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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787141

ABSTRACT

Neuroinflammation is an important process underlying a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Carvacrol (CAR) is a phenolic monoterpene commonly used as a food additive due to its antibacterial properties, but it has also been shown to exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of CAR on inflammation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In our study, lipopolysaccharide was injected into the lateral ventricle of rats to induce memory impairment and neuroinflammation. Daily administration of CAR (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) for 21 days improved recognition, discrimination, and memory impairments relative to untreated controls. CAR administration significantly attenuated expression of several inflammatory factors in the brain, including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, CAR significantly increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, and decreased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA. Taken together, these results show that CAR can improve memory impairment caused by neuroinflammation. This cognitive enhancement is due to the anti-inflammatory effects of CAR medicated by its regulation of BDNF and TLR4. Thus, CAR has significant potential as an inhibitor of memory degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cytokines , Discrimination, Psychological , Food Additives , Hippocampus , Inflammation , Lateral Ventricles , Lipopolysaccharides , Memory , Necrosis , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroprotective Agents , Phenol , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Toll-Like Receptor 4
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of exendin-4(Ex-4) on the differentiation of neural stem cells(NSCs) in adult mouse subventricular zone(SVZ)and its mechanism .@*METHODS@#NSCs in the SVZ were derived from 5-week C57BL/6J mice and the expression of nestin was detected by immunofluorescence. The cell morphology was observed after the cells treatmed with 100 nmol/L Ex-4 for 14 days.The expressions of nestin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) were detected by immunofluorescence. GLP-1R was knocked down by using shRNA and the study was divided into four groups: control group, Ex-4 group, GLP-1R knockdown group, GLP-1R knockdown + Ex-4 group. After treatment with 100 nmol/L Ex-4 for 14 d, β-tublin III and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were labeled by immunofluorescence and then the proportion of β-tublin III positive cells were counted. Western blot was used to detect the activation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in NSCs. In order to further study the effects of Ex-4 on mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-hydroxy kinase (PI3K) pathways, the cells were pretreated with MAPK inhibitor U0126 at a concentration of 0.07 μmol/L for 30 min or PI3K inhibitor LY294002 at 50 μmol for 2 h, respectively. The study was divided into six groups: control group, Ex-4 group, U0126 group, U0126 + Ex-4 group, LY294002 group, LY294002 + Ex-4 group. The activation of CREB in each group was detected by Western blot. The experiment was repeated three times independently.@*RESULTS@#NSCs were successfully extracted from SVZ of C57BL/6J mice. Immunofluorescence showed that nestin and GLP-1R were positive in NSCs. Compared with the control group, the proportion of neurons differentiated from Ex-4 group was higher. The percentage of neurons in GLP-1R knockdown + Ex-4 group was basically the same as that in control group (P<0.01). The positive cells of beta-tublin III showed positive activation of GLP-1R and CREB. Western blot showed that CREB was significantly activated in the Ex-4 group, and knockdown of GLP-1R abolished its activation (P<0.01). U0126 did not affect Ex-4-mediated CERB activation, and LY294002 significantly reduced Ex-4-mediated CREB activation (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Ex-4 promotes the differentiation of NSCs into neurons in SVZ of adult mice through GLP-1R receptor, which may be achieved through PI3K/CREB pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Metabolism , Exenatide , Pharmacology , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Genetics , Metabolism , Lateral Ventricles , Cell Biology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neural Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763100

ABSTRACT

A 35-year-old female visited emergency department for a sudden onset of headache with vomiting after management for abortion at local department. Neurological examination revealed drowsy mentality without focal neurological deficits. CT showed 3.2×3.4 cm hyperdense intraventricular mass with intraventricular hemorrhage. The intraventricular hemorrhage was found in lateral, 3rd, and 4th ventricles. MRI showed well enhancing intraventricular mass abutting choroid plexus in the trigone of the right lateral ventricle. CT angiography showed tortuous prominent arteries from choroidal artery in tumor. Her neurological status deteriorated to stupor and contralateral hemiparesis during planned preoperative workup. Urgent transtemporal and transcortical approach with decompressive craniectomy for removal of intraventricular meningioma with hemorrhage was done. Grossly total removal of ventricular mass was achieved. Pathological finding was meningotheliomatous meningioma of World Health Organization (WHO) grade I. The patient recovered to alert mentality and no motor deficit after intensive care for increased intracranial pressure. However, visual field defect was developed due to posterior cerebral artery territory infarction. The visual deficit did not resolve during follow up period. Lateral ventricular meningioma with spontaneous intraventricular hemorrhage in pregnant woman is very uncommon. We report a surgical case of lateral ventricular meningioma with rapid neurological deterioration for intraventricular hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Arteries , Choroid , Choroid Plexus , Critical Care , Decompressive Craniectomy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Fourth Ventricle , Headache , Hemorrhage , Humans , Infarction , Intracranial Pressure , Lateral Ventricles , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningioma , Neurologic Examination , Paresis , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Stupor , Visual Fields , Vomiting , World Health Organization
4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 336-345, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine possible progressive changes of the grey matter at the first stages of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and to determine what regions are involved in these changes. METHODS: We searched the literature concerning studies on longitudinal changes in grey matter in first-episode psychosis using magnetic resonance imaging, especially studies with an interval between scans of more than a year. Only articles published before 2018 were searched. We selected 19 magnetic resonance imaging longitudinal studies that used different neuroimaging analysis techniques to study changes in cerebral grey matter in a group of patients with a first episode of psychosis. RESULTS: Patients with first episode of psychosis showed a decrease over time in cortical grey matter compared with a group of control subjects in frontal, temporal (specifically in superior regions), parietal, and subcortical regions. In addition to the above, studies indicate that patients showed a grey matter decrease in cerebellum and lateral ventricles volume. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a decrease in grey matter in the years after the first episode of psychosis. Furthermore, the results of the studies showed consistency, regardless of the methods used in their analyses, as well as the time intervals between image collections.


Subject(s)
Cerebellum , Gray Matter , Humans , Lateral Ventricles , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging , Psychotic Disorders , Rabeprazole , Schizophrenia
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741208

ABSTRACT

Primary central nervous system lymphoma of T-cell origin (T-PCNSL) is rare, and its clinicopathological features remain unclear. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma of γδ T-cell origin is an aggressive lymphoma mainly involving extranodal sites. Here, we report a case of γδ T-PCNSL involving the intramedullary spinal cord and presenting with paraplegia. A 75-year-old Korean woman visited the hospital complaining of back pain and lower extremity weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multifocal enhancing intramedullary nodular lesions in the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord. An enhancing nodular lesion was observed in the periventricular white matter of the lateral ventricle in the brain. There were no other abnormalities in systemic organs or skin. Laminectomy and tumor removal were performed. The tumor consisted of monomorphic, medium-to-large atypical lymphocytes with pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were CD3(+), TCRβF1(-), TCRγ(+), CD30(-), CD4(-), CD8(-), CD56(+), TIA1(+), granzyme B(+), and CD103(+). Epstein-Barr virus in situ was negative. This case represents a unique T-PCNSL of γδ T-cell origin involving the spinal cord.


Subject(s)
Aged , Back Pain , Brain , Central Nervous System , Cytoplasm , Female , Granzymes , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Laminectomy , Lateral Ventricles , Lower Extremity , Lymphocytes , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, T-Cell , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Paraplegia , Skin , Spinal Cord Diseases , Spinal Cord , T-Lymphocytes , White Matter
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758770

ABSTRACT

This study describes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results and changes in lateral ventricular size over time in a canine ischemic stroke model. T1- and T2-weighted (T1W, T2W) imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence MRI were performed at 3 h and 3, 8, and 35 days after brain infarct induction. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping were performed at 8 and 35 days. A total of 29 brain lesions were induced successfully in 12 of 14 beagle dogs. At 3 h, T2W and FLAIR detected hyperintense lesions in three randomly selected dogs. On T1W, all lesions appeared hypointense to isointense at 3 h, isointense (18/29) or hypointense (11/29) at 3 days, hypointense to isointense with peripheral hyperintensity (24/26) at 8 days, and hypointense (18/26) at 35 days. Infarcts on DWI/ADC were hypointense to isointense centrally, with the periphery hyperintense/hyperintense (17/26) at 8 days and hypointense/hyperintense (19/26) at 35 days. A marked increase in lateral ventricular size was observed in dogs with cerebral infarcts. In conclusion, T2W and FLAIR were useful for detecting early stage (3 h to 3 days) brain infarction. T1W and DWI were useful for detecting neuronal necrosis and providing supplemental information for phase evaluation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Infarction , Brain , Diffusion , Dogs , Lateral Ventricles , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Necrosis , Neurons , Stroke
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788708

