Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 306
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241162, 2022. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278483

ABSTRACT

Abstract Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies and a major zoonotic disease in Brazil. Due to the southward expansion of the disease within the country and the central role of dogs as urban reservoirs of the parasite, we have investigated the occurrence of CVL in two municipalities Erval Velho and Herval d'Oeste in the Midwest region of Santa Catarina state. Peripheral blood samples from 126 dogs were collected in both cities and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIF) and for the presence of parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood. From examined dogs, 35.71% (45/126) were positive for at least one of the three tests and two (1.6%) were positive in all performed tests. Twelve dogs (9.5%) were positive for both ELISA and IIF, while 21 dogs were exclusively positive for ELISA (16.7%), and 15 (11.9%) for IIF. L. infantum k-DNA was detected by PCR in 9 out of 126 dogs (7.1%) and clinical symptoms compatible with CVL were observed for 6 dogs. Taken together, these results indicate the transmission of CVL in this region, highlighting the needs for epidemiological surveillance and implementation of control measures for CVL transmission in this region.


Resumo A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) causada pela Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum e transmitida por flebotomíneos e é uma das principais zoonoses do Brasil que se encontra em expansão em estados da região sul do país, sendo os cães o principal reservatório urbano do parasito. O presente estudo investigou a ocorrência de LVC em dois municípios, Erval Velho e Herval d'Oeste localizados no meio-oeste de Santa Catarina. Para tanto, amostras de sangue periférico de 126 cães foram coletadas em ambas as cidades e submetidas à detecção de anticorpos anti-L. infantum por meio de testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência indireta (IFI), bem com a detecção de k-DNA pela reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR). Além disso, também foram observados os sintomas clínicos e as condições ambientais associadas a esses animais. Dos cães examinados, 35,7% (45/126) foram positivos para pelo menos um dos três testes, dois cães (1,6%) foram positivos em todos os três testes, 12 cães (9,5%) foram positivos tanto no ELISA quanto na IFI, enquanto 21 cães (16,7%) foram positivos para ELISA e 15 (11,9%) para o IFI. A amplificação do k-DNA de L. infantum foi positiva em 9 dos 126 cães (7,1%). Entre os cães positivos seis apresentaram um ou mais sintomas clínicos correlacionados com a LVC. Esses resultados confirmaram a ocorrência de LVC na região e destacaram a importância do monitoramento e implementação de medidas de controle para a LVC nessa região


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities
2.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 11(2): [1-14], abr.-jun. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362767

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e Objetivos: A leishmaniose visceral apresenta considerável expansão em centros urbanos no Piauí, e a sua ocorrência é marcada por sucessivos registros de surtos. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os casos notificados de Leishmaniose Visceral Humana no Piauí, entre os anos de 2007 e 2017. Métodos: Os dados sobre os números de casos e variáveis, como a distribuição no tempo, no espaço e algumas características das pessoas atingidas, óbitos e diagnóstico, foram através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINANDatasus). Resultados: Foram notificados 2.447 casos, com 2.265 casos autóctones (92,56%), e o diagnóstico laboratorial conclusivo foi realizado em 86,6% dos casos. O ano de 2014 foi o ano com maior registro (283 casos) e maior coeficiente de letalidade anual de 14,1%. Ao todo, 183 municípios (81,7%) apresentaram casos positivos em residentes. Na capital, Teresina, ocorreu o maior número de casos em residentes (734 casos, 30%) e foi o município que mais notificou em todo o estado (1.859 casos, 75,97%). Os mais acometidos foram indivíduos do sexo masculino (66,30%) e faixa etária menor que 10 anos (43,44%). Em relação à escolaridade, a classificação "não se aplica" foi mais prevalente (39,84%), assim como a raça/cor parda (88,27%) e a zona residencial urbana (67,63%). Conclusão: A realização destas análises fornece informações sobre a situação epidemiológica da leishmaniose visceral no Piauí em uma série histórica de 2007 a 2017, como a distribuição espacial dos casos, municípios com maiores incidências, a dificuldade de acesso ao diagnóstico, grupos sociais mais acometidos e óbitos, podendo auxiliar no direcionamento das ações para o controle da doença no estado.(AU)


