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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200091, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136875

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The drugs currently available for leishmaniasis treatment have major limitations. METHODS: In vitro and in vivo studies were performed to evaluate the effect of a quinoline derivative, Hydraqui (7-chloro-4-(3-hydroxy-benzilidenehydrazo)quinoline, against Leishmania amazonensis. In silico analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) parameters were performed. RESULTS: Hydraqui showed significant in vitro anti-amastigote activity. Also, Hydraqui-treated mice exhibited high efficacy in lesion size (48.3%) and parasitic load (93.8%) reduction, did not cause hepatic and renal toxicity, and showed appropriate ADMET properties. CONCLUSIONS: Hydraqui presents a set of satisfactory criteria for its application as an antileishmanial agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Quinolines/chemistry , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Disease Models, Animal , Parasite Load , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
2.
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences. 2017; 8 (1): 46-50
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-187547

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis [CL] is based primarily on the use of pentavalent antimonials, which may lead to many side effects limiting their use. Photodynamic therapy [PDT] is an alternative for the treatment of CL, and some xanthene dyes have the potential for use in PDT


Methods: The xanthenes rose bengal B [RB] and its derivatives rose bengal methyl ester [RBMET], and butyl ester [RBBUT] were analyzed for leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. Cytotoxicity was assessed in J774.A1 macrophages


Results: RB derivates RBMET [IC50 9.83 microM], and RBBUT [IC50 45.08 microM] showed leishmanicidal activity, however, were toxic to J774.A1 macrophages, resulting in low selectivity index


Conclusion: The RBMET and RBBUT showed to be effective against the L. amazonensis and the low selectivity index presented may not be a limitation for their use in PDT to CL treatment


Subject(s)
Photochemotherapy , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Leishmania mexicana/radiation effects , Rose Bengal/analogs & derivatives , Xanthenes/pharmacology
3.
Caracas; s.n; 2015. 57 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-877971

ABSTRACT

La leishmaniasis comprende un grupo de enfermedades infecciosas causadas por parásitos protozoarios pertenecientes al género Leishmania, siendo un problema de salud pública alrededor del mundo. Esta enfermedad prevalece en 98 países tropicales con un estimado de 2 millones de casos nuevos por año. El control de la enfermedad es deficiente, ya que los tratamientos disponibles no son satisfactorios debido a la alta toxicidad, la generación de resistencia por los parásitos y los altos costos del tratamiento. Por lo tanto, se busca desarrollar nuevas alternativas terapéuticas para tratar la enfermedad. Los productos naturales constituyen una fuente ilimitada para la obtención de productos químicos que sirven de base para el desarrollo de nuevas drogas. Diversos extractos de plantas han mostrado actividad antiparasitaria, entre los cuales se encuentran los extractos de Carica papaya. Esta planta perteneciente a la familia Caricaceae, tiene una amplia gama de propiedades medicinales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de extractos metanólicos de semillas de Carica papaya sobre promastigotes de Leishmania mexicana. Las semillas se secaron, se molieron y el polvo obtenido se maceró en metanol. El extracto se filtró, se concentró en un rotoevaporador y se resuspendió en dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO). Diversos compuestos fitoquímicos se lograron identificar en el extracto metanólico, tales como alcaloides, compuestos fenólicos, flavonoides, glicósidos cianogénicos, taninos y triterpenos. Los ensayos de citotoxicidad mediante el método de reducción de la sal de tetrazolio (MTT) revelaron un efecto citotóxico de los extractos contra los promastigotes (IC50= 0,18± 0,02 mg/ml) y un efecto inhibitorio del crecimiento de cultivos de promastigotes (IC50= 0,20± 0,05 mg/ml). Los extractos mostraron una menor actividad citotóxica sobre macrófagos murinos J774 con IC50 de 6,75 mg/ml, calculándose un Índice de Selectividad de 37. Los estudios por microscopía de contraste de fase, revelaron alteraciones en la morfología celular, la movilidad flagelar y la citocinesis de los promastigotes tratados con los extractos. Los resultados demuestran que los extractos metanólicos de semilla inhiben el crecimiento y causan alteraciones estructurales en promastigotes de L. mexicana, proporcionando nuevas perspectivas en el desarrollo de drogas con actividad antileishmanial obtenidas de productos naturales. Palabras clave: Leishmania mexicana, Carica Papaya, extracto metanólico, citotoxicidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alkaloids , Carica , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Cytotoxins , Plant Extracts
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(2): 140-144, abr. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670397

