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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): S39-S47, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147361

ABSTRACT

El estreñimiento funcional es un motivo de consulta frecuente en pediatría, con una prevalencia del 3 %. El Grupo de Trabajo de Constipación del Comité de Gastroenterología de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría se reunió con el objetivo de actualizar el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la constipación funcional en pediatría.Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura para evaluar la calidad de la evidencia. Ante un paciente constipado, es fundamental una historia y examen clínico completos. Los Criterios de Roma IV establecen pautas que, habitualmente, permiten diagnosticar la constipación funcional y evitar estudios innecesarios. La realización de estudios diagnósticos solo se pondrá en consideración ante la presencia de respuesta refractaria al tratamiento médico o en los casos de signos de alarma (banderas rojas). El primer paso del tratamiento es la desimpactación (por vía oral o enemas), seguida del tratamiento dietético, de hábitos y laxantes (es de primera elección el polietilenglicol).


Functional constipation is a common disease and one of the most frequent reasons of visit in pediatric clinics with a 3 % of prevalence. The Constipation Working Group of the Gastroenterology Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría met with the objective of updating the diagnosis and treatment of functional constipation in pediatrics.A literature search was performed to assess the quality of the evidence. In a constipated patient, a complete history and clinical examination is essential. The Rome IV Criteria establish guidelines that usually allow us to diagnose functional constipation, avoiding unnecessary studies. The performance of diagnostic studies will only be considered in the absence of response to medical treatment or in cases of alarm signs (red flags). The first step of treatment is disimpaction (orally or enemas), followed by dietary treatment, habits and laxatives, with polyethylene glycol being the first choice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Constipation/diagnosis , Laxatives/therapeutic use , Constipation/drug therapy , Constipation/therapy , Fecal Incontinence
2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811446

ABSTRACT

Optimal bowel preparation is essential for a more accurate, comfortable, and safe colonoscopy. The majority of postcolonoscopy colorectal cancers can be explained by procedural factors, mainly missed polyps or inadequate examination. Therefore the most important goal of optimal bowel preparation is to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer. Although adequate preparation should be achieved in 85–90% or more of all colonoscopy as a quality indicator, unfortunately 20–30% shows inadequate preparation. Laxatives for oral colonoscopy bowel preparation can be classified into polyethylene glycol (PEG)-electrolyte lavage solution, osmotic laxatives, stimulant laxatives, and divided into high-volume solution (≥3 L) and low-volume solution (<3 L). The updated 2019 European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) guideline is broadly similar to the 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) recommendations and reaffirms the importance of split-dosing. However, new ESGE guideline, unlike the 2014 ASGE recommendation, suggests the use of high volume or low volume PEG-based regimens as well as that of non-PEG based agents that have been clinically validated for most outpatient scenarios. For effective, safe, and highly adherent bowel preparation, physicians who prescribe and implement colonoscopy should properly know the advantages and limitations, the dosing, and the timing of regimens. Recently many studies have attempted to find the most ideal regimens, and more convenient, effective, and safe regimens have been developed by reducing the dosing volume and improving the taste. The high tolerability and acceptability of the new low-volume regimens suggest us how we should use it to increase the participation of the national colorectal cancer screening program.


Subject(s)
Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Humans , Incidence , Laxatives , Mass Screening , Outpatients , Polyethylene Glycols , Polyps , Therapeutic Irrigation
3.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 333-335, Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003047

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Chronic constipation is a common diagnosis with a high prevalence in the elderly. Constipation affects the quality of life of sick individuals, bringing several clinical complications.