Background and Objectives: Visceral leishmaniasis presents considerable expansion in urban centers in the state of Piauí and its occurrence is marked by successive records of outbreaks. To analyze the reported cases of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis in Piauí, between 2007 and 2017. Methods: The data about the number of cases and variables such as distribution in time, space and some characteristics of the affected people, deaths and diagnosis were obtained from Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN-Datasus) Results: 2,447 cases were reported, of which 2,265 autochthonous cases (92.56%). The conclusive diagnosis was made in 86.6% of the cases. The year with the highest record (283 cases) was 2014, also the annual lethality rate was 14.1%. Positive cases were registered in residents of 183 municipalities (81.7%). The capital Teresina presents the highest number of cases in residents (734.30%) and notification (1,859, 75.97%). Males (66.30%) were the most affected and individuals under 10 years old (43.44%). Regarding education, the classification "does not apply" (39.84%) was the most prevalent, as well as brown race/color (88.27%) and the urban residential area (67.63%). Conclusion: Epidemiological assay provides knowledge about the real epidemiological situation in the state of Piauí, such as profile characterization, frequency of cases occurrence, assisting in actions for control and eradication of the disease in the state.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: La Leishmaniasis visceral presenta una expansión considerable en los centros urbanos de Piauí, y su aparición está marcada por sucesivos registros de brotes. Analizar los casos reportados de Leishmaniasis Visceral Humana en Piauí, entre los años 2007 a 2017. Métodos: Datos sobre el número de casos y variables como distribución en tiempo, espacio y algunas características de las personas afectadas, defunciones y diagnóstico fueron obtenido mediante el Sistema de Información de Enfermedades Notificables (SINAN-Datasus). Resultados: Fueron notificados 2.447 casos, con 2.265 casos autóctonos (92,56%). El diagnóstico de laboratorio concluyente se realizó en el 86,6% de los casos. 2014 fue el año con el récord más alto (283 casos) y la tasa de letalidad anual del 14,1%. 183 municipios (81,7%) presentó casos positivos en residentes. La capital Teresina tuvo el mayor número de casos en residentes (734 casos, 30%) y fue el municipio que más reportó en todo el estado (1.859 casos, 75,97%). Los más afectados pertenecían al sexo masculino (66,30%) y los menores de 10 años (43,44%). En cuanto a la educación, la clasificación "no aplica" fue más prevalente (39,84%) y la zona residencial urbana (67,63%). Conclusión: La realización de estos análisis aporta conocimiento sobre la situación epidemiológica en Piauí en una serie histórica de 2007 a 2017, como la caracterización de los casos, las fallas en los registros y la frecuencia de ocurrencia de los casos, ayudando a orientar las acciones para el control en el estado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
3.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1817, 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363858

ABSTRACT

Canine Leishmaniasis (CanL) is a multisystemic and chronic inflammatory disease characterized by nonspecific clinical manifestations. In CanL, inflammatory cells and chemical mediators released in response to the parasite play a role in disease development and progression. Alterations on hematological parameters have been documented in CanL. These changes can also be assessed in relation to systemic inflammation caused by this disease. The circulating leukocyte counting, such as neutrophils, as well as the albumin level, are considered direct indicators of an inflammatory host environment. Several studies point to the use of biomarkers on the assistance in diagnosis and prognosis of several canine pathologies. The present study investigated the Neutrophils to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Albumin to Globulin Ratio (AGR), and Neutrophils to Albumin Ratio (NAR) on systemic inflammatory response induced by Canine Leishmaniasis (CanL). For this purpose, adult dogs with confirmed diagnosis to CanL were divided into symptomatic (SD, n = 33) and asymptomatic (AD, n = 20) dogs for L. infantum and control dogs (CD, n = 20). Routine hematological and biochemical parameters were determined in blood samples using a veterinary automatic hematology and biochemical analyzers. Asymptomatic dogs (AD) had a higher number of white blood cells and neutrophils (16.48 ± 4.93; 13.41 ± 3.60, respectively) in relation to symptomatic dogs (SD) (13.54 ± 5.13; 10.42 ± 3.69, respectively) (P = 0.015 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Neutrophils to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) was higher in dogs with leishmaniasis (9.45 ± 3.76) than in healthy dogs (3.39 ± 1.19) (P < 0.0001). Serum total proteins (STP) and globulins increased in CanL, while albumin and AGR decreased in CanL, when compared to CD and references values to canine species. Neutrophils to Albumin Ratio (NAR) was higher in AD and SD (5.02 ± 1.14; 4.79 ± 1.07, respectively) when compared to CD (2.36 ± 0.55) (P < 0.0001). As reported in scientific researches, dogs with Leishmaniasis present alterations in circulating cell counts. Based on these data, we decided to expand this information using the NLR as a parameter in an attempt to better clarify the changes in these cells in CanL. We observed that NLR was increased on CanL in relation to healthy dogs, which could be a consequence of relative neutrophilia rather than lymphopenia. Neutrophils to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) is a biomarker that conveys information about inflammatory conditions. An elevated NLR can reflect an upregulated innate immune response, since neutrophils are effector cells of innate immunity and are involved in several acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Albumin is an acute phase protein that is considered an immune-inflammatory biomarker, which can be found reduced systemically in progressive inflammatory response. Serum total proteins (STP) and globulins were increased in CanL. These data are already well documented in CanL, which serum globulins are mainly associated with the increase of acute phase proteins, cytokines, and increase of specific antibodies to Leishmania infantum. Our results showed neutrophilia with hypoalbuminemia in CanL. So, in an attempt to assess the relationship of these two available markers, we used NAR calculation in order to evaluate the changes induced by CanL. In this study NAR was higher in CanL when compared to control dogs. Thus, our data indicate that NLR and NAR could be used as biomarkers in veterinary medical clinics in order to assess inflammatory profile in CanL, mainly in asymptomatic dogs. These parameters obtained from routine blood tests might be useful as cost-effective, easily accessible and helpful markers in order to distinguish the inflammatory response intensity in CanL.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Biomarkers/blood , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/blood , Hematologic Tests/veterinary , Dogs , Neglected Diseases/veterinary
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06773, 2021. tab, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1346692

