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1.
J. bras. pneumol ; 48(2): e20210382, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365054

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To characterize the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) requiring immunosuppression. Only 5 to 10% of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis develop tuberculosis, and certain groups of patients have an increased risk of illness, such as the immunocompromised. Patients with ILDs are frequently treated with immunosuppressants and, therefore, might have a higher risk of developing the disease. Methods Prospective study conducted at the ILD reference center of the Federal University of Paraná from January 2019 to December 2020. The screening of LTBI was performed with the use of the tuberculin skin test (TST). Results The sample consisted of 88 patients, of whom 64.8% were women, with a mean age of 61.4 years. The most frequent diagnoses were autoimmune rheumatic disease ILD (38.6%) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (35.2%). The most common immunosuppressant in use at the time of the TST was prednisone, either in combination with mycophenolate (19.3%) or alone (17.1%). The majority of participants had fibrotic lung disease, characterized by a reticular interstitial pattern on chest computed tomography (79.5%) and moderate to severe functional impairment (mean FVC 69.2%). A prevalence of LTBI of 9.1% (CI 95%, 2.1%-15.1%) was found, with a TST median of 13. Conclusion Patients with ILD who are treated with immunosuppressants are not commonly screened for LTBI, despite being under a greater risk of progression to active disease. This study suggests the need for a more cautious approach to these patients.


RESUMO Objetivo Caracterizar a prevalência de Infecção Latente por Tuberculose (ILTB) em pacientes com Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais (DPIs) que necessitam de imunossupressão. Apenas 5 a 10% dos indivíduos infectados pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis desenvolvem tuberculose, sendo que certos grupos de pacientes apresentam maior risco de doença, tais como os imunocomprometidos. Pacientes com DPIs são frequentemente tratados com imunossupressores, portanto, podem apresentar maior risco de desenvolver a doença. Métodos Estudo prospectivo conduzido no Centro de Referência para DPI da Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), entre Janeiro de 2019 e Dezembro de 2020. O rastreio de ILTB foi realizado por meio da Prova Tuberculínica (PT). Resultados A amostra foi composta por 88 pacientes, dos quais 64,8% eram mulheres, com, em média, 61,4 anos de idade. Os diagnósticos mais frequentes foram DPI associada a doença reumática autoimune (DRAI) (38,6%) e pneumonite de hipersensibilidade (35,2%). Prednisona foi o imunossupressor mais comumente utilizado à época da PT, em combinação com micofenolato (19,3%) ou isoladamente (17,1%). A maioria dos participantes tinha doença pulmonar fibrótica, caracterizada por infiltrado reticular em tomografia computadorizada de tórax (79,5%), bem como comprometimento funcional moderado a grave (Capacidade Vital Forçada (CVF) média de 69,2%). Observou-se uma prevalência de ILTB de 9,1% (Intervalo de Confiança (IC) 95%, 2,1%-15,1%), com mediana da PT de 13. Conclusão Não é comum que pacientes com DPI tratados com imunossupressores sejam avaliados quanto à presença de ILTB, apesar de estarem sob um maior risco de progressão para doença ativa. Este estudo sugeriu a necessidade de uma abordagem mais cuidadosa em relação a esses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies
3.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(4): 520-529, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350911

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a prevalent infection after kidney transplantation (KT) in high-burden countries. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening includes previous TB history, chest radiograph findings, and tuberculin test (TST) and/or interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) results. We aimed to compare our routine LTBI screening of KT candidates and living donors (LD) with their IGRA results, and evaluate if this would improve isoniazid (INH) treatment referral. Methods: We evaluated adult KT candidates and LD with complete routine LTBI screening and QuantiFERON-TB® Gold In-Tube (QFT) testing. Blood samples were collected from April 4th, 2014 to October 31st, 2018, with follow-up until October 31st, 2019. Results: There were 116 KT recipients, with 30% QFT-positive results. Positive QFT was associated with past TB history (p=0.007), positive TST (p<0.0001), residual radiographic lesions (p=0.003), and diabetes (p=0.035). There were 25 LD, 40% had positive QFT. Positive QFT was associated with a positive TST (p=0.002). Positive QFT results increased INH referral in 80%. Post-transplant TB incidence was 2.6% in a median follow-up of 2 (1-33) months. No variables were associated with post-transplant TB. TB patients had inferior, although non-significant, 5-year graft survival (66.7% vs. 76.5%) (p = 0.402). Conclusion: In the present study, the association of QFT to our routine LTBI screening incremented INH treatment referral, but there was still a high incidence of post-transplant TB, possibly related to other forms of infection, such as new exposure and donor transmission.


Resumo Histórico: Tuberculose (TB) é uma infecção relativamente comum pós-transplante renal (TR) em países com alta prevalência da doença. O rastreamento de infecção latente por tuberculose (ILTB) inclui histórico prévio de TB, achados de radiografia do tórax, resultados do teste tuberculínico (TT) e/ou de ensaio de liberação de interferon-gama (IGRAs). Nosso objetivo foi comparar nossa avaliação de rotina de candidatos ao TR e doadores vivos (DV) com seus resultados de IGRA, avaliando se aumentaria o encaminhamento para tratamento com isoniazida (INH). Métodos: Avaliamos candidatos adultos ao TR e DV com rastreamento para ILTB de rotina completo e coleta de testes QuantiFERON-TB® Gold In-Tube (QFT). Coletamos amostras sanguíneas de 4 de Abril, 2014 - 31 de Outubro, 2018, com acompanhamento até 31 de Outubro, 2019. Resultados: Avaliamos 116 receptores de TR, 30% sendo QFT-positivo. QFT positivo foi associado ao histórico prévio de TB (p=0,007), TT positivo (p<0,0001), lesões radiográficas residuais (p=0,003), diabetes (p=0,035). Avaliamos 25 DV, 40% apresentaram QFT positivo. QFT positivo foi associado a TT positivo (p=0,002). Resultados positivos do QFT aumentaram o encaminhamento para INH em 80%. A incidência de TB pós-transplante foi 2,6% em uma mediana de acompanhamento de 2 (1-33) meses. Nenhuma variável foi associada à TB pós-transplante. Pacientes com TB tiveram sobrevida do enxerto em 5 anos inferior, embora não-significativa (66,7% vs. 76,5%) (p = 0,402). Conclusão: Neste estudo, a associação do QFT à nossa avaliação de ILTB de rotina aumentou o encaminhamento para tratamento com INH, mas ainda houve alta incidência de TB pós-transplante, possivelmente relacionada a outras formas de infecção, como nova exposição e transmissão pelos doadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Kidney Transplantation , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil , Tuberculin Test , Interferon-gamma Release Tests
4.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 28(1): 16-27, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341356

