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1.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(3): 352-354, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285072

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis is characterized by ulcers with raised edges and a granular bottom, mainly on the lower limbs. This is a case report of a male patient with an ulcer on the left plantar region. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive PCR for L. braziliensis and the presence of amastigotes of Leishmania sp. in the histopathological examination. After treatment with Glucantime, the patient showed full healing of the ulcer. The unusual location of the ulceration calls attention to atypical presentations of leishmaniasis, and the importance of histopathological examination and PCR, leading to the appropriate diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Foot Ulcer , Leishmania , Ulcer , Meglumine Antimoniate
2.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(1, cont.): e2409, jan-jun. 2021. mapas, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1283535

ABSTRACT

Leishmanioses são causadas por protozoários do gênero Leishmania, parasitos que infectam grande número de mamíferos, incluindo o homem. A Leishmaniose Visceral (LV) é a forma mais severa da doença e invariavelmente leva ao óbito, se não diagnosticada e tratada precocemente. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise de natureza documental, descritiva e analítica, de abordagem quantitativa das informações contidas no banco de dados Fundação Ezequiel Dias/Gerenciador de Ambientes Laboratoriais (FUNED/GAL), da Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de Minas Gerais. Os dados epidemiológicos que compõe este estudo são registros de casos positivos e negativos da cidade de Patos de Minas-MG e 18 municípios das mesorregiões do Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Noroeste de Minas e Norte de Minas. No período compreendido entre janeiro de 2010 e junho de 2019 foram notificados um total de 1170 indivíduos suspeitos de Leishmaniose Visceral Canina e/ou Humana. 304 (25,98%) indivíduos receberam o resultado positivo, enquanto 866 foram negativos, e em alguns casos, inconclusivos. Os dados obtidos no estudo revelaram a tendência temporal crescente e alta prevalência da doença, mostrando que a doença está em expansão na região estudada onde o cão é o principal reservatório doméstico da doença, permanecendo como principal elo de ligação entre o protozoário e o hospedeiro humano.(AU)


Leishmaniasis are caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, parasites that infect a large number of mammals, including humans. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of the disease and invariably leads to death if not diagnosed and treated early. The objective of this study was to carry out a documentary, descriptive and analytical analysis, with a quantitative approach to the information contained in the Fundação Ezequiel Dias/Manager of Laboratory Environments (FUNED/GAL) database from the Minas Gerais State Health Secretariat. The epidemiological data that make up this study are records of positive and negative cases in the city of Patos de Minas - MG and of 18 municipalities in the mesoregions of the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba, Northwest of Minas and North of Minas. In the period between January 2010 and June 2019, a total of 1170 individuals suspected of Canine and/or Human Visceral Leishmaniasis were notified. A total of 304 (25.98%) individuals received a positive result, while 866 were considered negative, and in some cases, inconclusive. The data obtained in the study revealed the growing temporal trend and high prevalence of the disease, showing that the disease is expanding in the studied region where the dog is presented as the main domestic reservoir of the disease, remaining as the main link between the protozoan and the human host.(AU)


Leishmaniosis son causadas por protozoos del género Leishmania, parásitos que infectan a un gran número de mamíferos, incluyendo el hombre. La Leishmaniosis Visceral (LV) es la forma más grave de la enfermedad e invariablemente conduce a la muerte, si no se la diagnostica y la trata a tiempo. El objetivo de ese estudio fue realizar un análisis de naturaleza documental, descriptivo y analítico, de enfoque cuantitativo de las informaciones contenidas en la base de datos Fundação Ezequiel Dias/Gerente de Ambientes de Laboratorio (FUNED /GAL), de la Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Minas Gerais. Los datos epidemiológicos que conforman este estudio son registros de casos positivos y negativos en la ciudad de Patos de Minas-MG y 18 municipios de las mesorregiones del Triângulo Mineiro y Alto Paranaíba, Noroeste de Minas y Norte de Minas. En el período comprendido entre enero de 2010 y junio de 2019, se notificó a un total de 1170 personas sospechosas de Leishmaniosis Visceral Canina y/o Humana. 304 (25,98%) individuos recibieron un resultado positivo, mientras que 866 fueron negativos y, en algunos casos, no concluyentes. Los datos obtenidos en el estudio revelaron la tendencia creciente temporal y la alta prevalencia de la enfermedad, mostrando que la enfermedad se está expandiendo en la región estudiada donde el perro es el principal reservorio doméstico de la enfermedad, permaneciendo como principal conexión entre el protozoo y el hospedero humano.(AU)