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and to identify the differences in associated factors to its occurrence in urban area and countrysides in the municipality of Santa Luzia located in the semi-arid region of Paraíba. In the years 2015 and 2016, 779 blood samples from dogs were collected. The prevalence was determined by three serological techniques, ELISA-S7® Kit, DPP® Rapid Test and EIE-LVC® Kit, considering positive the samples that reacted in at least two assays. Associated factors were determined by univariate and multivariate analyzes of the guardians' responses to the epidemiological questionnaire. The prevalence of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies in the studied municipality was 15.00% (117/779), being higher in the urban area (15.20%) than in the countryside (13.60%). The neighborhood with the highest prevalence was Frei Damião with 26.40% (33/125), being considered a hotspot (OR 1.245, p=0.007). Other associated factors were the semi-domiciliary breeding (OR 1.798, p=0.025), in the urban area, and hunting dog (OR 18.505, p=0.016), contact with cattle (OR 17.298, p=0.022) and environment where the dog is raised (OR 4.802, p=0.024) in the countryside. In the municipality of Santa Luzia, the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis is high and the disease is widely distributed. Epidemiological differences between urban area and the countryside could be observed demonstrating the need for more adequate control measures for each locality and proving the urbanization process.(AU)


O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estimar a prevalência da leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) e identificar as diferenças nos fatores relacionados à sua ocorrência nas zonas urbana e rural do município de Santa Luzia, localizado no semiárido paraibano. Nos anos de 2015 e 2016, coletaram-se 779 amostras de sangue de cães. A prevalência foi determinada através de três técnicas sorológicas, Kit ELISA-S7®, teste rápido DPP® e Kit EIE-LVC®, considerando positivas as amostras que reagiram em, pelo menos, dois ensaios. Os fatores relacionados foram determinados por meio das análises estatísticas uni e multivariada das respostas dos tutores ao questionário epidemiológico. A prevalência de anticorpos anti-Leishmania infantum encontrada no município estudado foi de 15,00% (117/779), sendo maior na zona urbana (15,20%) do que na rural (13,60%). O bairro que apresentou maior prevalência foi o Frei Damião com 26,40% (33/125), sendo considerado um hotspot (OR 1,245; p=0,007). Outros fatores relacionados encontrados foram a criação semidomiciliar (OR 1,798; p=0,025), na zorna urbana, e cão de caça (OR 18,505; p=0,016), contato com bovinos (OR 17,298; p=0,022) e ambiente onde o cão é criado (OR 4,802; p=0,024), na zona rural. Verifica-se a elevada prevalência da leishmaniose visceral canina e a sua ampla distribuição no município de Santa Luzia. Diferenças epidemiológicas entre as zonas urbana e rural puderam ser observadas, demonstrando a necessidade de medidas de controle mais adequadas para cada localidade e comprovando o processo de urbanização.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Health Surveys , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200428, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Dogs are the main peridomiciliary reservoir of Leishmania infantum thus the correct diagnosis of infection is essential for the control of the transmission and treatment as well. However, the diagnosis is based on serological assays that are not fully effective. OBJECTIVE We aimed to establish an effective serological assay for the diagnosis of L. infantum infected dogs using Leishmania-derived recombinant antigens. METHODS Leishmania derived rK39-, rK28-, rKR95-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized using symptomatic and asymptomatic L. infantum-infected dogs. Then 2,530 samples from inquiry in endemic areas for VL were evaluated and the results compared with recommended assays by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MH algorithm). Further samples from a cohort of 30 dogs were searched. FINDINGS For rK39-, rK28- and rKR95-ELISA the sensitivity was around 97% and specificity 100%. The positivity of these three ELISA in the inquiry samples was 27-28%, around 10% higher than the assays currently in use. When cohort samples were searched, we observed likely false-negative results (> 65%) with supposedly negative samples that turned positive six months later with the assays in use (MH algorithm). MAIN CONCLUSIONS For the diagnosis of L. infantum-infected dogs, rK39-based ELISA showed better diagnostic performance than other assays in use in Brazil and worldwide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Serologic Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Antigens, Protozoan/biosynthesis
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200571, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154878