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Tuberculin is the globally accepted delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity test for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis. The alteration of cellular immunity induced by disease-modifying drugs used in rheumatoid arthritis may give a false negative result, also known as cutaneous anergy. There are no studies that determine the frequency of anergy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and on immunosuppressive therapy. Objective: To determine the frequency and possible factors associated with cutaneous anergy in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and on immunosuppressive therapy. Methods: Cross-sectional analytical observational study including 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis on immunosuppressive therapy. They were tested for delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity with tuberculin, and a control test with tetanus toxoid. The non-reactivity of both tests was defined as anergy. Results: The overall frequency of cutaneous anergy was 9% (n = 11). It occurred in 33% of men versus 6% of women. The mean age was 57 years, and 89% were over 50 years-old. Being female behaved as a protective variable for the generation of anergy, OR 0.795 [95% CI, 0.658 - 0.959, P<.05]. All patients with anergy were being treated with corticosteroids, 44% with methotrexate, and 33% with biological therapy. Treatment with moderate to high dose prednisone and biological therapy were independently associated as risk factors for presenting with anergy, OR 1.044 [95% CI, 1.008-1.080 P<.05] and OR 1.096 [95% CI, 1.016-1.182, P<.05], respectively. The overall positivity for tuberculin was 13%. Symptoms associated with disease activation were present in 38% of these. All cases (n= 1) of confirmed active tuberculosis were excluded. Conclusions: The high prevalence of cutaneous anergy in patients with RA in the present study, and the evidence presented here, supports the recommendation of a second diagnostic test (tuberculin booster or Interferon-Gamma Release Assays) for the diagnosis of latent TB in patients with RA on immunosuppressive therapy.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: La tuberculina es la prueba de hipersensibilidad cutánea tardía mundialmente aceptada para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis latente. La alteración de la inmunidad celular inducida por los fármacos modificadores de la enfermedad utilizados en la artritis reumatoide puede dar un resultado falso negativo, también conocido como anergia cutánea. No hay estudios que determinen la frecuencia de anergia en pacientes con artritis reumatoide y terapia inmunosupresora. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia y los posibles factores asociados con la anergia cutánea en un grupo de pacientes con artritis reumatoide y terapia inmunosupresora. Métodos: Estudio observacional analítico transversal que incluyó a 100 pacientes con artritis reumatoide con terapia inmunosupresora. Se les realizó una prueba de hipersensibilidad cutánea tardía con tuberculina y una prueba de control con toxoide tetánico. La no reactividad de ambas pruebas se definió como anergia. Resultados: La frecuencia general de anergia cutánea fue del 9% (n = 11). Ocurrió en el 33% de los hombres versus el 6% de las mujeres, la edad promedio fue de 57 anos y el 89% tenía más de 50 anos. El sexo femenino se comportó como una variable protectora para la generación de anergia (OR 0,795; IC 95%: 0,658-0,959; p < 0,05). Todos los pacientes con anergia usaron corticosteroides, el 44% fue tratado con metotrexato y el 33% con terapia biológica. El tratamiento con dosis de moderadas a altas de prednisona y terapia biológica se asoció de manera independiente como factor de riesgo para la presentación de anergia: OR 1,044 (IC 95%: 1,008-1,080; p < 0,05) y OR 1,096 (IC 95%: 1,016-1,182; p < 0,05), respectivamente. La positividad general para la tuberculina fue del 13%. Los síntomas asociados con la activación de la enfermedad estaban presentes en el 38% de ellos. Se excluyeron todos los casos de tuberculosis activa confirmada (n = 1). Conclusiones: La alta prevalencia de anergia cutánea en pacientes con artritis reumatoide en el presente estudio y la evidencia presentada respaldan la recomendación de una segunda prueba de diagnóstico (refuerzo de tuberculina o IGRA) para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis latente en pacientes con artritis reumatoide y terapia inmunosupresora.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Therapeutics , Clonal Anergy , Immunosuppressive Agents , Signs and Symptoms , Tuberculin , Risk Factors , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Latent Tuberculosis
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 63-69, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Differential diagnosis of active tuberculosis (ATB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been a challenge for clinicians in high TB burden countries. The purpose of this study was to improve the accuracy of differential diagnosis of ATB and LTBI by using fluorescent immunospot (FluoroSpot) assay to detect specific Th1 cell immune responses. The novel mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) latency-associated antigens Rv1733c and synthetic long peptides derived from Rv1733c (Rv1733c SLP) were used based on virulence factors early secreting antigen target-6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10).@*METHODS@#Fifty-seven ATB cases, including 20 pathogen-confirmed ATB and 37 clinically diagnosed ATB, and 36 LTBI cases, were enrolled between January and December 2017. FluoroSpot assay was used to detect the interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) secreted by the specific T cells after being stimulated with MTB virulence factors ESAT-6 and CFP-10, MTB latency-associated antigens Rv1733c and Rv1733c SLP. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define the best cutoff value of latency-associated antigens in the use of differentiating ATB and LTBI. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and likelihood ratio of ESAT-6 and CFP-10-FluoroSpot combined with latency-associated antigen in the differential diagnosis of ATB and LTBI were also calculated.@*RESULTS@#Following the stimulation with Rv1733c and Rv1733c SLP, the frequency of single IL-2-secreting T cells stimulated by Rv1733c SLP had the largest area under the ROC curve, which was 0.766. With a cutoff value of 1 (spot-forming cells [SFCs]/2.5 × 105 peripheral blood mononuclear cells) for frequency, the sensitivity and specificity of distinguishing ATB from LTBI were 72.2% and 73.7%, respectively. ESAT-6 and CFP-10-FluoroSpot detected the frequency and proportion of single IFN-γ-secreting T cells; the sensitivity and specificity of distinguishing ATB from LTBI were 82.5% and 66.7%, respectively. Combined with the frequency of single IL-2-secreting T cells stimulated by Rv1733c SLP on the basis of ESAT-6 and CFP-10-FluoroSpot, the sensitivity and specificity increased to 84.2% and 83.3%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Rv1733c SLP, combined with ESAT-6 and CFP-10, might be used as a candidate antigen for T cell-based tuberculosis diagnostic tests to differentiate ATB from LTBI.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Bacterial , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis/diagnosis
6.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2021. 138 f p. tab, graf, fig.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368553

