia/complications , Laparoscopy , Laser Therapy , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Prostate/surgery , Prostatectomy , Quality of Life , Thulium/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 200-201, Jan.-Feb. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356299

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The expansion of technology is leading to a paradigm shift in several urological fields (1, 2). In particular, the adoption of lasers within the surgical treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is considered one of the most relevant innovations (3-5). In this video, we aimed to report our experience with holmium laser for the ablation of the prostate (HoLAP) in patients with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to BPH. Materials and Methods: From 2018 to 2020, 10 patients with obstructive LUTS secondary to BPH were treated at our Institution with HoLAP (120W Holmium laser Lumenis® with Moses® technology). Main inclusion criteria were: 1) International Prostate Symptom Score ≥12; 2) prostate volume ≤65mL, 3) maximal flow rate (Qmax) ≤15ml/s at preoperative non-invasive uroflowmetry. Results: Mean patient age was 65 (range: 59-72) years. Preoperative mean prostate volume was 50 (range: 35-65) mL. Mean operative time was 66 (range: 45-85) minutes with a mean laser time/operative time ratio of 0.51 (range: 0.44-0.60). Voiding symptoms, Qmax and post voiding residual were significantly improved after 3 and 12 months (all p <0.05). No postoperative urinary incontinence was detected. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that HoLAP is a slightly time-spending procedure, thus its use should be limited to prostate volume <70-80mL. However, no postoperative complications were recorded at all. This technique showed to be a safe option in patients with low-intermediate prostate volume, also in patients whose antiaggregant/anticoagulant therapy is maintained.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Hyperplasia/surgery , Transurethral Resection of Prostate , Laser Therapy , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Prostate/surgery , Prostatectomy , Technology , Holmium
4.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0006, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360917

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar se há mudança refracional significativa após realização de capsulotomia posterior com laser Nd:YAG em olhos pseudofácicos. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com análise de prontuários de pacientes atendidos em um hospital com diagnóstico de opacificação de cápsula posterior do cristalino tratada com capsulotomia posterior com laser Nd:YAG no período de outubro de 2019 a março de 2021. A comparação entre a refração antes e após o procedimento foi realizada calculando-se o equivalente esférico. Também foi avaliada a mudança da acuidade visual, aferida por LogMAR. Resultados: Foram analisados 90 prontuários, totalizando 140 olhos, de pacientes submetidos à capsulotomia posterior com laser Nd:YAG. O equivalente esférico médio pré-procedimento foi de -0,07±0,89D, mínimo de -3,0D e máximo de +2,5D, mediana (intervalo interquartil) de 0,0D (-0,50D a +0,375D). A média pós-procedimento foi de -0,18±0,86D, mínimo de -3,5D e máximo de +2,25D, mediana (intervalo interquartil) de -0,125D (-0,50D a 0,0D). com p<0,0082. Dos 140 olhos, 66 sofreram miopização e 37 hipermetropização. A média de alteração do equivalente esférico geral foi de -0,12±0,51D, mínimo de -2,50D e máximo de +1,25D, mediana (intervalo interquartil) de 0,0D (-0,375D a +0,125D). Ao se comparar a diferença entre o equivalente esférico antes e após o procedimento do grupo de olhos que sofreu miopização (n=66) ou hipermetropização (n=37), separadamente, ambos obtiveram p<0,0001. Ao se compararem todos os olhos que sofreram alguma alteração refracional (n=103), foi encontrado p=0,008. A acuidade visual média pré-procedimento foi de 0,23±0,32, mínimo de 0,0 e máximo de 2,3. Pós-procedimento, a média foi de 0,06±0,13, mínimo de -0,12 e máximo de 0,7, com p<0,0001. Conclusão: A capsulotomia posterior com laser Nd:YAG gerou melhora significativa da acuidade visual nos pacientes do estudo, porém também gerou alteração refracional significativa após o procedimento, tanto para miopização (a mais frequente), quanto para hipermetropização.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify if there is a significant change on refraction after Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy in pseudophakic eyes. Methods: A retrospective study with analysis of medical records of patients treated at a hospital, with diagnosis of opacification of posterior lens capsule treated with Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy, from October 2019 to March 2021. The comparison of refraction before and after the procedure was performed by calculating the spherical equivalent. Changes in visual acuity (VA), measured by LogMAR, were also evaluated. Results: A total of 90 medical records (140 eyes) of patients submitted to Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy were analysed. The mean pre-procedure spherical equivalent was -0.07±0.89D, minimum of -3.0D and maximum of +2.5D, median (interquartile range) of 0.0D (-0.50D to +0.375D). The post-procedure mean was -0.18±0.86D, minimum of -3.5D and maximum of +2.25D, median (interquartile range) of -0.125D (-0.50D to 0.0D), with p <0.0082. Of the 140 eyes, 66 underwent myopia and 37 hyperopia, the mean change in the general spherical equivalent was -0.12±0.51D, minimum -2.50D and maximum +1.25D, median (interquartile range) of 0.0D (-0.375D to +0.125D). When comparing the difference between the spherical equivalent before and after the procedure of the group of eyes that underwent myopia (n=66) or hyperopia (n=37), separately, both obtained p<0.0001. When comparing all eyes that suffered any change on refraction (n=103), the p value was 0.008. The mean pre-procedure visual acuity was 0.23±0.32, minimum of 0.0 and maximum of 2.3. After the procedure, the mean was 0.06±0.13, minimum of -0.12 and maximum of 0.7, p<0.0001. Conclusion: Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy significantly improved visual acuity of patients in this study; however, it also led to a significant change on refraction after the procedure, both for myopization, which was more frequent, and for hyperopization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Refraction, Ocular , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Posterior Capsulotomy/adverse effects , Posterior Capsulotomy/methods , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Pseudophakia/surgery , Laser Therapy/methods , Capsule Opacification/surgery , Capsule Opacification/etiology
5.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e1051, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352035