RESUMO A obstipação crônica é um diagnóstico com alta prevalência comum em idosos. A constipação afeta a qualidade de vida das pessoas doentes, carregando muitas complicações clínicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Constipation/complications , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Ureter/pathology , Ureter/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Chronic Disease , Constipation/chemically induced , Constipation/diagnostic imaging , Renal Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Laxatives/adverse effects
4.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(1): 27-33, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984656

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Evaluate the effect of combinations of green banana biomass and laxatives in children and adolescents with chronic constipation. Methods: This was a randomized study of 80 children and adolescents with functional constipation according to the Rome IV Criteria, who were divided into five groups: (1) green banana biomass alone; (2) green banana biomass plus PEG 3350 with electrolytes; (3) green banana biomass plus sodium picosulfate; (4) PEG 3350 with electrolytes alone; and (5) sodium picosulfate alone. Primary outcome measure was the reduction of the proportion of patients with Bristol Stool Form Scale ratings 1 or 2. Secondary outcome measures were: increase of the proportion of >3 bowel movements/week and reduction of the proportion of fecal incontinence, straining on defecation, painful defecation, blood in stool, abdominal pain, and decreased laxative doses. Results: On consumption of green banana biomass alone, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the proportion of children with Bristol Stool Form Scale rating 1 or 2, straining on defecation, painful defecation, and abdominal pain. Conversely, no reduction was observed in fecal incontinence episodes/week, blood in stool, and no increase was observed in the proportion of children with >3 bowel movements/week. The percentage of children who required decreased laxative dose was high when green banana biomass was associated with sodium picosulfate (87%), and PEG 3350 with electrolytes (63%). Green banana biomass alone and associated with laxatives was well tolerated, and no adverse effects were reported. Conclusion: Green banana biomass is advantageous as an adjunct therapy on functional constipation, mainly for reducing doses of laxatives.


Resumo Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito das combinações da biomassa de banana verde e laxantes em crianças e adolescentes com constipação crônica. Métodos: Estudo randomizado de 80 crianças e adolescentes com constipação funcional de acordo com os Critérios de Roma IV divididos em cinco grupos: 1) Somente biomassa de banana verde; 2) Biomassa de banana verde mais PEG 3350 com eletrólitos; 3) Biomassa de banana verde mais picossulfato de sódio; 4) PEG 3350 somente com eletrólitos e 5) somente picossulfato de sódio. O desfecho primário foi a redução da proporção de pacientes com as classificações 1 ou 2 da Escala de Bristol para Consistência de Fezes. Os desfechos secundários foram: aumento da produção de > 3 evacuações/semana e redução da proporção de incontinência fecal, esforço na defecação, defecação dolorosa, sangue nas fezes, dor abdominal e redução nas dose de laxantes. Resultados: No consumo somente de biomassa de banana verde há uma redução estatisticamente significativa na proporção de crianças com classificação 1 ou 2 da Escala de Bristol para Consistência de Fezes, esforço na defecação, defecação dolorosa e dor abdominal. Por outro lado, não houve redução nos episódios fecais/semana de incontinência, sangue nas fezes e nenhum aumento na proporção de crianças com > 3 evacuações/semana. O percentual de crianças que tiveram sua dose de laxante reduzida foi alto quando a biomassa de banana verde foi associada a picossulfato de sódio (87%) e PEG 3350 com eletrólitos (63%). A biomassa de banana verde sozinha e associada a laxantes foi bem tolerada e não houve efeitos adversos relatados. Conclusão: A biomassa de banana verde é vantajosa como uma terapia adjuvante na constipação funcional, principalmente na redução das doses de laxantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Biomass , Constipation/diet therapy , Constipation/drug therapy , Musa , Laxatives/therapeutic use , Socioeconomic Factors , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Combined Modality Therapy
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761691