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to find an optimal delivery route for clinical trials of intrathecal cell therapy for spinal cord injury in preclinical stage.METHODS: We compared in vivo distribution of Cy5.5 fluorescent dye in the spinal cord region at various time points utilizing in vivo optical imaging techniques, which was injected into the lateral ventricle (LV) or cisterna magna (CM) of rats.RESULTS: Although CM locates nearer to the spinal cord than the LV, significantly higher signal of Cy5.5 was detected in the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord region at all time points tested when Cy5.5 was injected into the LV. In the LV injection Cy5.5 signal in the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord was observed within 12 hours after injection, which was maintained until 72 hours after injection. In contrast, Cy5.5 signal was concentrated at the injection site in the CM injection at all time points.CONCLUSION: These data suggested that the LV might be suitable for preclinical injection route of therapeutics targeting the spinal cord to test their treatment efficacy and biosafety for spinal cord diseases in small animal models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Cisterna Magna , Fluorescence , Lateral Ventricles , Models, Animal , Optical Imaging , Rats , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Diseases , Spinal Cord Injuries , Treatment Outcome
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765278

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to find an optimal delivery route for clinical trials of intrathecal cell therapy for spinal cord injury in preclinical stage. METHODS: We compared in vivo distribution of Cy5.5 fluorescent dye in the spinal cord region at various time points utilizing in vivo optical imaging techniques, which was injected into the lateral ventricle (LV) or cisterna magna (CM) of rats. RESULTS: Although CM locates nearer to the spinal cord than the LV, significantly higher signal of Cy5.5 was detected in the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord region at all time points tested when Cy5.5 was injected into the LV. In the LV injection Cy5.5 signal in the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord was observed within 12 hours after injection, which was maintained until 72 hours after injection. In contrast, Cy5.5 signal was concentrated at the injection site in the CM injection at all time points. CONCLUSION: These data suggested that the LV might be suitable for preclinical injection route of therapeutics targeting the spinal cord to test their treatment efficacy and biosafety for spinal cord diseases in small animal models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Cisterna Magna , Fluorescence , Lateral Ventricles , Models, Animal , Optical Imaging , Rats , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Diseases , Spinal Cord Injuries , Treatment Outcome
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1429-1436, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893153

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to identify the values of corpus callosum sections and ventricles in Dementia and healthy geriatric subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to establish both gender differences and differences between groups. The MRI results of 163 geriatric subjects (81 healthy individuals; 82 Dementia subjects) aged 60-89 years were studied. The midsagittal and axial images were used for measurements of the corpus callosum and lateral ventricle, respectively on MRI. The mean values of the widths of genu, body, splenium, height of the corpus callosum, longitudinal dimension of the corpus callosum and brain were 8.74±1.53 mm, 5.37±0.75 mm, 9.37±1.33 mm, 25.42±2.89 mm, 70.99±3.86 mm, 148.87±6.67 mm and 8.51±1.93 mm, 5.37±0.84 mm, 9.74±1.17 mm and 25.67±2.88 mm, 72.41±4.99 mm, 153.66±8.00 mm in females and males of healthy geriatric age, respectively. The same measurements were found to be 6.90±1.66 mm, 4.33±0.76 mm, 7.94±1.38 mm, 24.42±3.11 mm, 69.01±4.52 mm, 149.18±7.13 mm and 7.55±1.98 mm, 4.56±1.02 mm, 8.60±1.58 mm, 23.96±3.51 mm, 73.42±3.81 mm, 155.38±8.39 mm in females and males with Dementia, respectively. Additionally, the means of the frontal horn width and Evans index measurements were lower in healthy geriatric subjects, whereas the transverse inner diameter of the skull were higher in healthy geriatric subjects than dementia subjects in both sexes. The observations presented in this report have defined anatomic parameters of healthy and dementia geriatric subjects that need to be taken into consideration for reference data to determine sex discrepancies, and be helpful for radiologists and clinicians.


RESUMEN: El objetivo del estudio fue identificar los valores de las secciones del cuerpo calloso y los ventrículos en una población turca de sujetos geriátricos sanos y con demencia, mediante resonancia magnética (RM) y establecer diferencias tanto de sexo como diferencias entre los grupos. Se estudiaron los resultados de 163 sujetos geriátricos (81 sujetos sanos, 82 sujetos con demencia) de 60-89 años. Las imágenes sagitales y axiales se utilizaron para las realizar las mediciones del cuerpo calloso y del ventrículo lateral en RM, respectivamente. Los valores medios de los anchos de rodilla, cuerpo, rodete, altura del cuerpo calloso, dimensión longitudinal del cuerpo calloso y del cerebro fueron de 8,74 ± 1,53 mm, 5,37 ± 0,75 mm, 9,37 ± 1,33 mm, 25,42 ± 2,89 mm, 70,99 ± 3,86 mm, 148,87 ± 6,67 mm y 8,51 ± 1,93 mm, 5,37 ± 0,84 mm, 9,74 ± 1,17 mm y 25,67 ± 2,88 mm, 72,41 ± 4,99 mm, 153,66 ± 8,00 mm en mujeres y hombres sanos, respectivamente. Las mismas medidas fueron de 6,90 ± 1,66 mm, 4,33 ± 0,76 mm, 7,94 ± 1,38 mm, 24,42 ± 3,11 mm, 69,01 ± 4,52 mm, 149,18 ± 7,13 mm y 7,55 ± 1,98 mm, 4,56 ± 1,02 mm, 8,60 ± 1,58 mm, 23,96 ± 3,51 mm, 73,42 ± 3,81 mm, 155,38 ± 8,39 mm en mujeres y hombres con demencia, respectivamente. Además, las medias de la anchura del asta frontal y las mediciones del índice de Evans fueron menores en sujetos geriátricos saludables, mientras que el diámetro interno transversal del cráneo fue mayor en sujetos geriátricos sanos que en los sujetos con demencia en ambos sexos. Las observaciones presentadas en este informe han definido los parámetros anatómicos de los sujetos sanos y con demencia que deben tenerse en cuenta para identificar los datos de referencia para determinar las discrepancias de sexo y que puedan ser útiles para los radiólogos y los médicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Corpus Callosum/pathology , Dementia/pathology , Lateral Ventricles/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sex Factors
10.
Cambios rev. méd ; 16(1): 59-61, ene. - 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000021

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El quiste ependimario es una entidad benigna, rara y congénita ubicada frecuentemente en los ventrículos laterales o región yuxtaventricular La ubicación más frecuente es supratentorial y raramente infratentorial. Normalmente los quistes están llenos de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Existen muy pocos casos publicados en pacientes pediátricos. Caso Clínico: Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 2 años de edad, sin antecedentes de importancia, que presentó crisis comiciales a repetición, sin otros signos patológicos en el examen neurológico. La aproximación diagnóstica se realizó a través de resonancia magnética cerebral y el cuadro se resolvió con un procedimiento quirúrgico. El resultado patológico reveló el diagnóstico. Luego del procedimiento quirúrgico, el paciente evolucionó favorablemente y fue dado de alta asintomático. En los controles posteriores no se evidenció ningún síntoma o signo patológico, no presentaba crisis comiciales, sin embargo, mantenía medicación anticonvulsivante. Discusión: El quiste ependimario es una entidad muy rara que se diagnostica normalmente en pacientes adultos. La presentación clínica habitual es secundaria a hipertensión endocraneal e hidrocefalia. El tratamiento de elección es quirúrgico en casos sintomáticos y consiste en la fenestración del quiste; ocasionalmente, derivación ventricular. Existen varias entidades con las cuales debe hacerse el diagnóstico diferencial especialmente por la baja incidencia de esta patología.