ABSTRACT

Leishmania infantum chagasi is the causative agent and Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We investigated the expression of Leishmania genes within L. longipalpis after artificial infection. mRNAs from genes involved in sugar and amino acid metabolism were upregulated at times of high parasite proliferation inside the insect. mRNAs from genes involved in metacyclogenesis had higher expression in late stages of infection. Other modulated genes of interest were involved in immunomodulation, purine salvage pathway and protein recycling. These data reveal aspects of the adaptation of the parasite to the microenvironment of the vector gut and reflect the preparation for infection in the vertebrate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Psychodidae/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Psychodidae/genetics , Brazil , Gene Expression , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Life Cycle Stages
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(3): e00041320, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285819

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle of visceral leishmaniasis, and the diagnosis is essential for the effectiveness of the control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. We assessed the diagnostic performance of the ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN prototype with serum samples from 200 dogs, in triplicate, including symptomatic, oligosymptomatic, asymptomatic, and healthy dogs, originated by two distinct panels (A and B) characterized by parasitological tests as the reference standard. In this study, the prototype kit showed a 99% sensitivity (95%CI: 94.5-100.0) and a 100% specificity (95%CI: 96.4-100.0). The sensitivity of the prototype kit did not vary significantly with the clinical status of the dogs. Considering the final result classification (positive or negative), agreement between the results of repeated tests was almost perfect (kappa = 0.99; 95%CI: 0.98-1.00). ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN is a promising option for the serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.


Resumo: Os cães são os principais reservatórios do ciclo de transmissão domiciliar da leishmaniose visceral, e o diagnóstico é essencial para a efetividade das medidas de controle recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde. Os autores avaliam o desempenho diagnóstico do protótipo da ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN em amostras sorológicas de 200 cães, em triplicata, incluindo cães sintomáticos, oligossintomáticos e saudáveis, com dois painéis distintos (A e B) caracterizados por testes parasitológicos enquanto referência. No estudo, o kit-protótipo mostrou sensibilidade de 99% (IC95%: 94,5-100,0) e especificidade de 100% (IC95%: 96,4-100,0). A sensibilidade do kit-protótipo não variou de maneira significativa de acordo com o estado clínico dos cães. Considerando a classificação final dos resultados (positivo ou negativo), a concordância entre os resultados dos testes em triplicata foi quase perfeita (kappa = 0,99; IC95%: 0,98-1,00). O protótipo ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN tem o potencial de ser utilizada para o diagnóstico sorológico da leishmaniose visceral canina no Brasil.


Resumen: Los perros son los principales reservorios en el ciclo de transmisión doméstica de la leishmaniasis visceral, por ello el diagnóstico es esencial para la efectividad de las medidas de control recomendadas por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil. Evaluamos el desempeño diagnóstico de ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN prototipo con muestras de sérum de 200 perros, en triplicado, incluyendo sintomático, oligosintomático, asintomático y perros sanos, originadas por dos paneles distintos (A y B), caracterizados por test parasitológicos como referencia estándar. En este estudio, el kit prototipo mostró un 99% de sensibilidad (IC95%: 94,5-100,0) y un 100% de especificidad (IC95%: 96,4-100,0). La sensibilidad del kit prototipo no varió significativamente con el estatus clínico de los perros. Considerando la clasificación final del resultado (positiva o negativa), el acuerdo entre los resultados de los tests repetidos fue casi perfecto (kappa = 0,99; IC95%: 0,98-1,00). ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN tiene potencial para ser usado para el diagnóstico serológico de la leishmaniasis visceral canina en Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0586-2020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155591

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) transmission has been associated with two different populations of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex in São Paulo state. METHODS In a recent focus of VL, we captured and dissected sand flies and investigated Leishmania infantum infection by parasitological, PCR, and sequencing analysis. RESULTS Flagellates were observed in 2 of 47 (4.2%) cembrene-1 Lu. longipalpis females. The sequences obtained matched those of Le. infantum. CONCLUSIONS We found that the transmission of Le. infantum by cembrene-1 females may occur at a high rate in this focus of VL and presented new data on the vector capacity of this population.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Psychodidae , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Brazil , Insect Vectors
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(4): 459-468, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130899

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background American cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious dermatosis caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, which comprises a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations depending on the parasite species involved in the infections and the immunogenetic response of the host. The use of techniques for amplification of the parasites DNA based on polymerase chain reaction polymerase chain reaction and the recent application of combined techniques, such as high-resolution DNA dissociation, have been described as a viable alternative for the detection and identification of Leishmania spp. in biological samples. Objectives To identify the Leishmania species using the polymerase chain reaction high-resolution DNA dissociation technique in skin biopsies of hospital-treated patients, and compare with results obtained by other molecular identification techniques. Methods A retrospective study assessing patients with suspected American cutaneous leishmaniasis seen at a hospital in São Paulo/Brazil was conducted. The paraffin blocks of 22 patients were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction high-resolution DNA dissociation to confirm the diagnosis and identify the species. Results Of the 22 patients with suspected American cutaneous leishmaniasis, the parasite was identified in 14, comprising five cases (35.6%) of infection by L. amazonensis, four (28.5%) by L. braziliensis, two (14.4%) by L. amazonensis + L. infantum chagasi, two (14.4%) by L. guyanensis, and one (7.1%) by Leishmania infantum chagasi. In one of the samples, in which the presence of amastigotes was confirmed on histopathological examination, the polymerase chain reaction high-resolution DNA dissociation technique failed to detect the DNA of the parasite. Study limitations The retrospective nature of the study and small number of patients. Conclusions The method detected and identified Leishmania species in paraffin-embedded skin biopsies with a sensitivity of 96.4% and could be routinely used in the public health system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Leishmania , United States , Brazil , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous , Retrospective Studies , Leishmania infantum
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190525, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136829