ABSTRACT

El lupus eritematoso sistémico es una enfermedad autoinmune, de curso crónico con afectación multisistémica. Las manifestaciones oculares del lupus eritematoso sistémico pueden afectar cualquier estructura del ojo. La formación de catarata y la aparición de la diabetes secundaria asociada con el tratamiento esteroideo prolongado es frecuente en estos pacientes. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 69 años, con antecedentes de lupus eritematoso sistémico de más de 20 años de evolución, tratada con 5 mg diarios de prednisona oral en dosis de mantenimiento. Refiere, además, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 controlada de más de 10 años de evolución. Asiste a la consulta de Oftalmología por disminución de la visión y se diagnostica catarata en el ojo derecho. Se realiza facoemulsificación con implante de lente intraocular plegable, previa profilaxis para la endoftalmitis. La catarata asociada a la diabetes secundaria en los pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico justifica el uso de profilaxis antinflamatoria con esteroides tópicos y sistémicos para asegurar una mínima inflamación posoperatoria y mejorar el pronóstico visual(AU)


Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease of multisystemic involvement. Ocular manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus may present in any structure of the eye. Cataract formation and the appearance of secondary diabetes associated to prolonged steroid therapy are common in these patients. A case is presented of a female 69-year-old patient with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus of more than 20 years' evolution, treated with 5 mg daily of oral prednisone at maintenance doses. The patient also reports controlled diabetes mellitus type 2 of more than ten years' evolution. Her main concern in attending Ophthalmology consultation is vision reduction. Cataract is diagnosed in her right eye. The treatment indicated is phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation following prophylaxis for endophthalmitis. Cataract associated to secondary diabetes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus justifies the use of anti-inflammatory prophylaxis with topical and systemic steroids to ensure minimum postoperative inflammation and improve visual prognosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Cataract/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/complications , Phacoemulsification/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/methods , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Research Report
6.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20200266, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180799

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives We analyzed the effects of the Er:YAG laser used with different parameters on dentinal tubule (DT) occlusion, intrapulpal temperature and pulp tissue morphology in order to determine the optimal parameters for treating dentin hypersensitivity. Methodology Dentin specimens prepared from 36 extracted human third molars were randomized into six groups according to the treatment method (n=6 each): control (A); Gluma desensitizer (B); and Er:YAG laser treatment at 0.5 W , 167 J/cm2 (50 mJ, 10 Hz) (C), 1 W , 334 J/cm2 (50 mJ, 20 Hz) (D), 2 W , 668 J/cm2 (100 mJ, 20 Hz) (E), and 4 W and 1336 J/cm2 (200 mJ, 20 Hz) (F). Treatment-induced morphological changes of the dentin surfaces were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to find parameters showing optimal dentin tubule occluding efficacy. To further verify the safety of these parameters (0.5 W, 167 J/cm2), intrapulpal temperature changes were recorded during laser irradiation, and morphological alterations of the dental pulp tissue were observed with an upright microscope. Results Er:YAG laser irradiation at 0.5 W (167 J/cm2) were found to be superior in DT occlusion, with an exposure rate significantly lower than those in the other groups (P<0.05). Intrapulpal temperature changes induced by Er:YAG laser irradiation at 0.5 W (167 J/cm2) with (G) and without (H) water and air cooling were demonstrated to be below the threshold. Also, no significant morphological alterations of the pulp and odontoblasts were observed after irradiation. Conclusion Therefore, 0.5 W (167 J/cm2) is a suitable parameter for Er:YAG laser to occlude DTs, and it is safe to the pulp tissue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Dental Occlusion , Dentin
7.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20200736, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180797

