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Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(3): 741-761, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134073


Resumo O artigo faz análise histórica da emergência da leishmaniose tegumentar americana como objeto do conhecimento e desafio médico-sanitário no Amazonas desde a década de 1970. Fornece visão geral dessa época, as medidas sanitárias e os estudos científicos realizados no contexto de implantação dos principais projetos de desenvolvimento regionais executados em nome da política de integração nacional do governo federal. Utiliza como metodologia a análise documental de leis, produção científica, relatórios de pesquisa, boletins epidemiológicos e jornais. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que a doença surgiu no Amazonas associando o grande problema de saúde com mudanças político-econômicas e alterações socioambientais.

Abstract The history of the emergence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Brazilian state of Amazonas since the 1970s is analyzed as an object of knowledge and a medical and public health challenge. An overview of the period is provided, including the public health measures and scientific studies undertaken in the context of the execution of large-scale regional developments pursued in the name of national integration by the federal government. The methodology uses documental analysis of laws, the scientific literature, research reports, epidemiological bulletins, and newspapers. The results show that American cutaneous leishmaniasis emerged as a major health problem in Amazonas in close association with the political, economic, and socioenvironmental changes seen in the period.

Humans , Animals , Public Health/history , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/history , Conservation of Natural Resources , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Psychodidae/parasitology , Urbanization/history , Leishmania braziliensis/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Insect Control/history , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Leishmania guyanensis/isolation & purification , Industrial Development/history , Insect Vectors
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200157, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135268


BACKGROUND In Acre state, Brazil, the dissemination of cutaneous leishmaniasis has increased in recent years, with limited knowledge of the potential Leishmania spp. vectors involved. OBJECTIVES Here, data concerning the sandfly fauna of Brasiléia municipality, Leishmania DNA-detection rates and the identification of blood meal sources of insects captured in 2013-2015 are presented. METHODS Parasite detection in female sandflies was performed individually by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Leishmania kDNA/sandfly cacophony-gene), with the identification of Leishmania spp. by hsp70-PCR and sequencing. The identification of blood gut-content from fed females was performed by cyt b-PCR and sequencing. FINDINGS A total of 4,473 sandflies were captured. A subgroup of 864 non-blood-fed females evaluated for the presence of Leishmania DNA showed 2.9% positivity for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis. The identification of blood meal sources was performed in 96 blood-fed females, allowing the identification of 13 vertebrate species. In nine/96 fed females, DNA from L. (V.) shawi, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis and Endotrypanum sp. was detected. MAIN CONCLUSIONS In Brumptomyia sp. and Evandromyia termitophila, the first report of Leishmania DNA-detection is provided in Acre; Nyssomyia shawi is implicated as potential vector of L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis for the first time in Brazil.

Animals , Female , Psychodidae/parasitology , DNA/analysis , Insect Vectors/genetics , Leishmania/genetics , Psychodidae/classification , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(2): 16-23, ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008244


The objective of this study was to determine the abundance and diversity of the species and their presumed vectorial role in the transmission of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Research on sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was carried out in two municipalities in the Ribeira River Valley in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. One, Adrianópolis, is an endemic area of CL and the other is a recent outbreak area (Cerro Azul). A total of 432 specimens were collected from residential, peri-domestic and wild environments. According to the data obtained, for each ecotope studied, the statistical analysis has shown that two lines of the Lutzomyia intermedia population coexist and that the quantity of specimens from L. intermedia s.l. is significantly different from L. intermedia s.s. in all environments (χ2=9.943; DF=2; p=0.07). The prevalence of L. intermedia (93.28%) in the ecotopes studied suggests that it is the main vector of leishmaniasis. The succession of vector species and their involvement in the epidemiological cycle of L. braziliensis is discussed in this article(AU)