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a public health problem, and its prevalence is associated with the coexistence of vectors and reservoirs. CVL is a protozoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum that is endemic in the southeast region of Brazil. Thus, vector and canine reservoir control strategies are needed to reduce its burden. This study aimed to verify the CVL seroprevalence and epidemiology in a municipality in Southeast Brazil to initiate disease control strategies. METHODS: A total of 833 dogs were subjected to Dual Path Platform (DPP) testing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. For seropositive dogs, epidemiological aspects were investigated using a questionnaire and a global position system. The data were submitted to simple logistic regression, kernel estimation, and Bernoulli spatial scan statistical analysis. RESULTS: The overall CVL-confirmed seroprevalence was 16.08%. The 28.93% in the DPP screening test was associated with dogs maintained in backyards with trees, shade, animal and/or bird feces, and contact with other dogs and cats, with sick dogs showing the highest chances of infection (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.38-1.98), especially in residences with elderly people. A spatial analysis identified two hotspot regions and detected two clusters in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that residences with elderly people and the presence of trees, shade, feces, and pet dogs and cats increased an individual's risk of developing CVL. The major regions where preventive strategies for leishmaniasis were to be initiated in the endemic area were identified in two clusters.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Dogs , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Endemic Diseases , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Spatial Analysis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200377, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a tropical neglected disease with high associated rates of mortality. Several studies have highlighted the importance of the intestinal tract (IT) and gut microbiota (GM) in the host immunological defense. Data in the literature on parasite life cycle and host immune defense against VL are scarce regarding the effects of infection on the IT and GM. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to investigate changes observed in the colon of Leishmania infantum-infected hamsters, including alterations in the enteric nervous system (ENS) and GM (specifically, levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli). METHODS Male hamsters were inoculated with L. infantum and euthanised at four or eight months post-infection. Intestines were processed for histological analysis and GM analysis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to quantify each group of bacteria: Bifidobacterium spp. (Bf) and Lactobacillus spp (LacB). FINDINGS Infected hamsters showed histoarchitectural loss in the colon wall, with increased thickness in the submucosa and the mucosa layer, as well as greater numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes. Forms suggestive of amastigotes were seen inside mononuclear cells. L. infantum infection induced changes in ENS, as evidenced by increases in the area of colonic enteric ganglia. Despite the absence of changes in the levels of Bf and LacB during the course of infection, the relative abundance of these bacteria was associated with parasite load and histological alterations. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that L. infantum infection leads to important changes in the colon and suggest that bacteria in the GM play a protective role.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bifidobacterium , Leishmania infantum , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Lactobacillus , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Cricetinae , Parasite Load , Intestines/parasitology
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190469, 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Oxidative stress is responsible for generating DNA lesions and the 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is the most commonly lesion found in DNA damage. When this base is incorporated during DNA replication, it could generate double-strand DNA breaks and cellular death. MutT enzyme hydrolyzes the 8-oxoG from the nucleotide pool, preventing its incorporation during DNA replication. OBJECTIVES To investigate the importance of 8-oxoG in Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis, in this study we analysed the impact of heterologous expression of Escherichia coli MutT (EcMutT) enzyme in drug-resistance phenotype and defense against oxidative stress. METHODS Comparative analysis of L. braziliensis and L. infantum H2O2 tolerance and cell cycle profile were performed. Lines of L. braziliensis and L. infantum expressing EcMutT were generated and evaluated using susceptibility tests to H2O2 and SbIII, cell cycle analysis, γH2A western blotting, and BrdU native detection assay. FINDINGS Comparative analysis of tolerance to oxidative stress generated by H2O2 showed that L. infantum is more tolerant to exogenous H2O2 than L. braziliensis. In addition, cell cycle analysis showed that L. infantum, after treatment with H2O2, remains in G1 phase, returning to its normal growth rate after 72 h. In contrast, after treatment with H2O2, L. braziliensis parasites continue to move to the next stages of the cell cycle. Expression of the E. coli MutT gene in L. braziliensis and L. infantum does not interfere in parasite growth or in susceptibility to SbIII. Interestingly, we observed that L. braziliensis EcMutT-expressing clones were more tolerant to H2O2 treatment, presented lower activation of γH2A, a biomarker of genotoxic stress, and lower replication stress than its parental non-transfected parasites. In contrast, the EcMutT is not involved in protection against oxidative stress generated by H2O2 in L. infantum. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results showed that 8-oxoG clearance in L. braziliensis is important to avoid misincorporation during DNA replication after oxidative stress generated by H2O2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Rats , Pyrophosphatases/genetics , Pyrophosphatases/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Leishmania infantum/drug effects , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Antimony/toxicity , Rabbits , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics , Leishmania braziliensis/enzymology , Leishmania infantum/enzymology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism , Guanine/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200140, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135247

