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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921699

ABSTRACT

Whitmania pigra is the most widely distributed species of leeches in the market. In this study, the effect of heavy metal lead pollution on the anticoagulant activity of Wh. pigra was studied and the potential mechanism was explored. Pb(NO_3)_2 was used to contaminate the breeding soil which was then used to rear Wh. pigra for 50 days(lead-contaminated group, LC group), and meanwhile the blank control group(CG group) was set. Proteins were extracted from the obtained leech samples, and the differentially expressed proteins between LC and CG groups were analyzed by label-free proteomics technology. In this study, a total of 152 differentially expressed proteins were screened out, of which 93 proteins were up-regulated and 59 proteins were down-regulated in LC group. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the biological processes enriched with the differentially expressed proteins were mainly vesicle-mediated transport and transport positive regulation; the enriched cell components were mainly endocytosis vesicles and apical plasma membrane; the enriched molecular functions mainly included carbohydrate binding. The differentially expressed proteins were enriched in 76 KEGG pathways, which mainly involved metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and bacterial invasion of epithelial cells. In this study, two differentially expressed proteins with Antistasin domain were presumed, which provides reference for further exploring the regulatory mechanism and signal transduction underlying the effect of lead pollution on the anticoagulant activity of leech.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Environmental Pollution , Leeches , Metals, Heavy , Proteomics
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879041

ABSTRACT

Protein kinase C(PKC) is a kind of kinase which is widely involved in cell proliferation and development. PKC(Wp-PKC) in Whitmania pigra body belongs to classic PKC. In order to investigate the effect of Wp-PKC on the development of Wh. pigra germ cells, 17β-estradiol(17β-E2)(100 ng·mL~(-1)) and methyltestosterone(MT)(150 μg·L~(-1)), 150 μg·L~(-1)(MT)+0.5 mg·L~(-1) PKC, 0.5 mg·L~(-1) PKC inhibitor were added to Wh. pigra culture water, and no addition group(control group) was added, and the effects on the development of Wh. pigra germ cells and the expression of Wp-PKC were observed. The results showed that: Wp-PKC in male gonads was always higher than that in female gonads; MT promoted the development of male gonads in Wh. pigra, while the expression of Wp-PKC was significantly higher than that in the control; 17β-E2 promoted the development of female gonads in Wh. pigra and Wp-PKC expression significantly lower than that of the control; while the development of the female and male gonads in the PKC inhibitor group was inhibited, the expression of Wp-PKC was significantly lower than that of the control. In summary, Wp-PKC may promote the development of Wh. pigra, especially the development of male gonads.


Subject(s)
Animals , Estradiol , Female , Gonads , Leeches , Male , Methyltestosterone , Ovary
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878884

ABSTRACT

Protein kinase C(PKC) is a type of protein kinase widely involved in cell proliferation and development, but the developmental mechanism in the gonads of androgynous animals is still unclear. In order to explore the role of protein kinase C in the development of Whitmania pigra germ cells, the Wh. pigra PKC(Wp-PKC) gene was cloned, bioinformatics analysis was conducted, and fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of female and male gonads. The results showed that:(1)The cloned Wp-PKC had a full length of 2 580 bp, a relative molecular weight of 76 555.19, and contains an open reading frame encoding 670 amino acids, Wp-PKC was closely related to Danio rerio PKC-α and rat PKC-γ. The similarity of amino acid sequence was 55% and 58%.(2)The protein encoded by Wp-PKC had no signal peptide and was a hydrophilic protein. The secondary structure is mainly composed of random coils, α-helices, extended chains, folds and folds, with the largest proportion of random coils and α-helices. Wp-PKC protein does not contain a transmembrane domain. Multiple sequence alignment and domain prediction analysis show that Wp-PKC contains 4 conserved domains of classical protein kinase C.(3)Fluorescence quantitative results showed that the expression of Wp-PKC in Wh. pigra gonads was positively correlated with the development of germ cells, and the expression in male gonads was significantly higher than that in female gonads. In summary, Wp-PKC is a classic PKC, and Wp-PKC may promote the development of Wh. pigra, especially the development of male gonads, and provide references for further research on the developmental mechanisms of Wh. pigra.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cloning, Molecular , Female , Gonads , Leeches/genetics , Male , Ovary , Protein Kinase C/genetics , Rats
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888783

