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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(2): 108-115, Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND New brands of potential long lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) and LLIN treatment kits require field evaluation before they are used in a vector control programme. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-efficacy, usage, washing practice and physical integrity of nets treated with LLIN treatment kit, ICON MAXX in a phase III field trial in Odisha state, India. METHODS A total of 300 polyester nets treated with ICON MAXX and 140 polyester nets treated conventionally with lambda-cyhalothrin CS 2.5% ITNs were distributed. The bio-efficacy was evaluated with WHO cone bioassay. The chemical analysis of netting pieces was done at the beginning, after 12 and 36 months of the trial. FINDINGS After one year of distribution of nets, the bioassay showed 100% mortality on both ITNs and ICON MAXX treated nets. At 36 months, the overall pass rate was 58.8% and the mean lambda-cyhalothrin content of LLINs was 34.5 mg ai/m2, showing a loss of 44.4% of the original concentration. CONCLUSION ICON MAXX treated LLIN was found to retain bio-efficacy causing 97% knockdown of Anopheles stephensi up to 30 months and met the WHOPES criteria. However, the desired bio-efficacy was not sustained up to 36 months.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/instrumentation , Insecticide-Treated Bednets/statistics & numerical data , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Time Factors , Biological Assay , India , Laundering/methods , Malaria/prevention & control
2.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e18, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842766

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to examine the resistance of PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets against repeated washing and environmental factors by using bioassay tests. After 5, 15 and 21 washings with detergents and by using bioassay tests, the resistance of 40 PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets was compared with that of 40 bed nets conventionally treated with one K-O tablet. To examine the long-term resistance, 31 PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets were also distributed among villagers, and were re-collected to perform bioassay tests after 1, 2 and 5 years. In the first phase of this study, the insecticidal effect of the conventionally-treated nets significantly decreased due to repeated washings (P < 0.001); however, it was not significant regarding PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets (P = 0.92 in continuous exposure and P = 0.12 in mortality tests). In the long-term phase of this study, the time required for knockdown of PermaNet® 2.0 increased over the first 2 years and then decreased. In addition, the mortality rate decreased over the first 2 years and then increased. In conclusion, it seems that the technique used by the manufacturer for impregnation of PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets has an acceptable efficiency in comparison with conventional techniques.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insecticides , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Control/methods , Nitriles , Pyrethrins , Biological Assay , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Laundering , Time Factors
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103762

ABSTRACT

Gallbladder (GB) cancer occurs predominately as a biliary tract malignant tumor. It generally has a very poor prognosis, and early detection is often difficult. A variety of carcinogens have been implicated as an important cause for GB cancer. Benzene is a well-known carcinogen for hematologic malignancy, and its casual relationship with GB cancer has been suggested. We report a case of two patients who had operated a laundry cleaning facility together and later simultaneously got GB cancer after prolonged benzene exposure.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Benzene/toxicity , Female , Gallbladder Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Laundering , Male , Middle Aged , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819592

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the bioefficacy of α-cypermethrin impregnated into long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs-INTERCEPTOR®) against main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).@*METHODS@#The effectiveness of bed net impregnated with α-cypermethrin (INTERCEPTOR®) with washing was evaluated. The washing procedure and bioassay tests were carried out according to the WHO-recommended methods. Malaria vector, An. stephensi was exposed to impregnated bed net for three minutes and then mortality measured after 24 h recovery period. Knockdown was also measured according to the logarithmic times.@*RESULTS@#Result of cone bioassay method showed that bioefficacy of α-cypermethrin decreased from 100% in unwashed to 15% in 20 washes. KT(50) was measure as one minute in one wash and increased to 40 min in 20 washes.@*DISCUSSION@#Findings of this study provide guideline for malaria vector control authorities and people using pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles , Biological Assay , Methods , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Reference Standards , Insecticides , Pharmacology , Iran , Epidemiology , Laundering , Methods , Malaria , Epidemiology , Mosquito Control , Reference Standards , Pyrethrins , Pharmacology
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(5): 606-612, Aug. 2011. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597721