ABSTRACT

Although Leishmania infantum is well-known as the aethiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in some Central American countries it may cause atypical non-ulcerated cutaneous leishmaniasis (NUCL). However, the mechanisms favoring its establishment in the skin are still unknown. Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is the major Leishmania multivirulence factor involved in parasite-host interaction. In the case of viscerotropic L. infantum, it causes an immunosuppression during the interaction with macrophages. Here, we investigated the biochemical and functional roles of LPGs from four dermotropic L. infantum strains from Honduras during in vitro interaction with murine macrophages. LPGs were extracted, purified and their repeat units analysed. They did not have side chains consisting of Gal(β1,4)Man(α1)-PO4 common to all LPGs. Peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c and C57BL/6 were exposed to LPG for nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine (TNF-α and, IL-6) production. LPGs from dermotropic strains from Honduras triggered higher NO and cytokine levels compared to those from viscerotropic strains. In conclusion, LPGs from dermotropic strains are devoid of side-chains and exhibit high pro-inflammatory activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Mice , Glycosphingolipids , Leishmania infantum/physiology , Central America , Honduras , Macrophages/immunology
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190169, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057265

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmania infantum was considered to be absent from Amapá until 2017 when canine infection was detected. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which reservoir species are involved in transmission in this region. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2016, 86 samples from wild mammals and 74 from domestic dogs were collected in Wajãpi Indigenous Territory and were tested for the presence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Leishmania. RESULTS: The DNA of Le. infantum was detected in two rodent samples, Dasyprocta sp. and Proechimys cuvieri. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first evidence characterizing a sylvatic transmission cycle of Le. infantum in the State of Amapá.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Rodentia/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Protozoan , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190446, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092226

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) represents a public health concern in several areas of the world. In the American continent, VL transmission is typically zoonotic, but humans with active VL caused by Leishmania infantum are able to infect sandflies. Thus, individuals with cutaneous parasitic infections may act as reservoirs and allow interhuman transmission. Additionally, the skin may be responsible for reactivation of the disease after therapy. This study's objective was to evaluate cutaneous parasitism in humans with VL in an American endemic area. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in northeast Brazil from October 2016 to April 2017. Biopsies of healthy skin for histopathology and immunohistochemistry were performed prior to treatment in all study patients. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients between the ages of five months to 78 years were included in the study. Seven patients (31.8%) tested positive for HIV. Only one patient had cutaneous parasitism, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry prior to treatment. Parasitism was not detected after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous parasitism in the healthy skin of humans with visceral leishmaniasis, although unusual, may be a source of infection for phlebotomine sandflies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Skin/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Skin/pathology , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endemic Diseases , Educational Status , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology , Middle Aged
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e009819, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058019

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to confirm the emergence of canine visceral leishmaniasis among dogs in Foz do Iguaçu. The disease was diagnosed through the isolation and molecular identification of Leishmania infantum. In the first sample collection stage (2012), three lymph node aspirates and 46 buffy coat samples were obtained mostly from the dogs that were seroreagents for leishmaniasis. In the second sample collection stage (2013), the buffy coat samples were collected from 376 dogs located close to Paraguay, Paraná river, center and peripheral parts of the city. The DNA from the six isolates, four from the first sampling stage (4/49) and two from the second sampling stage (2/376), was subjected to polymerase chain reaction using the K26F/R primers. The isolate was confirmed as L. infantum by sequencing. As none of the dogs had ever left the city, the isolates were confirmed as autochthonous. Further, the study confirmed the emergence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Paraná through the identification of L. infantum among dogs in Foz do Iguaçu city. Hence, collaborative control measures should be designed and implemented by the public agencies and research institutions of Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay to control the spread of visceral leishmaniasis.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi confirmar a emergência da leishmaniose visceral canina em Foz do Iguaçu próximo à fronteira com a Argentina e ao Paraguai, por meio do isolamento e identificação molecular de Leishmania infantum. Em um primeiro estágio de coleta de animais (2012), três amostras de aspirados de linfonodos e 46 camadas leucocitárias foram obtidas de cães soropositivos para leishmaniose. Em um segundo estágio de coleta (2013), foram coletadas amostras de camada leucocitária de 376 cães de 20 localidades próximas à fronteira com o Paraguai, rio Paraná, centro e periferia da cidade. Seis isolados foram obtidos, quatro da primeira etapa (4/49) e dois da segunda etapa (2/376); estes isolados foram submetidos à amplificação com iniciadores K26F/R, e a análise de sua sequência confirmou a espécie como L. infantum. A autoctonia dos casos foi confirmada, pois 100% dos cães nunca haviam saído da cidade. O estudo confirma a emergência de leishmaniose visceral canina no Paraná com identificação de L. infantum em cães da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Assim, medidas de controle devem ser elaboradas e implementadas por órgãos públicos e instituições de pesquisa do Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai em parceria com o objetivo de controlar a disseminação de zoonoses e os casos humanos de LV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e016319, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058011