ABSTRACT

O tratamento da infecção latente da tuberculose (ILTB) é crucial para eliminar a doença. Esta tese, apresentada em dois artigos, avalia a efetividade, a sustentabilidade, a viabilidade, a razão de custo-efetividade e o impacto orçamentário de um programa de investigação para detecção e tratamento da ILTB em contatos intradomiciliares de pacientes com tuberculose no Brasil. No primeiro artigo, dois ensaios controlados consecutivos foram conduzidos. Avaliamos a efetividade, a sustentabilidade, e a viabilidade de uma intervenção em saúde pública que teve o objetivo de aumentar a proporção de início do tratamento para ILTB entre os contatos intradomiciliares de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar ativa. No primeiro ensaio clínico controlado, 12 clínicas foram submetidas a uma avaliação padronizada, incluindo questionários administrados a pacientes com tuberculose, seus contatos intradomiciliares e profissionais de saúde, e uma análise da cascata do cuidado da ILTB. Seis clínicas foram então randomizadas para receber atividades para fortalecer o manejo da ILTB, incluindo treinamento em serviço, organização do processo de trabalho e soluções adicionais específicas de cada clínica de acordo com resultados da avaliação padronizada. No segundo ensaio, uma avaliação semelhante, mas simplificada, foi realizada em duas clínicas, que então receberam treinamento intensivo inicial e treinamento em serviço fornecido por um médico. No segundo artigo, avaliamos a razão de custo-efetividade e o impacto orçamentário ao expandir um programa fortalecido de investigação e tratamento da ILTB entre contatos intradomiciliares no Brasil. Duas estratégias otimizadas sobre o manejo dos contatos intradomiciliares foram comparadas com a situação atual (status quo) no Brasil: 1) detecção de tuberculose ativa apenas e 2) detecção de tuberculose ativa e investigação e tratamento de ILTB. Nos dois ensaios controlados, na fase de avaliação, foram observadas lacunas de conhecimento entre todos os grupos de entrevistados e, embora muitos contatos tenham sido identificados, poucos iniciaram o tratamento de ILTB. Após a implementação das soluções, o número de contatos que iniciaram o tratamento da ILTB por 100 pacientes com tuberculose aumentou em 10 [intervalo de 95% de confiança (IC): -11, 30] no primeiro estudo, em comparação com 44 (IC 95%: 26, 61), no segundo ensaio controlado. Em nossas avaliações econômicas, na estratégia otimizada de investigação e tratamento da ILTB os custos para ter um contato intradomiciliar completando o tratamento da ILTB seriam a metade daqueles para encontrar um paciente com TB ativa (158,6 vs. 299,7 dólares norte-americanos). Resultariam ainda em um importante impacto na endemia, 4.001 casos de TB seriam evitados e custariam 12% do orçamento nacional para TB. Uma abordagem de saúde pública com avaliação padronizada, seguida por treinamento inicial e treinamento em serviço intensivo mostrou-se promissora para expandir o tratamento da ILTB no Brasil.


This thesis, presented in two articles, evaluates the effectiveness, sustainability, feasibility, cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of a program that investigates and treats latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among household contacts (HHC) of patients with active tuberculosis in Brazil. In the first article, we presented the results of two consecutive control trials, where we evaluated the effectiveness, sustainability and feasibility a public health intervention that aimed to increase the proportion of initiation of treatment for ILTB among HHC of patients with active tuberculosis. In the first trial, twelve clinics underwent a standardized evaluation, including questionnaires administered to tuberculosis-patients, contacts and healthcare workers and clinical data on the cascade-of-care for contacts. Six clinics were then randomized to receive LTBI strengthening activities, including monthly in-service training work process organization, and implementation of specific local solutions. In the second trial, a similar but streamlined evaluation was conducted in two clinics, who then received initial and subsequent intensive in-service training provided by a physician. In the second article, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of scaling-up an enhanced tuberculosis HHC program in Brazil. Two enhanced HHC management strategies were compared to the current HHC management situation in Brazil (status quo). HHC cascades-of-care were conceptualized for the status quo and for two enhanced HHC strategies: 1) active tuberculosis detection only and 2) active tuberculosis detection and LTBI investigation and treatment. In both studies, at the evaluation phase, knowledge gaps among all interviewee groups were observed, and although many contacts were identified, few started LTBI treatment. Following the implementation of solutions, the number of contacts initiating treatment per 100 TB patients increased by 10 [95% confidence interval (CI): -11, 30] in the first study, compared to 44 (95%CI: 26, 61), in the second study. In our economic evaluation, we found that for an enhanced HHC management cascade-of-care, the costs to have one additional HHC to complete LTBI treatment would be half of those to find one additional active TB patient (united states dollars,158.6 vs USD 299.7). Considering the current epidemiologic TB situation in Brazil, the enhanced HHC management that would include LTBI investigation beyond active TB case finding would result in 4,001 averted cases utilizing 12% of the Brazilian TB budget. A public health approach with standardized evaluation, local decisions for improvements, followed by intensive initial and in-service training appears promising to scale up LTBI management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Health , Clinical Trials as Topic , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Analysis of the Budgetary Impact of Therapeutic Advances , Brazil
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(8): e00027321, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285862

ABSTRACT

Although tuberculosis preventive therapy is one of the cornerstones for eliminating the disease, many barriers exist in the cascade of care for latent tuberculosis infection, including the need to certify healthcare professionals for reading tuberculin skin tests (TST). This paper proposes and evaluates a simple protocol for TST reading training. Primary care workers from different backgrounds received a 2-hour theoretical course, followed by a practical course on bleb reading. Blebs were obtained by injecting saline into sausages and then in volunteers. A certified trainer then evaluated the effectiveness of this protocol by analyzing the trainees' ability to read TST induration in clinical routine, blinded to each other's readings. Interobserver agreement was analyzed using the Bland-Altman test. The trainees' reading accuracy was calculated using two cut-off points - 5 and 10mm - and the effect of the number of readings was analyzed using a linear mixed model. Eleven healthcare workers read 53 saline blebs and 88 TST indurations, with high agreement for TST reading (0.07mm average bias). Sensitivity was 100% (94.6; 100.0) at 5mm cut-off and 87.3% (75.5; 94.7) at 10mm cut-off. The regression model found no effect of the number of readings [coefficient: -0.007 (-0.055; 0.040)]. A simple training protocol for reading TST with saline blebs simulations in sausages and volunteers was sufficient to achieve accurate TST induration readings, with no effect observed for the number of readings. Training with saline blebs injected into voluntary individuals is safer and easier than the traditional method.