ABSTRACT

Insecticide-treated nets provide a reduction in human-vector contact through physical barrier, mortality and/or repellent effects that protect both users and non-users, thereby protecting the wider community from vector-borne diseases like malaria. Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) are the best alternative. This study evaluated the bioefficacy of LLINs PermaNet® 2.0 and Olyset® under laboratory conditions with Anopheles albimanus. The laboratory strain was evaluated for insecticide susceptibility with selected insecticides used for malarial control. Regeneration time and wash resistance were evaluated with the standard bioassay cone technique following WHO guidelines. Heat assistance was used for Olyset® nets; the nets were exposed to four different temperatures to speed the regeneration process. The regeneration study of PermaNet® 2.0 showed that efficacy was fully recovered by 24 h after one and three washes and wash resistance persisted for 15 washes. Regeneration of Olyset® nets was not observed for nets washed three times, even with the different temperature exposures for up to seven days. Thus, for Olyset® the wash resistance evaluation could not proceed. Differences in response between the two LLINs may be associated with differences in manufacturing procedures and species response to the evaluated LLINs. PermaNet® 2.0 showed higher and continuous efficacy against An. albimanus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles , Insecticides , Bedding and Linens , Biological Assay , Insect Vectors , Laboratories , Laundering/methods , Time Factors
6.
Rev. bras. saúde ocup ; 36(123)jan.-jun. 2011.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-593665

ABSTRACT

Este relato apresenta demandas que cada vez mais chegam aos Cerests desafiando as equipes multidisciplinares para o desenvolvimento de novas modalidades de abordagem diagnóstica e terapêutica. A experiência é de um Cerest do interior de São Paulo na última década. Construída a partir do relato de trabalhadores, visitas a locais de trabalho, discussão com representantes de empresas e atuação de equipe plurinstitucional de LER, ilustra situações de trabalho potencialmente adoecedoras, em especial do sistema musculoesquelético (LER/DORT).Trabalhadores de cinco empresas de quatro diferentes ramos relatam pressão para produção, sobrecarga física e competitividade, situações de humilhação ou constrangimento como forma de ajustá-los aos padrões da empresa, além da exposição pública e da ?punição pelo adoecimento? dos acometidos pelos agravos que retornam ao trabalho. Verifica-se que há ainda grande deficiência no reconhecimento das situações em que o trabalho contribui para o adoecimento mental. Os profissionais da área da Saúde do Trabalhador devem estar especialmente atentos para identificar os casos de sofrimento mental nos portadores de LER/DORT e notificá-los. Recomenda-se que as informações geradas sejam reunidas, analisadas e divulgadas, de modo que possam ser instrumento para sensibilização dos profissionais de saúde em geral e gerar formas de intervenção mais eficazes à proteção à saúde dos trabalhadores.


This report presents some arriving demands at CEREST (Reference Center for Workers Health) that have challenged its multidisciplinary team to develop new diagnostics and therapeutic approaches. The experience comes from a CEREST located in a inland city of the state of São Paulo, during the last decade, based on workers reports, visits to work places, discussion with representatives of various sectors, as well as on the activity of the local Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) pluri-institutional team. It illustrates work situations generating diseases and injuries in five companies, especially in the musculoskeletal system (RSI). Workers reported pressure to achieve production goals, physical overload and competition, humiliation and coercion as ways to fit them into company standards. Returning--to-work employees with RSI suffered public exposure and were punished for their illness. The report demonstrates that mental illness related to work is not adequately acknowledged yet. Professionals involved with Workers Health must be especially alert to identify mental suffering in RSI carriers and notify it. The authors ecommend that information should be gathered, analyzed and publicized to become a tool to create awareness among health professionals in general, and produce new and effective ways of intervention to protect workers health.


Subject(s)
Cumulative Trauma Disorders , Dehumanization , Ergonomics , Laundering , Mental Health , Organization and Administration , Telecommunications , Occupational Groups , Workload
7.
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 35(3): 311-318, 27 maio 2011.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-619084

