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1.
Edumecentro ; 12(2): 238-243, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1090031

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los exámenes de premio, los cuales constituyen una vía para elevar la calidad de los egresados de la educación superior, tienen como objetivo estimular a los estudiantes para que profundicen en el estudio de las asignaturas y disciplinas que conforman su plan de estudio. El colectivo de Microbiología de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Mariana Grajales Coello", de la provincia Holguín, como parte del perfeccionamiento de la asignatura, se propuso motivar y promover la participación de los estudiantes que cursan el segundo año de la carrera de Estomatología en el curso 2018-2019, y poseen los requisitos establecidos para realizar el examen de premio, a través de la elaboración de una guía de contenidos como punto de partida para el estudio independiente. Los autores se propusieron como objetivo socializar esta experiencia a fin de que se generalice en otros espacios académicos y/o asignaturas, por sus buenos resultados.


ABSTRACT The prize exams, which constitute a way to raise the quality of higher education graduates, aim at stimulating the students so as to deepen in the learning of the subjects and disciplines of their study program. The professors of the Microbiology department of the Medical Sciences Faculty in Holguin province, as part of the perfectioning of the subject had the purpose to motivate and to promote the participation of the students, who take the second year of the Dentistry degree and the ones that possess the established requirements, to accomplish the prize exams in the academic year 2018-2019, through the elaboration of a guide of contents as a starting point for their independent study. The authors have the objective to socialize this experience in order to generalize it in other academic spaces and/or subjects because of the good results obtained.


Subject(s)
Students, Dental , Education, Medical , Educational Measurement , Learning
2.
MHSalud ; 17(1): 34-48, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1091029

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El propósito de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto de una intervención motriz basada en el método de descubrimiento guiado sobre los patrones básicos de movimiento de un niño típico. Se contó con la participación de un infante de 9 años que se percibe físicamente activo, practica deportes con regularidad, asiste a la escuela y posee un estado de salud y cognitivo normal. La intervención se aplicó durante 6 semanas, 2 sesiones de evaluación pretest y postest, por medio del instrumento para la evaluación de los patrones básicos de movimiento, y 4 sesiones prácticas de 60 minutos, un día a la semana, durante 4 semanas. Para el análisis de resultados, se utilizó el porcentaje de cambio. Los resultados, luego de la intervención, mostraron mejorías en el porcentaje de cambio, en 4 de los de los patrones locomotores entre el 33.33 % y 300 %; en los patrones manipulativos, entre el 37.5 % y 900 %; así como un mejoramiento del 50 %, en el total de las destrezas locomotoras, y de 85,18%, la totalidad de las destrezas manipulativas. A su vez, tuvo una mejoría global en PBM del 65.08 %. Se concluye que, luego de este estudio de caso, un modelo de intervención motriz basado en el método empleado puede ser una herramienta útil para mejorar las destrezas motoras básicas en la población infantil.


Abstract: The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of a motor intervention based on the guided discovery method on the basic movement patterns of a typical child. The study involved a 9-year-old child who is physically active, plays sports regularly, attends school, and has normal cognitive and health status. The intervention was applied during six weeks, two pre-test and post-test evaluation sessions through the Instrument for the Evaluation of Basic Movement Patterns, and four practical sessions of 60 minutes, one day a week, for four weeks. For the analysis of results, the percentage change was used. The results after the intervention showed improvements in the percentage of change in four of the locomotive patterns between 33.33% and 300%; in the manipulative patterns between 37.5% and 900%; as well as an improvement of 50% in the total of locomotive skills and 85.18% in the total of manipulative skills. In turn, it had an overall improvement in PBM of 65.08%. It is concluded that after this case study, a model of motor intervention based on the method used can be a useful tool to improve basic motor skills in children.


Resumo: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar o efeito de uma intervenção motora baseada no método de descoberta guiada sobre os padrões básicos de movimento de uma criança típica. O estudo envolveu uma criança de 9 anos de idade que é fisicamente ativa, pratica esportes regularmente, frequenta a escola e tem estado cognitivo e de saúde normal. A intervenção foi aplicada durante seis semanas, duas sessões de avaliação pré-teste e pós-teste através do Instrumento de Avaliação de Padrões Básicos de Movimento e quatro sessões práticas de 60 minutos, um dia por semana, durante quatro semanas. Para a análise dos resultados, foi utilizada a mudança percentual. Os resultados após a intervenção mostraram melhora no percentual de mudança em quatro dos padrões locomotivos entre 33,33% e 300%; nos padrões manipulativos entre 37,5% e 900%; bem como melhora de 50% no total de habilidades locomotivas e 85,18% no total de habilidades manipulativas. Por sua vez, teve uma melhora global na PBM de 65,08%. Conclui-se que, após este estudo de caso, um modelo de intervenção motora baseado no método utilizado pode ser uma ferramenta útil para melhorar as habilidades motoras básicas em crianças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Exercise , Child , Child Health , Costa Rica , Learning , Motor Activity
3.
Univ. salud ; 22(1): 70-76, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), COLNAL | ID: biblio-1094581