ABSTRACT

This paper evaluates CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts of the stem bark, branches and leaves of Drimys brasiliensis and drimane sesquiterpenes isolated from the stem bark against strains of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites. All of the extracts and compounds were tested in cell lines in comparison with reference standards and cell viability was determined by the XTT method. The CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts from the stem bark and branches yielded promising results against two strains of Leishmania, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 ) values ranging from 39-100 µg/mL. The CHCl3 extract of the stem bark returned IC50 values of 39 and 40.6 µg/mL for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively. The drimanes were relatively effective: 1-β-(p-coumaroyloxy)-polygodial produced IC50 values of 5.55 and 2.52 µM for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively, compared with 1-β-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial, which produced respective IC50 values of 15.85 and 17.80 µM. The CHCl3 extract demonstrated activity (IC50 of 3.0 µg/mL) against P. falciparum. The IC50 values of 1-β-(p-cumaroyloxyl)-polygodial and 1-β-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial were 1.01 and 4.87 µM, respectively, for the trophozoite strain. Therefore, the results suggest that D. brasiliensis is a promising plant from which to obtain new and effective antiparasitic agents.


Subject(s)
Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Drimys/chemistry , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(1): 59-64, Feb. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666045

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease. According to the World Health Organization, there are approximately 1.5-two million new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis each year worldwide. Chemotherapy against leishmaniasis is based on pentavalent antimonials, which were developed more than a century ago. The goals of this study were to investigate the antileishmanial activity of diterpene acids in copaiba oil, as well as some possible targets of their action against Leishmania amazonensis. Methyl copalate and agathic, hydroxycopalic, kaurenoic, pinifolic and polyaltic acids isolated from Copaifera officinales oleoresins were utilised. Ultrastructural changes and the specific organelle targets of diterpenes were investigated with electron microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. All compounds had some level of activity against L. amazonensis. Hydroxycopalic acid and methyl copalate demonstrated the most activity against promastigotes and had 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.5 and 6.0 µg/mL, respectively. However, pinifolic and kaurenoic acid demonstrated the most activity against axenic amastigote and had IC50 values of 3.5 and 4.0 µg/mL, respectively. Agathic, kaurenoic and pinifolic acid caused significant increases in plasma membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane depolarisation of the protozoan. In conclusion, copaiba oil and its diterpene acids should be explored for the development of new antileishmanial drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Balsams/pharmacology , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Leishmania mexicana/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(1): 84-90, Feb. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666049

ABSTRACT

The trypanosomatid cytoskeleton is responsible for the parasite's shape and it is modulated throughout the different stages of the parasite's life cycle. When parasites are exposed to media with reduced osmolarity, they initially swell, but subsequently undergo compensatory shrinking referred to as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). We studied the effects of anti-microtubule (Mt) drugs on the proliferation of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes and their capacity to undergo RVD. All of the drugs tested exerted antiproliferative effects of varying magnitudes [ansamitocin P3 (AP3)> trifluoperazine > taxol > rhizoxin > chlorpromazine]. No direct relationship was found between antiproliferative drug treatment and RVD. Similarly, Mt stability was not affected by drug treatment. Ansamitocin P3, which is effective at nanomolar concentrations, blocked amastigote-promastigote differentiation and was the only drug that impeded RVD, as measured by light dispersion. AP3 induced 2 kinetoplasts (Kt) 1 nucleus cells that had numerous flagella-associated Kts throughout the cell. These results suggest that the dramatic morphological changes induced by AP3 alter the spatial organisation and directionality of the Mts that are necessary for the parasite's hypotonic stress-induced shape change, as well as its recovery.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cytoskeleton/drug effects , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Tubulin Modulators/pharmacology , Chlorpromazine/pharmacology , Leishmania mexicana/growth & development , Macrolides/pharmacology , Maytansine/analogs & derivatives , Maytansine/pharmacology , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Trifluoperazine/pharmacology
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 416-419, May 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624025

ABSTRACT

Ketoconazole is a clinically safe antifungal agent that also inhibits the growth of Leishmania spp. A study was undertaken to determine whether Leishmania parasites are prone to becoming resistant to ketoconazole by upregulating C14-demethylase after stepwise pharmacological pressure. Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes [inhibitory concentration (IC)50 = 2 µM] were subjected to stepwise selection with ketoconazole and two resistant lines were obtained, La8 (IC50 = 8 µM) and La10 (IC50 = 10 µM). As a result, we found that the resistance level was directly proportional to the C14-demethylase mRNA expression level; we also observed that expression levels were six and 12 times higher in La8 and La10, respectively. This is the first demonstration that L. amazonensis can up-regulate C14-demethylase in response to drug pressure and this report contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms of parasite resistance.