ABSTRACT

Pain therapy often entails gastrointestinal adverse events. While opioids are effective drugs for pain relief, the incidence of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) varies greatly from 15% to as high as 81%. This can lead to a significant impairment in quality of life, often resulting in discontinuation of opioid therapy. In this regard, a good doctor-patient relationship is especially pivotal when initiating opioid therapy. In addition to a detailed history of bowel habits, patient education regarding the possible gastrointestinal side effects of the drugs is crucial. In addition, the bowel function must be regularly evaluated for the entire duration of treatment with opioids. Furthermore, if the patient has preexisting constipation that is well under control, continuation of that treatment is important. In the absence of such history, general recommendations should include sufficient fluid intake, physical activity, and regular intake of dietary fiber. In patients of OIC with ongoing opioid therapy, the necessity of opioid use should be critically reevaluated in terms of an with acceptable quality of life, particularly in cases of non-cancer pain. If opioids must be continued, lowering the dose may help, as well as changing the type of opioid. If these measures do not suffice, the next step for persistent OIC is the administration of laxatives. If these are ineffective as well, treatment with peripherally active μ-opioid receptor antagonists should be considered. Enemas and irrigation are emergency measures, often used as a last resort.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Constipation , Dietary Fiber , Emergencies , Enema , Health Resorts , Humans , Incidence , Laxatives , Motor Activity , Narcotic Antagonists , Pain Management , Patient Education as Topic , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Quality of Life
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760872

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Few studies have reported non-acute long-term morbidity rates in children with intestinal malrotation. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of constipation in children undergoing Ladd's procedure for isolated intestinal malrotation. METHODS: This retrospective study included children aged <15 years who underwent Ladd’s procedure for intestinal malrotation between 2001 and 2016. Demographics, presence of volvulus perioperatively, need for bowel resection, short term (<30 days) and long-term complications, including mortality were recorded. Constipation was defined as treatment with laxatives at 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 43 children included in the study, 49% were boys. The median age at surgery was 28 days (0–5, 293 days). Volvulus occurred in 26 children (60.5%), and bowel resection was required in 4 children (9.3%). Short-term complications categorized as grades II–V according to the Clavien-Dindo classification occurred in 13 children (30.2%). Of these, 5 children (11.6%) required re-operation. Constipation was observed in 9 children (23.7%) at the 1-year follow-up. No difference was observed in the rate of perioperative volvulus between children with and without constipation (44% vs. 65%, p=0.45). Excluding re-operations performed within 30 days after surgery, 3 children (6%) underwent surgery for intestinal obstruction during the study period. CONCLUSION: Many children undergoing Ladd's procedure require bowel management even at long-term follow-up, probably secondary to constipation. It is important to thoroughly evaluate bowel function at the time of follow-up to verify or exclude constipation, and if treatment of constipation is unsuccessful, these children require evaluation for dysmotility disorders and/or intestinal neuronal dysplasia.


Subject(s)
Child , Classification , Constipation , Demography , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intestinal Obstruction , Intestinal Volvulus , Laxatives , Mortality , Neurons , Retrospective Studies
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742136

ABSTRACT

Constipation is a common functional problem of the digestive system and may occur secondary to diet, drugs, endocrine diseases, metabolic diseases, neurological diseases, psychiatric disorders, or gastrointestinal obstruction. When there is no secondary cause, constipation is diagnosed as functional constipation. The first steps that should be taken to relieve symptoms are diet and lifestyle modifications, and if unsuccessful, laxative therapy should be initiated. If a patient does not respond to laxative therapy, diagnostic anorectal physiological tests are performed, though they are not routinely recommended. However, these tests may be considered earlier in patients strongly suspected to have a defecatory disorder. The revised guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation will undoubtedly aid the individualized management of chronic constipation in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Biofeedback, Psychology , Constipation , Diagnosis , Diet , Digestive System , Digital Rectal Examination , Endocrine System Diseases , Humans , Laxatives , Life Style , Metabolic Diseases
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765626