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El desarrollo de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC) y su fácil acceso, hacen de ésta una alternativa educativa que contribuye a incrementar la calidad de la educación, facilitando el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje con medios virtuales. Las lesiones elementales son alteraciones del tejido bucal y su conocimiento es importante para realizar un adecuado diagnóstico y manejo terapéutico. Objetivo: Diseñar, implementar y evaluar una aplicación móvil para la enseñanza de lesiones elementales en cavidad bucal. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de intervención, experimental, que evaluó una herramienta educativa sobre lesiones elementales bucales, utilizando una pre-prueba, una intervención y una prueba posterior, para el grupo control se evaluó el aprendizaje a través de la lectura de un artículo. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos mediante prueba de Chi 2 con un p≤0,05. Resultados: Ambos grupos lograron un incremento en el nivel de conocimiento sobre lesiones elementales; sin embargo, quien utilizó la aplicación móvil obtuvo resultados significativamente mejores de aprendizaje (Chi 2 p=0,014). Conclusiones: Las TIC constituyen una estrategia útil para afianzar nuevos conocimientos, se comprobó que los estudiantes que emplearon la herramienta educativa incrementaron significativamente el aprendizaje en lesiones elementales de una forma agradable y amena.


Introduction: The development and widespread access to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have reinforced the view of them as didactic alternatives to improve the quality of education. These technological advances have facilitated the teaching-learning process through the use of virtual media. Knowing elementary lesions in the oral cavity tissue is important for their appropriate diagnosis and therapeutic management. Objective: To design, implement and assess the use of a mobile application in the teaching of elementary lesions of the oral cavity. Materials and methods: An intervention and experimental study that evaluated a didactic tool about oral elementary lesions, applying intervention, pre and post testing. The control group learning skills were assessed through the reading of an article. We finally compared the results via Chi2 test, with p≤0.05. Results: Although both groups showed an improvement in learning levels, the group that used the mobile application achieved significantly better results in reference to learning about elementary lesions (Chi2 p=0.014). Conclusions: ICTs have become useful strategies to strengthen new knowledge. In this study, we show that students who used the educational tool improved the learning of elementary lesions, in a significant and enjoyable way.


Subject(s)
Pathology, Oral , Mouth , Effectiveness , Health Education , Information Technology , Learning
4.
Arq. bras. psicol. (Rio J. 2003) ; 72(1): 173-186, jan.-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1114679

ABSTRACT

O estudo exploratório e qualitativo do qual este artigo faz um recorte teve como objetivo caracterizar as estratégias de aprendizagem de estudantes de Ensino Técnico brasileiro. A amostra compreendeu 20 estudantes do primeiro ano do Ensino Técnico. Os participantes foram submetidos a uma entrevista semiestruturada sobre o seu modo de aprendizagem (a maneira como aprendem) e a sua prática de análise crítica (o grau de análise crítica empregue na aprendizagem). As respostas foram sujeitas a uma análise temática, que sugere uma replicação da estratégia de superfície (mecanização da aprendizagem e reduzida análise crítica), da estratégia de profundidade (compreensão e elevada análise crítica), da estratégia de organização (enfoque nos conteúdos que serão avaliados) e da estratégia intermédia (memorização e compreensão dos conteúdos). Foram igualmente encontradas variações daquelas estratégias.


The exploratory and qualitative study in which this article makes a cut had the objective of characterizing the learning strategies of Brazilian Vocational Education students. The sample comprised 20 students from the first year of a Technical Education course. Participants underwent a semi-structured interview about their learning mode (the way they learn) and their use of critical analysis (the degree of critical analysis employed in learning). The responses were subject to a thematic analysis, which suggests a replication of the surface strategy (mechanization of learning - reduced critical analysis), deep strategy (comprehension - high degree of critical analysis), achieving strategy (focus on the contents that will be evaluated) and the intermediate strategy (memorization and understanding of contents). Variations of these strategies were also found.


El estudio exploratorio y cualitativo del cual este artículo hace un recorte tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las estrategias de aprendizaje de estudiantes de Enseñanza Técnica brasileña. La muestra comprendió 20 estudiantes del primer año de la Enseñanza Técnica. Los participantes fueron sometidos a una entrevista semiestructurada sobre su modo de aprendizaje (la manera como aprenden) y su práctica de análisis crítico (el grado de análisis crítico empleado en el aprendizaje).Las respuestas se sometieron a un análisis temático, que sugiere una replicación de la estrategia de superficie (mecanización del aprendizaje y reducido análisis crítico), de la estrategia de profundidad (comprensión y alto análisis crítico), de la estrategia de organización (enfoque en los contenidos que serán evaluados) y de la estrategia intermedia (memorización y comprensión de los contenidos). También se encontraron variaciones de esas estrategias.