Subject(s)
Time , Records , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Mammals/microbiology , Leishmania/pathogenicity
3.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(1): 91-102, jan./jun. 2021. Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247944

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a leishmaniose visceral, mais conhecida como calazar, é uma doença crônica causada por protozoários de Leishmania infantum e é uma doença caracterizada como endêmica no município de Pau dos Ferros, estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Dessa forma, a construção de uma tecnologia educativa pode ser uma ferramenta auxiliadora no processo de ensino e aprendizagem dos alunos. Objetivo: construir e validar conteúdo e aparência de jogo didático no ensino de leishmaniose visceral para alunos do ensino fundamental. Metodologia: trata-se de um estudo metodológico de abordagem quantitativa. O jogo foi confeccionado a partir de um esboço feito à mão pela autora e posteriormente entregue a um profissional responsável pelo design. Para validar o jogo, foi aplicado um protocolo de validação para 10 juízes que validaram o jogo de acordo com as expectativas curriculares e cognitivas dos alunos dos anos finais do ensino fundamental. Os dados coletados foram organizados no Microsoft® Excel® e posteriormente apresentados em gráficos e tabelas para análise final. Resultados: no que diz respeito à média geral da tecnologia educacional, obteve-se média 4,6, que corresponde a 92% de concordância dos juízes. Dessa maneira, comprova-se que todos os itens da tecnologia educacional "Leishmania" foram validados pelos juízes obtendo média superior ao estipulado. Conclusão: todos os itens apresentados no protocolo de validação foram considerados adequados na avaliação dos juízes, o que garante a confiabilidade do instrumento para ser utilizado. Dessa forma, o jogo pode ser utilizado com segurança por professores para avaliar o conhecimento dos alunos acerca da leishmaniose visceral.(AU)


Introduction: visceral leishmaniasis, better known as calazar, is a chronic disease caused by protozoa of Leishmania infantum and is a disease characterized as endemic in the municipality of Pau dos Ferros, state of Rio Grande do Norte. Thus, the construction of an educational technology can be a helping tool in the teaching and learning process of students. Objective: to construct and validate content and appearance of didactic game in the teaching of visceral leishmaniasis for elementary school students. Methodology: this was a methodological study with a quantitative approach. The game was handmade from a sketch by the author and delivered to a professional responsible for the design. To validate the game, an authentication protocol was applied to 10 judges who validated the game according to the curricular and cognitive expectations of students in the final years of elementary school. The collected data were organized in MicrosoftTM ExcelTM and later presented in graphs and tables for final analysis. Results: regarding the overall average of educational technology, obtained a score of 4.6, corresponding to 92% of the judges' agreement. Thus, it is proven that all items of educational technology "Leishmania" were validated by the judges obtaining an average higher than stipulated. Conclusion: all items presented in the validation protocol were considered adequate in the evaluation of the judges, which guarantees the reliability of the instrument to be used. Thus, the game can be safely used by teachers to assess students' knowledge about visceral leishmaniasis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Teaching , Educational Technology , Disease Prevention , Leishmania , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Students
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0748-2020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155522