El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la abundancia y diversidad de las especies y su supuesto papel vectorial en la transmisión de Leishmaniasis Cutánea (LC). La investigación sobre flebótomos (Diptera: Psychodidae) se llevó a cabo en dos municipios en el Valle del Río Ribeira en el Estado de Paraná, sur de Brasil. Las regiones estudiadas fueron Adrianópolis, área endémica de LC, y Cerro Azul, que se reporta como zona de brote reciente. Se recolectaron un total de 432 especímenes de ambientes residenciales, peri-domésticos y silvestres. El análisis estadístico realizado, a partir de los datos obtenidos para cada ecotopo estudiado, mostró que coexistían dos linajes de la población de Lutzomyia intermedia y que la cantidad de especímenes de L. intermedia s.l. fue significativamente diferente de L. intermedia s.s. en todos los entornos (χ2=9,943; GL=2; p=0,07). La prevalencia de L. intermedia (93,28%) en los ecotopos estudiados sugiere que es el principal vector de la leishmaniasis. La sucesión de especies de vectores y su participación en el ciclo epidemiológico de L. braziliensis se discute en este artículo(AU)

Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Insect Vectors , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190184, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040604


American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) has two main scenarios of transmission as follows: scattered cases in rural areas and urban outbreaks. Urban AVL is in active dispersion from the northeastern border of Argentina-Paraguay-Brazil to the South. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was initially reported in urban environments in the northwestern border of the country. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, environmental variables associated with its distribution, and its genetic diversity were assessed in Salvador Mazza, Argentina, on the border with Bolivia. The genetic analysis showed high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and low nucleotide polymorphism index. We discuss the hypothesis of an expanding urban population with introgressive hybridisation of older haplogroups found in their path in natural forest or rural environments, acquiring a new adaptability to urban environments, and the possibility of changes in vector capacity.

Animals , Male , Psychodidae/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Animal Distribution , Insect Vectors/genetics , Argentina , Psychodidae/classification , Bolivia , Haplotypes , Brazil , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Genes, Insect/genetics , Phylogeography , Insect Vectors/classification
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190034, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040606


Six Phlebotominae sand fly species are incriminated as biological vectors of human pathogens in Panama, but molecular corroboration is still needed. We aim at confirming the identity of Phlebotominae species documented as anthropophilic in Panama. Adult sandflies were collected from August 2010 to February 2012 in Central Panama using CDC light traps. Species confirmation was accomplished through molecular barcodes and allied sequences from GenBank. A total of 53,366 sand fly specimens representing 18 species were collected. Five species were validated molecularly as single phylogenetic clusters, but Psychodopygus thula depicted two genetically divergent lineages, which may be indicative of cryptic speciation.

Animals , Psychodidae/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification , Panama , Phylogeny , Psychodidae/classification , Biodiversity , Insect Vectors/genetics
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180464, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041572


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Nyssomyia intermedia is an important vector of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: Sand flies were captured in a Shannon trap and after landing on human collectors and retrieved monthly. Nocturnal activity was estimated using a log-linear model. RESULTS: Peak sand fly collection in the Shannon trap occurred in summer and winter, and peak fly collection on humans occurred in spring and summer. CONCLUSIONS: Ny. intermedia was captured in both the hottest and coldest months, indicating its adaptability to different seasons and the possibility of disease transmission at any time of the year in Campus Fiocruz Mata Atlântica, Brazil.

Animals , Seasons , Activity Cycles/physiology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Insect Vectors/physiology , Psychodidae/classification , Psychodidae/physiology , Brazil , Forests
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180474, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990440


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a complex vector-borne infectious diseases caused by protozoan parasites in the genus Leishmania and spread by hematophagous phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae). The aim of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine fauna, endophily and exophily of the species found, and possible influence of climatic factors on their populations. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve (XIR) in the municipality of São João das Missões in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Insects were collected over three consecutive nights in the last week of each month for 12 months from July 2015 to May 2016 from four houses in four different villages. Two traps were set up in each house: one in the intra-domicile and another in the peri-domicile. RESULTS: A total of 2,012 phlebotomine sand fly specimens representing 23 species and belonging to 10 different genera were captured and identified. Among the studied villages, Riacho do Brejo showed the highest density and diversity of phlebotomine sand flies. The species Lutzomyia longipalpis (80.3%) and Nyssomyia intermedia (7.3%), which are major vectors of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively, had the highest population densities, both in the intra- and peri-domicile. No correlation was observed between climatic factors and the density of phlebotomine sand flies. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study may contribute to a better understanding and targeting of the measures for preventing and controlling leishmaniasis by the authorities responsible for indigenous health.

Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae/physiology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Conservation of Natural Resources , Insect Vectors/physiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Seasons , Time Factors , Brazil , Analysis of Variance , Population Density , Sex Distribution , Ecosystem , Animal Distribution
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(2): e00165716, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952380


O objetivo deste estudo foi explicar a associação dos fatores socioambientais e dos grandes usos da terra com a ocorrência de casos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA) nos circuitos espaciais de produção, no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico do tipo analítico, baseado em dados secundários de casos de LTA dividido por triênio, no período entre 2007 a 2011, cujas unidades de análise foram os municípios pertencentes aos circuitos espaciais. Duas etapas distintas foram realizadas, sendo a elaboração de mapas temáticos com a identificação dos circuitos a primeira, e na segunda etapa um novo indicador casos de LTA por densidade demográfica foi associado com indicadores socioambientais e dos grandes usos da terra submetidos à análise multivariada de componentes principais (ACP). Para o período avaliado, identificou-se três circuitos distribuídos nas mesorregiões Norte de Minas Gerais, Vale do Rio Doce e Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Houve forte associação dos casos de LTA por densidade demográfica com lavoura temporária, pastagem natural, floresta natural, terras inaproveitáveis e população rural, e uma fraca associação com pastagem plantada. A associação de casos com variáveis dos grandes usos da terra em diferentes perfis agropecuários demonstra o caráter ocupacional da LTA, associado principalmente com trabalhadores da zona rural. A associação da doença com as variáveis ambientais e deficiência das condições de saneamento básico também demonstram relevância no perfil de transmissão nos circuitos espaciais de produção em Minas Gerais.

The aim of this study was to explain the association between social-environmental factors and major land uses and the occurrence of cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the spatial circuits of production in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This was an analytical-type ecological study based on secondary data on ATL divided by three-year period from 2007 to 2011, in which the analytical units were municipalities belonging to the spatial circuits. Two distinct stages were performed. The first was the elaboration of thematic maps with identification of the circuits. In the second, a new indicator, ATL cases by population density, was associated with social-environmental indicators and major land uses, submitted to multivariate principal components analysis (PCA). During the periods studied, three circuits were identified, distributed in the major regions of Northern Minas Gerais, Rio Doce Valley, and Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte. There was a strong association between ATL by population density and temporary crops, natural pasture, natural forest, unusable lands, and rural population, and a weak association with planted pasture. The association of cases with the major land uses variable in different agricultural profiles shows the occupational nature of ATL, associated mainly with rural workers. The association of the disease with environmental variables and deficient basic sanitation also proved relevant in the transmission profile in spatial circuits of production in Minas Gerais.

El objetivo de este estudio fue explicar la asociación de los factores socioambientales y explotación a gran escala de la tierra, con la ocurrencia de casos de leishmaniasis tegumentaria americana (LTA) en los circuitos espaciales de producción, en el Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Se trata de un estudio ecológico de tipo analítico, basado en datos secundarios de casos de LTA, dividido por trienios, en el período entre 2007 a 2011, cuyas unidades de análisis fueron los municipios pertenecientes a los circuitos espaciales. Se realizaron dos etapas distintas, consistiendo la primera en la elaboración de mapas temáticos con la identificación de los circuitos, y la segunda etapa en un nuevo indicador de casos de LTA por densidad demográfica, que se asoció con indicadores socioambientales y a dos explotaciones a gran escala de la tierra, sometidos a un análisis multivariado de componentes principales (ACP). Para el período evaluado, se identificaron tres circuitos distribuidos en las mesorregiones del norte de Minas Gerais, Vale do Rio Doce y región metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Hubo una fuerte asociación de los casos de LTA por densidad demográfica con el trabajo temporal, pasto natural, bosque natural, tierras inaprovechables y población rural, y una escasa asociación con pasto plantado. La asociación de casos con variables de las explotaciones a gran escala de la tierra, con diferentes perfiles agropecuarios, demuestra el carácter ocupacional de la LTA, asociado principalmente a trabajadores de la zona rural. La asociación de la enfermedad con variables ambientales y deficiencia en las condiciones de saneamiento básico, también demuestran relevancia en el perfil de transmisión en los circuitos espaciales de producción en Minas Gerais.