ABSTRACT

A large number of protease inhibitors have been found from leeches, which are essential in various physiological and biological processes. In the curret study, a novel elastase inhibitor was purified and characterized from the leech of Hirudinaria manillensis, which was named HMEI-A. Primary structure analysis showed that HMEI-A belonged to a new family of proteins. HMEI-A exerted inhibitory effects on elastase and showed potent abilities to inhibit elastase with an inhibition constant (K


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Leeches/chemistry , Pancreatic Elastase/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Proteins
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773727

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to explores the effects of short-term addition of 17β-E2 on the growth,gonad development and internal quality of overwintering Whitmania pigra. Before overwintering,0. 0,1. 0,10. 0,25. 0,50. 0,100. 0 μg·L~(-1) of 17β-E2 were added to the aquaculture water for 6 weeks and then hibernated for 60 days. The changes of growth performance,gonad index,morphological structure of spermary( ovary),endogenous steroid hormones level and internal quality were measured. The results showed that the body weight,weight gain rate,specific growth rate,female gonad index,oocyte development and endogenous estrogen level of the leech increased first and then decreased with the increase of the concentration of exogenous 17β-E2,which were higher than those of the control group. The body weight,weight gain rate and specific growth rate of the leech at the concentration of 25 μg·L~(-1)17β-E2 were significantly higher than those of the other groups( P<0. 05),oocyte development and endogenous estrogen levels were significantly higher than those of other groups at the concentration of 50 μg·L~(-1)( P<0. 05). When the concentration of exogenous 17β-E2 was higher than 50 μg·L~(-1),the levels of male gonad index,spermatocyte development,endogenous androgen and progesterone were significantly inhibited( P< 0. 05). There was no significant difference in endogenous corticosteroid levels among the groups. In conclusion,short-term addition of exogenous 17β-E2 of 10-25 μg·L~(-1) could promote the growth of overwintering leeches,oocyte development and antithrombin activity without inhibiting the development of male gonads.


Subject(s)
Androgens , Animals , Estradiol , Pharmacology , Estrogens , Female , Gonads , Hibernation , Leeches , Male , Progesterone
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180425, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003129

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study describes the isolation of a leech following the presentation of unusual vaginal bleeding. Vaginal bleeding in children due to a leech bite is very rare. This is the first report of severe bleeding in a virgin 14-year-old girl from Mashhad, Iran due to the presence of a leech in the vagina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Adolescent , Uterine Hemorrhage/etiology , Vagina/injuries , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Leeches
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(2): e7988, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984025

ABSTRACT

Recovery of motor function after central nervous system (CNS) injury is dependent on the regeneration capacity of the nervous system, which is a multifactorial process influenced, among other things, by the role of neuromodulators such as serotonin. The neurotransmitter serotonin can promote neuronal regeneration but there are also reports of it causing restriction, so it is important to clarify these divergent findings in order to understand the direct scope and side effects of potential pharmacological treatments. We evaluated the effect of serotonin on the extent of neuritic outgrowth and morphology of three different neuronal types in the leech Haementeria officinalis during their regeneration in vitro: Retzius interneurons (Rz), annulus erector (AE) motoneurons, and anterolateral number 1 (AL1) CNS neurons. Neurons were isolated and cultured in L15 medium, with or without serotonin. Growth parameters were registered and quantified, and observed differences were analyzed. The addition of serotonin was found to induce AL1 neurons to increase their average growth dramatically by 8.3-fold (P=0.02; n=5), and to have no clear effect on AE motoneurons (P=0.44; n=5). For Rz interneurons, which normally do not regenerate their neurites, the addition of concanavaline-A causes substantial growth, which serotonin was found to inhibit on average by 98% (P=0.02; n=5). The number of primary neurites and their branches were also affected. These results reveal that depending on the neuronal type, serotonin can promote, inhibit, or have no effect on neuronal regeneration. This suggests that after CNS injury, non-specific pharmacological treatments affecting serotonin may have different effects on different neuronal populations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Serotonin/pharmacology , Central Nervous System/cytology , Neurites/drug effects , Leeches/drug effects , Motor Neurons/drug effects , Nerve Regeneration/drug effects , Concanavalin A/pharmacology , Neuronal Plasticity/drug effects
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771666