Subject(s)
Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Leishmania mexicana/enzymology , /metabolism , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/analysis , RNA, Protozoan/analysis , /genetics
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(2): 238-245, Mar. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-617071

ABSTRACT

In Leishmania amazonensis, kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11) expression increases during metacyclogenesis and is higher in amastigotes than in promastigotes, suggesting a role for this protein in the infection of the mammalian host. We show that the addition of KMP-11 exacerbates L. amazonensis infection in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice by increasing interleukin (IL)-10 secretion and arginase activity while reducing nitric oxide (NO) production. The doses of KMP-11, the IL-10 levels and the intracellular amastigote loads were strongly, positively and significantly correlated. The increase in parasite load induced by KMP-11 was inhibited by anti-KMP-11 or anti-IL-10 neutralising antibodies, but not by isotype controls. The neutralising antibodies, but not the isotype controls, were also able to significantly decrease the parasite load in macrophages cultured without the addition of KMP-11, demonstrating that KMP-11-induced exacerbation of the infection is not dependent on the addition of exogenous KMP-11 and that the protein naturally expressed by the parasite is able to promote it. In this study, the exacerbating effect of KMP-11 on macrophage infection with Leishmania is for the first time demonstrated, implicating it as a virulence factor in L. amazonensis. The stimulation of IL-10 production and arginase activity and the inhibition of NO synthesis are likely involved in this effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Arginase/metabolism , /immunology , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Membrane Proteins/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Protozoan Proteins/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Leishmania mexicana/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Macrophages, Peritoneal/enzymology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/immunology
9.
Biol. Res ; 45(2): 111-116, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-648569

ABSTRACT

The leishmaniases are severe parasitic diseases that occur worldwide, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Studies with medicinal plants can lead to a range of possibilities for treating and improving the patients' quality of life. Research on Azadirachta indica fractions and extracts has shown that they have excellent anti-leishmanial activity based on bioactivity-guided fractionation of ethanolic extracts of leaves and seeds and in vitro activity against promastigotes. In this research the most efficient extracts and fractions were selected for tests on intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. The ethanolic extract of the leaves and dichloromethane and chloroform fractions had IC50 values of 38, 3.9 and 1.2 μg/mL for promastigotes and 9.8, 1.1 and 0.6 μg/mL for amastigotes, respectively, at 72 hours. For the ethanolic extract and dichloromethane fraction from nut tegument, the IC50 was 2.7 and 2.1 μg/mL for promastigotes and 0.4 and 0.6 μg/mL for amastigotes. The cytotoxicity of the fractions presented selectivity that was between 8 to 32 times more toxic to promastigotes and 15 to 72 times to amastigotes than to macrophages. The extracts and fractions from leaves and fruits were more effective against amastigotes, and the fractionation increased activity against both promastigotes and amastigotes, enabling us to obtain potentially active fractions with low toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Azadirachta/chemistry , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Macrophages/drug effects , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Plant Leaves/chemistry
10.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 53(4): 235-238, July.-Aug. 2011. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598607

ABSTRACT

Surfacen® is an exogenous natural lung surfactant, composed by phospholipids and hydrophobic proteins, which is applied successfully in Newborn Respiratory Distress Syndrome. In this paper, in vitro activity of Surfacen® against Leishmania amazonensis is described. The product showed activity against the amastigote form found in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, with an IC50 value of 17.9 ± 3.0 µg/mL; while no toxic effect on host cell was observed up to 200 µg/mL. This is the first report about the antileishmanial activity of Surfacen®.


Surfacen® es un surfactante natural exógeno extraído del pulmón, formado por fosfolípidos y proteínas hidrofóbicas, el cual es aplicado con éxito en el Síndrome de Distrés Respiratorio en Niños Recién Nacidos. En este trabajo, se describe la actividad in vitro del Surfacen® contra Leishmania amazonensis. El producto mostró actividad frente a amastigotes que se encuentran en macrófagos peritoneales de ratón BALB/c, con una CI50 de 17.9 ± 3.0 µg/mL, mientras no se observaron efectos tóxicos sobre la célula hospedera hasta 200 µg/mL. Este estudio constituye el primer reporte sobre la actividad antileishmania del Surfacen®.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Phospholipids/pharmacology , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Pulmonary Surfactants/pharmacology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78171