Subject(s)
Students , Teaching , Vocational Education , Education, Professional , Learning , Brazil
5.
Edumecentro ; 12(1): 202-221, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1090007

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: refiere la importancia de la Didáctica en la preparación del personal docente universitario, teniendo en cuenta las sugerencias del Dr. Juan Virgilio López Palacio, profesor destacado de la Universidad Central "Marta Abreu" de Las Villas, quien reafirma la necesidad de incluir estos programas en todas las carreras universitarias, donde se forman alumnos que más tarde ejercerán como docentes. Objetivo: fundamentar la importancia de la Didáctica en la preparación del personal docente universitario, según las sugerencias del Dr. Juan Virgilio López Palacio. Métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica entre enero-marzo 2019. Se consideraron artículos originales y de revisión en textos digitales e impresos, en español. Los artículos digitalizados se consultaron en SciELO, Dialnet y Google Académico. Se tuvo como criterios de inclusión: mención a la Didáctica y a la formación del personal docente universitario. Desarrollo: se exponen criterios de varios autores y en especial se toman como referente las sugerencias del Dr. López Palacio, sobre la preparación del profesor universitario como una prioridad de la universidad del siglo XXI y la influencia de la Didáctica en su formación, se proponen algunas acciones que demandan su aplicación como ciencia que ofrece al docente una preparación integral, válida para los diferentes niveles de enseñanza. Conclusiones: la preparación docente del profesor universitario debe comenzar desde el inicio de su carrera con la introducción de la Didáctica en sus currículos, y tendrá su continuidad en programas de posgrado para garantizar su actualización permanente y sistemática.


ABSTRACT Background: it refers to the importance of Didactics in the preparation of the university teaching staff, taking into account the suggestions of PhD. López Palacio, an outstanding professor at "Marta Abreu" Central University of Las Villas, who reaffirms the need to include these programs in all university degrees, where students who will later practice as teachers are trained. Objective: to base the importance of Didactics in the preparation of the university teaching staff, according to the suggestions of PhD. López Palacio. Method: a bibliographic review was carried out from January to March 2019. Original and review articles were considered in electronic and printed texts, in Spanish. The scanned articles were consulted on SciELO, Dialnet and Google Scholar. The inclusion criteria were included: mention of Didactics and the training of the university teaching staff. Development: criteria of several authors are presented and in particular the suggestions of PhD. López Palacio are taken as a reference, about the preparation of the university professor as a priority of the university of the 21st century and the role that Didactics plays in its formation, they propose some actions that demand the application of Didactics, as a science that offers the teacher a comprehensive preparation, valid for the different teaching levels. Conclusions: the teaching preparation of the university professor must begin since the beginning of its career with the introduction of Didactics in its curricula, and it will have its continuity in postgraduate programs to guarantee its steady and systematic updating.


Subject(s)
Education, Higher , Higher Education Policy , Teacher Training , Learning
6.
Edumecentro ; 12(1): 185-201, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1090006

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la investigación resulta un proceso complejo si las personas que la realizan son maestros noveles que intentan dar solución a problemas identificados en su práctica pedagógica. Objetivo: analizar desde una mirada problematizadora y dialéctica el proceso investigativo tomando como referencia "los seis humildes sirvientes" de Rudyard Kipling. Métodos: se presenta el resultado de la experiencia de las autoras obtenido a través de su participación en eventos, discusiones, debates científicos, asesoría de tesis de maestrías y tribunales en defensa de doctorados. Se consultaron textos de Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), de donde se seleccionó el analizado, artículos elaborados por las autoras y publicados en revistas internacionales; además de otras fuentes impresas y digitalizadas de pertinencia con el tema, utilizando buscadores reconocidos. Desarrollo: se enfatiza en la necesidad de enfrentar el proceso investigativo desde el inicio con una actitud cuestionadora que encamine un proceso de problematización desde la práctica y la teoría. Las autoras se apoyan en las seis preguntas básicas formuladas por Kipling quien, aunque no las formuló con el propósito de orientar el trabajo de investigación, les atribuyó un valor inapreciable en la adquisición del conocimiento y han sido utilizadas con este fin por diversos autores en disímiles ramas y especialidades. Conclusiones: se demostró la eficacia de aplicar "los seis humildes sirvientes" del escritor inglés Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) al vincularlos con categorías específicas de la investigación y su utilidad para emprender este difícil proceso, sobre todo dirigido a maestros noveles que intentan dar solución a problemas identificados en su práctica pedagógica pero sin experiencia como investigadores.