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Nd:YAG laser associated with calcium-phosphate desensitizing pastes on dentin permeability and tubule occlusion after erosive/abrasive challenges. Methodology Dentin specimens were exposed to 17% ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) solution for 5 min and randomly allocated into five groups: G1, control (no treatment); G2, Nd:YAG laser (1 W, 10 Hz, 100 mJ, 85 J/cm2); G3, Laser + TeethmateTM Desensitizer; G4, Laser + Desensibilize Nano P; and G5, Laser+Nupro®. Specimens underwent a 5-day erosion-abrasion cycling. Hydraulic conductance was measured post-EDTA, post-treatment, and post-cycling. Post-treatment and post-cycling permeability (%Lp) was calculated based on post-EDTA measurements, considered 100%. Open dentin tubules (ODT) were calculated at the abovementioned experimental moments using scanning electron microscopy and ImageJ software (n=10). Data were analyzed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results G1 presented the highest %Lp post-treatment of all groups (p<0.05), without significantly differences among them. At post-cycling, %Lp significantly decreased in G1, showed no significant differences from post-treatment in G3 and G4, and increased in G2 and G5, without significant differences from G1 (p>0.05). We found no significant differences in ODT among groups (p>0.05) post-EDTA. At post-treatment, treated groups did not differ from each other, but presented lower ODT than G1 (p<0.001). As for post-cycling, we verified no differences among groups (p>0.05), although ODT was significantly lower for all groups when compared to post-EDTA values (p<0.001). Conclusion All treatments effectively reduced dentin permeability and promoted tubule occlusion after application. Combining Nd YAG laser with calcium-phosphate pastes did not improve the laser effect. After erosive-abrasive challenges, treatments presented no differences when compared to the control.


Subject(s)
Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Dentin Desensitizing Agents , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Calcium/pharmacology , Dentin , Dentin Permeability
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e29, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1153613

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated how Er,Cr:YSGG laser, associated or not with 5% fluoride varnish, influences the surface roughness and volume loss of bovine root dentin submitted to erosive and/or abrasive wear. One hundred and twenty dentin specimens were divided into the groups: without preventive treatment (WPT), 5% fluoride varnish (FV); Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (L), and varnish combined with laser (FV + L). The specimens (n = 10) were subdivided into: 1 = erosion (E); 2 = abrasion (A); and 3 = erosion followed by abrasion (E + A). The erosive solution used was a soft-drink (pH = 2.42 at 4ºC) applied in 5-min cycles twice a day for 10d. Abrasive wear involved brushing for 60s with an electric brush (1,600-oscillations/s) at a load of 2.0N. Surface roughness and volume loss were evaluated using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Roughness data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. For volume loss, the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc tests were used (α = 5%). The lowest values of roughness were found in the control areas of all subgroups (p > 0.05). In the experimental area, the [(WPT) + (E+A)] subgroup had a significantly higher roughness (5.712 ± 0.163 μm 2 ) than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). The L and (FV + L) groups had statistically similar roughness, regardless of the type of wear. The (FV + L) group had the lowest volume loss, regardless of the type of wear performed: [(FV + L) + (E)] = 7.5%, [(FV + L) + (A) = 7.3%, and [(FV + L) + (E + A)] = 8.1%. The subgroup [(WPT) + (E + A)] had the highest volume loss (52.3%). The proposed treatments were effective in controlling dentin roughness. Laser irradiation can be an effective method to increase root dentin resistance after challenges and limit problems related to non-carious lesions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Tooth Root , Toothbrushing , Dentin , Fluorides
9.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 7(4): 1-20, dic. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151709

ABSTRACT

El propósito de este artículo es mejorar nuestro conocimiento sobre las estructuras y función de los diferentes elementos presentes en la boca del recién nacido, ya que en ocasiones los odontólogos no recuerdan la importancia de la boca en el desarrollo general del lactante y la necesidad de una intervención temprana con láseres para ayudarles a obtener un buen estado de su sistema oral. Realizamos una exploración clínica integral del paciente con el fin de realizar un diagnóstico más preciso. Cuando la cirugía sea necesaria, recomendamos utilizar láseres de Erbio siempre que sea posible (láser de 2780nm Er, Cr: YSGG o un Er: YAG de 2940nm), ya que es una opción rápida y eficaz para tratar estas lesiones orales, especialmente los frenillos labiales o linguales que pueden poner en riesgo el acto de amamantar; Asimismo podemos utilizar láseres de diodo (810nm, 940nm, 980 nm o un láser Nd: YAG de 1064nm o de CO2 10.600- 9600 nm) con sus gafas de seguridad específicas. Estos sistemas láser utilizados por un profesional certificado, en colaboración con un personal debidamente entrenado, son un factor muy importante durante la cirugía. Al tener un conocimiento adecuado de las estructuras orales y sus patologías, podemos diagnosticar si esos trastornos deben tratarse quirúrgicamente y, de ser así, cómo proceder con los sistemas láser, ya que son procedimientos mínimamente invasivos; o si debiésemos recomendar a los padres que visiten a un terapeuta miofuncional para ayudar a recuperar la función normal. La comprensión de las estructuras orales de los recién nacidos es muy importante para promover el desarrollo del crecimiento craneofacial y para brindar un servicio importante a las madres, dándoles a sus bebés un buen comienzo en la vida desde una etapa muy temprana. Necesitamos mejorar la colaboración entre profesionales de diferentes disciplinas con el fin de mejorar nuestro conocimiento.