ABSTRACT

Various Leishmania species were engineered with green fluorescent protein (GFP) using episomal vectors that encoded an antibiotic resistance gene, such as aminoglycoside geneticin sulphate (G418). Most reports of GFP-Leishmania have used the flagellated extracellular promastigote, the stage of parasite detected in the midgut of the sandfly vector; fewer studies have been performed with amastigotes, the stage of parasite detected in mammals. In this study, comparisons were made regarding the efficiency for in vitro G418 selection of GFP-Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes and the use of in vivo G418 selection. The GFP-promastigotes retained episomal plasmid for a prolonged period and G418 treatment was necessary and efficient for in vitro selection. In contrast, GFP-amastigotes showed low retention of the episomal plasmid in the absence of G418 selection and low sensitivity to antibiotics in vitro. The use of protocols for G418 selection using infected BALB/c mice also indicated low sensitivity to antibiotics against amastigotes in cutaneous lesions.


Subject(s)
Amebicides/pharmacology , Animals , Flow Cytometry , Gentamicins/pharmacology , Green Fluorescent Proteins/chemistry , Host-Parasite Interactions , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Luminescent Agents/chemistry , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Organisms, Genetically Modified , Spectrometry, Fluorescence
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135412

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease and endemic in developing countries. A lack of adequate and definitive chemotherapeutic agents to fight against this infection has led to the investigation of numerous compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of RT-01, an organotellurane compound presenting biological activities, in 2 experimental systems against Leishmania amazonensis. The in vitro system consisted of promastigotes and amastigotes forms of the parasite, and the in vivo system consisted of L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice, an extremely susceptible mouse strain. The compound proved to be toxic against promastigotes and amastigotes. The study also showed that treatment with RT-01 produces an effect similar to that treatment with the reference antimonial drug, Glucantime, in L. amazonensis infected mice. The best results were obtained following RT-01 intralesional administration (720 microgram/kg/day); mice showed significant delay in the development of cutaneous lesions and decreased numbers of parasites obtained from the lesions. Significant differences in tissue pathology consisted mainly of no expressive accumulation of inflammatory cells and well-preserved structures in the skin tissue of RT-01-treated mice compared with expressive infiltration of infected cells replacing the skin tissue in lesions of untreated mice. These findings highlight the fact that the apparent potency of organotellurane compounds, together with their relatively simple structure, may represent a new avenue for the development of novel drugs to combat parasitic diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Organometallic Compounds/pharmacology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135409

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease and endemic in developing countries. A lack of adequate and definitive chemotherapeutic agents to fight against this infection has led to the investigation of numerous compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of RT-01, an organotellurane compound presenting biological activities, in 2 experimental systems against Leishmania amazonensis. The in vitro system consisted of promastigotes and amastigotes forms of the parasite, and the in vivo system consisted of L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice, an extremely susceptible mouse strain. The compound proved to be toxic against promastigotes and amastigotes. The study also showed that treatment with RT-01 produces an effect similar to that treatment with the reference antimonial drug, Glucantime, in L. amazonensis infected mice. The best results were obtained following RT-01 intralesional administration (720 microgram/kg/day); mice showed significant delay in the development of cutaneous lesions and decreased numbers of parasites obtained from the lesions. Significant differences in tissue pathology consisted mainly of no expressive accumulation of inflammatory cells and well-preserved structures in the skin tissue of RT-01-treated mice compared with expressive infiltration of infected cells replacing the skin tissue in lesions of untreated mice. These findings highlight the fact that the apparent potency of organotellurane compounds, together with their relatively simple structure, may represent a new avenue for the development of novel drugs to combat parasitic diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Organometallic Compounds/pharmacology
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(8): 778-780, Dec. 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-502297

ABSTRACT

A series of ring substituted 3-phenyl-1-(1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxalin-2-yl)-2-propen-1-one derivatives were synthesized and tested for in vitro leishmanicidal activity against amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis in axenical cultures and murine infected macrophages. Structure-activity relationships demonstrated the importance of a radical methoxy at position R3', R4' and R5'. (2E)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-1-(3,6,7-trimethyl-1,4-dioxy-quinoxalin-2-yl)-propenone was the most active. Cytotoxicity on macrophages revealed that this product was almost six times more active than toxic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Antiprotozoal Agents/chemistry , Cyclic N-Oxides/chemistry , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Quinoxalines/chemistry , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/toxicity , Cyclic N-Oxides/pharmacology , Cyclic N-Oxides/toxicity , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Macrophages/drug effects , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Quinoxalines/pharmacology , Quinoxalines/toxicity , Structure-Activity Relationship
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(4): 358-362, June 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-486865