ABSTRACT Background: researching is a complex process if the people who carry it out are new teachers who try to solve problems identified in their pedagogical practice. Objective: to analyze the researching process from a problem-solving and dialectical perspective, taking as reference "the six humble servants" of Rudyard Kipling. Methods: the result of the experience of the authors obtained through their participation in events, discussions, scientific debates, advice on master´s thesis and examining boards in defense of doctorates is presented. Texts by Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) were consulted, from which the analyzed one was selected, articles prepared by the authors and published in international journals; In addition to other printed and electronic sources of relevance to the subject, using recognized search engines. Development: the need to face the researching process from the beginning is emphasized with a questioning attitude that guides a problem-solving process from practice and theory. The authors rely on the six basic questions asked by Kipling who, although he did not ask them for the purpose of guiding the research work, he attributed them an invaluable value in the acquisition of knowledge and they have been used for this purpose by various authors in dissimilar branches and specialties. Conclusions: the effectiveness of applying "the six humble servants" of the English writer Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) was demonstrated by linking them to specific categories of research and their usefulness to undertake this difficult process, especially aimed at novice teachers trying to give solution to problems identified in their pedagogical practice but without experience as researchers.


Subject(s)
Research , Research Design , Education, Medical , Exploratory Behavior , Learning
7.
Edumecentro ; 12(1): 169-184, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1090005

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: la asimilación de los contenidos de la asignatura Genética Médica requiere un aprendizaje significativo para responder a las exigencias del modelo del profesional y al acelerado desarrollo de la propia ciencia. Objetivo: identificar los factores que dificultan la asimilación de los contenidos de Genética Medica en estudiantes de Medicina. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Zoilo Marinello Vidaurreta" de la provincia Las Tunas, durante el curso 2016-2017. Se emplearon métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis, inductivo-deductivo e histórico-lógico; y empíricos: prueba pedagógica, encuesta en forma de cuestionario y entrevista de carácter grupal, los que contribuyeron a la fundamentación y elaboración de los resultados. Resultados: se constataron dificultades en la retención de los contenidos de Genética Médica en los estudiantes; se reconocieron como factores que inciden los inadecuados métodos y medios de enseñanza, insuficiencias de bibliografía y su complejidad, y la descontextualización de las situaciones problémicas con las del futuro desempeño profesional. Conclusiones: los factores que dificultan la asimilación de los contenidos de Genética Médica están condicionados por la deficiente utilización de estrategias de enseñanza aprendizaje, en las que deben predominar métodos activos y medios de enseñanza novedosos y motivadores.


ABSTRACT Background: the assimilation of the contents of the Medical Genetics subject requires meaningful learning to respond to the demands of the professional model and the accelerated development of science itself. Objective: to identify the factors which hinder the assimilation of the contents of Medical Genetics in medical students. Method: a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at "M D. Zoilo Marinello Vidaurreta" University of Medical Sciences from Las Tunas province, during the 2016-2017 academic year. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis, inductive-deductive and systemic-structural; and empirical ones: pedagogical test, questionnaire survey and group interview, which contributed to the foundation and elaboration of results. Results: difficulties were observed in the retention of the contents of Medical Genetics in the students; factors that affect were recognized they are the inadequate methods and teaching aids, inadequacies of bibliography and its complexity, and the decontextualization of the problem solving situations with those of future professional performance. Conclusions: the factors that hinder the assimilation of the contents of Medical Genetics are conditioned by the deficient use of teaching-learning strategies, in which active methods and innovative and motivating teaching methods must predominate.


Subject(s)
Strategies , Education, Medical , Genetics , Learning
8.
Edumecentro ; 12(1): 131-150, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1090003

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: la actividad científico-investigativa de los estudiantes constituye un proceso que transita de lo simple a lo complejo, lo cual reclama la elaboración de tareas docentes que los motiven y faciliten el cumplimiento de los objetivos de la metodología de la investigación. Objetivo: elaborar tareas docentes para potenciar habilidades investigativas en los estudiantes desde la asignatura Metodología de la Investigación en tercer año de la carrera Sistema de la Información en Salud. Métodos: se realizó una investigación de desarrollo en la Facultad de Tecnología-Enfermería de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara, durante el curso 2016-2017. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis, inductivo-deductivo y sistémico-estructural; empíricos: revisión documental, entrevista a informantes clave, y cuestionario a docentes y estudiantes; y matemático-estadísticos para los valores absolutos y relativos. Resultados: los programas de estudio plantean importantes exigencias investigativas como instrumento en algunas evaluaciones finales de las materias que los conforman; sin embargo, al finalizar la impartición de la asignatura Metodología de la Investigación se evidenció insuficiente desarrollo de habilidades investigativas por los alumnos quienes reconocieron no sentirse suficientemente preparados para investigar por sí solos, lo cual fue corroborado por sus profesores, por lo que se elaboraron tareas docentes para solucionar la mencionada problemática. Conclusiones: las tareas docentes orientan sobre el tema a que se refieren y sus objetivos. Fueron valoradas por criterios de especialistas como adecuadas por su pertinencia, estructura metodológica y factibilidad para ser aplicadas.