The purpose of this article is to improve our knowledge about the structures and function of the different elements present in the mouth of newborns since dentists sometimes do not remember the importance of the mouth in the general development of infants and the need for an early intervention with lasers to help them obtain a good state of their Oral System. We performed a comprehensive clinical exploration of the patient in order to make a more accurate diagnosis. When surgery is necessary, we recommend to use erbium lasers when possible (2780nm Er, Cr: YSGG laser or a 2940nm Er: YAG), as they are a quick and effective option to treat these oral lesions, especially lip or tongue ties which can risk the act of breastfeeding; moreover, we can also use diode lasers (810nm, 940nm, 980nm or a 1064nm Nd:YAG laser or CO2 10.600-9600 nm.) al lof them with their specifical safety goggles. These laser systems used by a certified professional, in collaboration with a properly trained staff, are a very important factor during the surgery.By having proper knowledge of the oral structures and their pathologies, we are able to diagnose whether those disorders should be surgically treated and if so, how to proceed with laser systems as they are minimally invasive procedures; or if we should recommend parents to visit a myofunctional therapist in order to help recover the normal function.The understanding of oral structures of newborns is very important in order to improve the development of craniofacial growth and provide an important service to mothers by giving their babies a right start in life from a very early stage. We need to improve collaboration between professionals from different disciplines in order to enhance our knowledge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lasers, Semiconductor/therapeutic use , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Mouth/surgery , Oral Surgical Procedures , Ankyloglossia/surgery , Labial Frenum/surgery
10.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(3): e3142, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126529

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Al realizar una intervención quirúrgica, el instrumento de corte utilizado cobra especial importancia, pues el mismo está vinculado a los signos y síntomas intra- y posoperatorios y al tiempo de reparación de los tejidos. En respuesta a esto, con el tiempo se han propuesto nuevos instrumentos, particularmente la tecnología láser ha venido sufriendo un avance rápido y significativo y en la actualidad se utiliza para un sinnúmero de tratamientos odontológicos. Al láser se le han atribuido diferentes ventajas en la cirugía estética periodontal: desde facilitar el proceso de hemostasia, hasta la estimulación del proceso de reparación tisular. Sin embargo, es pertinente realizar estudios que demuestren a nivel histológico los cambios que generan en la mucosa oral y obtener información que permita conocer de qué manera influye en el proceso de reparación del tejido. Objetivo: Describir los hallazgos histológicos asociados al corte con láser de Er, Cr: YSGG de 2780 nm en muestras de encía obtenidas mediante gingivectomía. Presentación del caso: Paciente femenina, de 21 años, sistémicamente sana. Asistió a la consulta por presentar por inconformidad estética al sonreír. Se diagnosticó con exposición de banda de encía queratinizada mayor que 4 mm. Como parte del plan de tratamiento se indicó gingivectomía con láser de Er, Cr: YSGG (2780 nm) (Waterlase®, BIOLASE®), el procedimiento se realizó solo bajo anestesia tópica. Se tomaron muestras histológicas de tejido gingival para análisis histológico. Conclusiones: El láser Er, Cr: YSGG (2780 nm) preservó la morfología de los fibroblastos después del corte, no hubo evidencia de carbonización, ni profundización de la lesión térmica en el tejido. Este instrumento fue una herramienta de gran utilidad para la ejecución del tratamiento en este caso. Tuvo ventajas importantes como la ausencia de dolor posoperatorio, buena hemostasia y la reparación epitelial casi completa en tan solo 4 días(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: When performing a surgical intervention, the cutting instrument used is especially important, since it is associated with intraoperative and postoperative signs and symptoms and to the time of tissue repair. In response to this, new instruments have been proposed over time, particularly laser technology has been undergoing rapid and significant advancement and is currently used for countless dental treatments. Laser has been attributed different advantages in periodontal cosmetic surgery: from facilitating the hemostasis process, to stimulating the tissue repair process. However, it is pertinent to carry out studies that prove, at histological level, the changes in the oral mucosa and obtain information that allows us to know how it influences the tissue repair process. Objective: To describe the histological findings associated with the Er, Cr: YSGG (2780 nm) laser cut in gum samples obtained by gingivectomy. Case presentation: Female patient, 21 years old, systemically healthy. She attended the consultation for presenting aesthetic dissatisfaction when smiling. She was diagnosed with exposure of keratinized gum band greater than 4 mm. As part of the treatment plan, Er, Cr: YSGG (Waterlase®, BIOLASE®, 2780 nm) laser gingivectomy was indicated. The procedure was performed only under topical anesthesia. Histological samples of gingival tissue were taken for histological analysis. Conclusions: The Er, Cr: YSGG (2780 nm) laser preserved the morphology of the fibroblasts after the cut. There was no evidence of carbonization or deepening of the thermal injury in the tissue. In this case, this instrument was a very useful tool for the performance of the treatment. It had important advantages, such as the absence of postoperative pain, good hemostasis, and almost complete epithelial repair in just four days(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Gingivectomy/adverse effects , Esthetics, Dental , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use
11.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 888-894, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880287