Humans , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Population Density , Environmental Biomarkers , Spatial Analysis
RECIIS (Online) ; 11(3): 1-12, jul.-set.2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-876292


Embora a leishmaniose cutânea raramente evolua para óbito, produz um impacto negativo na vida cotidiana, com consequências psicológicas e sociais que afetam as relações pessoais e a qualidade de vida do indivíduo afetado. O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar efeitos de comportamentos estigmatizantes, suas consequências psicossociais e sua possível relação com as ideias de cura, contágio e causalidade, a partir do relato verbal dos indivíduos com lesões cutâneas ativas de leishmaniose. Foram entrevistados 24 pacientes com lesões em áreas expostas da pele: quinze do gênero masculino e nove do feminino. Os depoimentos e questões abordadas no estudo mostram um importante impacto psicológico e social, especialmente no gênero feminino, com manifestações de exclusão social e atitudes estigmatizantes. As ideias preconcebidas popularmente sobre a causalidade e o contágio da doença parecem ser responsáveis por essas consequências. Portanto, fazem-se necessários estudos que incorporem uma abordagem multidisciplinar e contextualizada à história sociocultural das populações para minimizar o impacto negativo na vida dos indivíduos afetados. (AU)

Although cutaneous leishmaniasis rarely evolves to death, it has a negative impact on daily life, with psychological and social consequences that interfere with the personal relationships and with the quality of life of the affectedindividual. The objective of this study was to analyze the verbal report of individuals with active cutaneous leishmaniasislesions in order to identify the psychosocial consequences and to demonstrate effects of stigmatizing behaviors and their possible relation with the ideas of cure, contagion and causality. We interviewed 24 patients with active lesions on exposed areas of the skin: fifteen of the male and nine of the female gender. The statements and issues addressed in the study show an important psychological and social impact, especially regarding the female gender, with manifestations of social exclusion and stigmatizing attitudes. Popularly preconceived ideasabout causality and disease contagion seem to be responsible for these consequences. Therefore, there is a needfor studies that incorporate a multidisciplinary and contextualized approach to the sociocultural history of populationsin order to minimize the negative impact on the lives of the affected individuals.

Aunque la leishmaniasis cutánea raramente evoluciona hacia la muerte, produce un impacto negativo en la vidacotidiana, con consecuencias psicológicas y sociales que afectan a las relaciones personales y la calidad de vida del individuo afectado. El objetivo fundamental de este estudio, fue demostrar los efectos de los comportamientos estigmatizantes, sus consecuencias psicosociales y su posible relación con las ideas de cura, contagio y causalidad, a partir de los relatos de los individuos con lesiones cutáneas activas de leishmaniasis. Fueron entrevistados 24pacientes con lesiones en áreas expuestas de la piel: quince hombres y nueve mujeres. Las declaraciones y temas abordados en el estudio muestran un importante impacto psicológico y social, especialmente en el género femenino, con manifestaciones de exclusión social y actitudes de estigmatización. Las ideas preconcebidas popularmentesobre la causalidad y el contagio de la enfermedad parecen ser responsable de esas consecuencias. Por lo tanto, sonnecesarios estudios que incorporen un enfoque multidisciplinario y contextualizado a la historia socio-cultural de las poblaciones, para minimizar el impacto negativo en la vida de las personas afectadas.

Humans , Male , Female , Body Image/psychology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Social Stigma , Brazil , Cost of Illness , Health Communication , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/prevention & control , Neglected Diseases , Prejudice/psychology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(1): 19-30, Jan. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841751


The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings. In the entering experiment, a significantly higher number of females were captured in the sticky traps at the zone nearest the eave openings (n = 142) than those captured in the other zones of the trap (n = 52); similarly, a higher number of females were captured on the front side of the house (n = 105) than at the rear side (n = 37). Only two females were collected in the cage trap. In the exiting experiment, at the ceiling, the highest percentage (86.2%) of females was recaptured with sticky traps nearest the eave openings and on the front side of the house (70.0%). Seven females were collected in the cage trap. Lu. longiflocosa entered and exited houses primarily through the eave openings in a non-random pattern in relation to the sides of the house.

Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae/classification , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/physiology , Behavior, Animal , Population Density , Colombia , Housing
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(1): 75-78, Jan. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841757


Studies on the sandfly fauna to evaluate natural infection indexes are still limited in the Brazilian Amazon, a region with an increasing incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction directed to Leishmania kDNA and hybridisation, we were able to identify L. (Viannia) subgenus in 12 out of 173 sandflies captured in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre state, revealing a positivity of 6.94%. By sequencing the Leishmania 234 bp-hsp70 amplified products from positive samples, infection by L. (V.) braziliensis was confirmed in five sandflies: one Evandromyia saulensis, three Trichophoromyia auraensis and one Pressatia sp. The finding of L. (Viannia) DNA in two Ev. saulensis corresponds to the first record of possible infection associated with this sandfly. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time in Brazil, Th. auraensis and Pressatia sp. infected by L. (Viannia) parasites.

Animals , Psychodidae/classification , Psychodidae/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmania/classification , Brazil , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e10, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842769


ABSTRACT The genetic study of sandfly populations needs to be further explored given the importance of these insects for public health. Were sequenced the NDH4 mitochondrial gene from populations of Nyssomyia neivai from Doutor Camargo, Lobato, Japira, and Porto Rico, municipalities in the State of Paraná, Brazil, to understand the genetic structure and gene flow. Eighty specimens of Ny. Neivai were sequenced, 20 from each municipality, and 269 base pairs were obtained. A total of 27 haplotypes and 28 polymorphic sites were found, along with a haplotypic diversity of 0.80696 and a nucleotide diversity of 0.00567. Haplotype H5, with 33 specimens, was the most common among the four populations. Only haplotypes H5 and H7 were present in all four populations. The population from Doutor Camargo showed the highest genetic diversity, and only this population shared haplotypes with those from the other municipalities. The highest number of haplotypes was sheared with Lobato which also had the highest number of unique haplotypes. This probably occurred because of constant anthropic changes that happened in the environment during the first half of the twentieth century, mainly after 1998. There was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances regarding these populations. However, the highest genetic and geographical distances, and the lowest gene flow were observed between Japira and Porto Rico. Geographical distance is a possible barrier between these municipalities through the blocking of haplotype sharing.

Animals , Female , Genetic Variation/genetics , Insect Vectors/genetics , Psychodidae/genetics , Brazil , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Insect Vectors/classification , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Psychodidae/classification
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 51: 51, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903182