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leishmania infantum is a trypanosomatid that causes parasitic dermatopathy in dogs. Trypanosoma caninum is another trypanosomatid, which infects the skin of dogs, although cutaneous abnormalities are absent. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of T. caninum infection and its associated cutaneous and histological changes and compare it with the occurrence of L. infantum infection in dogs. The study included 150 dogs, of which T. caninum infection was identified in 3 (2%) and L. infantum infection in 15 (10%) of them, with no association (p>0.05) of these infections with the breed, gender, age, or cutaneous abnormalities. The cutaneous abnormalities were based on 1 (4.8%) and 12 (57.1%) dogs infected by T. caninum and L. infantum, respectively. The dermatohistopathological abnormalities in the dogs infected with T. caninum included mild perivascular lymphohistioplasmacytic infiltrates in the clinically asymptomatic ones, while in those with dermatological abnormalities, acanthosis, epidermal orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, melanomacrophages, and co-infection with Microsporum sp. and Trichophyton sp. were observed. InL. infantum infected, the histopathological findings included chronic granulomatous inflammatory infiltrates and structures compatible with amastigotes. Despite the low frequency of T. caninum infection, our findings suggest that this trypanosomatid, unlike L. infantum, does not cause any macroscopic skin abnormalities.


Resumo Leishmania infantum é um tripanosomatídeo que causa dermatopatia parasitária em cães. Trypanosoma caninum é outro tripanosomatídeo, que infecta a pele de cães, embora anormalidades cutâneas sejam ausentes. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência da infecção por T. caninum e suas alterações cutâneas e histológicas associadas e compará-las com a ocorrência da infecção por L. infantum em cães. O estudo incluiu 150 cães, dos quais a infecção por T. caninum foi identificada em 3 (2%) e a infecção por L. infantum em 15 (10%) deles, sem associação (p>0,05) dessas infecções com a raça, sexo, idade ou anormalidades cutâneas. As alterações cutâneas foram observadas em 1 (4,8%) e 12 (57,1%) cães infectados por T. caninum e L. infantum, respectivamente. As anormalidades dermato-histopatológicas nos cães infectados por T. caninum incluíram infiltrados linfo-histioplasmocitários perivasculares leves nos clinicamente assintomáticos, enquanto naqueles com anormalidades dermatológicas, foram observados acantose, hiperqueratose ortoqueratótica epidermal e melanomacrófagos e co-infecção por Microsporum sp. e Trichophyton sp. Nos cães infectados por L. infantum, os achados histopatológicos incluíram infiltrados inflamatórios granulomatosos crônicos e estruturas compatíveis com amastigotas. A despeito da baixa frequência da infecção por T. caninum, nossos achados sugerem que esse tripanosomatídeo, diferentemente de L. infantum, não causa anormalidades macroscópicas na pele.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosoma/genetics , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis/pathology , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Coinfection , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190408, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The mechanism of resistance to SbIII in Leishmania is complex, multifactorial and involves not only biochemical mechanisms, but also other elements, such as the immune system of the host. OBJECTIVES In this study, putative changes in the immunological profile of human monocytes infected with wild-type (WT) and antimony (SbIII)-resistant Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum lines were evaluated. METHODS Susceptibility assays WT and SbIII-resistant L. braziliensis and L. infantum were performed using lines THP-1 human monocytic lineage. Phagocytic capacity, cytokine profile, intracellular nitric oxide (NO) production and surface carbohydrate residues profile were performed in peripheral blood monocytes by flow cytometry. FINDINGS The phagocytic capacity and intracellular NO production by classical (CD14++CD16-) and proinflammatory (CD14++CD16+) monocytes were higher in the presence of L. infantum lines compared to L. braziliensis lines. The results also highlight proinflammatory monocytes as the cellular subpopulation of major relevance in a phagocytosis event and NO expression. It is important to note that L. infantum induced a proinflammatory cytokine profile characterised by higher levels of TNF-α in culture supernatant than L. braziliensis. Conversely, both Leishmania lines induce high levels of IL-6 in culture supernatant. Analysis of the expression profile of surface carbohydrates showed that L. braziliensis presents 4.3-fold higher expression of galactose(β1,4)N-acetylglucosamine than L. infantum line. Interestingly, the expression level of α-N-acetylgalactosamine residues was 2-fold lower in the SbIII-resistant L. braziliensis line than its counterpart WT line, indicating differences in surface glycoconjugates between these lines. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results showed that L. braziliensis and L. infantum induce different innate immune responses and a highly inflammatory profile, which is characteristic of infection by L. infantum, the species associated with visceral disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Phagocytosis/immunology , Leishmania braziliensis/immunology , Monocytes/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Antimony/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Drug Resistance , Monocytes/immunology , Leishmania infantum/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Immunity, Innate
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1805-1814, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055137