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania spp. The recurrence of the disease occurs, in general, in patients with decreased or loss of T-cell function, whether due to the use of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive disease, or another cause. In some cases, splenectomy may be a therapeutic option. However, the effectiveness of splenectomy is not well defined. This report describes the evolution of a pediatric patient with seven recurrences of VL, who relapsed post-surgery after drug therapy and splenectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Leishmania , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Recurrence , Splenectomy
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200572, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The genetic heterogeneity of Leishmania parasites is a major factor responsible for the wide variety of Leishmania-associated manifestations. Consequently, understanding the genetic make-up of Leishmania species using suitable molecular markers is an important component of realising local and regional scale disease risk. The cytochrome b (cytb) is frequently used to type New World Leishmania species. However, its potential to discriminate Leishmania species and variants requires further evaluation. OBJECTIVES To explore the capacity of cytb gene to identify New World Leishmania species and variants and to develop an approach able to type local Leishmania species and variants. METHODS We retrieved 360 partial and complete Leishmania cytb gene sequences publicly available in GenBank database to study all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the cytb gene that differentiate New World Leishmania species. This information was used to develop an approach based upon the polymorphisms found in a DNA segment of 948bp. We also compared the typing results found with this technique with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) profiling obtained using HSP70 gene as target. One hundred Panamanian isolates were used to both typed Leishmania species and assess local genetic variability. FINDINGS We found complete agreement between our cytb approach and the PCR-RFLP profiling method based on HSP70 for Leishmania species identification. Ninety-two isolates were identified as L. panamensis, although other Viannia species were found circulating at a lower frequency. Three L. panamensis haplotypes were identified in Panamanian provinces. We also provide an initial report of L. guyanensis haplotypes circulating in Panama. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Cytb gene sequence encompasses key main SNPs that aid to identify Leishmania species. The cytb approach developed with this information was able to identify and assess genetic variability of local Leishmania species found in this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous , Leishmania/genetics , Panama , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Cytochromes b/genetics
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200427, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Trypanosomatids are widespread and cause diseases - such as trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, and cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis - in animals and humans. These diseases occur in both rural and urban regions due to unplanned growth and deforestation. Thus, wild and synanthropic reservoir hosts living in residential areas are risk factors. OBJECTIVE We aimed to evaluate the diversity of small mammals (rodents and marsupials), and the occurrence of trypanosomatids, especially Leishmania, in the rural settlement of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. METHODS Animals were collected using Sherman, Tomahawk, and Pitfall traps along 16 trails in four landscapes: continuous forest, forest with planting, planting, and peridomiciliar. Leishmania sp. was detected in liver samples by polymerase chain reaction targeting kDNA. FINDINGS Diversity was higher in forests with planting and lower around residences. In total, 135 mammals (81 rodents and 54 marsupials covering 14 genera) were captured. Rodents presented infection rates (IR) of 74% and marsupials of 48%. Rodents in domicile landscapes presented a higher IR (92.9%), while marsupials showed a higher IR in forests (53.3%). MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results suggest high prevalence of trypanosomatids across 12 mammalian genera possibly involved as reservoir hosts in the enzootic transmission of leishmaniasis in the Amazon's rural, peridomiciliar landscape.


Subject(s)
Animals , Leishmania , Marsupialia , Rodentia , Brazil/epidemiology , Mammals
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0772-2020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155577

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leishmaniasis is a tropical infectious disease caused by Leishmania spp. protozoa and is transmitted by insects from the Phlebotominae subfamily. It can manifest as cutaneous leishmaniasis, a painless ulcer that can develop into a more serious systemic affliction as the protozoa spreads lymphatically or hematogenously, depending on the host's immunity. In this case series, the authors present a rare form of genital mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, with consideration of epidemiologic characteristics, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and treatments offered.


Subject(s)
Animals , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmania , Ulcer , Diagnosis, Differential , Genitalia
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200634, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154876

ABSTRACT

The availability of Trypanosomatid genomic data in public databases has opened myriad experimental possibilities that have contributed to a more comprehensive understanding of the biology of these parasites and their interactions with hosts. In this review, after brief remarks on the history of the Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania genome initiatives, we present an overview of the relevant contributions of genomics, transcriptomics and functional genomics, discussing the primary obstacles, challenges, relevant achievements and future perspectives of these technologies.


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Genome, Protozoan/genetics , Leishmania/genetics , Computational Biology , Genomics
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200571, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154878

ABSTRACT

Leishmania infantum chagasi is the causative agent and Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We investigated the expression of Leishmania genes within L. longipalpis after artificial infection. mRNAs from genes involved in sugar and amino acid metabolism were upregulated at times of high parasite proliferation inside the insect. mRNAs from genes involved in metacyclogenesis had higher expression in late stages of infection. Other modulated genes of interest were involved in immunomodulation, purine salvage pathway and protein recycling. These data reveal aspects of the adaptation of the parasite to the microenvironment of the vector gut and reflect the preparation for infection in the vertebrate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Psychodidae/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Psychodidae/genetics , Brazil , Gene Expression , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Life Cycle Stages
10.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200149, 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1154771