A terapia preventiva da tuberculose é uma das bases para a eliminação da tuberculose. Entretanto, existem muitas barreiras na cascata de cuidados da infecção latente de tuberculose, incluindo a necessidade de certificação dos profissionais de saúde para a leitura da prova tuberculínica (PPD). Aqui, propomos e avaliamos um protocolo simples para capacitação na leitura do PPD. Profissionais na atenção primária com diferentes formações receberam um curso teórico de duas horas, seguido por um curso prático sobre a leitura da enduração. Nas sessões práticas, as pápulas foram obtidas pela injeção de solução salina em salsichas, e depois em voluntários. Depois, a eficácia do protocolo foi avaliada por um instrutor credenciado, com base na capacidade do aluno de ler a enduração do PPD na rotina clínica (em formato duplo-cego em relação às respectivas leituras). A concordância inter-observador foi analisada com o teste de Bland-Altman. A acurácia das leituras dos alunos foi calculada com dois pontos de corte: 5 e 10mm. O efeito do número de leituras foi analisado com um modelo linear misto. Onze profissionais de saúde leram 53 pápulas de solução salina e 88 endurações de PPD. A concordância na leitura dos PPDs foi alta (média de 0,07mm de viés). A sensibilidade foi 100% (94,6; 100,0) com o ponto de corte de 5mm e 87,3% (75,5; 94,7) com o ponto de corte de 10mm. No modelo de regressão, não houve efeito do número de leituras [coeficiente: -0,007 (-0,055; 0,040)]. Um protocolo simples de treinamento em leitura da prova tuberculínica com simulações usando pápulas criadas com solução salina em salsichas e em voluntários foi suficiente para alcançar leituras acuradas da enduração da prova, sem efeito observado pelo número de leituras. O treinamento com pápulas criadas com solução salina em voluntários é mais seguro e mais fácil, comparado com o treinamento tradicional.


La terapia preventiva de la tuberculosis es una de las piedras angulares para la erradicación de la tuberculosis. No obstante, existen muchas barreras en la cascada de cuidado de una infección latente de tuberculosis, incluyendo la necesidad de certificación, en el caso de los profesionales de atención en salud, para la lectura de la prueba cutánea de tuberculina (TST). Aquí proponemos y evaluamos un protocolo simple para el entrenamiento en la lectura de TST. Trabajadores de salud de atención primaria de diferentes contextos recibieron un curso de 2 horas teórico, seguido de una práctica en la lectura de la ampolla. Las ampollas se obtienen inyectado una solución salina en salchichas y luego en voluntarios. Posteriormente, la eficacia de este protocolo fue evaluada mediante un formador certificado a través de la habilidad del personal en formación para la lectura de induración del TST en la rutina clínica, con lecturas cegadas entre ellos. Se analizó la concordancia entre los observadores usando el test Bland-Altman. La precisión de la lectura por parte del personal en formación se calculó usando dos puntos de corte: 5 y 10mm. El efecto del número de lecturas fue analizado usando un modelo lineal mixto. Once trabajadores de salud leyeron 53 soluciones salinas en ampollas y 88 induraciones TST. La concordancia en la lectura del TST fue alta (0,07mm promedio de sesgo). La sensibilidad fue de un 100% (94,6; 100,0) usando los 5mm de corte y 87,3% (75,5; 94,7) usando los 10mm de corte. En el modelo de regresión, no hubo efecto del número de lecturas [coeficiente: -0,007 (-0,055; 0,040)]. Un simple protocolo de entrenamiento para la lectura TST con simulaciones, usando solución salina en ampollas en salchichas y voluntarios fue suficiente para alcanzar lecturas precisas de induración TST, sin efectos observados por el número de lecturas. El entrenamiento con ampollas salinas en personas voluntarias es más seguro y más fácil que el entrenamiento tradicional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculin Test , Latent Tuberculosis , Primary Health Care , Brazil , Certification
8.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(3)2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292484

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death amongst adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The lifetime risk of tuberculosis disease for a person with latent infection is estimated at 5-10% with most cases occurring within five years of initial infection. The World Health Organization recommends isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for latent tuberculosis treatment, amongst other strategies. The aim was to assess tuberculosis incidence, survival (free of tuberculosis) and associated factors in HIV-positive patients. IPT was offered to participants with a positive (≥5mm) tuberculin skin test. Participants were followed from February 2003-December 2016. Kaplan-Meier was used for survival analysis. Variables with p-value ≤ 0.2 in the univariate analysis entered into the multivariate Cox-Model, keeping those with p-value ≤ 0.05. The 95% confidence interval of incidence of tuberculosis was estimated using Poisson distribution. One hundred nineteen patients completed the IPT and were followed for a median duration of 110.7 months (IQR 93.1-121.0). The probability of developing tuberculosis (10 years post-IPT) was 5.4%. Tuberculosis incidence was 0.58/100 patient/years (CI 95% 0.213-1.264). IPT over 6 months provided long-term protection against tuberculosis. AIDS-defining illness was the only statistically significant variable (HR=5.67) in the multivariate model.