ABSTRACT Background: the scientific-research activity of the students constitutes a process that moves from the simple to the complex, which demands the elaboration of teaching tasks that motivate them and facilitate the fulfillment of the objectives of the research methodology. Objective: to develop teaching tasks to enhance research skills in students from the subject Research Methodology in the third year of the Health Information System career. Methods: a development research was carried out at the Faculty of Technology-Nursing of Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences, during the 2016-2017 academic year. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis, inductive-deductive and systemic-structural; Empirical: documentary review, interview to key informants, and questionnaire for teachers and students; and mathematical-statistics for absolute and relative values. Results: the study programs pose important research requirements as an instrument in some final evaluations of the subjects that comprise them; however, at the end of the teaching of the Research Methodology course, insufficient development of research skills was evidenced by the students who recognized that they did not feel sufficiently prepared to investigate on their own, which was corroborated by their professors, so teaching tasks were developed to solve the aforementioned problem. Conclusions: the teaching tasks orient on the subject to which they refer and their objectives. They were valued by criteria of specialists as appropriate for their relevance, methodological structure and feasibility to be applied.


Subject(s)
Research , Students , Education, Medical , Learning
9.
Edumecentro ; 12(1): 30-45, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1089997

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: en la electrocardiografía es importante tener la habilidad de interpretar, además de confianza para lograr una definición certera en el diagnóstico y tratamiento. Objetivo: implementar un taller utilizando el aprendizaje basado en la simulación clínica para la interpretación del electrocardiograma. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo y longitudinal en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, durante 2018. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis e inducción-deducción; y empíricos: una encuesta y un examen de interpretación de electrocardiograma antes y después del taller aplicado. Resultados: en la evaluación sobre la identificación del electrocardiograma hubo una mejoría significativa posterior a la realización del taller en aspectos como: la interpretación del ritmo, del eje cardíaco, de ondas y en la asignación de diagnósticos en un menor tiempo según el postest. Se constató la diferencia de resultados tanto en confianza, aptitudes obtenidas, resolución de dudas y de aprendizaje reflexivo centrados en la génesis de cada aspecto del electrocardiograma, lo que permitió al equipo de trabajo ubicarlos como puntos clave en la adquisición de habilidades prácticas e intelectuales. Conclusiones: la implementación del taller permitió una mejoría significativa en las habilidades de los estudiantes para la interpretación del electrocardiograma, lo cual condicionó que se sintieran más confiados en sus apreciaciones; por lo que se evidenció la efectividad de su aplicación.


ABSTRACT Background: in electrocardiography it is important to have the ability to interpret, as well as confidence to achieve an accurate definition in diagnosis and treatment. Objective: to implement a workshop using clinical simulation based learning for electrocardiogram interpretation. Methods: a descriptive and longitudinal study was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine of Mexico National Autonomous University, during 2018. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis and induction-deduction; and empirical: a survey and an electrocardiogram interpretation test before and after the applied workshop. Results: in the evaluation on the identification of the electrocardiogram there was a meaningful improvement after the workshop was carried out in aspects such as: the interpretation of the rhythm, of the cardiac axis, of waves and in the assignment of diagnoses in a shorter time according to the posttest. The difference in results was observed both in confidence, skills obtained, resolution of doubts and reflexive learning focused on the genesis of each aspect of the electrocardiogram, which allowed the working team to locate them as key points in the acquisition of practical and intellectual skills. Conclusions: the implementation of the workshop allowed a meaningful improvement in the students' abilities to interpret the electrocardiogram, which caused them to feel more confident in their assessments; so the effectiveness of its application was evidenced.


Subject(s)
Electrocardiography , Students, Medical , Education, Medical , Learning
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 74-77, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1056400

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to analyze the performance and perception of learning in relation to the Traditional Method (TM) and Constructivist Method (CM) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The sample consisted of 76 students of the Physical Education course of the State University of Londrina, randomly distributed into two groups: TM and CM. The TM group received theoretical-expository and practical classes. The CM group was taken to the laboratory for practical classes and the participants of this class were allocated in up to seven per work table. Didactic materials and cadaveric parts were made available for consultation. After both intervention methods, the groups performed an evaluation on the studied content. The following week, a crossover was performed between the groups and, after the intervention, all participants were again evaluated. Before being given the outcome of their evaluations, participants were asked to answer questions about their perception of learning in relation to the above-mentioned methods. After the analysis, it was verified that the TM group obtained better results in the tests when compared to the CM group. In addition, according to students' perceptions, TM also favored learning more than CM. Therefore, it was evidenced in the present study that the traditional method was more favorable both for the quantitative performance and learning perception of the participants.