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVES: We report a case of Ogilvie's syndrome following posterior decompression surgery in a spinal stenosis patient who presented with acute abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Ogilvie's syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal disease that can easily be mistaken for postoperative ileus, and is also known as acute colonic pseudo-obstruction. Early recognition and diagnosis enable treatment prior to bowel perforation and requisite abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An 82-year-old woman presented with 6 months of worsening back pain with walking intolerance due to weakness in both legs. She had hypertension, asthma, and Cushing syndrome without bowel or bladder symptoms. Further workup demonstrated the presence of central spinal stenosis on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent an L2-3 laminectomy and posterior decompression. Surgery was uneventful. RESULTS: The patient presented with acute abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting on postoperative day 1. The patient was initially diagnosed with adynamic ileus and treated conservatively with bowel rest, reduction in narcotic dosage, and a regimen of stool softeners, laxatives, and enemas. Despite this treatment, her clinical course failed to improve, and she demonstrated significant colonic distension radiographically. Intravenous neostigmine was administered as a bolus with a rapid and dramatic response. CONCLUSION: Ogilvie's syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of postoperative ileus in patients developing prolonged unexplained abdominal distension and pain after lumbar spinal surgery. Early diagnosis and initiation of conservative management can prevent major morbidity and mortality due to bowel ischemia and perforation.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Asthma , Back Pain , Colon , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction , Cushing Syndrome , Decompression , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Enema , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Ileus , Ischemia , Laminectomy , Laxatives , Leg , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mortality , Nausea , Neostigmine , Spinal Stenosis , Urinary Bladder , Vomiting , Walking
10.
J. Health NPEPS ; 3(2): 583-600, Julho-Dezembro. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-981437

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura para identificar los estudios que reportan la frecuencia del consumo drogas médicas, medicamentos de venta libre y alcohol, así como el consumo combinado de estas sustancias en los adultos mayores. Método: se utilizó como guía la Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, se identificaron 4,881 artículos a través de las bases de datos y tres artículos en el buscador google scholar, se eligieron doce estudios ya que cumplieron con los criterios de elegibilidad y por su calidad metodológica. Resultados: la revisión de la literatura permitió identificar que las drogas médicas más utilizadas fueron los benzodiacepinas, los sedantes, los antidepresivos y los psicotrópicos, los medicamentos de venta libre más usados fueron los analgésicos, laxantes, antiácidos y antihistamínicos; la combinación con el alcohol son prácticas observadas entre los adultos mayores. Conclusión: las drogas médicas y medicamentos de venta libre son consumidas para tratar los trastornos del sueño, depresión, ansiedad y estrés; con relación al alcohol entre el 20.3% y el 57.1% de los adultos mayores lo consumen; la combinación de alcohol y drogas médicas se observó entre el 9.3% y el 18.1%.(AU)


Objective: to perform a systematic review of the literature to identify the studies that report the frequency of consumption of medical drugs, over-the-counter medications and alcohol, as well as the combined use of these substances in the elderly. Method: the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes were used as a guide, 4,881 items through the databases and three items in the search google scholar were identified, twelve studies were chosen as they met the eligibility criteria and their methodological quality. Results: the literature review allowed us to identify that the most used medical drugs were benzodiazepines, sedatives, antidepressants and psychotropic drugs, the most used over-the-counter medications were analgesics, laxatives, antacids and antihistamines; the combination with alcohol are practices observed among the elderly. Conclusion: medical drugs and over-the-counter medications are consumed to treat sleep disorders, depression, anxiety and stress; in relation to alcohol between 20.3% and 57.1% of the elderly consume it; the combination of alcohol and medical drugs was observed between 9.3% and 18.1%.(AU)


Objetivo: realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura para identificar os estudos que revelam a frequência do consumo de drogas médicas, medicamentos de venda livre e álcool, assim como o consumo combinado dessas substâncias em idosos. Método: foi utilizada como guia a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses, foram identificados 4,881 artigos através das bases de dados e três artigos no Navegador Google Scholar, foram selecionados doze exames já que cumpriram com os critérios de elegibilidade e pela sua qualidade metodológica. Resultados: a revisão da literatura permitiu identificar que as drogas médicas mais utilizadas foram as benzodiazepínicas, sedativos, antidepressivos e os psicotrópicos. Os medicamentos de venda livre mais usados foram os analgésicos, laxantes, antiácidos e anti-histamínicos. A combinação com o álcool é um comportamento observado nos idosos. Conclusão: as drogas médicas e medicamentos de venda livre são consumidos para o tratamento dos distúrbios do sono, depressão, ansiedade e estresse. Com relação ao álcool, entre 20.3% e 57.1% das pessoas idosas o consomem. A combinação de álcool e drogas médicas foi observada entre 9.3% e 18.1%.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Health of the Elderly , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Psychotropic Drugs/administration & dosage , Anti-Anxiety Agents/administration & dosage , Benzodiazepines/administration & dosage , Laxatives/administration & dosage , Histamine Antagonists/administration & dosage , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Antacids/administration & dosage , Antidepressive Agents/administration & dosage , Narcotics/administration & dosage
12.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 38(2): 137-144, Apr.-June 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954579