Introduction: The ependymal cyst is a benign, rare and congenital entity frequently located in any of both lateral ventricles or in the juxtaventricular region. The most common location is supratentorial and rarely infratentorial. They are usually filled with cerebrospinal fluid. There are very few cases reported in pediatrics patients. Case report: We present the case of a 2 year-old patient who suffered recurrent seizures and a normal neurologic examination. The diagnostic was made using brain magnetic resonance and the case was solved with a surgical procedure. The histopathologic report revealed the diagnosis. After the surgical procedure, the patient was evolving well and was discharged without symptoms. Subsequent tests were normal. Patient did not experienced more seizures, though he was still receiving antiepileptic drugs. Discusion: Ependymal cyst is rare condition usually diagnosed in adults. The clinical presentation is the result of intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus. Surgical treatment in symptomatic cases involves cyst fenestration, sometitmes a ventricular shunt is needed. There are several entities to consider in the differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Brain Diseases , Central Nervous System , Cysts , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Child , Lateral Ventricles
11.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 823-833, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758016

ABSTRACT

The development of a cerebral organoid culture in vitro offers an opportunity to generate human brain-like organs to investigate mechanisms of human disease that are specific to the neurogenesis of radial glial (RG) and outer radial glial (oRG) cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) of the developing neocortex. Modeling neuronal progenitors and the organization that produces mature subcortical neuron subtypes during early stages of development is essential for studying human brain developmental diseases. Several previous efforts have shown to grow neural organoid in culture dishes successfully, however we demonstrate a new paradigm that recapitulates neocortical development process with VZ, OSVZ formation and the lamination organization of cortical layer structure. In addition, using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with dysfunction of the Aspm gene from a primary microcephaly patient, we demonstrate neurogenesis defects result in defective neuronal activity in patient organoids, suggesting a new strategy to study human developmental diseases in central nerve system.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Physiology , Biomarkers , Metabolism , Cell Culture Techniques , Embryoid Bodies , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Lateral Ventricles , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Microcephaly , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Models, Biological , Mutation , Neocortex , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Genetics , Neurogenesis , Genetics , Neurons , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Organoids , Cell Biology , Metabolism , PAX6 Transcription Factor , Genetics , Metabolism , Patch-Clamp Techniques , SOXB1 Transcription Factors , Genetics , Metabolism , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Genetics , Metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30378

ABSTRACT

Microglia play a key role in the immune response and inflammatory reaction that occurs in response to ischemic stroke. Activated microglia promote neuronal damage or protection in injured brain tissue. Extracellular signals polarize the microglia towards the M1/M2 phenotype. The M1/M2 phenotype microglia released pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines which induce the activation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). In this study, we investigated how the cytokines released by microglia affect the activation of NSPCs. First, we treated BV2 cells with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 20 ng/ml) for M1 phenotype microglia and interleukin-4 (IL-4; 20 ng/ml) for M2 phenotype microglia in BV2 cells. Mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 1 h. In ex vivo, brain sections containing the subventricular zone (SVZ) were cultured in conditioned media of M1 and M2 phenotype-conditioned media for 3 d. We measured the expression of cytokines in the conditioned media by RT-PCR and ELISA. The M2 phenotype microglia-conditioned media led to the proliferation and neural differentiation of NSPCs in the ipsilateral SVZ after ischemic stroke. The RT-PCR and ELISA results showed that the expression of TGF-α mRNA was significantly higher in the M2 phenotype microglia-conditioned media. These data support that M2 phenotype microglia-derived TGF-α is one of the key factors to enhance proliferation and neural differntiation of NSPCs after ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Culture Media, Conditioned , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Interleukin-4 , Lateral Ventricles , Mice , Microglia , Neurons , Phenotype , RNA, Messenger , Stem Cells , Stroke
13.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 45-48, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32564

ABSTRACT

Rotavirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infancy and early childhood. Febrile seizures can occur in some infants or children exhibiting rotavirus gastroenteritis even without severe electrolyte imbalance, hypoglycemia or abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) finding. Some reports have described diffuse cerebral white matter lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in neonates with rotavirus-associated encephalopathy/encephalitis. In this case study, a 6-day-old male neonate was transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit after having a fever lasting 24 hours. On hospital day two, the seventh day after birth, the patient had his first seizure. The pregnancy and delivery were uneventful. The lab findings, including a CSF exam, were normal, but a stool antigen test for rotavirus was positive. The electroencephalography (EEG) examination result was normal. DW-MRI of the brain showed bilateral symmetric diffusion restriction in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum as well as in the periventricular white matter of the lateral ventricles. Multiple scattered high-signal-intensit foci on T1-weighted image/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) in the periventricular white matter were also seen bilaterally. He is now 17 months old, and there were no further seizures. He did not show any neurodevelopmental delay. This case reports that the patient with rotavirus-induced neonatal seizures with cerebral white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a normal neurodevelopmental outcome on the follow-up.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Child , Corpus Callosum , Diffusion , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Electroencephalography , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Gastroenteritis , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Lateral Ventricles , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Parturition , Pregnancy , Rotavirus , Seizures , Seizures, Febrile , White Matter
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64812