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the advantages and disadvantages of point electro-cauterization (PEC) and holmium laser cauterization (HLC) in the treatment of post-ejaculation hematuria.@*METHODS@#From January 2015 to December 2018, 73 patients with post-ejaculation hematuria, aged 24-63 (36.8 ± 4.2) years, underwent PEC (n = 35) or HLC (n = 38) after failure to respond to 3 months of conservative treatment. We compared the hospital days, total hospitalization expenses, maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), average urinary flow rate (Qavg), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) score, postoperative duration of hematuria, and recurrence rate at 3 and 6 months after surgery.@*RESULTS@#All the patients experienced first ejaculation but no post-ejaculation hematuria at 1 month after operation. The recurrence rates were lower in the PEC than in the HLC group at 3 months (5.71% vs 2.63%, P > 0.05) and 6 months postoperatively (8.57% vs 5.26%, P > 0.05). Compared with the baseline, the Qmax was decreased from (18.56 ± 2.53) ml/s to (13.68 ± 3.31) ml/s (P < 0.05) and the Qavg from (14.35 ± 2.26) ml/s to (9.69±1.84) ml/s in the PEC group at 1 month after surgery (P < 0.01), but neither showed any statistically significant difference in the HLC group. Mild to moderate anxiety was prevalent in the patients preoperatively, particularly in those without job or regular income and those with a long disease course or frequent onset, the severity of which was not correlated with age, education or marital status. The HAMA score was decreased from18.65 ± 4.33 before to 12.35 ± 3.63 after surgery in the PEC group (P < 0.01), and from 16.88 ± 2.11 to 6.87 ± 4.36 in the HLC group (P < 0.01). The mean hospital stay was significantly longer in the former than in the latter group ([5.2 + 1.3] vs [3.4 ± 0.5] d, P < 0.01), while the total cost markedly lower ([6.35 ± 1.20] vs [12.72 ± 2.15] thousand RMB ¥, P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Both PEC and HLC are safe and effective for the treatment of post-ejaculation hematuria, with no significant difference in the recurrence rate at 3 and 6 months after operation, but their long-term effect needs further follow-up studies. PEC may increase the risk of negative outcomes of the postoperative urinary flow rate, while HLC has the advantages of better relieving the patient's anxiety, sooner discharge from hospital and earlier recovery from postoperative hematuria, though with a higher total cost than the former.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cautery , Ejaculation , Hematuria/surgery , Holmium , Humans , Laser Therapy , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200528, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143147

ABSTRACT

Abstract Implant surface decontamination is a challenging procedure for therapy of peri-implant disease. Objective: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of decontamination on oral biofilm-contaminated titanium surfaces in Er:YAG laser, Er, Cr:YSGG laser, and plastic curette. Methodology: For oral biofilms formation, six participants wore an acrylic splint with eight titanium discs in the maxillary arch for 72 hours. A total of 48 contaminated discs were distributed among four groups: untreated control; decontamination with plastic curettes; Er, Cr:YSGG laser; and Er:YAG laser irradiation. Complete plaque removal was estimated using naked-eye and the time taken was recorded; the residual plaque area was measured and the morphological alteration of the specimen surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The total bacterial load and the viability of adherent bacteria were quantified by live or dead cell labeling with fluorescence microscopy. Results: The mean treatment time significantly decreased based on the treatment used in the following order: Er:YAG, Er, Cr:YSGG laser, and plastic curettes (234.9±25.4 sec, 156.1±12.7 sec, and 126.4±18.6 sec, P=0.000). The mean RPA in the Er, Cr:YSGG laser group (7.0±2.5%) was lower than Er:YAG and plastic curettes groups (10.3±2.4%, 12.3±3.6%, p=0.023). The viable bacteria on the titanium surface after Er, Cr:YSGG laser irradiation was significantly lower compared to the decontamination with plastic curette (P=0.05) but it was not significantly different from the Er:YAG laser irradiation. Conclusion: We found that Er:YAG laser and Er, Cr:YSGG laser irradiation were effective methods for decontaminations without surface alterations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Titanium , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use
13.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(4): 481-485, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056488

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The pigmented lesions of the oral cavity may be endogenous or exogenous. Endogenous lesions are benign and usually caused by melanin, and they are called gingival melanin pigmentations. Among the options for depigmenting these areas, laser therapy stands out for being a minimally invasive procedure. This study aims to report a clinical case of the gingival depigmentation technique using a high-power diode laser in the anterior maxillary region, for the ablation of the pigmented tissue to improve gingival aesthetics. The patient had an aesthetic complaint of the darkened aspect of the gingiva in the anterior maxillary and mandibular portions. After local anesthesia, we started depigmentation with high-power diode laser and performed ablation from the attached gingiva toward the free marginal gingiva. The patient returned after 30 and 180 days presenting healthy gingiva and absence of melanin repigmentation. Thus, we concluded that the diode laser was a good alternative for melanin depigmentation because it is a procedure with lower morbidity and satisfactory postoperative results.