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To propose a new operational unit in the locality scale capable of subsidizing the construction of an information system to control the transmission of tegumentary leishmaniasis at this scale, in a region of high endemicity of the Atlantic Forest. METHODS We examined the adequacy of data and instruments in an area of high endemicity in the Atlantic Forest located in the South of the State of Rio de Janeiro from 1990 to 2012. The study proposed an operational unit called Local Surveillance Unit to make all used databases compatible by adjusting census sectors. This enabled the overlap and comparison of information in different periods. RESULTS The spreading process of the transmission of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Baía da Ilha Grande region does not depend on great population movements, and can occur in areas with population growth or decrease. The data information system allowed the adequate identification and characterization of the place of residence. We identified relevant characteristics of the place of transmission, such as self-limited in time and not associated with recent deforestation. The results also highlight the lack of synchronicity in the case production in territorial units involved in the endemic-epidemic process, noting that this process is in constant motion. CONCLUSIONS The transmission process seems more connected to the presence and movement of rodents that move continuously in the region than to the local density of vectors or the permanence of infected dogs at home. New control strategies targeted at the foci of transmission must be considered. The construction of a new operational unit, called Local Surveillance Unit, was instrumental in the endemic-epidemic process analysis.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Propor uma nova unidade operacional na escala de localidade capaz de subsidiar a construção de um sistema de informação orientado para o controle da transmissão da leishmaniose tegumentar nesse nível. MÉTODOS Uma região de alta endemicidade da Mata Atlântica no sul do estado do Rio de Janeiro de 1990 a 2012 foi selecionada para analisar a adequação dos dados e instrumentos. Uma unidade operacional denominada Unidade de Vigilância Local foi proposta para compatibilizar todos os bancos de dados utilizados por meio de ajustes dos setores censitários. Isso possibilitou a sobreposição das informações e a sua comparação em diferentes períodos. RESULTADOS O processo de deslocamento da transmissão da leishmaniose tegumentar na região da Baía da Ilha Grande não dependeu de movimentos populacionais importantes, podendo ocorrer tanto em áreas com crescimento como em áreas com decremento populacional. Os dados do sistema de informação permitiram a identificação e caracterização adequada do local de residência. Identificaram-se características relevantes do lugar de transmissão, como autolimitados no tempo e não associados a desmatamentos recentes. Os resultados evidenciam também a falta de sincronicidade na produção de casos nas unidades territoriais envolvidas no processo endêmico-epidêmico, mostrando que esse processo está em constante movimento. CONCLUSÕES O processo de transmissão parece estar mais ligado à presença e circulação de roedores que se desloquem continuadamente na região do que da densidade local de vetores ou da permanência de cães infectados no domicílio. Novas estratégias de controle orientadas para os focos de transmissão devem ser consideradas. A construção de uma nova unidade operacional, denominada Unidade de Vigilância Local, foi fundamental na análise do processo endêmico-epidêmico.

Humans , Animals , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/prevention & control , Geographic Mapping , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(5): 544-552, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-798129


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Understanding the diversity of sand flies is important for the epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis. This study aimed to understand the frequency, diversity, and seasonality of medically important sand flies in the municipality of Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: The study was conducted in an urban area, including four ecotypes with different levels of urbanization. The sand flies were collected using light traps for three nights per month, from May 2014 to April 2015. RESULTS: A total of 62,745 sand flies was collected, 52.34% of which were female. The frequency and diversity of sand flies was the highest in areas of permanent preservation (APPs) (96.85%), and was lower in more urbanized areas. Lutzomyia dasypodogeton was the most frequent species in the APPs. Lutzomyia antunesi was the most frequent in neighborhoods with forest fragments and neighborhoods around APPs, and L. aragaoi was the most frequent in completely urbanized neighborhoods. A higher frequency and diversity of sand flies was observed in the rainy season (87.92%) than in the dry season (12.08%). Eight medically important species were captured, and Lutzomyia antunesi, which is associated with American cutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis, was observed in all ecotypes throughout the year. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high frequency and diversity of sand flies in all urban areas, and some species collected were major vectors of leishmaniasis. These results support the need for further studies of the natural rates of infection of these insects and the circulation of the disease in hosts and vectors.

Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae/classification , Biodiversity , Insect Vectors/classification , Seasons , Urban Population , Brazil , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(3): 1237-1245, jul.-sep. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-958209


ResumenLa leishmaniasis es un complejo sistema de enfermedades causadas por parásitos protozoarios Leishmania y transmitidos a humanos por el vector Lutzomyia spp, esta es considerada una enfermedad desatendida de acuerdo a la Organización Mundial de la salud. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el nicho ecológico actual y futuro de la leishmaniasis cutánea (LC) y leishmaniasis visceral (LV) en la región Neotropical. Nosotros construimos modelos de nicho ecológico (MNE) de LC (N= 2 910 ocurrencias) y LV (N= 851 ocurrencias) usando el algoritmo MaxEnt. Nueve variables bioclimáticas (BIO1, BIO4, BIO5, BIO6, BIO7, BIO12, BIO13, BIO14, BIO15; descargadas de Worldclim), y datos de ocurrencias fueron usados para la construcción de los MNE en tres periodos (actual, 2050 y 2070) y cuatro escenarios de cambio climático (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 y 8.5). Nosotros analizamos el número de pixeles ocupados, identidad de nicho, nicho modificado (estable, perdido y ganado) y estacionalidad. Nuestros resultados indican la expansión de la LC en comparación con la LV. Rechazamos la hipótesis nula de identidad de nicho entre LC y LV con un índice de Hellinger's = 0.91 (0.92-0.98) y Schoener's = 0.67 (0.85-1.00) pero con un traslape de nicho de 56.3 %. El tipo de leishmaniasis tiene diferentes coberturas de acuerdo al RCP y nicho modificado (ganado/ perdido). La LC tiene estacionalidad a diferencia de la LV. Los MNE de LC y LV proporcionar una visión actual de la región Neotropical, que presenta un mayor incremento de acuerdo con el tiempo, sin embargo, el aumento estacional modificaría la invasión de nuevas áreas en la región.