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect of leech on lipid metabolism and liver function in hyperlipidemia rats and the possible mechanism, biochemical analyzer was used to examine the regulation of leech on levels of serum triglycerides(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). The levels of ALT and AST in serum were detected by ELISA. The proteins expression of ACAT-2, Fas and HMGCR in liver tissue was detected by Western blot. The weight of body and liver were weighed, and liver index was calculated. Oil red O staining was used to observe the lipid accumulation in liver tissue of rats by light Microscope. The results showed that leech could decrease the levels of TC, LDL-C obviously, and increase HDL-C, decrease the levels of ALT, AST and the liver index, down-regulate the proteins expression of ACAT-2, Fas and HMGCR. And oil red O staining indicated that the lipid accumulation was less in the liver tissue of the rats intervented by leech. These data indicated that leech may affect the expression of ACAT-2, Fas and HMGCR in liver tissue to reduce the synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acid, and promote the cholesterol transforming, then regulate lipid metabolism to decrease the levels of serum lipid, and reduce lipid accumulation in liver tissue and ease liver injury of rats, then slowing down the process of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) in hyperlipidemia rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cholesterol , Blood , Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases , Metabolism , Hyperlipidemias , Therapeutics , Leeches , Lipid Metabolism , Liver , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Therapeutics , Rats , Sterol O-Acyltransferase , Metabolism , Triglycerides , Blood , fas Receptor , Metabolism
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776388

ABSTRACT

The reproductive system and gonad development and germ cell occurrence of Whitmania pigra have been studied by using tissue section electron microscope techniques. W. pigra has completely independent male and female reproduction system, which lasts 11 months. The development of spermary started before the development of ovary. When egg cell is only a primordial germ cell, sperm has an initially complete form. Meanwhile, sperm cells and egg cells orderly development and synchronously mature. According to the development of sperm cells and egg cells, the development of cycle of the spermary could be divided into 6 stages: proliferating stage (1-3 months of age), growing stage (4-5 months of age), resting stage (6-8 months of age), maturing stage (9 months of age), spawning stage (10 months of age) and degradation stage (11 months of age). The development of cycle of the ovary could be divided into 6 stages: forming stage (1-2 months of age), proliferating stage (3-4 months of age), growing stage (5-8 months of age), maturing stage (9 months of age), spawning stage (10 months of age) and resting stage (11 months of age). W. pigra is a synchronous hermaphrodite animal, the development of cycle of the spermary and ovary each has six stages, sperm cells and egg cells orderly development and synchronously mature.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Gonads , Cell Biology , Leeches , Male , Ovary , Cell Biology , Ovum , Cell Biology , Reproduction , Spermatocytes , Cell Biology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812050

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the intervening role of Didang decoction (DDD) at different times in macrovascular endothelial defense function, focusing on its effects on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. The effects of DDD on mitochondrial energy metabolism were also investigated in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). Type 2 diabetes were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) combined with high fat diet. Rats were randomly divided into non-intervention group, metformin group, simvastatin group, and early-, middle-, late-stage DDD groups. Normal rats were used as control. All the rats received 12 weeks of intervention or control treatment. Western blots were used to detect the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor 1α (PGC-1α). Changes in the intracellular AMP and ATP levels were detected with ELISA. Real-time-PCR was used to detect the mRNA level of caspase-3, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and Bcl-2. Compared to the diabetic non-intervention group, a significant increase in the expression of AMPKα1 and PGC-1α were observed in the early-stage, middle-stage DDD groups and simvastatin group (P < 0.05). The levels of Bcl-2, eNOS, and ATP were significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the level of AMP and caspase-3 were decreased (P < 0.05) in the early-stage DDD group and simvastatin group. Early intervention with DDD enhances mitochondrial energy metabolism by regulating the AMPK signaling pathway and therefore may play a role in strengthening the defense function of large vascular endothelial cells and postpone the development of macrovascular diseases in diabetes.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate , Metabolism , Animals , Aorta , Metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases , Metabolism , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Diptera , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Endothelial Cells , Metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular , Metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Leeches , Mitochondria , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Metabolism , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha , Metabolism , Phytotherapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Prunus persica , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rheum , Signal Transduction
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68145