ABSTRACT

A metodologia Lean vem sendo largamente estudada e utilizada por empresas em todo o mundo. Busca a eliminação dos desperdícios nos processos imprimindo velocidade, reduzindo o tempo total do serviço prestado e melhorando a qualidade do resultado. mO objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicabilidade da utilização da metodologia Lean em uma lavanderia hospitalar. Utilizou-se um estudo de caso com pesquisa quantitativa, com o desenvolvimento do projeto de implantação da metodologia Lean no processo de trabalho de uma lavanderia hospitalar. O resultado foi a criação de um fluxo contínuo, com a padronização dos processos, que possibilitoua redução dos inventários, aumentou a produtividade e reduziu o lead time. Todas as melhorias resultantes impactaram diretamente naredução dos custos envolvidos no processamento de roupa hospitalar. Embora a quantificação dos resultados justifique a aplicação da metodologia para o desenvolvimento de projetos de melhoria, o principal e maior ganho é a mudança de comportamento e atitudes dos colaboradores em um ambiente favorável, que permite a todos expressar suas competências de maneira plena, por meio de umavisão de melhoria contínua.


The Lean methodology has been largely studied and used by companies worldwide. It seeks to eliminate the process wasteby rendering speed and reducing the total time of the service provided, while improving the result quality. This paper aims at evaluatingthe applicability of using the Lean methodology in a hospital laundry. A case study was employed with a quantitative research by developingthe implementation project of the Lean methodology in the work process of a hospital laundry. The result was the creation of a continuous flow by standardizing the processes that allowed the inventories to be reduced, improved the productivity and decreased the lead time. All the resulting improvements directly impacted on reducing the costs involved in the processing of hospital clothes. Although the quantification of the results justifies the methodology application to develop improvement projects, the main and highergain is changing behaviors and attitudes of the employees in a favorable environment that allows everybody to express their competencies totally by means of a continuous improvement view.


La metodología Lean viene siendo largamente estudiada y utilizada por empresas en todo el mundo. Busca la eliminación de los derroches en los procesos imprimiendo velocidad, reduciendo el tiempo total del servicio prestado, al mismo tiempo que mejora la calidad del resultado. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la aplicabilidad de la utilización de la metodología Lean en una lavandería hospitalaria. Se utilizó un estudio de caso con investigación cuantitativa con el desarrollo del proyecto de implantación de la metodologíaLean en el proceso de trabajo de una lavandería hospitalaria. El resultado fue la creación de un flujo continuo con la estandarización de los procesos que posibilitó la reducción de los inventarios, aumentó la productividad y redujo el lead time. Todas las mejorías resultantes impactaron directamente la reducción de los costos involucrados en el procesamiento de ropa hospitalaria. Aun la cuantificación de los resultados justifique la aplicación de la metodología para el desarrollo de proyectos de mejoría, el principal y mayor ganancia es el cambio de comportamiento y actitudes de los colaboradores en un ambiente favorable que permite a todos expresar sus competenciasde manera plena por medio de una visión de mejoría continua.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laundering/organization & administration , Laundering/trends , Methodology
8.
International Journal of Health Sciences. 2009; 3 (1): 33-44
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-101950

ABSTRACT

The clean bedding and clean clothes installs psychological confidence in the patients and the public and enhances their faith in the services rendered by the hospital. Being an important Component in the management of the patients, a study was carried out to find out the current quality status and its conformity with the known standards and identify the areas of intervention in order to further increase the patient and staff satisfaction regarding the services provided by linen and laundry department. Quality control practised in the Linen and Laundry Service was studied by conducting a prospective study on the concept of Donabedian model of structure, process and outcome. Study was done by pre-designed Proforma along with observation / Interviews / Questionnaire and study of records. The input studied included physical facilities, manpower, materials, equipments and environmental factors. The various elements of manpower studied consisted of number of staff working, their qualification, training, promotion avenues, motivation and job satisfaction. Process was studied by carrying out observations in linen and laundry service through a predesigned flow chart which was supplemented by interviews with different category of staff. Patient satisfaction, staff satisfaction and microbial count of laundered linen [quality dimensions] were studied in the outcome. The current study found that in spite of certain deficiencies in the equipment, manpower and process, the linen and laundry service is providing a satisfactory service to its users. However the services can be further improved by removing the present deficiencies both at structure and process level