ABSTRACT

The leishmanicidal activity of four batches of meglumine antimoniate, produced in Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz, Brazil (TAMs), was assessed and compared to Glucantime®-Aventis Pharma Ltda. Using the amastigote-like in vitro model, the active concentrations of Sb v varied from 10µg/ml to 300 µg/ml for L. (L.) chagasi and from 50µg/ml to 300µg/ml for L. (L.) amazonensis, with no statistically significant differences among the four batches of TAMs and Glucantime®. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) determined by the amastigote-infected macrophage model for TAM01/03 and Glucantime® were, respectively: 26.3µg/ml and 127.6µg/ml for L. chagasi, 15.4µg /ml and 22.9µg/ml for L. amazonensis, and 12.1µg/ml and 24.2µg/ml for L. (V.) braziliensis. The activities of the four batches of TAMs were confirmed in an in vivo model by assessing, during eight weeks skin lesions caused by L. braziliensis in hamster that were treated with 20mg Sb v/Kg/day for 30 consecutive days. The meglumine antimoniate produced by Farmanguinhos was as effective as the reference drug, Glucantime®-Aventis, against three species of Leishmania that are of medical importance in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Leishmania infantum/drug effects , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Meglumine/pharmacology , Organometallic Compounds/pharmacology , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 40(6): 627-630, nov.-dez. 2007. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-471340

ABSTRACT

New therapeutic alternatives against leishmaniasis remain a priority. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been previously demonstrated. Different responses among species of Leishmania make species-specific drug screening necessary. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was evaluated in golden hamsters infected through footpad injections of metacyclic promastigotes, and compared with untreated controls and animals treated with meglumine antimoniate. Footpad thickness, lesion cultures and dissemination sites were analyzed. Treatment of golden hamsters with oral azithromycin at 450mg/kg had no activity against infections with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. For infections due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, azithromycin demonstrated significant activity relative to untreated controls, but inferior to meglumine antimoniate, for controlling lesion size. Neither drug was able to totally eliminate parasites from the lesions. It was concluded that azithromycin has activity against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis but not against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in this model.


Novas alternativas terapêuticas contra a leishmaniose são ainda uma prioridade. A atividade da azitromicina contra a Leishmania (Leishmania) major foi anteriormente demonstrada. Diferentes respostas entre as espécies de Leishmania fazem com que um screening de drogas específicas para espécies seja necessário. A atividade da azitromicina contra a Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis e a Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis foi avaliada em Golden hamsters infectados a través de injeções de promastigotas metacíclicas e comparando com controles sem tratamento e animais tratados com antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina. Foram analisadas a espessura da pata, a cultura das lesões e disseminação para órgãos internos. A azitromicina oral em dose de 450mg/kg não teve atividade contra a infecção por Leishmania ( Leishmania) amazonensis. Para infecções devidas à Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, a azitromicina teve uma atividade significativa em relação aos controles sem tratamento, mas foi inferior ao antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina quanto ao controle do tamanho das lesões. Nenhuma das drogas conseguiu eliminar totalmente os parasitos das lesões. Foi concluído que a azitromicina tem atividade contra Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, mas não tem atividade contra Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis neste modelo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Male , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Time Factors
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(2): 215-220, Mar. 2007. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-447561

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis, an endemic parasitosis that leads to chronic cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral lesions, is part of those diseases, which still requires improved control tools. Propolis has shown activities against different bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study we investigated the effect of four ethanolic extracts of typified propolis collected in different Brazilian states, on Leishmania amazonensis performing assays with promastigote forms, extracellular amastigotes, and on infected peritoneal macrophages. Ethanolic extracts of all propolis samples (BRG, BRPG, BRP-1, and BRV) were capable to reduce parasite load as monitored by the percentage of infected macrophages and the number of intracellular parasites. BRV sample called red propolis, collected in the state of Alagoas, and containing high concentration of prenylated and benzophenones compounds, was the most active extract against L. amazonensis. The anti-Leishmania effect of BRV sample was increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. BRV treatment proved to be non-toxic to macrophage cultures. Since BRV extract at the concentration of 25 æg/ml reduced the parasite load of macrophages while presented no direct toxic to promastigotes and extracellular amastigotes, it was suggested that constituents of propolis intensify the mechanism of macrophage activation leading to killing of L. amazonensis. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that ethanolic extracts of Brazilian propolis reduce L. amazonensis infection in macrophages, and encourage further studies of this natural compound in animal models of leishmaniasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Propolis/pharmacology , Brazil , Cells, Cultured , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Time Factors
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 95(4): 477-82, July-Aug. 2000.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-264227