El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar el rendimiento y la percepción del aprendizaje en relación con el Método Tradicional (MT) y el Método Constructivista (MC) en la enseñanza de la Anatomía Humana. La muestra consistió en 76 estudiantes del curso de Educación Física de la Universidad Estatal de Londrina, distribuidos aleatoriamente en dos grupos: MT y MC. El grupo MT recibió clases teórico-expositivas y prácticas. El grupo MC fue llevado al laboratorio para clases prácticas y los participantes de esta clase fueron asignados en hasta siete por mesa de trabajo. Los materiales didácticos y las piezas cadavéricas se pusieron a disposición para consulta. Después de ambos métodos de intervención, los grupos realizaron una evaluación del contenido estudiado. La semana siguiente, se realizó un cruce entre los grupos y, después de la intervención, todos los participantes fueron evaluados nuevamente. Antes de recibir el resultado de sus evaluaciones, se les pidió a los participantes que respondieran preguntas sobre su percepción del aprendizaje en relación con los métodos mencionados anteriormente. Después del análisis, se verificó que el grupo MT obtuvo mejores resultados en las pruebas en comparación con el grupo MC. Además, según las percepciones de los estudiantes, MT también favoreció el aprendizaje más que MC. Por lo tanto, se evidenció en el presente estudio que el método tradicional era más favorable tanto para el rendimiento cuantitativo como para la percepción del aprendizaje de los participantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Perception , Students/psychology , Problem-Based Learning , Learning , Physical Education and Training , Teaching , Educational Measurement/methods , Anatomy/education , Models, Theoretical
11.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-787143

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective role of imatinib in global ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury along with possible mechanisms. Global ischemia was induced in mice by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 20 min, which was followed by reperfusion for 24 h by restoring the blood flow to the brain. The extent of cerebral injury was assessed after 24 h of global ischemia by measuring the locomotor activity (actophotometer test), motor coordination (inclined beam walking test), neurological severity score, learning and memory (object recognition test) and cerebral infarction (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride stain). Ischemia-reperfusion injury produced significant cerebral infarction, impaired the behavioral parameters and decreased the expression of connexin 43 and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in the brain. A single dose administration of imatinib (20 and 40 mg/kg) attenuated ischemia-reperfusion-induced behavioral deficits and the extent of cerebral infarction along with the restoration of connexin 43 and p-STAT3 levels. However, administration of AG490, a selective Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 inhibitor, abolished the neuroprotective actions of imatinib and decreased the expression of connexin 43 and p-STAT3. It is concluded that imatinib has the potential of attenuating global ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury, which may be possibly attributed to activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway along with the increase in the expression of connexin 43.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Carotid Arteries , Cerebral Infarction , Connexin 43 , Imatinib Mesylate , Ischemia , Learning , Memory , Mice , Motor Activity , Neuroprotection , Phosphotransferases , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Transducers , Walking
12.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-787140

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia worldwide, and is mainly characterized by aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ). Increasing evidence has shown that plant extracts have the potential to delay AD development. The plant sterol β-Sitosterol has a potential role in inhibiting the production of platelet Aβ, suggesting that it may be useful for AD prevention. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of β-Sitosterol on deficits in learning and memory in amyloid protein precursor/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice. APP/PS1 mice were treated with β-Sitosterol for four weeks, from the age of seven months. Brain Aβ metabolism was evaluated using ELISA and Western blotting. We found that β-Sitosterol treatment can improve spatial learning and recognition memory ability, and reduce plaque load in APP/PS1 mice. β-Sitosterol treatment helped reverse dendritic spine loss in APP/PS1 mice and reversed the decreased hippocampal neuron miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequency. Our research helps to explain and support the neuroprotective effect of β-Sitosterol, which may offer a novel pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of AD. Taken together, these findings suggest that β-Sitosterol ameliorates memory and learning impairment in APP/PS1 mice and possibly decreases Aβ deposition.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Animals , Blood Platelets , Blotting, Western , Brain , Cognition Disorders , Dementia , Dendritic Spines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Learning , Memory , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Plant Extracts , Plants , Plaque, Amyloid , Spatial Learning
13.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-787135