ABSTRACT

Skin lesions of patients affected by non-ulcerated cutaneous leishmaniasis (NUCL) caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi are characterized by lymphohistiocytic inflammatory infiltrate associated with epithelioid granuloma and scarce parasitism. However, the in situ cellular immune response of these patients is unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize the cellular immune response in the skin lesions of patients affected by NUCL. Methods Twenty biopsies were processed by immunohistochemistry using primary antibodies to T lymphocytes (CD4, CD8), NK cells, B lymphocytes, macrophages, nitric oxide synthase and interferon-gamma. Results Immunohistochemistry revealed higher expression of all cellular types and molecules (IFN-γ, iNOS) in the dermis of diseased skin compared to the skin of healthy individuals (p < 0.05). Morphometric analysis performed in the skin lesions sections showed the predominance of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the mononuclear infiltrate, followed by macrophages, mostly iNOS+, a response that could be mediated by IFN-γ. Conclusion Our study improves knowledge of the cellular immune response in non-ulcerated or atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in Central America and pointed to the pivotal participation of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the host defense mechanisms against the parasite in patients with NUCL.(AU)


Subject(s)
Immunohistochemistry , Dermis/injuries , Immunity , Leishmania , Infections
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06905, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351277

ABSTRACT

In the search for an early biomarker of renal injury, this study aimed to determine the urinary protein profile of dogs with leishmaniasis without treatment and treated as determined by Brazilian legislation. The identification of proteinuria, its classification and the circumstances in which it takes place instigated this study. For this, 30 dogs from an outpatient clinic at a Veterinary Hospital in Belo Horizonte were evaluated. All animals underwent clinical and laboratory tests, which included renal biomarkers. The proteins were characterized using the SDS-page electrophoresis technique, and thus, a urinary protein profile was developed comparing patients considered clinically healthy with dogs infected with leishmaniasis that were under treatment and with untreated infected dogs. The results showed that the hematological and biochemical parameters showed similar behavior between the groups of healthy dogs and dogs with leishmaniasis treated, however a very heterogeneous pattern of urinary proteins can be observed and differed between healthy animals and animals with leishmaniasis, as well as between treated and untreated animals. The results suggest that the classification of proteinuria can be a tool that helps in the staging of animals infected with L. infantum and can differentiate them as to the severity of existing kidney injuries.(AU)


Na busca por um biomarcador precoce de injúria renal, este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o perfil proteico urinário de cães infectados com leishmaniose sem tratamento e tratados conforme determina a legislação brasileira. A identificação da proteinúria, sua classificação e as circunstâncias em que ocorrem instigaram este estudo. Para tanto, foram avaliados 30 cães oriundos do atendimento clínico ambulatorial de um Hospital Veterinário em Belo Horizonte. Todos os animais passaram por exame clínico e laboratorial, que incluíram biomarcadores renais. As proteínas foram caracterizadas através da técnica de eletroforese por SDS-PAGE, e assim, foi elaborado um perfil proteico urinário comparando pacientes considerados clinicamente hígidos, com cães infectados por Leishmania (L.) infantum e que estavam sob tratamento e cães infectados não tratados. Os resultados demonstraram que os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos apresentaram comportamento semelhante entre os grupos de cães hígidos e de cães infectados com L. infantum tratados, entretanto um padrão muito heterogêneo de proteínas urinárias pode ser observado e diferiu entre animais hígidos e animais com leishmaniose, assim como entre os animais tratados e não tratados. Os resultados sugerem que a classificação da proteinúria pode ser uma ferramenta que auxilia no estadiamento de animais infectados por L. infantum podendo diferenciá-los quanto à gravidade de lesões renais existentes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Proteinuria , Biomarkers , Dogs/microbiology , Electrophoresis , Leishmania , Leishmaniasis , Kidney
12.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 249-257, set 24, 2020. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358129