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report fundus photography using a smartphone in an infant with abusive head trauma. CASE SUMMARY: An 8-month-old male infant presented to the emergency room with decreased consciousness and epileptic seizures that the parents attributed to a fall from a chair. He had no external wounds or fractures to the skull or elsewhere. However, computerized tomography of the brain revealed an acute subdural hematoma in the right cranial convexity and diffuse cerebral edema, leading to a midline shift to the left and effacement of the right lateral ventricle and basal cistern. The attending neurosurgeon promptly administered a decompressive craniectomy. Immediately after the emergency surgery, a fundus examination revealed numerous multi-layered retinal hemorrhages in the posterior pole extending to the periphery in each eye. He also had white retinal ridges with cherry hemorrhages in both eyes. We acquired retinal photographs using the native camera of a smartphone in video mode. The photographer held the smartphone with one hand, facing the patient's eye at 15–20 cm, and held a 20 diopter condensing lens at 5 cm from the eye in the other hand. Our documentation using a smartphone led to a diagnosis of abusive head trauma and to obtain the criminal's confession, because the findings were specific for repetitive acceleration-deceleration forces to an infant`s eye with a strong vitreoretinal attachment. CONCLUSIONS: This ophthalmic finding had a key role in the diagnosis of abusive head trauma. This case presented the diagnostic use of a smartphone for fundus photography in this important medicolegal case.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Edema , Consciousness , Craniocerebral Trauma , Decompressive Craniectomy , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epilepsy , Hand , Head , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Hemorrhage , Humans , Infant , Lateral Ventricles , Male , Neurosurgeons , Parents , Photography , Retinal Hemorrhage , Retinaldehyde , Shaken Baby Syndrome , Skull , Smartphone , Wounds and Injuries
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10428

ABSTRACT

A true collision tumor is a rare entity composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms coinciding in the same organ. This paper reports a unique case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. On the first hand, meningioma which is usually a benign lesion arising from the meningothelial cell in the arachnoidal membrane. On the other, cerebral cavernoma which is a well-circumscribed, benign vascular hamartoma within the brain. To our knowledge, there is no previously documented case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. A 56-year-old Caucasian male suffered in 2002 from an atypical meningioma WHO II° located in the left lateral ventricle. Three years after the tumor extirpation, the patient suffered from a hematoma in the fourth ventricle due to a recurrently haemorrhaged cavernoma. In 2008, a recurrence of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle was discovered. Additionally, another tumor located in the quadrigeminal lamina was detected. After surgical resection of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a collision tumor consisting of components of a meningioma WHO II° and a cavernoma. Postoperatively, no adjuvant treatment was needed and no tumor recurrence is discovered up to the present. A possible explanation for the collision of those two different tumors may be migration of tumor cells mediated by the cerebrospinal fluid. After 5-years of follow-up, there is no sign of any tumor recurrence; therefore, surgical tumor removal without adjuvant therapy seems to be the treatment of choice.


Subject(s)
Arachnoid , Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Fourth Ventricle , Hamartoma , Hand , Hematoma , Humans , Lateral Ventricles , Male , Membranes , Meningioma , Middle Aged , Recurrence
16.
Journal of Neurocritical Care ; (2): 112-115, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ventriculitis is a rare and critical infection of the central nervous system. Here, we report a case of ventriculitis by extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae , after acupuncture at the low back. CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old woman visited our center with fever, headache, and decreased mental status, after undergoing low back acupuncture. Brain imaging showed the fluid-debris level in the lateral ventricle, suggesting ventriculitis. ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid. After the administration of antibiotics, although the ventriculitis was treated, the quadriplegia remained. CONCLUSIONS: This case stresses the importance of aseptic techniques during acupuncture.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents , beta-Lactamases , Central Nervous System , Cerebral Ventriculitis , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Female , Fever , Headache , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella , Lateral Ventricles , Neuroimaging , Quadriplegia
17.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 38(9): 428-435, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843897