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the published professional association guidelines regarding the current diagnosis and treatment of functional intestinal constipation in adults and to compare those guidelines with the authors' experience to standardize actions that aid clinical reasoning and decision-making for medical professionals. A literature search was conducted in the Medline/PubMed, Scielo, EMBASE and Cochrane online databases using the following terms: chronic constipation, diagnosis, management of chronic constipation, Roma IV and surgical treatment. Conclusively, chronic intestinal constipation is a common condition in adults and occurs most frequently in the elderly and in women. Establishing a precise diagnosis of the physiopathology of functional chronic constipation is complex and requires many functional tests in refractory cases. An understanding of intestinal motility and the defecatory process is critical for the appropriate management of chronic functional intestinal constipation, with surgery reserved for cases in which pharmacologic intervention has failed. The information contained in this review article is subject to the critical evaluation of the medical specialist responsible for determining the action plan to be followed within the context of the conditions and clinical status of each individual patient.


RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os consensos de sociedade de especialistas e guidelines publicados sobre o diagnóstico e tratamento da constipação intestinal crônica em adultos, e confrontar com a experiência dos autores, a fim de padronizar condutas que auxiliem o raciocínio e a tomada de conduta do médico. Foi realizada busca na literatura científica, mais precisamente nas bases de dados eletrônicos Medline/Pubmed, Scielo, EMBASE and Cochrane, tendo sido utilizado os seguintes descritores: chronic constipation, diagnosis, management of chronic constipation, Roma IV and surgical treatment. Pode-se concluir que constipação crônica é condição comum em adultos, ocorrendo com maior frequência em idosos e mulheres. Identificar com precisão a fisiopatologia presente na constipação crônica funcional é complexo, requerendo a realização de testes funcionais nos casos refratários. O entendimento da motilidade intestinal e do mecanismo defecatório é importante para o manejo da constipação intestinal crônica funcional, sendo o tratamento cirúrgico indicado para casos selecionados, onde à abordagem medicamentosa não surtiu efeito. As informações contidas neste artigo de revisão devem ser submetidas à avaliação e à crítica do médico especialista responsável pela conduta a ser tomada, frente à sua realidade e ao estado clínico de cada paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Constipation/surgery , Constipation/diagnosis , Constipation/drug therapy , Pelvic Floor/physiopathology , Constipation/physiopathology , Laxatives/therapeutic use
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714244

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Functional constipation (FC) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) problem affecting children's well-being and quality of life. Although polyethylene glycol (PEG) is recommended as the first line therapy, it is not always applicable in lower socioeconomic populations. Hence, this study aimed to compare clinical courses of FC in children treated with different medications in order to identify prognostic factors related to treatment outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of patients aged ≤15 years diagnosed with FC according to the Rome IV criteria from 2007 to 2015 at the GI clinic, Songklanagarind Hospital. Baseline characteristic, medical history, and treatment outcomes were collected at first and subsequent visits. RESULTS: Exactly 104 patients (median age at diagnosis, 2.8 years) were diagnosed with FC. The number of follow-up visits per patient ranged from 1 to 35. The median duration of follow-up was 18.0 months (range, 6.0–84.2 months). PEG was given to 21% of patients. During the follow up period, 76% of patients experienced first recovery with a median time to recovery of 9.8 months. There were no significant differences in time until first recovery and relapse between patients who received and those who did not receive PEG (p=0.99 and 0.06, respectively). Age >6 years, normal defecation frequency, no history of cow's milk protein allergy, and use of laxatives were associated with successful outcomes. CONCLUSION: Treatment outcomes between patients who had and never had PEG demonstrated no significant difference in our study. Hence, current practices in laxative prescriptive patterns may be effective.