Subject(s)
Humans , Survival Analysis , HIV , Latent Tuberculosis , Isoniazid
9.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3442, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1289782

ABSTRACT

Objective: to identify the prevalence of latent tuberculosis in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis and associated factors. Method: a cross-sectional study conducted with 176 patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. The tuberculin test was performed with the standardized antigen, distributed by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, and the reading occurred after 72 to 96 hours of the application. An association test (Chi-square, Fisher's exact), prevalence ratio, and multivariate regression tests were performed. Results: the prevalence of latent tuberculosis diagnosed through Tuberculosis Skin Test was 8.5% (15/176). The "has/has had diabetes" (aOR: 0.117; 95%CI: 0.015-0.92) and "having regular garbage collection (aOR: 0.076; 95%CI: 0.008-0.702) factors were associated with a lower probability of having a Positive skin test. Conclusion: the low prevalence of latent tuberculosis identified and the factors associated with it reinforce the need for screening for latent tuberculosis infection for diabetics combined with an analysis of previous risk factors and comorbidities.


Objetivo: identificar a prevalência de tuberculose latente em pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise e fatores associados. Método: estudo transversal realizado com 176 pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise. O teste tuberculínico foi realizado com o antígeno padronizado, distribuído pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, e a leitura ocorreu após 72 a 96 horas da aplicação. Foram realizados teste de associação (Qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher), razão de prevalência e regressão multivariada. Resultados: a prevalência de tuberculose latente (teste tuberculínico positivo) foi de 8,5% (15/176). Os fatores "tem/teve diabetes" (ORa:0,117; IC95% 0,015-0,92) e "ter coleta de lixo regular" (ORa:0,076; IC95% 0,008-0,702) foram associados a menores probabilidades de ter teste tuberculínico positivo. Conclusão: a baixa prevalência de tuberculose latente identificada e os fatores associados à mesma reforçam a necessidade de uma triagem da infecção latente por tuberculose para diabéticos combinada com a análise de fatores de risco e comorbidades prévias.


Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia de tuberculosis latente en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica en hemodiálisis y factores asociados. Método: estudio transversal realizado con 176 pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica en hemodiálisis. La prueba cutánea de la tuberculina se realizó con el antígeno estandarizado, distribuido por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil, y la lectura se realizó después de 72 a 96 horas de la aplicación. Se realizaron pruebas de asociación (Chi-cuadrado, exacta de Fisher), razón de prevalencia y regresión multivariante. Resultados: la prevalencia de tuberculosis latente (prueba de tuberculina positiva) fue de 8,5% (15/176). Los factores "tiene/ha tenido diabetes" (ORa: 0,117; IC del 95%: 0,015-0,92) y "tener recolección regular de residuos" (ORa: 0,076; IC del 95%: 0,008-0,702) se asociaron con menores probabilidades de tener una prueba de tuberculina positiva. Conclusión: la baja prevalencia de tuberculosis latente registrada y sus factores asociados refuerzan la necesidad del cribado de la infección tuberculosa latente en diabéticos combinado con el análisis de factores de riesgo y comorbilidades previas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Latent Tuberculosis/complications , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology
10.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(4): e1095, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347525

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En países de baja prevalencia la mayoría de los casos de tuberculosis se deben a reactivación de infección tuberculosa latente. Objetivo: Examinar la incidencia de infección tuberculosa latente en niños pertenecientes a grupos vulnerables a la tuberculosis. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo en 85 menores de 19 años asintomáticos, 68 pertenecientes a algunos grupos vulnerables a la tuberculosis atendidos en el Hospital Pediátrico Centro Habana y en el Instituto de Oncología y Radiobiología y un grupo control de 17 adolescentes sanos, provenientes de la Escuela de Enfermería de la Facultad Calixto García, periodo abril-junio 2016. A todos se les realizó examen clínico, evaluación nutricional, radiología torácica y prueba de tuberculina. Resultados: De los 85 estudiados, 41 padecían enfermedades crónicas: 12 diabéticos, 11tenían enfermedad del colágeno, 9 enfermedad renal crónica y 9 enfermedades oncológicas. Todos tenían más de un año de evolución y recibían medicación inmunosupresora (excepto los diabéticos). De los 44 restantes, 27 tuvieron contacto estrecho y frecuente con enfermo de tuberculosis. Predominaron los niños ≥ 10 años (64; 75,3 por ciento), del sexo femenino (49; 57,6 por ciento). Todos estaban vacunados con BCG, con radiografías torácicas normales. Se detectó infección tuberculosa latente en 6 (7,0 por ciento); todos habían estado en contacto con un enfermo. Conclusiones: Existe una baja incidencia de infección tuberculosa latente en los grupos vulnerables estudiados. Los niños en contacto con enfermos son los únicos afectados, lo que puede estar relacionado con la baja tasa de tuberculosis en Cuba y las rápidas acciones de control(AU)


Introduction: Most of the tuberculosis cases in countries with low prevalence of it are due to a reactivation of the latent tuberculosis infection. Objective: To examine the incidence of the latent tuberculosis infection in children of groups vulnerable to tuberculosis. Methods: It was conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional and prospective study in 85 asymptomatic children under 19 years, 68 of them from some groups vulnerable to tuberculosis that were attended in Centro Habana Pediatric Hospital and in the Oncology and Radiobiology Institute; and a control group of 17 healthy adolescents from the Nursing School of Calixto García Faculty, in the period April-June, 2016. All patients underwent a physical examination, nutritional assessment, thoracic radiology and tuberculin test. Results: From the 85 patients studied, 41 suffered chronic diseases: 12 diabetics, 11 had collagen disease, 9 had chronic renal disease and other 9 have oncologic diseases. All patients had an evolution of more than one year and were receiving immunosuppressive medication (except from the diabetics). From the other 44 patients, 27 had close or frequent contact with a tuberculosis patient. There was predominance of children ≥ 10 (64; 75,3 percent) of the female sex (49; 57,6 percent). All of them were vaccinated with BCG and had normal thoracic radiographies. It was detected latent tuberculosis infection in 6 patients (7,0 percent); all of them had had contact with a tuberculosis sufferer. Conclusions: There is low incidence of latent tuberculosis infection in the studied vulnerable groups. Children having contact with tuberculosis sufferers are the only affected, which can be related with the low rate of tuberculosis in Cuba and the fast control actions(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Chronic Disease , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
11.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 20(4): 358-363, dic 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150724