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives This study was done to evaluate the normal fetal cerebral lateral ventricle dimensions with transabdominal ultrasonography. The atrial width (AW), ventricle-tochoroid measurement (V-C), ventricle-to-hemisphere ratio (VHR), and combined anterior horn measurement (CAHM) were taken. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 400 normal singleton pregnant subjects whose gestational ages were between 14 and 40 weeks. Transabdominal sonography was performed to obtain the values of the fetal cerebral lateral ventricle (FCLV) parameters. Data were reported as mean standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables. The degrees of correlation between FCLV parameters and the estimated gestational age (EGA) were obtained using Pearson's correlation. Regression equations were used to generate the reference limits for the FCLV measurements. Results The values of AW, V-C measurements and CAHM increased with advancing gestation. The mean values of the AW, V-C and CAHM from 14 to 40 weeks increased from 6.60 0.94 mm to 9.75 0.07 mm (R2 = 0.114), 0.80 0.00 mm to 1.90 0.14 mm (R2= 0.266), and 6.95 0.06 mm to 23.07 4.02 mm (R2= 0.692) respectively, while the mean VHR decreased from 61.20 1.60% to 42.84 2.91% (R2 = 0.706) over the same period. Conclusion The AW, V-C, and CAHM increase, while VHR decreases with advancing gestation.


Resumo Objetivos O presente estudo objetiva avaliar as dimensões do ventrículo lateral de cérebros fetais por meio de ultrassonografia transabdominal. Foram medidos a largura do átrio (LA), a medida do ventrículo ao coroide (V-C), a razão ventrículo/ hemisfério (RVH), e a medida dos cornos anteriores combinados ( CAC ). Métodos Estudo transversal com 400 grávidas de único feto com idades gestacionais entre 14 e 40 semanas. Sonografias transabdominais foram realizadas para obter os valores dos parâmetros do ventrículo lateral de cérebros fetais (VLCF). Dados foram apresentados em média desvio padrão para variáveis contínuas. Os graus de correlação entre parâmetros de VLCF e idade gestacional estimada foram obtidos usando a correlação de Pearson. Equações de regressão foram usadas para gerar as referências-limite para medidas de VLCF. Resultados Os valores de LA, medida do V-C e CAC aumentaram com o avanço da gestação. Os valores médios de LA, V-C e CAC de 14 a 40 semanas aumentaram de 6,60 0,94 mm a 9,75 0,07 mm (R2 = 0,114), de 0,80 0,00 mm a 1,90 0,14 mm (R2 = 0,266), e de 6,95 0,06 mm a 23,07 4,02 mm (R2 = 0,692), respectivamente, enquanto a RVH média diminuiu de 61,20 1,60% para 42,84 2,91% (R2 = 0,706) no mesmo período. Conclusão A LA, V-C, e CAC aumentaram, enquanto a RVH diminuiu com o avanço da gestação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Lateral Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Lateral Ventricles/embryology , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Reference Values
18.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 30(3): 96-102, ago. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-982821

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los meningiomas intraventriculares tienen una baja prevalencia. Dado su origen en plexos coroideos o tela coroidea presentan predilección por los ventrículos laterales. Suelen ser de gran tamaño al momento diagnóstico y de histología preponderantemente benigna. Materiales y Métodos: Realizamos revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas de pacientes operados de estos tumores durante el período 1999-2014, en nuestra institución junto a una revisión bibliográfica. Resultados: Se operaron siete pacientes con meningiomas intraventriculares de los cuales seis tuvieron localización atrial, cinco fueron derechos y uno izquierdo; el caso restante corresponde a una lesión del IV ventrículo. Todos fueron de sexo femenino con edad promedio de 49 años. La presentación clínica prevalente fue cefalea, trastorno cognitivo leve y hemianopsia homónima en los tumores supratentoriales. Disfunción trigeminal y facial periférica izquierda, disfagia y ataxia troncal se observaron en la lesión del IV ventrículo. Se realizaron dos abordajes parietales, uno precuneal, tres temporales y un abordaje telovelar. En el postoperatorio, 2 pacientes presentaron hemianopsia homónima secuelar. Dos pacientes presentaron signos de atipia por lo cual recibieron radioterapia postoperatoria. Conclusión: Dada su escasa prevalencia el objetivo quirúrgico en meningiomas intraventriculares es la remoción completa con la menor morbilidad postoperatoria posible. En los casos atípicos sugerimos realizar radioterapia postoperatoria para reducir el riesgo de recidivas.