Subject(s)
Equipment and Supplies, Hospital , Hospitals, Teaching , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Laundering , Quality Control
9.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 2008 Jun; 45(2): 143-50
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-117975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The use of pyrethoid impregnated bednets is one of the main malaria vector control strategies worldwide. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the bioefficacy of bednets impregnated with various pyrethroids after repeated washings. METHODS: The effectiveness of bednets impregnated with permethrin, deltamethrin, bifenthrin, etofenprox and long-lasting bednets like OlysetNet and PermaNet which were provided by WHOPES was evaluated. The tests were carried out according to the WHO-recommended methods. Malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi was exposed to impregnated bednets for 3 min and the mortality was measured after 24 h recovery period. Knockdown was measured as well. RESULTS: Results of three methods of bioassay tests showed that between two LLINs, PermaNet was more efficient than OlysetNet. Results of ITNs exhibited that deltamethrin and permethrin were more effective than etofenprox and bifenthrin as impregnants. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Findings of this study will be useful for WHO, local authorities and people who wish to use different pyrethroid-impregnated bednets for malaria vector control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles , Bedding and Linens , Humans , Insecticides/pharmacology , Iran , Laundering , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Control/instrumentation
10.
Armaghane-danesh. 2007; 11 (4): 73-80
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-81841

ABSTRACT

Non laundered nomad populations in Iran experience more adverse living circumstances than laundered populations, but there is little research regarding the prevalence of mental health disorders of them. This study investigated the prevalence of depression and anxiety in laundered versus unlaundered nomads. 95 people of unlaundered nomads and 86 people of laundered nomads from Ashori family of Ghasghaee were assessed using Hamilton anxiety rating scale and Beck depression rating scale. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using chi-square test. The depression rate in unlaundered nomads included 33.7% normal, 29.5% mild and 36.5% moderate and severe, but in laundered nomads, 84.7% were normal, 8.2% were mild and 7.1% were moderate and severe. The difference is statistically significant. The anxiety rate in unlaundered nomads proved to be 43.2% normal, 38.9% mild and 17.9% moderate and severe, but in laundered nomads 87.2% were normal, 7% were mild and 5.7% were moderate and severe. The difference is statistically significant too. Depression rate in married uneducated and female subjects were more than those in singles and males in both laundered and unlaundered nomad. Anxiety rate in married uneducated and male subjects were more than those in singles and females in both laundered and unlaundered nomad. Depression and anxiety rates in unlaundered nomads were more than those in laundered nomads and these rates are higher than the national rates. These rates were more in married, group aged over 30 and in those with low education


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Depression/epidemiology , Transients and Migrants , Laundering , Prevalence
11.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 2006 Mar; 43(1): 1-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-117992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Olyset nets are a type of long-lasting insecticidal net made of polyethylene fibre with permethrin incorporated into it and with a 4 mm mesh size. BIOASSAYS: Olyset netting was wrapped around a wire frame and the mosquitoes were released inside for bioassays. There was significantly faster knockdown and higher percent mortality than bioassays with the netting attached to a WHO cone with a piece of cardboard on the other side of the net to prevent escapes through the large mesh. It is suggested that with the latter method some mosquitoes place their tarsae through the mesh on to the cardboard, thus avoiding insecticide contact. TRIALS IN EXPERIMENTAL HUTS: Four mm mesh nets were compared with conventional 1.5 mm mesh nets treated with permethrin. In further trials in huts Olyset nets which were either unwashed or five times washed, with or without subsequent heating, and a Olyset net which had been in domestic use for four years or a new Olyset net were compared with a net treated with bifenthrin. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: In all cases Anopheles biting on sleepers under the nets was reduced and Anopheles mortality was increased by the use of the insecticidal nets. No significant impact of washing or heating was detected and an Olyset net was as good as new after four years use, but did not cause as much mosquito mortality as bifenthrin treated nets.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles , Biological Assay/methods , Chi-Square Distribution , Equipment Design , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Housing , Insect Vectors , Insecticides , Laundering/methods , Mosquito Control/instrumentation , Permethrin , Pyrethrins , Time Factors
12.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 8(3): 382-387, jul.-set. 2004.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-397478

ABSTRACT

A lavanderia hospitalar representa grande importância no controle de infecções hospitalares, já que a roupa suja ou contaminada pode ser um veículo para disseminação de microorganismos. Pode ser uma fonte de contaminação para os profissionais envolvidos no processo de trabalho desse local, onde medidas de controle rigorosas devem ser direcionadas para a biossegurança. Foi realizada uma revisão de literatura desde 1995 até 2003 sobre lavanderia hospitalar, com a finalidade de descrever quais os agentes agressivos presentes nesse setor e que podem contribuir para o adoecimento do trabalhador...