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El riesgo de infección tuberculosa se asocia a contacto estrecho y prolongado. En las escuelas el contacto diario, aulas con poca ventilación o retraso diagnóstico del caso índice, podrían contribuir al contagio. Objetivo: Conocer la incidencia de infección tuberculosa latente (ITBL) en contactos escolares comparando dos puntos de corte en la prueba de tuberculina (PPD): ≥ 10 mm y ≥ 5 mm. Determinar el grado de cumplimiento en la realización de estudios de catastro y de quimioprofilaxis (QP). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó el análisis retrospectivo de contactos escolares de TB bacilífera, en adolescentes de 12 a 19 años, correspondientes al área programática del Hospital Parmenio Piñero entre febrero 2016 a diciembre 2017. La evaluación incluyó radiografía de tórax (RxT), laboratorio y PPD. Se analizaron 2 puntos de corte de PPD: ≥ 10mm y ≥ 5mm, repitiéndose a los 3 meses en aquellos con resultado negativo. Se indicó QP primaria con isoniazida a todos los contactos, y secundaria en aquellos con PPD+ basal o conversores al tercer mes. Se estimó cumplimiento de QP si tomaban > 80% de la pauta indicada. Resultados: de 373 estudiantes a evaluar, 331 (89%) realizaron los estudios, se diagnosticó TB en 4 (1.2%) a partir de RxT y fueron excluidos. En los 327 restantes, edad promedio 15 ± 1,6 años, hubo 132 (40%) hombres. La PPD basal fue ≥ 10 mm en 20 (6.1%) casos, siendo más frecuente en el grupo de 16-19 años vs 12-15 años: 10.7% vs 3.1%; p = 0,004. No hubo diferencia significativa al considerar el sexo. Realizaron 135 (45%) la segunda PPD encontrándose 3 conversiones (2.2%). Se indicó QP primaria a todos y secundaria a 23, el cumplimiento fue 57% y 26% respectivamente, sin asociación significativa con edad o sexo. Se reportaron 4 eventos adversos (1.2%): polineuritis (n = 2), alergia cutánea e intolerancia digestiva. Con PPD ≥ 5mm dieron positivo 63 (19.3%), siendo más frecuente en varones: 26.5% vs 14.4%, p = 0.006; y en 16-19 vs 12-15 años: 28.2% vs 13.2%; p < 0.001. Con la segunda PPD se observaron 3 conversiones (2,2%). Conclusión: Encontramos un 6,1% de ITBL considerando PPD+ ≥ 10 mm y 19,3% con PPD ≥ 5 mm. El cumplimiento en la realización de la segunda PPD fue bajo, como también en completar el esquema de QP secundaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Tuberculosis , Tuberculin Test , Adolescent , Latent Tuberculosis
12.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 20(4): 364-369, dic 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150725

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The risk of tuberculosis infection is associated with close and prolonged contact. Daily contact, poorly ventilated classrooms or delay in diagnosing the index case in a school setting could contribute to contagion. Objective: To know the incidence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in school contacts comparing two cut-off points of the tuberculin test (PPD, Purified Protein Derivative): ≥ 10mm and ≥ 5mm. To determine the degree of compliance with the performance of control and chemoprophylaxis (ChP) studies. Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective analysis of bacillary TB school contacts in teenagers between 12 and 19 years old of the Programmatic Area of the Hospital Parmenio Piñero between February 2016 and December 2017. The evaluation included chest x-ray, lab tests and PPD. We analyzed 2 cut-off points of the PPD: ≥ 10mm and ≥ 5mm, and repeated the test after 3 months in cases with negative results. Primary ChP with isoniazid was indicated for all the contacts, and secondary ChP for those with basal PPD+ or conversion at the third month. We considered ChP compliance in cases where patients followed > 80% of the indicated regime. Results: 331 (89%) of 373 students to be evaluated participated in the study. TB was diagnosed in 4 students (1.2%) through chest x-ray, and they were excluded. Within the remaining 327, the mean age was 15 ± 1.6 years, and 132 (40%) were male. The basal PPD was ≥ 10mm in 20 cases (6.1%), being more frequent in the group of 16-19 years versus the 12-15 years: 10.7% vs. 3.1%; p = 0.004. There wasn't any significant difference regarding sex. 135 contacts (45%) did the second PPD, and 3 conversions were found (2.2%). Primary ChP was indicated for everyone, and secondary ChP for 23 contacts, with 75% and 26% compliance respectively, and without any significant association with age or sex. 4 adverse events were reported (1.2%): polineuritis (n=2), skin allergy and food intolerance. 63 contacts (19.3%) were positive PPD, with PPD ≥ 5mm, being more frequent in males: 26.5% vs. 14.4%, p = 0.006; and in 16-19 vs. 12-15 years: 28.2% vs. 13.2%; p < 0.001. With the second PPD we observed 3 conversions (2.2%). Conclusion: We found 6.1% of LTBI considering a PPD+ ≥ 10mm and 19.3% with PPD ≥ 5mm. Compliance with the second PPD and the secondary ChP scheme was low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Tuberculosis , Tuberculin Test , Adolescent , Latent Tuberculosis
13.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 215-222, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138555

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevención de la tuberculosis activa en los grupos de riesgo es clave para el control y eliminación de la tuberculosis. El tratamiento de la infección tuberculosa latente (TITL) con rifapentina e isoniazida en dosis semanales por 12 semanas es más corto que con otros esquemas, tiene menor hepatotoxicidad, mejor adherencia y es costo-efectivo. El OBJETIVO del estudio es evaluar la factibilidad de implementar este esquema a nivel programático en Chile. MÉTODOS: Se hizo una intervención piloto en territorios seleccionados entre mayo de 2018 y marzo de 2019. En esos territorios se reemplazó el esquema normado de TITL con isoniazida 6 meses por el esquema rifapentina-isoniazida 12 semanas. Además, se amplió la población objetivo, incluyendo a contactos mayores de 14 años. El tratamiento consistió en la administración conjunta de isoniazida y rifapentina por vía oral con frecuencia semanal, por 12 semanas, de forma supervisada por personal de salud. RESULTADOS: Ingresaron 238 pacientes al piloto, de los cuales 53% fueron mujeres y 54,2% fueron mayores de 14 años. Del total de pacientes, 203 (85,3%) completaron el tratamiento, 22 (9,2%) lo abandonaron, 8 (3,4%) presentaron reacciones adversas y 5 tuvieron otros motivos de egreso. CONCLUSIÓN: Tanto el TITL con rifapentinaisoniazida por 3 meses en dosis semanales supervisadas, como la incorporación de contactos adultos a TITL, son factibles de implementar a nivel programático en Chile.