RESUMEN: Las lesiones pigmentadas de la cavidad oral pueden ser endógenas o exógenas. Las endógenas son benignas y generalmente causadas por la melanina, denominándose pigmentaciones melánicas gingivales. Entre las opciones para la despigmentación de estas regiones, se destaca la laserterapia, por ser un procedimiento poco invasivo. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo relatar un caso clínico de la técnica de despigmentación gingival utilizando láser de diodo de alta intensidad en la región anterior de los maxilares para ablación del tejido pigmentado con la finalidad de mejorar la estética gingival. El paciente presentaba como queja estética el aspecto oscurecido de la encía en la región anterior de la maxila y de la mandíbula. Tras aplicar anestesia local, se inició la despigmentación con láser de diodo de alta intensidad, siendo que la ablación se realizó a partir de la encía insertada hacia la encía marginal libre. El paciente regresó tras 30 y 180 días, presentando encía saludable y con ausencia de repigmentación melánica. Así fue posible concluir que el láser de diodo mostró ser una buena alternativa para la despigmentación melánica, ya que se presentó como un procedimiento con menor morbidad y buen resultado postoperatorio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Laser Therapy/methods , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Gingival Diseases/surgery , Melanosis/surgery , Brazil , Cosmetic Techniques/instrumentation , Informed Consent
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1161-1166, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056350

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare two-shift operation mode and single player mode different impact on surgical results and operator comfort in flexible ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for renal calculi larger than 1.5cm. Materials and Methods: From december 2017 to december 2018, 92 patients with renal calculi admitted to Qilu Hospital and were treated through flexible ureteroscopy. They were randomized in two-shift group (n=50) and single player group (n=42). The operative time, blood loss, hospitalization stay after operation, residual fragments (≥4mm) rate, fragmentation speed, postoperative complications and operator's fatigue score were compared. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding age, gender, illness side, stone size, blood loss, operative time, postoperative hospitalization stay, complications, etc (p >0.05). The fragmentation speed was 44.5±20.0mm3/min in two-shift group compared with 34.2±17.3mm3/min in single player group (p=0.037). Residual fragments (≥4mm) rate after first surgery was 18% in two-shift group, while the residual fragments (≥4mm) rate was 40.5% after first surgery in single player group (p=0.017). The total fatigue score of two-shift group was 8.4 compared to 29.9 in single player group (p <0.001). Conclusion: In flexible ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for the treatment of renal calculi larger than 1.5cm, two-shift operation mode can raise the fragmentation speed and stone clearance rate, as well as significantly lower operator's fatigue level and improve operator's comfort.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Lithotripsy, Laser/methods , Ureteroscopy/methods , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Postoperative Complications , Kidney Calculi/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Lithotripsy, Laser/instrumentation , Ureteroscopy/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Operative Time , Ergonomics , Length of Stay , Middle Aged
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 853-853, July-Aug. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040056

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Urological surgery is estimated to be the third most common cause of iatrogenic-retained foreign bodies 1. Presentation A 76-year old man was undergoing a transurethral resection of bladder tumor with a 26-Ch continuous flow resectoscope (Karl Storz, Germany). Before starting resection, a detachment of resectoscope sheath tip was noted. The ceramic tip was free-floating in the bladder lumen, and it would not fit within the sheath, making direct extraction using the loop impossible. An attempt was made to break it with a stone punch, but it was unsuccessful due to impossibility of closing it in the branches. Therefore, we decided to fragment the tip with holmium laser (RevoLix®, LISA Laser products, Germany), using an 800-micron, front-firing fiber. Laser device was settled at with 2.5 J energy and 5 Hz frequency. Ceramic appeared very hard, but it was difficult to carry on breaking with this setting because of tip retropulsion. Then, laser setting was switched to lower energy and higher frequency (1 J and 13 Hz). This setting guaranteed the same power of 13 W, but with minimal retropulsion. Results Tip was fragmented against the posterior bladder wall in seven pieces, which were retrieved trough the outer sheath. A total 5.62 kJ were used to fragment it. At the end, superficial lesions of the posterior bladder wall were highlighted. Surgical time was 55 minutes. Patient was discharged home next day without problems. Conclusions Holmium laser fragmentation is a safe and effective approach to remove foreign bodies from the bladder.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Urinary Bladder/surgery , Ceramics/radiation effects , Equipment Failure , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Foreign Bodies/surgery , Radiation Dosage , Time Factors , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Operative Time
16.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 19(33): 40-48, jun.2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1008164

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo muestra el uso del láser Holmium en procedimientos endourológicos, el mismo se utiliza en dos técnicas quirúrgicas: Ureteroscopía y Enucleación de próstata con láser Holmium (HoLEP), las cuales se realizan con mayor frecuencia en la institución. Son procedimientos en los que el trabajo interdisciplinario, en equipo, tiene como principal objetivo mejorar la calidad de vida de nuestros pacientes. En esta institución, desde el año 2017, se realizó un cálculo de procedimientos en los cuales se utilizó el láser Holmium. En la muestra se detallan: 28 HoLEP, 27 ureteroscopías y 3 litotricias endovesicales. Este es un trabajo con modalidad monográfca y con la experiencia en terreno de tan solo un año aproximadamente(AU)


Tis work shows the use of the Holmium laser in endourological procedures, which is used in two surgical techniques: Ureteroscopy and Enucleation of prostate with Holmium laser (HoLEP), which are performed more frequently in the institution. Tese are procedures in which interdisciplinary work, as a team, has as its main objective to improve the quality of life of our patients. In this institution, since 2017, a calculation of procedures in which the Holmium laser was used was performed. Te sample shows: 28 HoLEP, 27 ureteroscopies and 3 endovesical lithotripsies. Tis is a monographic work with feld experience of only about one year(AU)