ABSTRACT

Although microscopic analysis of tissue slides has been the basis for disease diagnosis for decades, intra- and inter-observer variabilities remain issues to be resolved. The recent introduction of digital scanners has allowed for using deep learning in the analysis of tissue images because many whole slide images (WSIs) are accessible to researchers. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of a deep learning-based, fully automated, computer-aided diagnosis system with WSIs from a stomach adenocarcinoma dataset. Three different convolutional neural network architectures were tested to determine the better architecture for tissue classifier. Each network was trained to classify small tissue patches into normal or tumor. Based on the patch-level classification, tumor probability heatmaps can be overlaid on tissue images. We observed three different tissue patterns, including clear normal, clear tumor and ambiguous cases. We suggest that longer inspection time can be assigned to ambiguous cases compared to clear normal cases, increasing the accuracy and efficiency of histopathologic diagnosis by pre-evaluating the status of the WSIs. When the classifier was tested with completely different WSI dataset, the performance was not optimal because of the different tissue preparation quality. By including a small amount of data from the new dataset for training, the performance for the new dataset was much enhanced. These results indicated that WSI dataset should include tissues prepared from many different preparation conditions to construct a generalized tissue classifier. Thus, multi-national/multi-center dataset should be built for the application of deep learning in the real world medical practice.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Classification , Dataset , Diagnosis , Learning , Observer Variation , Stomach
14.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-786209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore the additional discriminative accuracy of a deep learning (DL) algorithm using repeated-measures data for identifying people at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to Cox hazard regression.METHODS: Two CVD prediction models were developed from National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS): a Cox regression model and a DL model. Performance of each model was assessed in the internal and 2 external validation cohorts in Koreans (National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort; NHIS-NSC) and in Europeans (Rotterdam Study). A total of 412,030 adults in the NHIS-HEALS; 178,875 adults in the NHIS-NSC; and the 4,296 adults in Rotterdam Study were included.RESULTS: Mean ages was 52 years (46% women) and there were 25,777 events (6.3%) in NHIS-HEALS during the follow-up. In internal validation, the DL approach demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.896 (95% confidence interval, 0.886–0.907) in men and 0.921 (0.908–0.934) in women and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (net reclassification index [NRI], 24.8% in men, 29.0% in women). In external validation with NHIS-NSC, DL demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.868 (0.860–0.876) in men and 0.889 (0.876–0.898) in women, and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (NRI, 24.9% in men, 26.2% in women). In external validation applied to the Rotterdam Study, DL demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.860 (0.824–0.897) in men and 0.867 (0.830–0.903) in women, and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (NRI, 36.9% in men, 31.8% in women).CONCLUSIONS: A DL algorithm exhibited greater discriminative accuracy than Cox model approaches.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02931500


Subject(s)
Adult , Artificial Intelligence , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Insurance, Health , Learning , Male , Mass Screening , National Health Programs
15.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-810948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To help medical students learn anatomy effectively in limited hours, a regional anatomy book enhancing students' memorization was developed.METHODS: Only anatomical terms essential for basic cadaver dissection are included along with schematic figures which enable memorization of complicated anatomical structures. Learning comics and comic strips that depict anatomy mnemonics and jokes were appended and sentences were written to be comfortably readable. The electronic book titled “Visually Memorable Regional Anatomy” has been distributed without payment or registration. With the help of 246 volunteer students from three Korean medical schools, the book's learning effects were evaluated.RESULTS: These students' book reading led to increase in their anatomy scores, including written examination scores and tag examination scores. It was an encouraging result that almost 20% of students spontaneously read the book no matter who presented their lecture or examination. A webpage version of the book was visited by thousands of users.CONCLUSION: The book with unique features may suggest a new perspective in the field of anatomy learning. After having acquaintance with essential structures from reading the book, students are able to and willing to study more from other resources.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Regional , Books, Illustrated , Cadaver , Education , Humans , Internet , Learning , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical , Volunteers
16.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816631

ABSTRACT

Since the identification of succinate's receptor in 2004, studies supporting the involvement of succinate signaling through its receptor in various diseases have accumulated and most of these investigations have highlighted succinate's pro-inflammatory role. Taken with the fact that succinate is an intermediate metabolite in the center of mitochondrial activity, and considering its potential regulation of protein succinylation through succinyl-coenzyme A, a review on the overall multifaceted actions of succinate to discuss whether and how these actions relate to the cellular locations of succinate is much warranted. Mechanistically, it is important to consider the sources of succinate, which include somatic cellular released succinate and those produced by the microbiome, especially the gut microbiota, which is an equivalent, if not greater contributor of succinate levels in the body. Continue learning the critical roles of succinate signaling, known and unknown, in many pathophysiological conditions is important. Furthermore, studies to delineate the regulation of succinate levels and to determine how succinate elicits various types of signaling in a temporal and spatial manner are also required.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammation , Learning , Microbiota , Periodontitis , Succinates , Succinic Acid
17.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782271