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Risks , Laundering , Security Measures , Hospitals
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82053

ABSTRACT

Sodium silicate is generally used for laundering and dishwashing and for anti-fire and anti-water agents. Liquid forms of sodium silicate (water, glass) have extremely high pH values that the range from 12.5 to 13. Thus, ingestion of this material causes various caustic injuries to the digestive tract. Management of alkali ingestion includes decontamination, dilution, and surgical treatment. A widely performed surgical treatments for these cases are emergency laparotomies for repair of perforations and palliative care for stricture or obstruction of the injured hollow viscus organs. Recently, early and extensive surgical management based on an endoscopic evaluation was introduced for severe alkali injuries. Endoscopy is not only a safe and reliable tool for diagnosis but also is important in the treatment of and the prognosis for alkali ingestion. We report the case of a 48-year-old man presenting to the emergency department with an intentional ingestion of an anti-water agent for cement work. That agent contained sodium silicate. Fiberoptic endoscopy of the upper digestive tract showed severe alkali burns in the stomach, including edema, hemorrhage and necrosis. Surgery was performed to remove the necrotic tissue and to prevent progression to a critical status. We carried out a total gastrectomy, Roux-Y anastomosis, segmental resection of proximal jejunum and a feeding jejunostomy. After the operation, there were no complications associated with either the surgery or the caustic injury. The patient was discharged in good general condition with oral feeding status. In conclusion, for severe alkali ingstion, we recommend early surgical resection of injured organs identified by using an endoscopic evaluation.


Subject(s)
Alkalies , Burns , Constriction, Pathologic , Decontamination , Diagnosis , Eating , Edema , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Endoscopy , Gastrectomy , Gastrointestinal Tract , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Jejunostomy , Jejunum , Laparotomy , Laundering , Middle Aged , Necrosis , Palliative Care , Prognosis , Silicates , Sodium , Stomach
14.
In. Mancuso, Pedro Caetano Sanches; Santos, Hilton Felício dos. Reúso de água. Barueri, Manole, 2003. p.513-527.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-333916
15.
In. Diniz, Elizeu; Pereira, Sheila Duarte. Curso de vigilância sanitária: Unidade didático pedagógica V: v.1. São Paulo, s.n, nov. 1999. p.29-81, tab.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, SESSP-CVSPROD, SES-SP | ID: lil-440852
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34850

ABSTRACT

Two formulations of lambda-cyhalothrin (EC-Emulsion concentrate and MC-Microencapsulated) were impregnated into bednets made of polyethylene and polyester. The nets were treated at a dosage of 15 mg/m2. For bioassay of insecticidal efficacy, female Anopheles maculatus and Aedes aegypti were exposed to the nets for two minutes and mortality was scored 24 hours later. The nets were also tested after repeated washings with water and with soap and water. Microencapsulated (2.5CS) formulation was more effective than emulsion concentrate (2.5EC) formulation on both net materials--polyethylene and polyester. Repeated washing with water and soap reduces the efficacy of all bednet treatment combinations. Microencapsulated formulation on polyethylene gave best results; it could sustain up to five washes with water and two with soap and water.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Animals , Anopheles , Bedding and Linens , Biological Assay , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Drug Compounding , Emulsions , Female , Insecticides/chemistry , Laundering , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Mosquito Control/instrumentation , Nitriles , Polyesters , Polyethylene , Pyrethrins/chemistry , Time Factors
17.
La Paz; OPS; 1999. 20 p. ilus.(Serie Educativa: Higiene y Salud Ambiental).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS, LIBOSP | ID: lil-254489

ABSTRACT

La presente guía orienta sobre el uso correcto de lavanderias o bombas manuales de agua, para que las familias puedan gozar de los beneficios de la higiene y salud es necesario participar en la vigilancia, cuidado y mantenimiento de estos servicios para disponer de agua limpia así mismo es un instrumento de apoyo para los educadores en salud y ambiente


Subject(s)
Water Storage , Storage Tanks , Water Use , Laundering , Bolivia
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-36249