Este trabalho mostra o uso do laser de hólmio em procedimentos endourológicos, que é utilizado em duas técnicas cirúrgicas: Ureteroscopia e Enucleação de próstata com laser de hólmio (HoLEP), que são realizadas com maior frequência na instituição. São procedimentos em que o trabalho interdisciplinar, como equipe, tem como principal objetivo melhorar a qualidade de vida de nossos pacientes. Nesta instituição, desde 2017, foi realizado um cálculo dos procedimentos em que foi utilizado o laser de hólmio. A amostra mostra: 28 HoLEP, 27 ureteroscopies e 3 litotripsies endovesical. Este é um trabalho monográfco com experiência de campo de apenas cerca de um ano(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Lithotripsy, Laser , Ureteroscopy/methods , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Nephrolithiasis
17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(3): 189-194, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this study was to objectively assess the optical vision quality of patients before and after Nd:YAG capsulotomy for posterior capsular opacification using a double-pass retinal imaging system. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data from 26 pseudophakic eyes with posterior capsular opacification that underwent Nd:YAG capsulotomy. The objective scatter indices, modulation transfer function cutoff frequencies, Strehl ratios, and logMAR corrected distance visual acuities were assessed before and after YAG capsulotomy with a double-pass retinal imaging system (OQAS II, Visiometrics, Spain). We also analyzed data from a subgroup of 10 patients with pre-YAG corrected distance visual acuity of 0.10 logMAR (20/25) or better. Results: Vision quality indices improved in all 26 eyes, resulting in a statistically significant improvement in the corrected distance visual acuity (p=0.007), objective scatter index (p=0.001), modulation transfer function cutoff frequency (p=0.001), and Strehl ratio (p=0.020). The overall mean improvements included 0.12 ± 0.04 logMAR for corrected distance visual acuity, 2.84 ± 0.76 for objective scatter index, 12.29 ± 2.77 for modulation transfer function cutoff frequency, and 0.06 ± 0.03 for Strehl ratio. Our sub-analysis of 10 eyes with 0.10 logMAR (20/25) corrected distance visual acuity or better also showed a statistically significant improvement in the mean objective scatter index (0.76 ± 16; p=0.001), resulting in approximately 35% decrease in intraocular light scatter. Conclusions: The objective vision quality measurements as assessed by the double-pass retinal imaging system showed a significant improvement after YAG capsulotomy. This suggests that the objective scatter index improves after YAG capsulotomy, even in eyes with pre-YAG 0.10 logMAR (Snellen 20/25) corrected distance visual acuity or better.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar objetivamente a qualidade da visão óptica antes e depois da capsulotomia com Nd: YAG, obtida por imagem pelo metodo de dupla passagem de luz em pacientes com opacificação capsular posterior. Método: Análise retrospectiva de 26 olhos pseudofácicos com opacificação capsular posterior visualmente significativa, que foram submetidos à capsulotomia de Nd: YAG. O índice de dispersão objetiva, a função de transferência de modulação, a relação de Strehl e a acuidade visual à distância corrigida foram avaliados antes e após a capsulotomia com YAG usando o dupla passagem de luz (OQAS II, Visiometrics, Espanha). Também foi analisado um subgrupo de pacientes com acuidade visual à distância corrigida pré-YAG de 0,10 logMAR (20/25) ou melhor. Resultados: Os índices de qualidade da visão melhoraram em todos os 26 olhos, resultando em uma melhora estatisticamente significativa na acuidade visual à distância corrigida (p=0,007), índice de dispersão objetiva (p=0,001), função de transferência de modulação (p=0,001) e relação de Strehl (p=0,020). A melhora média na acuidade visual à distância corrigida foi de 0,12 ± 0,04 logMAR, no índice de dispersão objetiva foi de 2,84 ± 0,76, no função de transferência de modulação foi de 12,29 ± 2,77 e na razão de Strehl foi de 0,06 ± 0,03 em todos os olhos. Sub-análise de 10 olhos com 0.10 logMAR (20/25) acuidade visual à distância corrigida ou melhor também mostrou uma melhora estatisticamente significativa no índice de dispersão objetiva (p=0,001). A melhora média no OSI foi de 0,76 ± 16, uma diminuição de 35% na dispersão da luz intraocular. Conclusões: A qualidade da visão avaliada pelo dupla passagem de luz mostra uma melhora significativa nas medidas objetivas da qualidade da visão após a capsulotomia do YAG. O índice de dispersão objetiva melhora após a capsulotomia YAG, mesmo em olhos com acuidade visual à distância corrigida pré-YAG de 0,10 logMAR (Snellen 20/25) ou melhor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Visual Acuity/physiology , Pseudophakia/physiopathology , Capsule Opacification/physiopathology , Posterior Capsulotomy/rehabilitation , Reference Values , Retina/physiopathology , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Pseudophakia/diagnostic imaging , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Capsule Opacification/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Capsulotomy/methods
18.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(2): 131-139, abr. 30, 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145313