INTRODUCTION: Prevention of active tuberculosis in risk groups is crucial in tuberculosis control and elimination. Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TITL) with rifapentine and isoniazid in weekly doses for 12 weeks is shorter than other pharmacological treatments, with less liver toxicity, better patient compliance and it is cost-effective. The OBJECTIVE of this study is to evaluate the feasibility to implement this treatment at a programmatic level in Chile. METHODS: A pilot intervention was conducted in selected territories between May 2018 and March 2019. Within these territories, the regulated treatment with isoniazid 6 months was replaced by the 12 weeks treatment with weekly rifapentine-isoniazide. Additionally, the target population was expanded to include contacts over 14 years old, currently not included in the national guidelines. Treatment consisted in oral administration of rifapentine and isoniazide together once a week for 12 weeks, under supervision of trained health workers. RESULTS: From 238 patients entered to the protocol, 53% of them were women and 54.2% were older than 14 years-old. Out of the total number of patients, 203 (85.3%) completed treatment, 22 (9.2%) abandoned, 8 (3.4%) had adverse drug reactions, and 5 ended treatment for different causes. CONCLUSION: Both TITL with rifapentine-isoniazide in 12 supervised weekly doses, and the inclusion of adult contacts in TITL, are feasible to implement at a programmatic level in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rifampin/analogs & derivatives , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Chile , Pilot Projects , Administration, Oral , Patient Compliance , Directly Observed Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , National Health Programs
14.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 49-53, jun 17, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358666

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o Teste Cutâneo Tuberculínico (TCT) tem sido utilizado como diagnóstico para a Tuberculose Infecção Latente (TBIL). Os profissionais de saúde, principalmente os que trabalham com assistência a pacientes com tuberculose (TB), têm risco elevado de contrair a doença ou a TBIL. Normas de biossegurança e qualificação da equipe de trabalho são fundamentais para o controle da Tb entre os profissionais de saúde. Atualmente testes diagnósticos mais específicos para a TBIL têm sido utilizados como alternativa para o padronizado TCT, dentre eles o QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QTF®). Objetivo: comparar e avaliar os resultados obtidos no QTF® e Teste Cutâneo Tuberculínico dos profissionais de saúde de um centro de referência terciário para Tuberculose. Metodologia: o projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Fundação Bahiana Desenvolvimento Científico e pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da instituição hospitalar. Foi utilizado o banco de dados do setor de medicina ocupacional da Instituição e os 87 voluntários que atenderam aos critérios do estudo foram categorizados e distribuídos em dois grupos: TCT negativo (<5mm) e TCT positivo (>5mm). Foi realizada coleta de sangue para o teste QTF®. Resultados: dos 47 profissionais de saúde TCT negativo 53,2% tiveram resultado QTF negativo. Dos 40 profissionais TCT positivo, 67,5% apresentaram resultado QTF® positivo. O grau de concordância do índice kappa foi de 0,24. Conclusão: O QTF® não mostrou uma especificidade superior quando comparado ao TCT.


Introduction: tuberculin Skin test (TST) is a test used to Latent tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) diagnosis. Health professional, principally those that work with tuberculosis (TB) patients, have a high risk of contract and developing the disease or LTBI. Biosecurity norms and professional qualification are fundamentals to TB control in care centers. Actually some diagnosis tests with higher specificity of LTBI are used as an alternative to the TST, such as QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QTF®). Objective: to compare and evaluate the results obtained in the Quantiferon-TB Gold® and TST, of health professionals from a tertiary referral center for Tuberculosis. Methodology: the project was approved by a Research Ethics Committee of FBDC, and by the CEP of the hospital institution. The data base of the occupational medicine sector and the health professionals were categorized and distributed in two groups: Negative Tuberculin test and Positive Tuberculin test. The 93 volunteers who met the criteria and agreed to participate, signed the consent form, with subsequent data collection. A blood collection was also performed to perform Quantiferon-TB Gold® test. Results: of the 47 PS negative Tuberculin test, 53.2% had negative Quantiferon-TB Gold® results and 46.8% positive. Of the health professional positive Tuberculin test, 32.5% presented negative Quantiferon-TB Gold® result and 67.5% positive. Conclusion: quantiferon-TB Gold® did not show superior specificity when compared to Tuberculin test on this coorte.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tuberculin Test , Interferon-gamma , Health Personnel , Latent Tuberculosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
15.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 36(1): 12-19, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1094222

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: la tuberculosis (TB) es una complicación frecuente del uso de fármacos anti-TNF(. Ocurre por reactivación de una infección latente o por progresión de una infección reciente. Objetivos: conocer la incidencia de TB en la población que recibió fármacos anti- TNF(, analizar las formas de presentación y la realización de pesquisa de infección latente previo al inicio del tratamiento. Método: estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron los pacientes que recibieron fármacos anti- TNF( entre 2010 y 2016. Los datos se obtuvieron de los sistemas informáticos del Fondo Nacional de Recursos y del Programa Nacional de Tuberculosis. Se calculó la incidencia de TB y se describieron los casos que desarrollaron TB. Resultados: se incluyeron 991 tratamientos para un total de 980 pacientes. Se reportaron nueve casos de TB. La incidencia global fue de 419,9 (IC 95% 191,9-591,2) por 100.000 personas/año. Solo hubo casos de TB en pacientes tratados con adalimumab. El cribado de infección tuberculosa latente (ITBL) previo al inicio del fármaco fue heterogéneo y predominaron las formas de TB diseminadas (6/9) sobre la afectación pulmonar aislada (3/9). En todos los casos se suspendió el anti- TNF( al diagnóstico de TB y en ningún caso se retomó. Conclusiones: la incidencia de TB en la población de pacientes bajo tratamiento con anti- TNF( fue 16,5 veces mayor que en la población general. Predominaron las formas de TB diseminadas y se dieron casos en sujetos que habían recibido tratamiento de ITBL previo al inicio del fármaco, sugiriendo que el riesgo persiste mientras exista exposición a éste.