ABSTRACT

Medical leech therapy is a treatment for the venous congestion of tissue flaps, grafts, and replants. We report a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) following leech application at a congested flap after mastectomy. A 45-year-old woman had an invasive ductal carcinoma. Modified radical mastectomy was performed. The chest wall defect was reconstructed with a local rotation flap. On postoperative day (POD) 1, congestion and color change were observed, and 10 medical leeches were applied to the congested area. On POD 4, another 10 medical leeches were applied. On POD 12, wound necrosis progressed and a pus-like discharge appeared. A wound swab culture revealed MRSA. Debridement was carried out on POD 15. From POD 16, vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam were injected for 18 days. The wound culture on POD 18 also revealed MRSA. A split-thickness skin graft was performed on POD 28. MRSA has not been clearly identified in the literature as a leech enteric bacterium. Although MRSA may have come from another source, the present case raises the possibility of MRSA infections following leech application at congested flaps. When medical leeches are applied at the congestion site of a flap, an aseptic cradle will be helpful. Vancomycin irrigation may be needed if infection occurs.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Ductal , Debridement , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Female , Humans , Hyperemia , Leeches , Leeching , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Modified Radical , Methicillin Resistance , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Middle Aged , Necrosis , Skin , Surgical Wound Infection , Thoracic Wall , Transplants , Vancomycin , Wounds and Injuries
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of leeches can effectively increase the salvage rate of flap congestion. However, the first reaction from patients and carers in using leeches in clinical fields is strong aversion. This can be due to the fact that development of our culture from agriculture to industrial society, coming across leeches became fairly rare. Also because of the biological traits that leeches carry; staying attached to a leg or other body parts of the host, sucking blood, and leaving wounds. METHODS: This study was conducted through questionnaires, divided into many subgroups. We scaled the compliance of the two therapies, with or without leech. Maximum scale of 10 showing no rejective response to the therapy and minimum scale of 0 showing the greatest rejective response. RESULTS: Overall subjects' compliance was improved after explaining the benefits of hirudotherapy. Irrelevant to the explanation, there was no significant difference in general compliance between male and female. Young-aged group and medical personnel or people studying medicine showed higher compliance over older-aged group and the general public. CONCLUSION: In the terms of general social cognition, recognizing leech as a therapeutic material may not be welcomed at first, but provided with proper information and explanations, overall compliance of patients and carers can be improved and consequently result in superior outcomes in flap salvage.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Bloodletting , Caregivers , Cognition , Compliance , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Female , Human Body , Humans , Leeches , Leg , Male , Patient Compliance , Surgical Flaps , Surveys and Questionnaires , Wounds and Injuries
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(3): 299-305, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795073

ABSTRACT

Abstract Among Kinetoplastida, the Trypanosoma is the genus with the highest occurrence infecting populations of marine fish and freshwater in the world, with high levels of prevalence, causing influences fish health and consequent economic losses, mainly for fish populations in situation stress. This study investigated infections of Hypostomus spp. by Trypanosoma spp. and leeches, as well as blood parameters of this host in the network of tributaries of the Tapajós River in the state of Pará, in the eastern Amazon region in Brazil. Of the 47 hosts examined, 89.4% were parasitized by Trypanosoma spp. and 55.4% also had leeches attached around the mouth. The intensity of Trypanosoma spp. increased with the size of the host, but the body conditions were not influenced by the parasitism. The number of red blood cells, and hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), total number of leukocytes and thrombocytes showed variations and negative correlation with the intensity of Trypanosoma spp. in the blood of the hosts. The results suggest that the leeches were vectors of Trypanosoma spp. in Hypostomus spp.