Abstract:The leishmaniasis is a complex disease system, caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the vector Lutzomyia spp. Since it is listed as a neglected disease according to the World Health Organization, the aim of this study was to determine the current and future niche of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in the Neotropical region. We built the ecological niche model (ENM) of cutaneous (N= 2 910 occurrences) and visceral (N= 851 occurrences) leishmaniasis using MaxEnt algorithm. Nine bioclimatic variables (BIO1, BIO4, BIO5, BIO6, BIO7, BIO12, BIO13, BIO14, BIO15 (downloaded from the Worldclim) and disease occurrences data were used for the construction of ENM for three periods (current, 2050 and 2070) and four climate change scenarios (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 y 8.5). We analyzed the number of pixels occupied, identity niche, modified niche (stable, loss, and gain) and seasonality. Our analyses indicated the expansion for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a comparison for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We rejected the null hypothesis of niche identity between CL and VL with Hellinger's index = 0.91 (0.92-0.98) and Schoener's Index = 0.67 (0.85-1.00) but with an overlap niche of 56.3 %. The differences between the two leishmaniasis types were detected in relation to RCP scenarios and niche shifts (area gained / loss). Seasonality was more important for CL. We provided a current picture of CL and VL distributions and the predicted distributional changes associated to different climate change scenarios for the Neotropical region. We can anticipate that increasing range is likely although it will depend locally on the future trends in weather seasonality. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (3): 1237-1245. Epub 2016 September 01.

Humans , Animals , Tropical Climate , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Ecosystem , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Psychodidae , Seasons , Temperature , Climate Change , Risk Factors , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Insect Vectors , Latin America/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Models, Biological
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(7): 423-432, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787560


In this study, we identified the phlebotomine sandfly vectors involved in the transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil, which is located on the Brazil-Peru-Bolivia frontier. The genotyping of Leishmania in phlebotomines was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. A total of 6,850 sandflies comprising 67 species were captured by using CDC light traps in rural areas of the municipality. Three sandfly species were found in the state of Acre for the first time: Lutzomyia georgii, Lu. complexa and Lu. evangelistai. The predominant species was Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi and Lu. davisi (total 59.27%). 32 of 368 pools were positive for the presence of Leishmania DNA (16 pools corresponding to Lu. davisi, and 16 corresponding to Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi), with a minimal infection prevalence of 1.85% in Lu. davisi and 2.05% in Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi. The Leishmania species found showed maximum identity with L. (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis in both phlebotomine species. Based on these results and similar scenarios previously described along the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia tri-border, the studied area must take into consideration the possibility of Lu. davisi and Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi as probable vectors of ACL in this municipality.

Humans , Animals , Female , DNA/analysis , Insect Vectors/genetics , Leishmania/genetics , Psychodidae/genetics , Biodiversity , Bolivia , Brazil , DNA, Kinetoplast , Genotype , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Peru , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Population Density , Psychodidae/classification , Psychodidae/parasitology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 831-846, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764582


Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research.