Summary: Introduction: tuberculosis (TB) is a frequent complication in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-() blockers. It occurs upon the reactivation of a latent infection or the progression of a recent infection. Objective: to learn about the incidence of TB in a population receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-() blockers, to analyze the presentation of this condition and to conduct a latent infection research prior to the initiation of therapy. Method: retrospective cohort study. Patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-() blockers between 2010 and 2016 were included in the study. Data were obtained from the IT systems of the National Resources Fund and the National Tuberculosis Program. The incidence of TB was calculated and the cases developing TB were described. Results: 991 treatments were included for 980 patients in total. 9 cases of TB were reported. Global incidence was 419.9 (IC 95% 191.9-591.2) out of 100,000 people per year. Cases of TB were only seen in patients treated with adalimumab. Screening for LTBI upon initiation of the drug was heterogeneous and the disseminated forms of TB prevailed (6/9) over isolated pulmonary affectation (3/9). In all cases anti- TNF( was suspended when TB was diagnosed, and it was not reinitiated. Conclusions: the incidence of TB in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-() blockers was 16.5 times greater than in the general population. Disseminated forms of TB prevailed, and some cases occurred in individuals who had received LTBI therapy prior to the initiation of the drug, suggesting the risk persists as long as there is exposure to the drug.


Resumo: Introdução: a tuberculose (TB) é uma complicação frequente do uso de fármacos anti- TNF(. É causada pela reativação de uma infecção latente ou pela evolução de uma infecção recente. Objetivos: conhecer a incidência de TB na população que recebeu fármacos anti- TNF(, analisar as formas de apresentação e a realização de pesquisa de infecção latente prévia ao início do tratamento. Método: estudo de coorte retrospectivo. Foram incluídos todos os pacientes que receberam fármacos anti- TNF( no período 2010-2016. Os dados foram obtidos dos registros informatizados do Fondo Nacional de Recursos e do Programa Nacional de Tuberculosis. A incidência de TB foi calculada e foram descritos os casos que desenvolveram esta patologia. Resultados: foram incluídos 991 tratamentos para um total de 980 pacientes. Nove casos de TB foram registrados. A incidência global foi de 419,9 (IC 95% 191,9-591,2) por 100.000 pessoas/ano. Somente foram registrados casos de TB em pacientes tratados com adalimumab. A triagem de infecção tuberculosa latente (ITBL) prévia ao início do fármaco foi heterogênea e predominaram as formas de TB disseminadas (6/9) sobre a pulmonar isolada (3/9). Em todos os casos o uso de anti- TNF( foi suspenso definitivamente quando o diagnóstico de TB foi realizado. Conclusões: a incidência de TB na população de pacientes em tratamento com anti- TNF( foi 16,5 vezes maior que na população em geral. Predominaram as formas disseminadas de TB e foram registrados casos em pacientes que haviam recebido tratamento para ITBL prévio ao início do fármaco, sugerindo que o risco persiste enquanto houver exposição a este.


Subject(s)
Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/adverse effects , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) releasing assay (IGRA) is widely used for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) diagnosis. We evaluated the analytical performance of a new automated chemiluminescent immunoanalyzer-based IGRA (CLIA-IGRA), AdvanSure I3 (LG Life Sciences, Seoul, Korea) and compared it with that of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assay. METHODS: Repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated at four levels. Detection capability, including limit of blank (LoB), limit of detection (LoD), and limit of quantification (LoQ), was evaluated using IFN-γ standard material (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code: 87/586). Agreement between the results of two assays was evaluated using 341 blood samples from healthcare workers and patients at a tertiary care hospital. To determine the cut-off value of CLIA-IGRA for diagnosing LTBI, the ROC curve was analyzed. RESULTS: Repeatability and reproducibility were 4.86–7.00% and 6.36–7.88% CV, respectively. LoB, LoD, and LoQ were 0.022, 0.077, and 0.249 IU/mL, respectively. IFN-γ values between CLIA-IGRA and QFT-GIT showed a strong correlation within the analytical measurable range of both assays, especially when the value was low. Qualitative comparison of the two assays yielded a 99.1% overall agreement (kappa coefficient=0.98). A cut-off value of 0.35 IU/mL was appropriate for diagnosing LTBI. CONCLUSIONS: CLIA-IGRA is a reliable assay for LTBI diagnosis, with performance similar to that of QFT-GIT.


Subject(s)
Biological Science Disciplines , Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Latent Tuberculosis , Limit of Detection , ROC Curve , Seoul , Tertiary Healthcare
20.
Clinics ; 75: e1870, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133406

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively evaluate the performance and distinctive pattern of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) screening and treatment in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) under anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy and determine the relevance of re-exposure and other risk factors for TB development. METHODS: A total of 135 and 83 patients with AS and PsA, respectively, were evaluated for LTBI treatment before receiving anti-TNF drugs via the tuberculin skin test (TST), chest radiography, and TB exposure history assessment. All subjects were evaluated for TB infection at 3-month intervals. RESULTS: The patients with AS were more often treated for LTBI than were those with PsA (42% versus 30%, p=0.043). The former also presented a higher frequency of TST positivity (93% versus 64%, p=0.002), although they had a lower frequency of exposure history (18% versus 52%, p=0.027) and previous TB (0.7% versus 6%, p=0.03). During follow-up [median, 5.8 years; interquartile range (1QR), 2.2-9.0 years], 11/218 (5%) patients developed active TB (AS, n=7; PsA, n=4). TB re-exposure was the main cause in seven patients (64%) after 12 months of therapy (median, 21.9 months; IQR, 14.2-42.8 months) and five LTBI-negative patients. TB was identified within the first year in four patients (36.3%) (median, 5.3 months; IQR, 1.2-8.8 months), two of whom were LTBI-positive. There was no difference in the TB-free survival according to the anti-TNF drug type/class; neither synthetic drug nor prednisone use was related to TB occurrence (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Known re-exposure is the most critical factor for incident TB cases in spondyloarthritis. There are also some distinct features in AS and PsA LTBI screening, considering the higher frequency of LTBI and TST positivities in patients with AS. Annual risk reassessment taking into consideration these peculiar features and including the TST should be recommended for patients in endemic countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Arthritis, Psoriatic/diagnosis , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , Arthritis, Psoriatic/epidemiology , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
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