Resumo Dentre os Kinetoplastida, Trypanosoma é o gênero com maior ocorrência, infectando populações de peixes marinhos e de água doce em todo o mundo. Apresenta elevados níveis de prevalência, ocasiona impactos na saúde dos peixes e consequente perdas econômicas, principalmente para populações de peixes em situação de estresse. Este estudo investigou a infecção por Trypanosoma spp. e sanguessugas em Hypostomus spp. e parâmetros sanguíneos desse hospedeiro do sistema de tributários do Rio Tapajós, no Estado do Pará, Amazônia Oriental, Brasil. De 47 hospedeiros examinados, 89,4% estavam parasitados por Trypanosoma spp., e 55,4% tinham também sanguessugas na região da boca. A intensidade de Trypanosoma spp. aumentou com o tamanho dos hospedeiros, mas as condições corporais não foram influenciadas pelo parasitismo. O número de eritrócitos, hematócrito, hemoglobina, VCM, HCM, CHCM, número de leucócitos e trombócitos totais apresentaram variações e correlação negativa com a intensidade de Trypanosoma spp. no sangue dos hospedeiros. Os resultados sugerem que sanguessugas foram os vetores de Trypanosoma spp. in Hypostomus spp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trypanosoma/isolation & purification , Catfishes/parasitology , Catfishes/blood , Brazil , Leeches/parasitology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812578

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to identify immunomodulatory components from the leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris. The Sephadex G-50, Resource(TM) S column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the salivary gland extracts (SGE). Structural analysis of isolated compounds was based on Edman degradation and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). The cDNA encoding the precursor of the compound was cloned from the cDNA library of the salivary gland of H. sylvestris. The levels of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effects on cell proliferation and cell viability were observed using MTT assay. A novel neuropeptide Y (Neuropeptide Y-HS) from the leech salivary gland of H. sylvestris was purified and characterized. It was composed of 36 amino acid residues and the amino acid sequence was determined to be FLEPPERPAVFTSVEQMKSYIKALNDYYLLLGRPRF-NH2, containing an amidated C-terminus. It showed significant inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and MCP-1. Neuropeptide Y was identified from leeches for the first time. The presence of neuropeptide Y-HS in leech salivary gland may help get blood meal from hosts and inhibit inflammation.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Immunologic Factors , Chemistry , Genetics , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Interferon-gamma , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-6 , Allergy and Immunology , Leeches , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Mice , Molecular Sequence Data , Neuropeptide Y , Chemistry , Genetics , Peptide Mapping , Salivary Glands , Chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Allergy and Immunology
16.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2016; 26 (2): 156-157
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-176256

ABSTRACT

Leeches are found in fresh water as well as moist marshy tropical areas. Orifical Hirudiniasis is the presence of leech in natural human orifices. Leech have been reported in nose, oropharynx, vagina, rectum and bladder but leech per urethra is very rare. We report a case of leech in urethra causing hematuria and bleeding disorder in the form of epistaxis and impaired clotting profile after use of stream water for ablution. The case was diagnosed after a prolonged diagnostic dilemma. A single alive leech was recovered from the urethra after ten days with the help of forceps. The hematuria and epistaxis gradually improved over next 48 hours and the patient became asymptomatic. Natives of leech infested areas should be advised to avoid swimming in fresh water and desist from drinking and using stream water without inspection for leeches


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Leeches , Urethra , Epistaxis
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159417

ABSTRACT

Infestation with leeches can happen due to drinking from spring water or other unhealthy water from non-hygienic sources or swimming in infested water like Wells and swamps, and can lead to several complications in the aerodigestive tract. Epistaxis, melena, and foreign body sensation had been reported in the literature as manifestations of this condition. We described a 12-year-old child presented to our department with dry cough and spitting of blood after swimming in the water pond of a Well that led to leech entry into the nasopharynx. Removal was done, and the patient became symptom free. Infestation with a leech can lead to variable symptoms in the aerodigestive tract like spitting of blood and irritation at the site of its attachment. Hence, leech should be put in mind in dealing with patients visiting physicians with the above symptoms, especially, if they come from rural areas that drink spring or Well water.