ABSTRACT

Purpose: De-bonding strength of ceramic veneers by laser use needs to be evaluated in detail. The aim of this study, is to determine the contribution of ceramic thickness and cementing agents to the de-bonding strength of ceramic veneers using Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Methods: A total of 120 maxillary central incisors specimens were randomly divided into twelve groups on the basis of disc thickness, cementing agent, and Er,Cr:YSGG laser use. Under laboratory conditions, 120 IPS Empress II system discs 0.5mm, 1mm, and 2mm in thickness were applied to the tooth surfaces, for laser use. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser system was applied to the central surface of the IPS Empress II discs on specimens in all laser groups (Groups 1,3,5,7,9,11). Then the shear bond strength (SBS) for all specimens were tested with a testing machine at a speed of 0.5mm/min. The SBS values were considered as the de-bonding strength. Results: The mean de-bonding strength values for Groups 9 and 11 (0,5 mm disc thickness + laser application) have the lowest median load (0.000 N), while Group 4 (2mm disc thickness + no laser) has the highest median load (573.885 N). The de-bonding strengths of all the groups without laser application were higher than those of all groups with laser use. When laser is applied, the mean de-bonding strength decreases with decreasing disc thickness, and it reaches zero at 0.5mm thickness of discs cemented by self- or total-etch adhesives. Conclusions: The de-bonding strength decreases with laser use, and decreasing disc thickness. In the absence of laser, the mean de-bonding values of discs cemented by a total etch adhesive system are always higher than those of discs cemented with a self-etch adhesive system. Without any extra load, all 0.5mm thick discs were dislodged from teeth while applying or testing the laser.


Propósito: La resistencia de desunión de las carillas de cerámica mediante el uso del láser debe evaluarse en detalle. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la contribución del espesor de la cerámica y los agentes de cementación a la resistencia de desunión de las carillas de cerámica utilizando el láser Er, Cr: YSGG. Métodos: Un total de 120 incisivos centrales maxilares se dividieron al azar en doce grupos según el grosor del disco, el agente de cementación y el uso del láser Er, Cr: YSGG. En condiciones de laboratorio, se aplicaron en las superficies de los dientes 120 discos del sistema IPS Empress II de 0,5mm, 1mm y 2mm de grosor, para uso con láser. Se aplicó un sistema láser Er, Cr: YSGG a la superficie central de los discos IPS Empress II en muestras de todos los grupos de láser (Grupos 1,3,5,7,9,11). Luego, la resistencia de la unión al cizallamiento (SBS) para todas las muestras se probó con una máquina de prueba a una velocidad de 0.5mm/min. Los valores de SBS se consideraron como la fuerza de desunión. Resultados: Los valores medios de resistencia de desunión para los Grupos 9 y 11 (espesor de disco de 0,5mm + aplicación de láser) demostró la carga media más baja (0,000 N), mientras que el Grupo 4 (espesor de disco de 2 mm + sin láser) tuvo la carga media más alta (573.885 N). Las fuerzas de desunión de todos los grupos sin aplicación de láser fueron superiores a las de todos los grupos con uso de láser. Cuando se aplica el láser, la fuerza media de desunión disminuye al disminuir el grosor del disco, y llega a cero con el grosor de 0,5mm de los discos cementados, para ambos adhesivos de grabado. Conclusiones: la fuerza de desunión disminuye con el uso del láser y disminuye con el grosor del disco. En ausencia de láser, los valores medios de desunión de los discos cementados con un sistema de adhesivo de grabado total son siempre más altos que los de los discos cementados con un sistema de adhesivo de autograbado. Sin ninguna carga adicional, todos los discos de 0,5mm de grosor se desprendieron de los dientes al aplicar el láser.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ceramics/therapeutic use , Dental Bonding , Shear Strength , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Dental Enamel/radiation effects , Dental Materials/chemistry , Dental Veneers
19.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(3): 203-207, July-Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975570

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Laryngotracheal stenosis is a difficult problem with varied etiology and various treatment options. The holmium laser represents another tool for the treatment of benign tracheal stenosis. Objectives To determine the utility of holmium laser treatment for benign tracheal stenosis with regards to safety and efficacy. Methods This was a retrospective case study examining patients with benign tracheal stenosis from 1998-2016 who underwent holmium laser treatment. Determining the safety of this procedure was the primary goal, and complications were monitored as a surrogate of safety. Results A total of 123 patients who underwent holmium laser treatment for benign tracheal stenosis were identified. In total, 123 patients underwent 476 procedures, with follow-up ranging from 1 month to 14 years. No intraoperative or post-operative complications were identified as a direct result of the use of this particular laser. Conclusions The holmium laser is an effective and safe laser to use for tracheal stenosis treatment. It is a contact laser with a short acting distance, which reduces the risk of injury to distal airway structures. Given the favorable experience reported here, the holmium laser should be considered when tracheal surgery is attempted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/surgery , Bronchoscopy/methods , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis/surgery , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Granulation Tissue/surgery , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology , Laryngoscopy/methods
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