ABSTRACT

In the animal model of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis there is a complex mechanism of the host-parasite interaction. The present study was performed to interfere with the inflammatory reaction to the parasites, through immune modulation. Female C5BL/6 isogenic mice were used, some of which were inoculated on the right ear and others on the right footpad with 3.10(6) stationary phase promastigotes of the MHOM/BR/PH8 strain of L. (L.) amazonensis, and were allocated in three groups: the first received pentoxifylline 8mg/kg every 12 h, since the first day; the second one received the same dose since the 40th day of infection and a control group that did not receive any treatment. All the ears excised were analyzed to determine the variation in weight between both ears and for histopathological analyses. A quantification of the parasites was done using the limiting dilution assay. A significant reduction of the number of parasites, was observed among the animals treated which had an accordingly significant reduction on the weight of the ears. Pentoxifylline reduced the macrophages propensity to vacuolation and induced a more effective destruction of the parasites by these cells. Moreover, the group that began the treatment later did not show the same effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Female , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Macrophages/drug effects , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Leishmania mexicana/pathogenicity , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Necrosis
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 29(7): 853-62, July 1996. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-181497

ABSTRACT

Activated macrophages simultaneously synthesize nitric oxide and superoxide anion which can react with each other producing peroxynitrite. Consequently, it has been difficult to assess the precise contribution of each of the formed reactive oxygen- and nitrogenderived species to the microbicidal activities of macrophages, particularly in vivo. To explore this problem, we are examining the formation and potential roles of nitrogen-derived intermediates in Leishmania amazonensis murine infection. Thus far, our results have demonstrated that peroxynitrite is a potent leishmanicidal agent in vitro and that both nitric oxide and peroxynitrite are formed during infection of susceptible BALB/c mouse strain. Nitric oxide was detected as the nitrosyl-hemoglobin complex by electron paramagnetic resonance analysis of blood drawn from mice at different times of infection, and it was shown to increase with the evolution of the disease. These results will be discussed in the context of the dual physiological role of nitric oxide either as a signaling molecule or as a deleterious agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , In Vitro Techniques , Leishmania mexicana/metabolism , Leishmaniasis/metabolism , Nitrites/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Peroxides/metabolism , Anions/metabolism , Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Free Radicals , Hemoglobins/biosynthesis , Leishmania major/drug effects , Leishmania major/immunology , Leishmania major/metabolism , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Leishmania mexicana/immunology , Leishmaniasis/immunology , Macrophage Activation , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitrites/pharmacology , Nitrogen/physiology , Nitrogen/metabolism , Oxidants/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Nitric Oxide/chemical synthesis , Peroxides/pharmacology , Superoxides/metabolism , Tyrosine/biosynthesis
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 20(6): 665-74, 1987.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-77412

ABSTRACT

Amino acid esters can disrupt lysosomes and damage monocytes and certain lymphocyte populations. Lysosomal disruption involves pH trapping of the esters, followed by their hydrolyssis by as yet unidentified enzymes. Accumulation of the more polar amino acids is assumed to cause osmotic lysis of the organelles. we have discovered that certain amino acid esters and amides destroy Leishmania mexicana amazonensis amastigores lodged within macrophages in culture, as well as parasites isolated from mouse lesions. This paper reviews the amino acid specificity of parasite killing, the resistance of amastigotes derived from infection of macrophages with promastigotes, the involvement of an acidified compartment within the parasites, and the protection conferred by other amino acid esters, and the protease inhibitors antipain and chymostatin, aginst the destruction of amastigotes by Leucine-methyl ester. Studies with tritiated esters confirm the critical role of ester hydrolysis for leishmanicidal activity and strengthen the view that similar mechanisms underlie disruption of lysosomes and destruction of Leismania. Characterization of the parasite organelles and of the enzymes involved in the leishmanicidal activity as well as structure-activity studies may permit the design of compounds mor selective for the parasites


Subject(s)
Animals , Dipeptides/pharmacology , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Lysosomes/drug effects , Dipeptides/therapeutic use , Leishmania mexicana/enzymology , Leucine/pharmacology , Leucine/therapeutic use , Leucine/toxicity , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use
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