Animals , Insect Vectors/classification , Psychodidae/classification , Insect Control , Latin America , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Urbanization
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(4): 321-324, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761164


SUMMARYThe aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis(82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii(17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

RESUMOO objetivo deste estudo foi identificar o repasto sanguíneo de fêmeas de flebotomíneos capturadas no município de Governador Valadares, área endêmica de leishmaniose visceral e tegumentar no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Entre maio de 2011 e janeiro 2012 foram realizadas capturas com armadilhas luminosas HP em quatro bairros. Foram capturados 2.614 exemplares (2.090 machos e 524 fêmeas). Noventa e sete fêmeas ingurgitadas foram identificadas como pertencentes às espécies Lutzomyia longipalpis(82,1%) e Lutzomyia cortelezzii(17,9%). Considerando a alimentação simples e a mista, o ensaio imunoenzimático revelou em Lutzomyia longipalpisuma predominância de sangue de galinhas (43,6%), mostrando o importante papel que galinhas podem exercer no peridomicílio, aumentando a chance de contato dos flebotomíneos com outros vertebrados e, consequentemente, o risco de transmissão da leishmaniose.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Psychodidae/physiology , Brazil , Chickens , Endemic Diseases , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Insect Vectors/classification , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Psychodidae/classification , Rodentia , Seasons
RECIIS (Online) ; 9(3): 1-14, jul.-set.2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-784698


Questões relacionadas às condições sociais, econômicas, culturais e ambientais têm contribuído para a expansão da leishmaniose e esporotricose. Pretendeu-se identificar a percepção de risco de transmissão dessas doenças e os fatores que influenciam no processo de adoecimento. Foram entrevistados 27 pacientes(sete com leishmaniose e vinte com esporotricose). A maioria não identificou algum tipo de risco específico de transmissão e nomeou como fator principal a contaminação ambiental Ações de promoção de saúde devem estar integradas com outras abordagens que levem em conta a participação dos indivíduos, particularidades sociais, culturais, geográficas e políticas...

Issues related to social, economic, cultural and environmental conditions have contributed to the expansionof leishmaniasis and sporotrichosis. We attempted to identify the perception of risk of transmissionof these diseases and the factors that influence the disease process. Twenty-seven patients (seven withleishmaniasis and 20 with sporotrichosis) were interviewed. The majority has not identified any specifictype of risk of transmission and attributed as the main factor to environmental contamination. Actions ofhealth promotion should be integrated with other approaches that take into account the participation ofindividuals, social, cultural, geographical and political features...

Preguntas relacionadas a las condiciones sociales, económicas, culturales y ambientales han contribuidoa la propagación de la leishmaniasis y la Esporotricosis. Su objetivo es identificar la percepción deriesgo de transmisión de estas enfermedades y los factores que influyen en el proceso de la enfermedad.Entrevistamos a 27 pacientes (siete con la leishmaniasis y 20 con esporotricosis). La mayoría no identificaningún tipo específico de riesgo para la transmisión y atribuye como el principal factor a la contaminaciónambiental. Acciones de promoción de la salud deben ser integradas con otros enfoques que tomen en cuentala participación de los individuos, las particularidades sociales, culturales, geográficas y políticas...

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Cats , Sporotrichosis/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Internet , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Perception , Patients/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases , Interviews as Topic , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Insect Vectors , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Social Determinants of Health , Socioeconomic Factors
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(3): 265-271, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749867


INTRODUCTION: An entomological study was conducted as part of a vector-monitoring program in the area associated with the Santo Antônio hydroelectric system in State of Rondônia, Western Amazonian Brazil. METHODS: Fourteen sampling sites were surveyed to obtain data on the potential vectors of Leishmania spp. in the area. Sand flies were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the months of January/February (rainy season), May/June (dry season), and September/October (intermediary season) using light traps arranged in three vertical strata (0.5, 1, and 20m). RESULTS : A total of 7,575 individuals belonging to 62 species/subspecies were collected. The five most frequently collected sand flies were Psychodopygus davisi (Root) (36.67%), Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira) (8.51%), Nyssomyia umbratilis (Ward & Fraiha) (6.14%), Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (Mangabeira) (5.74%), and Psychodopygus complexus (Mangabeira) (5.25%). These species have been implicated in the transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis agents in the Brazilian Amazon region and described as potential vectors of this disease in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Additional surveillance is needed, especially in areas where these five species of sand fly are found. .

Animals , Insect Vectors/classification , Psychodidae/classification , Brazil , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Population Density , Power Plants , Seasons