Subject(s)
Child , Endoscopy/methods , Epistaxis/epidemiology , Epistaxis/etiology , Humans , Leeches/etiology , Leeches/therapy , Male , Nasopharynx/surgery , Water Resources
18.
Hist. enferm., Rev. eletronica ; 6(2): 234-48, 20150000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1029028

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As sangrias são heranças da Antiguidade, comuns em tratamentos médicos e presentes no ensino de técnicas de enfermagem no Brasil. Objetivo: Descrever o ensino da semiotécnica de sangrias realizadas pelas primeiras enfermeiras brasileiras. Método: Pesquisa descritiva e histórica, baseada em cuidados de enfermagem, com recorte temporal de 1890 até 1949. Foram consultados livros e artigos de periódico desse período, abordando-se cada técnica de sangria. Resultados: Quatro livros, escritos por médicos e enfermeiros, indicaram que as alunas de enfermagem aprendiam a auxiliar ou a aplicar a técnica de flebotomia, ventosa sarjada e sanguessuga. A flebotomia era realizada de modo direto (venossecção) e indireto (por orifícios). A ventosa sarjada consistia na produção de feridas e extração por vácuo, utilizando-se aparelhos escarificadores. A sanguessuga era uma ventosa sarjada natural e viva, que demandava técnicas peculiares para colocação e retirada da pele, com muitas precauções. Conclusões: As sangrias consistiam em procedimentos rotineiros mas dolorosos e radicais para os pacientes. Além disso, traziam diversos riscos ocupacionais para as enfermeiras, seja pela exposição ao sangue, seja pela manipulação de animais vivos.


Subject(s)
History, 21st Century , Nursing Care , History of Nursing , Therapeutics , Leeches
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237712

ABSTRACT

Animal medicines mainly contain protein which was organic molecule with quaternary structure and had the property of thermal denaturation. When suffering from heat for a consistent time, the native conformation of protein would be destroyed. After denaturation the biological activity of protein will lose and some physicochemical and biochemical properties will be changed. Leech was a classical animal medicine in the views of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which had the functions of breaking stagnant and eliminating blood stasis. In the usage history, it was processed for a long time. No matter stir-frying leech with talc powder embodied in Chinese Pharmacopoeia or stir-baking with wine as a distinctive method in Beijing district, the process procedure was basically performed under high temperature. The purposes and intentions of process are mostly limited to technology conditions at specific historical period. In this article, based on existing processing procedure and its character of Leech, the changes of active components and pharmacological activities before and after processing under high temperature were summarized. The results demonstrate that the protein of leech would be denaturated; some active peptide such as hirudin were partly or totally destroyed; some toxic mineral elements, such as Pb, Hg, Cd, were decreased; at the same time, heating can promote some chemical components transforming into hypoxanthine which had the function of antihypertensive, antiasthmatic and antalgic. Consequently, after processed under high temperature, the purpose of decreasing toxicity and alleviating the strong property was achieved. Pharmacological changes of leech processed under high temperature were mainly manifested in the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity, etc. Based on current processing research status about animal medicine leech, future research methods and directions on scientific connotation of leech processed under high temperature were put forward in this article.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Factors , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Hot Temperature , Humans , Leeches , Chemistry
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9723

ABSTRACT

In this report, we present a scalp defect reconstruction with lateral arm free flap. We highlight the difficulty in obtaining a recipient vein and the venous drainage managed through an open end of the donor vein. A 52-year-old woman presented with a pressure sore on the left scalp. A lateral arm free flap was transferred to cover this 8x6 cm defect. The arterial anastomosis was successful, but no recipient vein could be identified within the wound bed. Instead, we used a donor venous end for the direct open venous drainage. In order to keep this exposed venous end patent, we applied heparin-soaked gauze dressing to the wound. Also, the vein end was mechanically dilated and irrigated with heparin solution at two hour intervals. Along with fluid management and blood transfusion, this management was continued for the five days after the operation. The flap survived well without any complication. Through this case, we were able to demonstrate that venous congestion can be avoided by drainage of the venous blood through an open vessel without the use of leeches.


Subject(s)
Arm , Bandages , Blood Transfusion , Drainage , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Female , Free Tissue Flaps , Heparin , Humans , Hyperemia , Leeches , Middle Aged , Pressure Ulcer , Salvage Therapy , Scalp , Tissue Donors , Veins , Wounds and Injuries
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