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop machine learning (ML) and initial nursing assessment (INA)-based emergency department (ED) triage to predict adverse clinical outcome.METHODS: The retrospective study included ED visits between January 2016 and December 2017 that resulted in either intensive care unit admission or emergency room death. We trained four classifiers using logistic regression and a deep learning model on INA and low dimensional (LD) INA, logistic regression on the Korea Triage and acuity scale (KTAS) and Sequential Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). We varied the outcome ratio for external validation. Finally, variables of importance were identified using the random forest model's information gain. The four most influential variables were used for LD modeling for efficiency.RESULTS: A total of 86,304 patient visits were included, with an overall outcome rate of 3.5%. The area under the curve (AUC) values for the KTAS model were 76.8 (74.9–78.6) with logistic regression and 74.0 (72.1–75.9) for the SOFA model, while the AUC values of the INA model were 87.2 (85.9–88.6) and 87.6 (86.3–88.9) with logistic regression and deep learning, suggesting that the ML and INA-based triage system result more accurately predicted the outcomes. The AUC values for the LD model were 81.2 (79.4–82.9) and 80.7 (78.9–82.5) for logistic regression and deep learning, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: We developed an ML and INA-based triage system for EDs. The novel system was able to predict clinical outcomes more accurately than existing triage systems, KTAS and SOFA.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Forests , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Learning , Logistic Models , Machine Learning , Nursing Assessment , Nursing , Retrospective Studies , Triage
18.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to develop and compare predictive models based on supervised machine learning algorithms for predicting the prolonged length of stay (LOS) of hospitalized patients diagnosed with five different chronic conditions.METHODS: An administrative claim dataset (2008–2012) of a regional network of nine hospitals in the Tampa Bay area, Florida, USA, was used to develop the prediction models. Features were extracted from the dataset using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. Five learning algorithms, namely, decision tree C5.0, linear support vector machine (LSVM), k-nearest neighbors, random forest, and multi-layered artificial neural networks, were used to build the model with semi-supervised anomaly detection and two feature selection methods. Issues with the unbalanced nature of the dataset were resolved using the Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE).RESULTS: LSVM with wrapper feature selection performed moderately well for all patient cohorts. Using SMOTE to counter data imbalances triggered a tradeoff between the model's sensitivity and specificity, which can be masked under a similar area under the curve. The proposed aggregate rank selection approach resulted in a balanced performing model compared to other criteria. Finally, factors such as comorbidity conditions, source of admission, and payer types were associated with the increased risk of a prolonged LOS.CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged LOS is mostly associated with pre-intraoperative clinical and patient socioeconomic factors. Accurate patient identification with the risk of prolonged LOS using the selected model can provide hospitals a better tool for planning early discharge and resource allocation, thus reducing avoidable hospitalization costs.


Subject(s)
Bays , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Dataset , Decision Trees , Florida , Forests , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , International Classification of Diseases , Learning , Length of Stay , Machine Learning , Masks , Patient Discharge , Resource Allocation , Sensitivity and Specificity , Socioeconomic Factors , Supervised Machine Learning , Support Vector Machine
19.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Back pain, especially lower back pain, is experienced in 60% to 80% of adults at some points during their lives. Various studies have found that lower back pain is a very common problem among adolescents, and the highest incidence rates are for adults in their 30s. There has been a remarkable increase in using computer-aided diagnosis to assist doctors in the interpretation of medical images. Spine segmentation in computed tomography (CT) scans using algorithmic methods allows improved diagnosis of back pain.METHODS: In this study, we developed a web-based automatic spine segmentation method using deep learning and obtained the dice coefficient by comparison with the predicted image. Our method is based on convolutional neural networks for segmentation. More specifically, we train a hierarchical data format file using U-Net architecture and then insert the test data label to perform segmentation. Thus, we obtained more specific and detailed results. A total of 344 CT images were used in the experiment. Of these, 330 were used for learning, and the remaining 14 for testing.RESULTS: Our method achieved an average dice coefficient of 90.4%, a precision of 96.81%, and an F1-score of 91.64%.CONCLUSIONS: The proposed web-based deep learning approach can be very practical and accurate for spine segmentation as a diagnostic method.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Back Pain , Classification , Diagnosis , Health Information Systems , Humans , Incidence , Learning , Low Back Pain , Methods , Spine
20.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782171

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence has been applied to many industries, including medicine. Among the various techniques in artificial intelligence, deep learning has attained the highest popularity in medical imaging in recent years. Many articles on deep learning have been published in radiologic journals. However, radiologists may have difficulty in understanding and interpreting these studies because the study methods of deep learning differ from those of traditional radiology. This review article aims to explain the concepts and terms that are frequently used in deep learning radiology articles, facilitating general radiologists' understanding.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Diagnostic Imaging , Learning
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