ABSTRACT

Introdução: assim que inoculada pelo flebotomíneo, a Leishmania entra em contato com o sistema complemento, sendo que poucos estudos têm avaliado os níveis inatos dos componentes iniciais C3 e C4. Objetivo: avaliar os níveis inatos dos componentes C3 e C4 do sistema complemento em pacientes curados de leishmaniose visceral (LV) e sua associação com aspectos clínico-laboratoriais no momento de diagnóstico da doença. Metodologia: foram estudados 29 pacientes com LV curada. Os níveis de C3 e C4 séricos foram dosados pela técnica de imunodifusão radial simples, após um tempo médio de 59,48 meses pós-tratamento, formados os grupos: C3: baixo (< 84 mg/dl; n=10), normal (84 a 193 mg/dl; n=14) e elevado (> 193 mg/dl; n=5); C4: muito baixo (< 20 mg/dl; n=10), baixo (20 a 40 mg/dl; n=15) e normal (> 40 mg/dl; n=4). Os dados clínicos e laboratoriais empregados para as análises foram coletados por levantamento dos prontuários, considerando o período de diagnóstico da doença de cada paciente. Resultados: foi observada uma correlação positiva fraca entre os níveis de C3 e C4 (rho=0,46; p=0,01). Verificou-se que a maioria dos pacientes sintomáticos no momento do diagnóstico apresentavam níveis inatos normais de C3 e baixos de C4. Pacientes com C3 baixo apresentaram maiores níveis do hematócrito em relação ao grupo C3 normal (p=0,0406). Conclusão: conclui-se que o componente C3 do sistema complemento está associado às alterações do hematócrito, sugerindo o acompanhamento dos seus níveis em pacientes com LV.


Introduction: once inoculated by the sand fly, Leishmania comes into contact with the complement system, and few studies have evaluated the innate levels of the initial components C3 and C4. Objective: to evaluate the innate levels of the C3 and C4 components of the complement system in patients cured of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and its association with clinical and laboratory aspects at the time of diagnosis of the disease. Methodology: twenty-nine patients with cured VL were studied. Serum C3 and C4 levels were measured by simple radial immunodiffusion technique, after an average time of 59.48 months post-treatment, forming the groups: C3: low (< 84 mg/dl; n=10), normal (84 to 193 mg/dl; n=14) and high (> 193 mg/dl; n=5); C4: very low (< 20 mg/dl; n=10), low (20 to 40 mg/dl; n=15) and normal (> 40 mg/dl; n=4). The clinical and laboratory data used for the analyzes were collected by surveying the medical records, considering the period of diagnosis of the disease of each patient. Results: a weak positive correlation was observed between C3 and C4 levels (rho=0.46; p=0.01). Most symptomatic patients at the time of diagnosis were found to have normal C3 and low C4 levels. Low C3 patients had higher levels of hematocrit compared to the normal C3 group (p=0.0406). Conclusion: in conclusion, the C3 component of the complement system is associated with changes in the hematocrit, suggesting the monitoring of its levels in patients with VL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Signs and Symptoms , Complement System Proteins , Serologic Tests , Leishmania , Leishmaniasis, Visceral
13.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(3): 741-761, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134073

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo faz análise histórica da emergência da leishmaniose tegumentar americana como objeto do conhecimento e desafio médico-sanitário no Amazonas desde a década de 1970. Fornece visão geral dessa época, as medidas sanitárias e os estudos científicos realizados no contexto de implantação dos principais projetos de desenvolvimento regionais executados em nome da política de integração nacional do governo federal. Utiliza como metodologia a análise documental de leis, produção científica, relatórios de pesquisa, boletins epidemiológicos e jornais. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que a doença surgiu no Amazonas associando o grande problema de saúde com mudanças político-econômicas e alterações socioambientais.


Abstract The history of the emergence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Brazilian state of Amazonas since the 1970s is analyzed as an object of knowledge and a medical and public health challenge. An overview of the period is provided, including the public health measures and scientific studies undertaken in the context of the execution of large-scale regional developments pursued in the name of national integration by the federal government. The methodology uses documental analysis of laws, the scientific literature, research reports, epidemiological bulletins, and newspapers. The results show that American cutaneous leishmaniasis emerged as a major health problem in Amazonas in close association with the political, economic, and socioenvironmental changes seen in the period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Public Health/history , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/history , Conservation of Natural Resources , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Psychodidae/parasitology , Urbanization/history , Leishmania braziliensis/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Insect Control/history , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Leishmania guyanensis/isolation & purification , Industrial Development/history , Insect Vectors
14.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 95-122, Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134089

ABSTRACT

Abstract The first autochthonous cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas were described in 1909, but visceral leishmaniasis only erupted as a public health problem in the region in 1934. Today Brazil is the country with the most cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis, and alongside India has the highest incidence of visceral leishmaniasis. Knowledge production and efforts to control these diseases have mobilized health professionals, government agencies and institutions, international agencies, and rural and urban populations. My research addresses the exchange and cooperation networks they established, and uncertainties and controversial aspects when notable changes were made in the approach to the New World leishmaniases.