Subject(s)
Child , Constipation , Defecation , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Laxatives , Medical Records , Milk Proteins , Polyethylene Glycols , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715715

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Treatment of chronic constipation and fecal impaction is usually outpatient and requires high or frequent doses of laxatives. However, there are children who fail outpatient treatments, sometimes repeatedly, and are ultimately hospitalized. We sought to compare the characteristics of the children who failed outpatient treatment and needed inpatient treatment vs those who achieved success with outpatient treatment, in an effort to identify attributes that might be associated with a higher likelihood towards hospitalization. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the medical records of all patients aged 0 to 21 years, with chronic functional constipation and fecal impaction seen in the pediatric gastroenterology clinic over a period of 2 years. RESULTS: Total of 188 patients met inclusion criteria. While 69.2% were successfully treated outpatient (referred to as the outpatient group), 30.9% failed outpatient treatment and were hospitalized (referred to as the inpatient group). The characteristics of the inpatient group including age at onset of 3.6±3.6 years (p=0.02); black ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] 4.31, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.04–9.09); p < 0.001); prematurity (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.09–5.26; p=0.02]; developmental delay (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.12–4.33; p=0.02); overflow incontinence (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.12–4.53, p=0.02); picky eating habits (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.00–4.08; p=0.04); number of ROME III criteria met: median 4, interquartile range 3–5 (p=0.04) and 13±13.7 constipation related prior encounters (p=0.001), were significantly different from the outpatient group. CONCLUSION: Identification of these characteristics may be helpful in anticipating challenges and potential barriers to effective outpatient treatment.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Child , Cohort Studies , Constipation , Eating , Fecal Impaction , Gastroenterology , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Laxatives , Medical Records , Outpatients , Pediatrics , Retrospective Studies
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715330

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To characterize the course of treatment for nonmonosymptomatic enuresis with overactive bladder (OAB) in a real clinical setting. METHODS: Data from 111 OAB patients with moderate to severe enuresis were analyzed. The baseline analysis included a questionnaire, voiding diary, uroflowmetry with postvoid residual urine measurement, and plain abdominal radiography of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB). Following standard urotherapy for 1 month, anticholinergic medication was administered with or without laxatives. Desmopressin was added if there was a partial response to OAB. Patients were followed every 3 months to evaluate the status of OAB and enuresis. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors associated with the lack of complete response (CR) in enuresis at 12 months. RESULTS: Following 12 months of treatment, 64% and 88% of patients experienced at least partial response in enuresis and OAB, respectively. Urgency improved more quickly than enuresis, supporting the need to address daytime symptoms before enuresis. Seventy-nine patients (71%) had fecal impaction on KUB and/or subjective constipation. The combination of anticholinergics with either laxatives or desmopressin fared better than anticholinergics alone. Daytime incontinence and anticholinergics-only treatment were associated with a lack of CR during 12 months of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The data confirmed the validity of addressing OAB before treating enuresis. The results of this study also highlight the need to address fecal impaction. Patients should be counseled about the need for a prolonged course of treatment before starting treatment. Anticholinergics should be accompanied with either desmopressin or laxatives for better control of enuresis.