ABSTRACT

The results of research in China in recent years show that: 1) Different laboratory sensitivity of adult Anopheles minimus, An. sinensis and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to deltamethrin exist in Yunnan. Although the range and duration for the use of permethrin and deltamethrin was limited, resistance of An. minimus, An. sinensis and Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus to different extent in some areas existed. 2) On walls built with cement and covered with a thin layer of lime on which deltamethrin at a dosage of 0.025 g/m2 was sprayed, 100% of the mosquitos were stricken down within 3 days, 80% at the 15th day, 50% at the 20th day. The residual effectiveness on the bamboo and wood walls was good and could last for over 40 days, but on the mud walls a mortality of only 40% on the spraying day was observed, indicating that deltamethrin was not suitable for this purpose. Deltamethrin spraying reduced total caught mosquitos within 30 days, but there was no difference between the effects of deltamethrin (0.025 g/m2) and DDT (2 g/m2) at the 60th day. Deltamethrin effect on reducing densities of endophilic An. vagus, An. culicifacies and exophilic An. philippinensis was better than that of DDT (lasting over 60 days), but its effect on semi-endophilic An. sinensis lasted only 15 days. Against An. mininus, it showed good effects within 20 days but did not last as long as DDT (60 days). Residual deltamethrin and DDT spraying could both control malaria vectors, reduce the infection of infants by malaria, and reduce malaria parasite carrier rates (within 50 days). 3) Laboratory experiments showed that deltamethrin-impregnated bednets at a dosage of 0.015 g/m2 had a positive effect on An. minimus. The residual effect of unwashed deltamethrin-impregnated bednets at a dosage of 0.015 mg/m2 against An. sinensis was apparent and could last for 13 months. When an impregnated bednet was washed for the first time at the 12th month, its mortality effect on An. sinensis was reduced quickly to lower than 50%. The residual effect could last for 2-3 months when washed at the 6th month, but was lost when washed for the second time at the 12th month. 4) The effects of the impregnated-bednets on An. sinensis were different, even opposite, between different investigations. However, the treated bednets caused the density of An. minimus in houses to fall by 67.94%, and the total density in houses and cattle shelters by 67.91%. Moreover, it could shorten the life span of An. minimus. It did not work on the outdoor density of An. minimus. It is necessary to integrate with other measures, for achieving the desired effect.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Anopheles , Bedding and Linens/standards , Cattle , China , Culex , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Housing , Humans , Infant , Insect Vectors , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides , Laundering , Mosquito Control/methods , Nitriles , Pesticide Residues , Pyrethrins , Time Factors
19.
Cad. saúde pública ; 11(4): 543-51, out.-dez. 1995. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-173586

ABSTRACT

Apresenta um estudo de caso sobre as condiçöes de trabalho e saúde de trabalhadoras e ex-trabalhadoras da lavanderia de uma indústria do setor químico. A funçäo principal destas mulheres é lavar as roupas dos operários das áreas de produçäo e de manutençäo que manipulam com mercúrio metálico, constituindo-se em áreas de risco. Mostra como as mulheres säo atingidas neste processo de trabalho. Foi feita uma análise do processo de trabalho e das condiçöes ambientais da lavanderia, uma avaliaçäo clínica das trabalhadoras, bem como entrevistas individuais com as mesmas, a fim de melhor apreender o objeto da pesquisa, através da linguagem das entrevistadas. As avaliaçöes e análises permitiram verificar que este trabalho é prejudicial à saúde, tanto pela história de vida de cada uma, como também pelas condiçöes atuais em que é desenvolvido na empresa. Mostra que os conhecimentos sobre a atividade (o conteúdo e os riscos) que essas mulheres realizam, sobre seus problemas específicos e sobre suas formas de adoecimento tendem a ser dissimulados por um conjunto de fatores afetos às relaçöes de gênero.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Women, Working , Chemical Industry/standards , Laundering/standards , Women's Health , Working Conditions
20.
Hospital (São Paulo) ; 17(6): 318-9, 1993.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-128402

ABSTRACT

O grande mal e que quem fabrica nao usa, e normalmente nao testa os equipamentos. Desta forma acabam nao correspondendo as especificacoes


Subject(s)
Bedding and Linens , Hospitals , Laundering
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