Resumo Os primeiros casos de leishmaniose cutânea e mucocutânea autóctones das Américas foram descritos em 1909, e em 1934 a leishmaniose visceral irrompeu como problema de saúde pública na região. O Brasil tem hoje o maior número de casos da leishmaniose tegumentar americana e, junto com a Índia, a mais elevada incidência de leishmaniose visceral. A produção de conhecimentos e os esforços para controlar essas doenças mobilizaram, em nível global, profissionais de saúde, populações urbanas e rurais, instituições governamentais e agências internacionais. Recuperam-se aqui alguns desses agrupamentos, redes de troca e cooperação, incertezas e polêmicas, identificando-se mudanças na abordagem das leishmanioses do Novo Mundo.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Public Health/history , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/history , Leishmania , Tropical Medicine/history , Americas/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/prevention & control , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(4): 459-468, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130899

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background American cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious dermatosis caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, which comprises a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations depending on the parasite species involved in the infections and the immunogenetic response of the host. The use of techniques for amplification of the parasites DNA based on polymerase chain reaction polymerase chain reaction and the recent application of combined techniques, such as high-resolution DNA dissociation, have been described as a viable alternative for the detection and identification of Leishmania spp. in biological samples. Objectives To identify the Leishmania species using the polymerase chain reaction high-resolution DNA dissociation technique in skin biopsies of hospital-treated patients, and compare with results obtained by other molecular identification techniques. Methods A retrospective study assessing patients with suspected American cutaneous leishmaniasis seen at a hospital in São Paulo/Brazil was conducted. The paraffin blocks of 22 patients were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction high-resolution DNA dissociation to confirm the diagnosis and identify the species. Results Of the 22 patients with suspected American cutaneous leishmaniasis, the parasite was identified in 14, comprising five cases (35.6%) of infection by L. amazonensis, four (28.5%) by L. braziliensis, two (14.4%) by L. amazonensis + L. infantum chagasi, two (14.4%) by L. guyanensis, and one (7.1%) by Leishmania infantum chagasi. In one of the samples, in which the presence of amastigotes was confirmed on histopathological examination, the polymerase chain reaction high-resolution DNA dissociation technique failed to detect the DNA of the parasite. Study limitations The retrospective nature of the study and small number of patients. Conclusions The method detected and identified Leishmania species in paraffin-embedded skin biopsies with a sensitivity of 96.4% and could be routinely used in the public health system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Leishmania , United States , Brazil , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous , Retrospective Studies , Leishmania infantum
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190284, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056772

ABSTRACT

Despite some phlebotomines being well recognised as vectors of leishmaniasis agents, vector importance of those belonging to the genus Trichophoromyia has not been extensively studied. The present study provides evidence regarding the putative vector role played by some species of Trichophoromyia on leishmanine enzootics, based on literature reports and findings obtained from field experiments conducted in the ecotopes of Pará State, Brazil. The species Th. ubiquitalis, Th. velascoi, Th. auraensis, Th. ininii and Th. brachipyga possess minimal criteria to be included in the list of suspected leishmanine vectors. However, knowledge on man-biting behavior, substantiation of vector competence and determination of epidemiological implications are limited for all of the above mentioned species. Published studies together with present data draw attention to prioritize these phlebotomine species in entomological surveillance programs and studies on experimental susceptibility to Leishmania spp. infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Psychodidae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/classification , Leishmaniasis/transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Leishmania/genetics
17.
Rev. méd. (La Paz) ; 26(1): 50-66, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151941