Subject(s)
Cholinergic Antagonists , Constipation , Deamino Arginine Vasopressin , Enuresis , Fecal Impaction , Humans , Kidney , Laxatives , Multivariate Analysis , Radiography, Abdominal , Ureter , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Overactive
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766442

ABSTRACT

Chronic constipation is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that may have a significant impact on the quality of life of affected individuals. If dietary and lifestyle modifications are not successful, pharmacological interventions should be used to manage chronic constipation. The first-line conventional laxatives include bulk-forming, osmotic, and stimulant laxatives. If chronic constipation is refractory to conventional laxatives, prucalopride should be considered. The choice of a laxative should be made based on a consideration of the treatment duration, dosing schedule, type of agent, effects, and side effects of the agent, as well as cost-effectiveness. An individualized approach is needed according to the patient's underlying disease and clinical condition.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Constipation , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Laxatives , Life Style , Quality of Life
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) side effect to opioid treatment. Opioid receptor antagonists against OIC have been introduced, but their efficacy has not been directly compared to conventional laxatives. Our aim was to compare symptoms and objective parameters of gut function in an experimental model of OIC during treatment with the opioid antagonist naloxone and oxycodone in prolonged-release (PR) formulation versus oxycodone plus macrogol 3350. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, crossover trial 20 healthy men received a 5-day treatment of combined PR oxycodone/naloxone or PR oxycodone plus macrogol 3350. Regional GI transit times and segmental colorectal transit were assessed with the Motilis 3D-Transit electromagnetic capsule system. Colorectal volumes were determined by MRI. OIC symptoms were assessed with validated questionnaires, along with stool frequency and consistency. RESULTS: Total colorectal volume did not change after 5 days’ treatment with PR oxycodone/naloxone (941 vs 1036 mL; P = 0.091), but increased significantly after PR oxycodone plus macrogol treatment (912 vs 1123 mL; P 0.05). The Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptom Questionnaire abdominal symptoms score was lower during PR oxycodone/naloxone compared to PR oxycodone plus macrogol (0.2 vs 3.2; P = 0.002). Stool frequency was lower during PR oxycodone/naloxone compared to PR oxycodone plus macrogol (4.2 vs 5.4; P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: PR oxycodone plus macrogol increases colorectal volume, but does not improve GI transit compared to PR oxycodone/naloxone. However, PR oxycodone/naloxone results in a lower abdominal symptom burden, despite higher stool frequency during macrogol treatment.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Constipation , Humans , Laxatives , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnets , Male , Models, Theoretical , Naloxone , Narcotic Antagonists , Oxycodone , Polyethylene Glycols
18.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.1): e180011, 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977699

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: Este estudo objetivou analisar a associação entre estado nutricional, percepção da imagem corporal e comportamentos extremos para controle de peso nos adolescentes. Metodologia: Estudo transversal analítico, realizado no Brasil a partir da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) de 2015, com adolescentes de 13 a 17 anos. Estado nutricional e percepção da imagem corporal foram as variáveis independentes. As dependentes foram vômito ou uso de laxantes e uso de remédios e outras fórmulas para controle de peso nos últimos 30 dias. Modelos de regressão de Poisson foram empregados para associação, com uso de variáveis demográficas para controle. Resultados: 7,4% dos adolescentes (IC95% 6,7 - 8,2) relataram vômito ou uso de laxantes, sem diferença entre os sexos. A prevalência de uso de remédio e fórmulas foi maior entre meninos (7,8%; IC95% 6,6 - 8,9). A associação entre estado nutricional e comportamentos extremos não foi significativa; entretanto, a prevalência de vômito ou uso de laxantes foi 2,3 (IC95% 1,1 - 4,7) vezes maior em meninos e 5,3 (IC95% 3,3 - 8,6) vezes maior em meninas que se sentiam muito gordos(as), ao passo que uso de remédios e fórmulas foi 4,0 vezes (IC95% 2,3 - 7,1) maior em meninas que sentiam muito gordas. Conclusão: A percepção da imagem corporal parece ter maior influência na prática dos comportamentos extremos do que o estado nutricional. Estratégias envolvendo serviços de saúde e escolas têm grande potencialidade para ações que impactem positivamente na autoestima e na saúde dos estudantes.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: This study aimed to analyze the association between nutritional status, body image perception, and extreme weight control behaviors among adolescents. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in Brazil based on the National Adolescent Student Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar - PeNSE) of 2015, with adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. Nutritional status and body image perception were the independent variables. The two dependent variables were vomiting or laxative use and use of medicines and other formulas for weight control in the 30 days prior to data collection. We used Poisson regression models for association, with demographic variables for control. Results: 7.4% of adolescents (95%CI 6.7 - 8.2) reported vomiting or using laxatives, with no difference between genders. The prevalence of use of medicines and formulas was higher among boys (7.8%; 95%CI 6.6 - 8.9). The association between nutritional status and extreme behaviors was not significant. However, the prevalence of vomiting or laxative use for adolescents who considered themselves very fat was 2.3 (95%CI 1.1 - 4.7) times higher for boys and 5.3 (95%CI 3.3 - 8.6) times higher for girls, while the use of medicines and formulas was 4.0 (95%CI 2.3 - 7.1) times higher for girls who considered themselves very fat. Conclusion: Body image perception seems to have a greater influence on extreme behaviors than nutritional status. Strategies involving health services and schools have great potential to impact the self-esteem and health of students positively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Body Image/psychology , Nutritional Status , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Schools , Socioeconomic Factors , Vomiting/epidemiology , Weight Perception , Weight Loss , Attitude to Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution , Laxatives/administration & dosage , Drug Misuse/statistics & numerical data
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-649040