Introduction: Intraventricular meningioma’s have a low prevalence. Given its origin in choroid plexus or tela choroidea presents predilection by the lateral ventricles. They tend to be large at the time of diagnosis and predominantly benign histology. Methods: We performed retrospective review records of patients operated of intraventricular meningioma’s during the period 1999-2014 in our institution with a review of the literature. Development: We operated seven patients with these tumors, six with atrial location, five were right and one left; the remaining case corresponds to a lesion in the fourth ventricle. All were female with an average age of 49 years. The prevalent clinical presentation was headache, mild cognitive disorder and homonymous hemianopsia in supratentorial tumors. Trigeminal and peripheral left facial dysfunction, dysphagia and central ataxia were observed in the lesion of the fourth ventricle. Parieto-occipital two approaches, one interhemispheric precuneal approach, three temporal and a telovelar approach were carried out. Postoperatively, two patients had homonymous hemianopsia. Two patients presented signs of atypia which received postoperative radiation therapy.Conclusion: Given its low prevalence the surgical goal in intraventricular meningiomas is complete removal with less possible postoperative morbidity. In atypical cases we suggest to perform postoperative radiotherapy to reduce risk of recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Choroid Plexus , Fourth Ventricle , Lateral Ventricles , Meningioma , Neoplasms , Third Ventricle
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286841

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the time course of proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of rats following traumatic craniocerebral injury (TBI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty-eight SD rats were randomized into 3 groups, namely the control group without any treatment, the sham-operated group with scalp incision and preparation of a cranial window, and TBI group with craniocerebral injury induced by Feeney's method. With nestin and BrdU as two cell markers, NSE as the neuron-specific marker and GFAP as the glial cell marker, immunofluorescence assay with double labeled antibodies was performed to examine the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous NSCs in the SVZ at different time points after TBI.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>s The numbers of cells positive for nestin/NSE, nestin/GFAP, BrdU/NSE, and BrdU/GFAP in the SVZ of the rats increased significantly after TBI. The positive cells began to increase at 1 day after TBI, reached the peak level at day 3 and became normal at day 14, showing significant differences between the time points of measurement following TBI and from the cell numbers in the control group measured at the same time points. The cells positive for nestin/ GFAP showed the most distinct increase in the SVZ of the rats with TBI.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TBI results in mobilization of the NSCs in the SVZ on the injured side to cause the proliferation and differentiation of the endogenous NSCs. The SVZ is one of the most important germinal centers of NSC proliferation and differentiation.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Bromodeoxyuridine , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Craniocerebral Trauma , Pathology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Metabolism , Lateral Ventricles , Cell Biology , Nestin , Metabolism , Neural Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Neuroglia , Cell Biology , Neurons , Cell Biology , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205890

ABSTRACT

Central neurocytoma (CN) is a rare, benign brain tumor often located in the lateral ventricles. CN may cause obstructive hydrocephalus and manifest as signs of increased intracranial pressure. The goal of treatment for CN is a gross total resection (GTR), which often yields excellent prognosis with a very high rate of tumor control and survival. Adjuvant radiosurgery and radiotherapy may be considered to improve tumor control when GTR cannot be achieved. Chemotherapy is also not considered a primary treatment, but has been used as a salvage therapy. The radiological features of CN are indistinguishable from those of other brain tumors; therefore, many histological markers, such as synaptophysin, can be very useful for diagnosing CNs. Furthermore, the MIB-1 Labeling Index seems to be correlated with the prognosis of CN. We also discuss oncogenes associated with these elusive tumors. Further studies may improve our ability to accurately diagnose CNs and to design the optimal treatment regimens for patients with CNs.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Intracranial Pressure , Lateral Ventricles , Neurocytoma , Oncogenes , Prognosis , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Salvage Therapy , Synaptophysin
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