ABSTRACT

Se presenta una revisión de las tres últimas décadas sobre la leishmaniasis en Bolivia entre 1963 a 2015 se registraron 54540 casos de Leishmaniasis cutánea Americana (LCA): lEISHMANIASIS cUTÁNEA (lc) 46406; Leishmaniasis mucocutánea (LMC); 8100; Leishmaniasis Cutáneo difusa (LCD): 5; y Leishmaniasis Visceral (LV); 56. La mayoria de los enfermos provenian de la cuenca del rio Amazonas(97.9 por ciento) y los restantes de la cuenca del Rio de la Plata. La cantidad de casos nativos y el número de municipios con focos naturales detransmisión aumentaron de 80 municipios el año 2000, 91 el 2007 a 95 el 2014; incrementado de cinco a siete los departamentos endémicos. Las características clinico epidemiologícas son similares con Argentina, Perú y Brasil en las frontera; los municipios bolivianos con Perú y Brail tienen mayores prevalencias. De las 121 especies de Phlebotominae registradas, siete especies estan incriminadas en la transmisión de seis especies de Leishmania que circulan en el país en un nuesvo escenario con casos autoctonos más dispersos en tiempo y espacio, con multiples patrones culturales en por lo menos 15 eco-regiones entre 170 a 2700 m. La sub notificación de casos y la falta de medicamentos se ha profundizado en la última década y el diagnóstico es básico en una precaria red de laboratorios que no ha implementado aun el diagnóstico de LV por pruebas rápidas.


Subject(s)
Leishmania
18.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 342-347, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114904

ABSTRACT

La Leishmaniasis es un grupo de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores y causada por la Leishmania, un parásito intracelular, que se presenta de preferencia en regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Se manifiesta mediante un amplio rango de formas clínicas como la cutánea, mucocutánea, y visceral, dependiendo de la especie y respuesta inmunológica del paciente. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 35 años que acudió derivado a Unidad de Estomatología del Hospital Señor del Milagro, Salta, Argentina, presentando en la cavidad oral lesión, granulomatosa, ulcerada, dolorosa a la palpación, única, en paladar blando, de tres meses de evolución. Se realizaron estudios serológicos, parasitológicos y PCR. Los ELISAs lisados, PCRs y cultivos de materiales de lesiones fueron positivos, confirmando diagnóstico de leishmaniasis mucocutánea. El paciente fue derivado al Servicio de Dermatología donde recibió tratamiento con Antimoniato de Meglumina, con repuesta clínica favorable. El conocimiento de las manifestaciones orales puede llevar al diagnóstico clínico de leishmaniasis mucocutánea por parte del odontólogo, pudiendo entregar un tratamiento oportuno y a la vez ayudar al paciente, evitando complicaciones de esta enfermedad.


Leishmaniasis is a group of vector-borne diseases caused by Leishmania, an intracellular parasite, which occurs preferentially in tropical and subtropical regions. It manifests itself through a wide range of clinical forms such as cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral, depending on the species and the patient's immune response. We present a case of a 35-year-old man who was referred to the Stomatology Unit of the Señor del Milagro Hospital, Salta, Argentina, presenting in the oral cavity lesion, granulomatous, ulcerated, painful on palpation, unique, soft palate with three months of evolution. Serological, parasitological and PCR studies were performed. Lysed ELISAs, PCRs and cultures of lesion materials were positive, confirming diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The patient was referred to the Dermatology Service where he received treatment with Meglumine Antimony, with favorable clinical response. The knowledge of the oral manifestations can lead to the clinical diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis by the dentist, being able to provide timely treatment and at the same time help the patient, avoiding complications of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/parasitology , Mouth Diseases/diagnosis , Mouth Diseases/parasitology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Diagnosis, Differential , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Mouth Mucosa/parasitology
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190320, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057289

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate human exposure to Leishmania spp. infection and sandflies in an area endemic for the disease. METHODS: The presence of antibodies specific for Leishmania spp. and saliva of Lutzomyia spp. and that of L. infantum DNA in blood were evaluated. RESULTS: Antibodies against Leishmania spp. and sandfly saliva were observed in 20.8% and 37.7% of individuals, respectively. DNA of Leishmania spp. was amplified from the blood of one patient. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that Leishmania spp. infection may be underdiagnosed in this area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Psychodidae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmania/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Middle Aged
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190139, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057288

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis, a disease caused by a parasite endemic to large areas of tropical and subtropical countries, is a growing public health problem. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice were infected with Leishmania amazonensis and treated with extracts isolated from Annona mucosa. RESULTS: Treated groups had significantly reduced footpad swelling. The group treated intraperitoneally with hexane extract showed footpad swelling similar to groups treated with Pentamidine® and Glucantime®. Groups treated with dichloromethane extract and hexane extract presented the recovering phenotype associated with reduced parasite levels. CONCLUSIONS: Extracts of A. mucosa are promising sources of novel antileishmanial compounds.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Annona/chemistry , Leishmania/drug effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification
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