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at identifying the current nutrition knowledge, body-related perspectives, and weight control behaviors of Korean-Chinese college students. METHODS: We conducted a pilot study by employing a healthy weight education program targeting Korean-Chinese nursing school students at the Yanbian University of Science and Technology in Yanbian, China. RESULTS: This pilot study included 40 participants (38 women and 2 men; mean age, 20.5 years). The current weight status of the participants was as follows: 7.9% underweight, 78.9% normal weight, 7.9% overweight, and 5.3% obese. However, nearly two-thirds of the participants were dissatisfied with their current body size (43.6% a little dissatisfied; 20.5% very dissatisfied). Fifty percent of the participants perceived their current body size as being either slightly fat (35.0%) or very fat (15.0%). The following unhealthy weight control methods were commonly used among the 24 participants who practiced weight control: (1) laxatives or diuretics (91.7%), (2) saunas or spas (87.5%), and (3) a one-food diet (79.2%). In addition, the nutrition knowledge of the participants increased by 24 points from 117 points (pretest) to 141 points (posttest) through the healthy weight education program. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate an urgent need to educate Korean-Chinese college students on healthy weight control methods and body-related perspectives.


Subject(s)
Body Size , Body Weight , China , Diet , Diuretics , Education , Female , Humans , Laxatives , Male , Methods , Nursing , Overweight , Pilot Projects , Schools, Nursing , Steam Bath , Thinness , Weight Loss , Weight Perception
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-652823

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of lifestyle modifications on the constipation relief, the time required to see the effects, and the effective lifestyles for constipation in older adults admitted to a geriatric hospital. METHODS: Nonequivalent control group pre-post test design was used. The subjects consisted of 25 elderly in the control group and 23 in the experimental group. Constipation was measured with symptoms of constipation, number of bowel movement and use of laxatives. Life style modification consisted of drinking water before breakfast, having a breakfast, scheduled toileting after breakfast and walking everyday for 3 weeks. RESULTS: Symptoms of constipation (t=2.23, p=.030) and number of bowel movement per week (t=-2.55, p=.014) were significantly different between two groups after 3 weeks. Drinking water, scheduled toileting and walking might contribute to the results. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle modification was effective on constipation in older adults admitted to a geriatric hospital. However, the effects were produced after 3 weeks. Nevertheless, it is recommended that nurses continuously encourage older adults for drinking water, regular trying for bowel movement and walking to relieve constipation, since the lifestyle modification does not need any special education and skill.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Breakfast , Constipation , Drinking Water , Education, Special , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Humans , Laxatives , Life Style , Walking
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