ABSTRACT

Diante da escassez de dados sobre a topografia e a sintopia das vísceras abdominopélvicas do tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophage tridactyla - Linnaeus, 1758), o presente estudo teve como objetivo elucidar essas características e compará-las com as demais espécies animais, mormente as domésticas. Utilizaram-se três espécimes, dois machos e uma fêmea, provenientes de doação da Polícia Militar Ambiental de Franca ao Laboratório de Anatomia Veterinária da Universidade de Franca, após óbitos por atropelamentos. Os animais foram fixados e mantidos em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10%, seguidos de dissecação convencional das cavidades abdominopélvicas para posterior inspeção direta e descrição topográfica das vísceras, visando a análises comparativas com outras espécies, cujo posicionamento e cujas particularidades já são bem estabelecidos na literatura. Observou-se que a maioria das vísceras dessas cavidades possuem localização e sintopia similares aos animais domésticos, exceto os rins e os testículos. Diante da metodologia estabelecida e dos resultados obtidos, admite-se que mais espécimes de tamanduás-bandeiras, de ambos os gêneros, devam ser avaliados e registrados cientificamente, visando à confirmação dos dados da atual pesquisa e à preconização anatômica da cavidade abdominopélvica, visto que variações anatômicas individuais são passíveis entre animais da mesma espécie.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar a fauna vetorial e os aspectos ambientais e climáticos relacionados à transmissão das leishmanioses. Foi realizado um estudo eco-epidemiológico prospectivo de coleta sistemática de flebotomíneos e inquérito censitário sorológico canino em áreas de um município do Brasil. Para determinar a taxa de prevalência de LVC, foram examinadas amostras de sangue de 1752 cães. Na avaliação entomológica, foram instaladas 24 armadilhas luminosas em 12 residências distribuídas, instaladas no ambiente de peridomicílio e intradomicílio durante 12 meses. Para análise dos aspectos climáticos, utilizou-se a correlação simples de Spearman e para análise espacial foram utilizadas a Lógica Fuzzy e a Função K. A taxa de prevalência em cães foi de 4,1% e 7,1%. No estudo entomológico, foram capturados 431 flebotomíneos. A maior parte (74%) dos espécimes foi capturada no peridomicílio. Em relação à infecção natural, 5,6 % das amostras analisadas por biologia molecular apresentaram positividade à infecção por Leishmania spp.. Em 100% das amostras positivas, encontrou-se infecção por Leishmania infantum. Na análise espacial uma Área apresentou maior concentração de pontos de sobreposição de alta densidade de Lutzomyia longipalpis e cães sororreagentes, indicando maior risco na ocorrência concomitante dos dois eventos. Os resultados mostram que a interface parasito-reservatório-vetor está ativa nas áreas estudadas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Phlebotomus , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2103-2106, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055126

ABSTRACT

Devido à ampla distribuição da leishmaniose visceral (LV) no Brasil e à importância dos cães no ciclo de transmissão dessa zoonose, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência de Leishmania spp. e caracterizar a espécie circulante em diferentes tecidos biológicos de cães da Baixada Cuiabana, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Amostras de sangue, linfonodo e medula óssea foram coletadas de 205 cães para realização de análise parasitológica por citologia e análise molecular por meio da nested PCR (nPCR) e do sequenciamento . Dos 205 cães estudados, 34 (16,58%) animais foram positivos pela nPCR, dos quais 12 possuíam formas amastigotas de Leishmania spp. na citologia. Amostras positivas na nPCR foram sequenciadas e caracterizadas como Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. A sensibilidade da nPCR nas amostras de medula óssea, linfonodo e sangue foi de 94,87%, 91,8% e 98%, respectivamente, enquanto a especificidade foi de 100% para todas as amostras. O presente estudo relata a ocorrência de LV canina em 16,58% dos cães analisados, caracterizando a L. infantum como agente causador. Entre as amostras avaliadas, a medula óssea foi a única a apresentar concordância substancial entre as técnicas de nPCR e citologia (k = 0,643), sendo considerada a amostra mais adequada para o diagnóstico da doença. Os resultados ampliam o conhecimento de espécies de Leishmania infectando cães no Brasil, destacando a importância da identificação etiológica em áreas com escassos dados moleculares.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL